Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Game Theory: Galatasaray
"What economists call game theory psychologists call the theory of social situations, which is an accurate description of what game theory is about. Although game theory is relevant to parlor games such as poker or bridge, most research in game theory focuses on how groups of people interact" (Levine, 2013). Game theory is used in a variety of situations and professions where it is imperative to use razor-sharp strategy and to be adaptable to a given situation, planning for the future. Game theory is important in the task of manipulating situations to achieve specific goals.
ecently, Galatasaray ended their contract with Fatih Terim, to the shock of most people. Many people speculated as to why Galatasaray ended their contract with Terim, seeing as how Galatasaray is the biggest soccer club in Turkey with 19 league championships, fourteen Turkish cups, one UEFA cup and one Super cup --…
Galatasaray.org. (n.d.). Official Site. Retrieved from Galatasaray.org: http://www.galatasaray.org/en/
Levine, D. (2013). What is Game Theory? Retrieved from Ucla.edu: http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/general/whatis.htm
Claim no claim
hy did Apartheid End?
A Solution Developed from the Concept of Game Theory
James Michener was a history professor at the University of Texas and a widely read chronicler of different periods of history. Michener was largely a novelist, but his novels were based on factual information that was peopled by fictional, but representative, main characters and some historical figures. In a book called "The Covenant," Michener detailed the history of the nation of South Africa from prehistoric times up until the late 1970's. In his book, the author spent a great deal of time discussing how the practice of apartheid came about, and why it continued for more than 300 years (culminating in the institutionalization of the practice in 1948 (Lodberg)).
This paper examines why the South African government chose to end the practice of apartheid according to the rules expressed in game theory.
Lodberg, Peter. "Apartheid as a Church -- Dividing Ethical Issues." The Ecumenical Review 48.2 (1996): 173-177. Web.
Michener, James. The Covenant. New York: Random House, 1980. Print.
Schwartzman, K.C. & Taylor, K.A. "What Caused the Collapse of Apartheid?" Journal of Political and Military Sociology 27.1 (1999): 109-122. Web.
The Economist. "The Batsman who Helped Destroy Apartheid." The Economist 2011, 22 November. Web.
They also will exacerbate the deficit and could compromise the economy. There is disagreement over which policy prescription is going to be more likely to damage the economy. The health of the U.S. economy, however, is subject to a lot of variables, and one's own economic situation is only somewhat affected by the state of the U.S. economy. Still, the voter wants to vote in a way that increases the odds of a positive financial outcome.
There are a number of tools that can help to visualize the choice, but decision trees are not easy to draw in Word. Excel can be used to perform the same function. The voter can calculate that if the President spends too much money it will cost $40,000 in future tax increases and decreased job prospects.
An infinite number of Nash equilibria exist. Given any request, the corresponding strategy of the equilibrium pair simply requests the remainder of the cake. If the first person did not request the entire cake for him or herself, there is a strict Nash equilibrium. If the first player did request the whole cake, the equilibrium is not a strict Nash equilibrium. However, if player 2 makes any nonzero demand, he or she will still receive the same amount, nothing, because any nonzero demand will push the total sum of demands greater than the amount of cake available. If both players act to maximize expected utility, each should demand half. Intuitively, this appears not only as the rational thing to do but also as the "fair" thing to do.
Lastly, a game can be devised where there is cooperation with incomplete information. This entails considering how different players should compromise and…
Kuhn, H.W. (1997) Classics in Game Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Myerson, R.B. (1991) Game Theory.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
McCain, R.A. (2003) Game Theory: A Non-technical Introduction to Analysis of Strategy. Website retrieved 19 October, 2005.
So-called n-person games include more than two actors or sides….The central problem is that the rational decision for an individual actor such as a state may be to 'defect' and go it alone as opposed to taking a chance on collaboration with another state actor" as did Israel and the ascent of the Likud after Arafat's refusal of the 2000 peace deal (Beavis 2010). Yet saber-rattling no longer seems like a way of gaining the temporary upper hand in negotiations, but a way of life in a land where mistrust has become a way of life. Beyond personal politics, beyond securing safer ground in an unsafe world, the lack of trust in the Middle East may have become a kind of cultural norm which transcends even the ability of rational actor game theorists to fully explain.
Beavis, Mark. "Game Theory." IR Paradigms, Approaches and Theories. February 9, 2010.…
Beavis, Mark. "Game Theory." IR Paradigms, Approaches and Theories. February 9, 2010.
May 16, 2010.
Miller, Judith. "Yasser Arafat." The New York Times. November 11, 2004.
In actuality, the competition became quite stiff between various sales staff as it was the sales leaders in each category that were to receive bonuses, rather then incentives being given to all staff that reached certain targets. This meant that it was in each sales person's best individual interests to hinder sales from others and compete for certain specific sales.
The ultimate result was a more embittered workforce and a somewhat less successful organization that did not see at all the type of growth in sales that had been expected at the onset of the incentive program nor that could have been achieved through the design and implementation of a less competitive and more effective program. Pitting the goals of individuals within an organization against each other is almost never in the best interests if the organization or of the majority of the individuals within that organization as competitions that…
Levine, D. (2010). What is game theory? Accessed 2 December 2010. http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/general/whatis.htm
Ross, D. (2010). Game theory. Accessed 2 December 2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-theory/
Segerstorm, S. & Nes, L. (2006). When Goals Conflict but People Prosper: The Case of Dispositional Optimism. Journal of research in personality 40(5): 675-93.
Shepherd, P. (2010). The Evolution of Goal Conflict Structures. Accessed 2 December 2010. http://www.trans4mind.com/spiritual/goals.htm
Game theory is a concept that entails formal study of cooperation, conflict and actions taken up by several interdependent agents. Game theory as a concept lays down the structure that facilitates through analysis an understanding of the strategic choices agents adopt[footnoteRef:1]. The earliest conceptualization of game theory is by Cournot in 1838 where the analysis sought to clarify choices and actions taken in a duopolistic market [footnoteRef:2]. Over the years, exploration of the game theory incorporates market equilibrium entailing economic social and political decisions. As a decision making tool, game theory involves the application of mathematical concepts to analyze strategic choices and problems. The decision making process allows enumeration of the players strategic options considering preferences and responses[footnoteRef:3]. [1: Gibbons, and Robert. Game Theory for Applied Economists. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1992. Gibbons, and Robert. Game Theory for Applied Economists. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1992.] [2: Rasmusen, and…
Gibbons, and Robert. Game Theory for Applied Economists. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1992.
Rasmusen, and Eric. Games and Information: An Introduction to Game Theory, 3rd Ed. . Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.
In other words, excessive participation and competition can result in a negative outcome for everyone without collusion and segmentation of behavior.
Applying this principle to economics, it makes sense in an oligopolistic market where only a few sellers dominate to engage in some collusion, or, if this is not legally possible, for each to concentrate on a specific market segment, rather than waste too many resources, target the entire market or worse, engage in a competitive price war for the same market segment as a competitor in a way that that drives prices down for all the sellers in the market. This type of collusion or segmentation becomes more difficult as more entities enter the market. When a market is no longer an oligopoly, sellers lose out. For example if another group of male students enter the bar and target the blonde, brunette, and redhead in a way that interferes…
(Source: (Nov 11, 2008) ebaumsworld.com: he KKK Want Barack Obama Dead ( Proof ) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ORf_RyNH4gI)
During her campaign Hilary Clinton (April 16, 2008) was asked by Good Morning America (MSNBC's Countdown), how she would respond if Iran attacked Israel with weapons. Her response:
" an attack on Israel will trigger massive retaliation… any attack on Israel will prompt massive nuclear response from the United States.. If I am the president we will attack Iran.. And want them to understand that because whatever stage of development they might be in the weapons development program. In the next 10 years if they consider launching an attack against Israel we would be totally able o obliterate them.. hat's a terrible thing to say, but those people who run Iran need to understand that because that perhaps would deter them from doing something reckless, foolish, and tragic." (Source: Youube Hillary Clinton on…
This is often evidenced in terror-like situation where, for instance, terrorists threaten that they will harm innocent civilians unless certain individuals are liberated. Such an instance occurred in 2010 when the Taliban kidnapped a British aid worker and three Afghan colleagues in Khunar Province in Afghanistan and gave the Americans the choice of their release on condition that a Pakistani woman -- who had been imprisoned by the Americans for 86 years -- be released.
The Pakistani woman was connected to al-Quidea and had been arrested for attacking American soldiers. (Source: Christian Science Monitor (n.d.) Taliban kidnap British aid worker, demand prisoner swap for Aafia Siddiqui,
Game Theory and Equilibrium Outcomes
QuickMBA (2010) states, "Game theory analyzes strategic interactions in which the outcome of one's choices depends upon the choices of others. For a situation to be considered a game, there must be at least two rational players who take into account one another's actions when formulating their own strategies." Assuming fair competition and antitrust laws are upheld, GE could follow a specific framework or actionable approach to maintaining its market share "when evaluating a situation in which game theory is applicable (QuickMBA, 2010)." According to QuickMBA (2010), GE should:
(1) Define the problem. (2) Identify critical factors.(3) Build a model, such as a bimatrix game (4) Develop intuition by using the model. (5) Formulate a strategy-- cover all possible scenarios.
The bimatrix game model follows.
The data does not convey any definitive conclusions with regard to GE successfully or completely thwarting Maytag's entrance into the…
A small company can slash prices and thus make crucial market inroads against major competitors, like Kiwi Airlines, or conversely a large company can make more effective use of economies of scale. Game theory is not equally useful to all industries, in general the larger the industry, the more difficult it is to create accurate scenarios, as eventually the variables that must be analyzed grow too complex and numerous. Also, the article suggests that more aggressively competitive industries, with high fixed costs, and only few 'big deals' will tend to benefit less from game theory, which may seem to somewhat undercut its statement that game theory is growing more useful today -- after all, in many industries, competition has grown even more fierce. But the consolidation of many markets, combined with the future uncertainty of how competitors and consumers will react to shifts in data seems to support the idea…
c) Mutual Interdependence: This assumption is based on the relationship between two or more individuals where one person depends upon the other for economic interest or benefit. When making a decision one has to consider the effect of his or her decision to the partner. This is common in the Perfect competition -- pure market phenomenon.
With the assumptions above the game theory helps in developing a perfect competition among the consumers.
Goal theory in perfect competition market
It tends to describe market structure based on assumptions which are non-existent, most market systems are imperfect, however the long run and short run situations can help in holding the assumption to be true based on the equilibrium, price and output.
Basic assumptions required for conditions of pure competition to exist as below;
Many small firms: Each producer producing a significant percentage in the total output in the market hence has no…
David K.L., (2011). Economic and Game Theory, what is Game Theory. Retrieved April
21, 2011 from http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/general/whatis.htm
Geoff R., (2006). Perfect Competition. Retrieved April 21, 2011 from http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-perfect-competition.htm
Theodore L.T. & Bernhard S., (2001). Game Theory. Texas a&M University, London School of Economics, DAM Research Report LSE-CDAM-2001-09 Retrieved April 21, 2011 from http://www.cdam.lse.ac.uk/Reports/Files/cdam-2001-09.pdf
Game theory is a critical form of decision making that is used in various subjects like economy and political science. Its relevance is becoming prominent in the success rates that have come out in gambling and sports betting. The theory is basically an amalgamation of different models of cooperation and conflict between various decision makers (Myerson, 1991) Thus, it can be safely stated that the theory itself is not just one piece of information solidly put out there yet it's a combination of different authors and experts. As mentioned earlier, the game theory has been linked to economic models, science, gambling like poker or sports betting and social situations as well. In the game theory the simplest way of putting it is analyzing the number of players and the moves that they are likely to take. Using this information, a person can guess and figure out the number of choices…
Anon. (1994) Gambling. In The Columbia Encyclopedia. (6th ed) n.a: Columbia University Press
Anon. (2004) Gambling. In The Columbia Encyclopedia. (6th ed) n.a: Columbia University Press
Anon. (2012) Gambling.In The Columbia Encyclopedia. (6th ed) n.a: Columbia University Press
Aumann, R. And S. Hart (eds) (1992) Handbook of Game Theory. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Game theory is a model that can be used to examine and explain the way that different actors in a given situation may choose to act and develop strategy, using a mathematic approach. The model looks at how players will make decisions which will be based on both the firms own position and resources as well as the way their competitors are or are expected to act. Game theory can therefore be used to help try and identify the optimal course of action (McEachern, 2009).
There are many scenarios where Game Theory will be useful; in the commercial environment game theory is most applicable in oligopoly situations
To consider the application of the theory the concept needs to be described. The situation examined is a game. For there to be a game players are required; these are the firms (Nellis and Parker, 2006). For a game to…
McEachern, W.A., (2009), Micro 2 ECON, South Western College
Nellis JG, Parker D, (2006), Principles of the Business Economics, London, Prentice Hall.
However, its use is not limited to these situations
The advantages of network use are apparent enough and from such an obvious position, it is interesting that there is an inadequacy in the understanding of the processes by which networks function. Thus, the article focuses on the role of network governance and its impact on network effectiveness.
The authors demonstrate that network effectiveness while not entirely illusive is a difficult prospect. This phenomenon is multifaceted and multi-tiered and consequently the solutions that are engaged to create network effectiveness must align themselves with this particular reality. The problems of explicating effectiveness begin at the level of conceptualization and measurement. They note that despite these theoretical impediments effectiveness requires a measure of articulation.
The authors contrast organizational as opposed to network governance and suggests that most of the literature on the subject of governance does not specifically address the issues of the role of networks in the governance dynamic. The establishment…
Dwyer, P.D. And Minnegal, M. (2006). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making by Victorian Fishers. Journal of Political Ecology 13:1-23
Emerson, R. (1962). Power-Dependence relations. American sociological review 27 (1):31-41.
Newcomer, K.E. (2007). Measuring Government Performance. International Journal of Public
Administration, 30: 307 -- 329.
Theory Methodology and Human Development
Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following
Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis.
The impact that video games, as a form of media entertainment, have been a matter of concern for politicians, parents, and legislators. However, the results generated from the scholarly literature are not in agreement; researchers continue to disagree about the impact that video games have on people.
Analyze three research problems (i.e., subordinate questions) that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated.
For purposes of this research, a quantitative research design is utilized.
What is the relationship of playing video games to increased levels of obesity?
Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & Bennett (2006, p. 2) found that "children who spend more time playing video games are heavier, and are more likely…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: People, places and environment (4th ed.)
Brown RIF. (1991) Gaming, gambling and other addictive play. In Kerr JH, Apter MJ, eds. Adult play: a reversal theory approach. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 101 -- 18.
Brown RIF. (1993) Some contributions of the study of gambling to the study of other addictions. In Eadington WR, Cornelius JA, eds. Gambling behavior and problem gambling. Reno: University of Nevada, pp. 241 -- 72.
Perry, J.A., & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: An introduction to social science (12th ed.)
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
This game has simplistic mechanics that anyone can lean and enjoy. It has deep stategic concepts that ae pefectly suited fo those who yean fo some intellectual challenge. The aspects of dive's dilemma make the game univesally appealing and specifically fo those who keen on gaming theoy as well as those into stategic games.
In this game, thee ae two people, M. Blue and M. Red. These two ae supposed to dive thei cas at full speed staight ahead o to sweve at the last minute.
The following ae possible esults of the game.
M. Blue is happy he wins, M. Red is sad he loses
M. Blue is sad he loses, M. Red is happy he wins
They stae at each othe shocked at what they've done
references about the action profile.
Nash equilibrium is useful in analyzing the results of strategic interaction of the two decision makers. It gives a clue in predicting possible outcome when the two players make decisions at the same time. The underlying insight in the John Nash's concept is that one cannot predict the outcome of the choices of many decision makers if those decisions are analyzed in isolation. Instead, one must investigate each players the possible action while considering the other persons decision-making.
A Nash Equilibrium occurs when the players play a best response. In the above game, both players going straight is not a Nash Equilibrium. For this to happen one of the players would have to swerve. Nonetheless, both the players swerving is also not a Nash Equilibrium for this to happen, one of the players would have to go straight. A Nash Equilibrium occurs when one player swerves and one player goes straight. This is because none of the players is able to improve their outcome by changing their action as both the players are playing a best response.
The above game is not complex and the illustration outlines the basics of game theory. It is fun as well as lays a solid foundation for one to look at an example and technique of gaming.
Pervasive Video Games as Art
The form and function of art has evolved and changed quite a bit over the years, decades and millennia. Paintings and sculpture have been artistic mainstays for much to most of the world of the civilized human race. However, with the technological revolution that has roared up over the last fifty years or so, new forms of art have bubbled to the proverbial surface. Digital technology has enhanced prior forms of art e such as photography. Beyond that, completely brand new forms have art have been created and the latter is what this report is assessing in the form of pervasive video games. The depth and breadth of this art and the effects it has on its users and fans when done will are worthy of massive study and analysis both in this report and elsewhere.
Chapter I - Introduction
Video games, at this point…
Blizzard. "World of Warcraft." World of Warcraft. http://us.battle.net/wow/en / (accessed
May 29, 2014).
Bogost, Ian. Persuasive games: the expressive power of videogames. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press, 2007.
, Alder, G., & Phelan, S. (2009). ompetitive bluffing: An examination of a common practice and its relationship with performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(4), 535-
553. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1786751071).
This article examines the strategic use of bluffing and concludes that its value is often overrated, given it quickly diminishes in utility. The authors used a simulated competitive market game to prove their thesis, however they also conclude that even in the real world, bluffing is often not conducive to high levels of real performance, and can have undesirable consequences, including a general eradication of trust.
Mathematical Theories 6 & 7: Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) and fuzzy logic theory
Hui, E., Lau, O., & Lo, K. (2009). A fuzzy decision-making approach for portfolio management with direct real estate investment. International Journal of Strategic Property
Management: Special Issue: apacity Building for Post-Disaster. 13(2), 191-204.…
Cambridge, 9(2), 68-75. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global.
(Document ID: 1617904771).
This article uses all three methods -- all of which stress firm market position -- to analyze the strategic position of Blockbuster, a media entertainment company undergoing an identity crisis in the new technological environment: "The Resource-Based View of the firm (RBV) divides internal organizational resources into tangible assets, intangible assets, and organization assets. Tangible assets include production facilities, raw materials, financial resources, and so on. Intangible assets are brand names, organizational moral, technical knowledge, and experience" (Xie & Lin 2008). Porter's model applies similar rigorous scrutiny to the external environment by focusing on "new entrants, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of substitutes, and rivalry among existing competitors," and SWOT's analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats gives a future-focused perspective to the firm, enabling it to navigate its way through the current marketing environment (Xie & Lin 2008)..
digital games is quite relaxing, as no adequate research has been carried out yet, so nearly anything goes. Writing, in general, about gaming and games is also very much similar. Sadly, and with startling cumulative consequences, games are under-theorized. Although there is the work of authors such as Ehrmann, Huizinga, and Caillois, game theory, philosophical ideas such as the work of Wittgenstein, and libraries teeming with research on board games, one can not get far into the field of computer games using only the above resources. As well, if there is, or will be, a proper computer game research field, it can also be said to be at risk of colonization and intrusion from existing scholarly tribes (Eskelinen 2001). Computer games have to be secured against the colonizing effect of textual and narrative analysis. In the case of semiotics, the idea of "text" generalizes to everything in material existence; however,…
Adams, Ernest. 1999. "Three Problems for Interactive Storytelters.." Gamasutra.
Engberg, Maria. n.d. Markku Eskelinen. Accessed July 14, 2015. http://www.elmcip.net/person/markku-eskelinen.
Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "The Gaming Situation." The international journal of computer game research.
Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "Towards Computer Game Studies, Part 1: Narratology and Ludology." Helsinki.
Game / Outside Game
David usk's book, Inside Game / Outside Game: Winning Strategies for Saving Urban America is an insightful and well-researched addition to the current understanding of urban management and public administration. In his book, usk argues convincingly that improvement in inner city neighborhoods can only come from a coordinated effort that includes regional approaches to reducing suburban growth, the concentration of poverty, and financial differences. However, usk's collaborative strategies for improving urban America face some important bureaucratic challenges described within Morgan and England's text, Managing Urban America.
In Inside Game / Outside Game, usk argues for reform of metropolitan regions based on the interrelationship between urban management and management of other, outside concerns, like taxation, suburban growth, and housing practices.
usk argues that revitalization of neighborhoods, affordable housing, preservation of open space and fiscal policy reform are closely related. As such, changes in factors like taxation or…
Morgan, David R. And England, Robert E. 1999. Managing Urban America (Public Administration and Public Policy), 5th edition. Chatham House Publishers.
Rusk, David. 1999. Inside Game/Outside Game: Winning Strategies for Saving Urban America. Brookings Institution Press.
A skeptic when faced with a rather extraordinary situation will be in total chaos even before he completely realized what was actually happening. Therefore, whenever you have serious doubts about something, you need not overreact. Instead handle the adversity with a clear head. Think of a clever way to walk out of the situation with your head up.
In the movie, Nicholas realized that the manipulating minds of those behind the game actually meant him well. He was the classic example of someone waking up from a dream, only to find out that he was the first to join in the laugh against him. When things started to fall apart he allowed himself to wallow in his uncertainties. When he should have fought his battles with a clear head, he went around like a maniac chasing elusive answers. The Game tells us that sometimes, you just have to take that…
overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…
ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).
Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).
Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),
Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014
Failure to Lead
Leaders who lead with ambition but fail by making a faulty choice are often the more condemned leaders but there is another group that is even less competent or at least unlucky, that being leaders who react tepidly or refuse to make a firm choice or take blame for the same. Such leaders are too tentative and are not assertive enough and this lead to a leader not being taken seriously as an executive or even a figurehead because there is cogent and strong voice dictating what is to be done and why. It is clear that trying one's best as a lead and with fervor will always stand as a better way to try and fail than to not make a decision and/or not make it quickly enough thus almost certainly leading to failure or less success.
The traits of good leaders are tossed around…
Better leadership is crucial to Detroit's future. (2013). Crain's Detroit Business, 29(28).
Fibuch, E.E. (2011). Failure of Senior Leadership -- Is This a Problem in Your Hospital?.
Physician Executive, 37(2), 46-50.
If these perspectives can be successfully reinforced with programming such as F wrestling, are already aligned with violent behavior (McLellan, 2002). The television shows are reinforcing their need to reinforce and actualize this world view and mind set. These perspectives, if the children who play video games for hours every day could also be seeking out those video games in an attempt to actualize their violent thoughts and feelings. Demographics evidence would also agree with this statement, since those who are not at a high risk to commit violent crimes are likely not seeking out the violent television programming and video games.
Attention Deficit Disorder and Television
Some studies show a strong correlation between the amount of television a child watches and the likelihood that they will suffer from ADD later in life (Schmidt and Vandewater, 2008). Other studies show no correlation between them at all. Television has the unique…
Dudley, William. "Media Violence Causes Youth Violence. "Opposing Viewpoints: Mass Media. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 1 Dec. 2009.
Jensen, Elizabeth. "Study Finds Test Scores Not Lowered By Television. " The New York Times. (Feb 27, 2006): C6(L). New York State Newspapers. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 4 Dec. 2009.
McLellan, Faith. The Lancet. London: Feb 9, 2002. Vol. 359, Iss. 9305, p. 502 (1 pp.)
Schmidt, Marie Evans, and Vandewater, Elizabeth A. "Media and Attention, Cognition, and School Achievement." Future of Children. Spring 2008. Vol. 18, Iss.1. (2008).
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
A Game of Twister Played at Macy's Department Store
Brief Description of the Breaching Experiment
My daughter, Kayley, who is fourteen and one of her friends, Dani, with her mother's permission, participated in a brief experiment. The experiment was to play the popular game "Twister" in a social setting that would be extremely uncommon for something like that to occur. The three of us took the game to the mall and looked for a spot in which we could play. We asked a few people to participate in the game as the game's "spinner" however each person that was asked refused to participate. Eventually we chose the department store Macy's to play the game.
When playing the game there were several odd looks that were cast in our direction; one lady shook her head in what appeared to be disgust. Shortly after the game began, a store employee…
Video Games on Children
Owing to the advent of digital media over the past few decades, technology has taken over many dimensions of the world and given the media a 360 degree turn by entirely switching the way it previously worked. The computer era not only changes the way transactions were done, documents were prepared, statistical tools were used and made the world global but it also changed the way sports and games were played. It converted the physical playground into a virtual one to quite a great extent and now, computer video games have become an increasingly important phenomenon of today for the entertainment of kids who now believe in virtual playgrounds (Anderson, Gentile, & Katherine E, 2007).
Every new change brings its pros and cons with it, and he computer era was a boom towards the video game industry which is still a significant use of computers…
Franciss, M., & Subramanian, A. This Is Not Just a Game Anymore. Mumbai: Diligent Media Corporations Ltd. 2012.
Anderson, C.A., Gentile, D.A. & Katherine E. Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. Oxford University Press. 2007.
Associated Press. Monitoring video game violence - Expert's advice to. Ontario: The Guelph Mercury. 2006.
Billings Gazette, The (MT). Studies show children get hooked on addictive. The Billings Gazette 2011.
play board games today recognize that their development over the history of their existence was, to a great extent, reflective of the society that created and perpetuated them. In other words, a financial-type game created during the depression era would focus on a different general social mindset than one created during the much more financially secure era of the 1980s and 1990s or the digitally conscious world after 2000. The game that started its existence as Life is no exception to this phenomenon.
Created by Milton Bradley in 1860, the game started its existence under the name The Checkered Game of Life. In keeping with the general social view of the time, the game contained a strong moral aspect. The players moved across the board, navigating a number of virtues and vices, with rewards for virtues and penalties for vices. The game was immediately popular at the time, and Bradley…
"Finance," published during the early 1930s, was one of these. It contained similarities with both "The Landlord's Game" and "Monopoly."
The first version of the game under its current title of "Monopoly" saw the light in 1934, during the Depression in the United States. Created by Charles B. Darrow of Germantown, Pennsylvania, the game was turned down for being too long, too complicated, and not having a clear finish. Darrow, however, refused to be discouraged and produced he game on his own. With a printer friend, he sold 5,000 sets of he game to Wanamakers of Philadelphia. This success reactivated the interest of those who turned down the game previously, and he Parker Brothers struck a deal with Darrow. For the game designer, this resulted in his becoming he first game-designer millionaire at the age of 46. Today, many regard Monopoly as the "quintessential" American game, with values like investment and return on investment being encouraged.
Interestingly, a game called "Anti-Monopoly" was invented in 1974 by Ralph Anspach, an economics professor in San Francisco. Similar to Darrow's story, the game gained instant best-seller success after being turned down by established game companies. Several legal battles ensued, however, relating to Anspach's use of the word "Monopoly" as part of his game title. It is somewhat ironic that these battles were fought against big business establishments; monopolists who seek to dominate the market.
Constructivist Computerized Learning
Constructivist theories of knowledge development and learning have been around since the turn of the 20th century. But it may well be the advent of computerized and e-learning educational opportunities that offer this perspective its real chance to make a difference in the virtual world of learning and instruction. From Piaget to Papert, the core precepts of the constructivist understanding have been affirmed by what technology has to offer, even though researchers are just beginning to see what that means in practice. The current work reviews this transformation and what it might mean for the future of knowledge making and learning.
One of the most exciting aspects of the technological invasion of education is that the interactive and creative abilities of these tools allow students and teachers to design and develop their own relationship with knowledge. Computerized technologies of all sorts are simply fundamentally changing the game…
Ackermann, E. (n.d.). Piaget's Constructivism, Papert's Constructionism:What's the difference? Viewable at http://learning.media.mit.edu/content/publications/EA.Piaget%20_%20Papert.pdf .
Concept to Classroom (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Thirteen Online. Viewable at http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub4.html .
Cox, J. And Cox, K. (2009). Constructivism and Integrating Technology in the Classroom. Boise State University. Viewable at http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/coxk/eportfolio/EdTech%20504%20Final%20Synthesis%20K&J.docx.pdf.
Doolittle, P. And Hicks, D. (n.d.). Constructivism as a Theoretical Foundation for the Use of Technology in Social Studies. Viewable at http://www.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/learnth/DoolittleHicks5.pdf .
For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.
Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
Quantum mechanics is a theory that has emerged in the study of both chemistry and physics and has been received with a lot of enthusiasm. Nobel laureate physicist Philip Anderson goes as far as naming quantum mechanics the greatest invention of the last 2000 years, describing its impact saying,
The quantum theory forces a revision of our mode of thinking, which is far more profound than Newtonian mechanics or the Copernican revolution or relativity... It tells us that we really completely know the rules of the game which all these particles and quanta are playing, so that if we are clever enough we can understand everything about ourselves and our world. In other words, there is no "why" question about our everyday world that the quantum theory can't answer for is - Why is the sky blue? Why is glass transparent? What holds DNA together? Why does the sun shine?…
Anderson, P. "Quantum Theory." In The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Ed. John Brockman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
Boslough, J. Masters of Time. London: Orion Books, 1992.
Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E., & Bursten, B.E. Chemistry: The Central Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Daintith, J. A Concise Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
As such, amongst other things, globalization, in the context of Logitech's international activity, refers to outsourcing and off-shoring both services as well as products. Furthermore, it also implies the global distribution of the necessary resources throughout several countries that detain a comparative advantage.
As such, Taiwan has several arguments in favour of hosting Logitech's manufacturing activities. The crucial argument was that of reduced costs of human labour. Even though only a small percentage of the final retail price of a computer mouse is workforce related (7%), cheaper labour was a convincing incentive. ut aside from cheaper workforce, there were also other arguments in favour of manufacturing in Taiwan. Logitech was able to directly purchase the base products they needed for manufacturing their products from Taiwan. This offered the advantage of reduced supply costs and a well developed logistics channel. In addition, not only that the workforce was cheap, it was…
Theory and practice of multicultural and bilingual education
The demands of the competitive marketplace have caused a fundamental shift in the needs of ESL learners and will change the structure of ESL education. During the 1980s and 19980s, the predominant emphasis in ESL instruction was on social graces and basic fluency "Those objectives are now outdated and inadequate to meet the pressing needs of today's children. Increasingly complex, high-tech demands from industry and commerce mandate that every graduate, including those for whom English is a second language, acquire knowledge and skills to compete for jobs" (Beckett & Haley 2000). The goal is for ESL students to graduate not merely with a grasp of English, but with knowledge of subject areas commensurate with their non-ESL peers. Demands for strong ESL student performance are growing amongst parents as well as school administrators, who wish to give a more equitable education…
Beckett, E.C., & Haley, P.K. (2000). Using standards to integrate academic language into ESL
fluency. The Clearing House, 74(2), 102-104.
Son, J. (2008). Using web-based language learning activities in the ESL classroom. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 4(4), 34-43.
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…
The abstract presents a summation of the methodology however, what could be added for greater emphasis is the author's definitive conclusion on why cooperatives are different than investor-owned firms and why they are chosen in agribusiness. The conclusion is of course interesting however, the why which is elucidated in the analysis will compel the reader to read on. The literature review is thorough and sets up a fundamental reason for the author's undertaking of the project; the available research is fragmented and not conclusive in its determination of why cooperatives and investor-owned models are different and why they are used. The author's strength in presentation is not in its subtlety but in its direct statement of fact, rationale, and logic. Citing pages five six, the discussion of profit maximization as the objective of firms is contrasted with evidence that this is not always the case, particularly for cooperatives. In creating…
"Policy issues attract a substantial attention from both economists and policymakers in the recent years" (Obsteldt). ith such attention being focused on the policy issues, it makes more than a little sense, to focus the attention there as well in order to have a higher likelihood of success than without the same attention. In order to focus attention on those policy issues it must be understood what those policy issues entail.
Those issues can include such items as exchange rates, currency crises and other financial events taking place in either country. The MIT study stated other components should also be addressed. "These include theory and evidence of exchange rate-based stabilizations....sovereign debt management and reform of the international financial system" (Obsteldt). Since there is currently no major problems between the two countries, both countries participate in the orld Monetary Fund as active members, and neither country is mismanage their debt management,…
Bloomfield AI, (1994), Essays in the History of International Trade Theory, Aldershot, England: Edward Elgar Publishing
http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/visfac/e280a_sp02/syllabus280a.pdf ., Accessed July 11, 2006
James AM, (1994), Books - Reviews; Essays in the History of International Trade Theory (Book), European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Vol 1 Issue 3, pg 606
Obstfeld M, Rogoff K, Foundations of International Macroeconomics, The MIT Press
75, p < .000. Ho: Mean IQ = 100. The mean difference of the sample from the test value of 100 (the average of the general population) was 29.25, with confidence intervals of 24.9 and 33.6, indicating that there is a 95% level of certainty that the true mean difference lies between these two numbers.
Ha: Mean IQ > 100
Level of significance: .05
This is a one-tailed test because our hypothesis has a built in direction (we are hypothesizing that the average IQ of the group of video game players will be higher than the average IQ of the general population).
Z Score = X -- X
Z Score = 129.25 -- 100 / 11.86
Z Score = 2.4 -- thus, the average of the data set has a Z score of 2.4
Sketch and shade the rejection region.
A z score of 2.4 has 49.18%…
End Game of Globalization
"Nothing is more insidious than the liberal fain of equality between people who are demonstrably and desperately unequal…American liberalism, in other words, remade itself to fulfill the task that social democracy fulfilled elsewhere. It became a progressive force, absorbing yet dampening the leftward impulse of socialism…a liberalism quite at home with racism and class exploitation, yet one which responded when necessary to political pressure (as in the granting of female suffrage). Liberalism expanded into a bipolar role of co-opting any progressive urge among the multiracial working class while also viciously repressing that same force when it organized too much of a challenge to the power of capital or the liberal state."
There are many countries that perceive the United States of America as an example of imperialism. There are many cultures that adamantly resist western culture, western practices, and western ideals. They are enraged…
Smith, Neil. (2005) The End Game of Globalization. Routledge: United Kingdom.
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
Principles and Theories
Stark (2004) discussed the transformational elements present in the state of leadership in his article. This article attempted to strike a balance by understanding leadership as more of a state of mind than a state of action. Five major conclusions were highlighted in this reading. The first suggests that strong and positive organizations are direct reflections of the collective state of the workers of that organization. The next suggests that leadership is not related to power and is a state of being. The third conclusion the author discussed that the fundamental state of leadership is results driven. The fourth conclusion mandated that leaders need to experience deep and serious change to enter a state of fundamental leadership. The fifth conclusion suggested that change is contingent upon the leadership's ability to accept and engage in change.
Lawler & n Golden's (2003) article embraced the idea of…
7, a figure that is much higher than it should actually be. In my opinion, this shows that the inventory value is too small and could be a clue that the company will not be able to handle any raise in sales, simply because it will not be able to cover them.
It would have been interesting to have an analysis of the stock evolution for Digby. However, given the fact that this is an evaluation at a certain given moment, it is impossible to have a tracking view over what has happened on the stock exchange.
Production vs. Capacity
The issue related to the inventory, detailed in the previous paragraph, is best noticed if we look and analyze the inventory figures for each product in the portfolio. This will give a clear measure of the company's production facilities for each product in part and its capacities.
The plants producing…
Rationalist Theories of International Relations
Despite the name, rationalist theories of international relations are anything but, limited as they are by both an almost childlike understanding of human behavior and a catastrophic lack of imagination. Rationalist theories of international relations, like the Objectivism which developed in the same post-orld ar II period, rely on a number of assumptions which have since been shown to be empirically false. Rationalism assumes that the most important, and in fact, the only entities dictating international relations are nation states, and that these nation states are engaged in a zero-sum game of diplomacy and war, in which the goals of every nation state is eventual dominance above all others, so that international relations are dictated almost exclusively through violence or coercion, with diplomacy essentially reduced to the well-spoken threat of force. Thus, rationalist theories of international relations are not only incorrect, but altogether dangerous, as…
Art, Robert, and Kenneth Waltz. The use of force: military power and international politics.
Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 2009.
Baylis, John, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens. The globalization of world politics: an introduction to international relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Blatter, Joachim. "Performing Symbolic Politics and International Environmental Regulation:
Television has become a necessity in today's world. From news to entertainment, from gossips to drama, from cooking to adventure, everything is showcased on it and this grab the attention of everyone despite of the race, gender, age, ethnicity or nationality they belong to. Almost all the people consider TV as their friend and an essential part of their lives and scientists, theorists and researchers have proved that what is shown on TV changes the viewer's perceptions and attitudes over the period of time. As rightly pointed out by Hammermeister, Winterstein, and Page (2005) in their research, "aside from occupational duties and sleep, the American nation spends more time watching television than at any other activity." (p.253) They also highlighted the fact that a normal American spends around 3-4 hours daily on watching TV which makes it 7-10 years of watching TV by the time he turns 70.…
Aber.ac.uk (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/cultiv.html [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Fisherhouse.com (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.fisherhouse.com/courses/cultivation_theory.pdf [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Gulisano, L. (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Gulisano.htm [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Hammermeister, J., Brock, B., Winterstein, D., Page, R. And Y (2005). Life without TV? Cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts. Health communication, 17 (3), pp. 253-264.
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.
This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…
Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical
Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):
491-504. Research Library. ProQuest. 30 Oct. 2008 http://www.proquest.com/
Oetzel, John G. & Stella Ting-Toomey. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict."
magic bullet theory" -- sometimes called the hypodermic needle theory -- holds that when recipients of broadcasted information are separated from one another they are extremely susceptible to the messages that they are receiving; theses messages can drastically influence their opinions as well as their perceptions of reality. "Agenda setting scholars corroborate the fact that our dependence on the media for news and information has shaped and reinforced our perceptions of the world around us. The mass media continue to set the news agenda for dominant events, issues and policies that subsequently become popular in our social discourse."
It is a theory regarding the nature by which information influences its receivers and is generally only accurate under a specific set of circumstances. Overall, the magic bullet theory cannot be utilized as a comprehensive model for the mass media because it ignores a number of characteristics inherent to human nature. The…
1. Alozie, Emmanuel C. (2003). Global Media Journal, volume 2, issue 5.
2. Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.
3. Gehman, Gary L. (1999). "About Magic Bullet Communications." Magic Bullet Communications, Oct. 10.
4. Holtzman, Linda. (2000). Media Messages. New York: M.E. Sharp.
Service Theory design is not a basic foothold that can be explained in only a few sentences. There is a lot of thought, experimentation, research, and trial and error that goes into the creation of a sound theory. First, it is important to acknowledge all of the things that can play a role in the design of a theory itself. esearchers have reported that community and culture significantly influence value orientation (Goel, 2010), perceived needs, and motivation as well as provide the ground for creating shared understanding. All disciplines have their own cultures, and all cultures evolve through cross-cultural exchanges. It all starts with a series of questions and ideas that the researcher would like to find out background information on, and possible determine information that may not have been evident upon first glance.
The questions that would need further clarity are: (1) what model best fits the current prospective…
Freeman, J.B., & Ambady, N. (2011). A dynamic interactive theory of person construal. Psychological Review, 118(2), 247-279. doi:10.1037/a0022327
Goel, S. (2010, April 1). Design of Interventions for Instructional Reform in Software Development Education for Competency Enhancement. Online Submission, Retrieved from EBSCOhost..
Rodrigues, R., de Lima Bicho, A., Paravisi, M., Jung, C., Magalhaes, L., & Musse, S. (2010). AN INTERACTIVE MODEL FOR STEERING BEHAVIORS OF GROUPS OF CHARACTERS. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 24(6), 594-616. doi:10.1080/08839514.2010.492167
Tracey, M. (2009). Design and development research: a model validation case. Educational Technology Research & Development, 57(4), 553-571. doi:10.1007/s11423-007-9075-0
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…
Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.
Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).
Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.
Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
This is in direct contrast to the efforts afforded by the leagues to try to reduce competitive advantage all around. One reason why the teams with larger media and crowd resources do well could be the fact that as more talented players are able to move into free agency, they seek higher and higher compensation and attention through larger media and crowd outlets (Grant, 1991). A very talented player may not want to play in a small town because there would theoretically be less exposure to media and fans, and as a marketable good or commodity, that player knows that his or her talent would not be compensated for as well as it could be in a larger town.
The basis for argument with ottenberg's presentation of competitive advantage mitigation lies in the basic economic theories that govern other markets. It is only logical that these theories be applied to…
Coase, Ronald H. 1960. "The Problem of Social Cost." Journal of Law and Economics. Vol. 3,
No. 1. Pp. 1 -- 44.
Demsetz, Harold. 1972. "When Does the Rule of Liability Matter?" Journal of Legal Studies.
Vol. 31, No. 5. Pp. 13-28.
Children also gain an insight into the conservation of numbers, mass, and weight; which allows them to understand that just because the image of object changes that does not mean the nature of the object has to change with it. For example, children in this stage can tell that a cup of water is the same amount despite being poured into two different cups. Children also learn to classify objects by several features based on increased schemes from more external stimuli. Finally, the formal operational stage represents the state of the mind from eleven years onward. In this, there is logical abstract thinking, which goes beyond the child's immediate environment and incorporates abstract concepts. Children learn to test hypothesis using reason and the human mind looks forward into the future and the abstract hypothetical. According to Piaget, these stages are universal and occur within every individual.
There is another side…
Daniels, Harry. (2005). An Introduction to Vygotsky. Routledge Press.
Minick, Norris. (2005). The development of Vygotsky's thought: an introduction to Thinking and Speech. An Introduction to Vygotsky. Routledge Press.
Piaget, Jean & Inhelder, Barbel. (1999). The Psychology of the Child. Basic Books.
Up until the point that the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Japanese citizens, World War II was a just war. However, dropping the second bomb, perhaps even the first bomb, on innocent civilians, removed the war out of traditional rules of warfare and brought the world into a new phase of combat. Up until that time, the general rules of war prohibited using civilian targets. In fact, Germany was the first one to break this rule and this unjust act was one of the reasons the United States entered the war.
At the time the second bomb was dropped, the war ceased being just. However, after the bomb was dropped, new rules and regulations were created to accommodate this new face of war, therefore changing the rules of the game and thus the definition of a just war.
ailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford:…
Bailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Childress, J. "Just War Theories." Theological Studies. 39 (1978), 427-45.
Martin, Glenn R. Prevailing Worldviews of Western Society Since 1500. New York: Triangle Publishing, 2006.
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…
Bates, D.G., & Plog, F. (1976). Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed., New York: McGraw-Hil
Baruth, L.G., & Manning, M.L. (2003). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and M.W. Feldman (1981), Cultural Transmission and Evolution.
Princeton: Princeton University Press
He disclosed that the proletarians inevitably outnumber the capitalists. The capitalist mode of production is capable of yielding tremendous growth because the capitalist can reinvest profits in new technologies. But Marx argued that capitalism was subject to cycle of crises. Marx argued that capitalist society undergoes a continuous cycle boom followed by collapse with marked upheavals in between. He rightly pointed out that the net result of all this process is further strengthening and enforcement of bourgeoisie class and dilipidation of proletriats.
Karl Marx assumed that if the proletariat class was to take control of means of production this class would probably indulge in social relations that would promote the benefits for everyone and thus making the society less prone to severe crisis. But this of course is more of an idealistic scenario where fairness and equal benefits for all are the name of the game, the reality on the…
Shlomo Avineri, the Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx (Cambridge University Press, 1968) ISBN 0-521-09619-7
G.A. Cohen, Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence (Princeton University Press, 1978) ISBN 0-691-07068-7
Hal Draper, Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution (4 volumes) Monthly Review Press
Ronald Duncan & Colin Wilson, (editors) Marx Refuted, (Bath, U.K., 1987) ISBN 0-906798-71-X
Devel/Family Cycle Theory
Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following:
Leaving home: single young adults
The joining of…
Erickson, M.J. (1998). Revisioning the family life cycle theory and paradigm in marriage and Family. American Journal of Family Therapy 26(4), pp. 341-355.
Jordyn, M., & Byrd, M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of university students and their identity development. Adolescence 38(150), pp. 267-278.
VanKatwyk, P.L. (n.d.). Family life cycle theory. Theories of Human Development. Retrieved from http://freedownload.is/pdf/family-life-cycle-theory-3553375.html
ooley and Mead's theories on the process of socialization as opposed to that of Freud
harles ooley and George Herbert Mead are proponents of a similar theory of socialization. ooley uses the metaphor of the looking glass to explain how a child uses others' perception of himself to understand himself and develop an identity. According to ooley, each of us closely monitors how others react to us and adjust our behavior to get the most desirable response -- like looking at ourselves in a mirror and adjusting our posture or expression.
Mead also explains the process of socialization in a similar manner by theorizing that children internalize the feelings of others while developing the "Self." He says that children imitate the behavior of others by role-playing in the Play Stage (ages 3-4), which helps them to define themselves. In the Game Stage (school going age) they are exposed to…
Conrad Kottack quoted in "Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism" available online at http://www2.eou.edu/~kdahl/ethnodef.html
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology." Available online at http://cas-courses.buffalo.edu/classes/apy/anab/apy106/handouts/relativism.htm
Plato and Aristotle's political theories
The most capacious account of Plato's established philosophical views has been published in "The epublic" as a comprehensive handling of the most basic values for the behavior of human life. As it deals with a large number of matters, The epublic can be interpreted in a lot of diverse manner: as a discourse on political conjecture and observation, as an academic manual, or the manner in which to protect moral behavior for instance. (Plato: The State and the Soul) Politics written by Aristotle gives a substantial assessment of the beginning and configuration of the nation. (Theme Analysis: The Politics) A significant matter to keep in mind while taking into account the opinion and involvement of Aristotle in Philosophy is the fact that he was there 2000 years back. One of the early foundations done by him was Lykeion that was involved solely with pure sciences,…
Boeding, Ron. Ideals of Aristotle and Hayek: A Synthesis. Retrieved from http://nb.vse.cz/kfil/elogos/history/boeding.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Conceptions of Equality/Plato, Aristotle and additions. Retrieved from http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~stanlick/equality1.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Irbe, George. Aristotle's Spurned Legacy. 23 October, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.interlog.com/~girbe/Aristotle's%20legacy.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Kemerling, Garth. Aristotle: Politics and Art. 27 October 2001. Retrieved from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2t.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004