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Both of these concerns present a validity and a legitimacy that would certainly temper the expected growth of such areas of the city, and, if left unchecked, have the potential to overwhelm the benign effects of reduced crime and social and salutary outreach benefits. The most successful way to deal with the former of these issues, is to implement a policy specific to the activity of minors. There is a significant amount of evidence that indicates that adolescents are those who are most at-risk for enlisting in street gangs and selling drugs, a fact that is readily corroborated by Bourgois' case study of Tito in which his subjected "immersed himself with all his energy into New York City's gang life in early adolescence" (24). Within these proposed areas in street drugs are legal, a simple remedy for the problems of adolescent interaction would involve developing a system for the…… [Read More]
Gangs and gang-related activities are serious problems in American society. Books like Snitch, by Allison van Diepen, show that gangs are infiltrating almost every part of America and are leading to the proliferation of drugs, weapons, and human trafficking. However, gangs are not just talked about in novels like Snitch. Gangs are real, as I learned when interviewing a former gangbanger. Gangs have made such an impact on the people whose lives are directly affected by them, that poetry has been written about gangs. Many research organizations have studied gangs, showing that the problem needs to be addressed immediately. The problem is that gangs are as much of a symptom as they are a cause of problems. Gangs would not exist if there were more legitimate means to form communities and identities. In particular, gangs reflect underlying social injustice, related primarily to ethnicity and poverty. There are also legislative issues…… [Read More]
The problems that gangs cause to communities is enormous. And the resources that police departments and other law enforcements are required to use to monitor gangs is costly. Since gangs aren't going away any time soon the problems they create and the young lives they waste will be with society for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the problem based on the government eb site, CrimeSolutions.gov.
Definition of Gangs and Gang Membership
The National Gang Center (NGC) explains that the most important aspect in terms of defining a gang lies within the realm of actually committing crimes. If the group is involved in criminality -- in rural or urban or suburban areas -- it doesn't matter what their leadership is in that particular group. It's also not important in the process of defining whether a group is truly a gang or not as to whether they display colors, have…… [Read More]
Gangs in Prison
Although the United States prison system remains extremely dangerous due to overcrowding, guard and administrator abuse, and widespread detention and isolation practices that would be considered torture by the United Nations, they also serve as fertile breeding grounds for dangerous gangs, and in fact, American prisons have given rise to some of the most dangerous prison and street gangs of the twenty and twenty-first century. Of these, five stand out for their violence and resilience. The Aryan Brotherhood, the Black Guerilla Family, the Folk Nation, the Mexican Mafia, and MS-13 have all made a name for themselves in the prison system due to their violence, and although some have declined in scope and power as a result of concerted law enforcement efforts, all of these gangs remain a threat to security and safety, both for prison employees and the general public. By examining the foundations and spread…… [Read More]
However, educate him or her to be self-confident as few children who do not react as the intimidate desires is not likely to be selected as a fatality. Work with the child's school to deal with the problem as some school employees may be able to offer some sensible recommendation to help the child plus keep records of the events so that you can be comprehensive in your negotiations with school staff about the child's experiences at school whilst it may facilitate to talk with the gang member or his/her parents keeping in mind to be careful while moving ahead. Speaking directly to the gang member like this may signal to him or her that the child is weak. Parents of a gang member may be unsuccessful to see something wrong with harassment associate it to positioning up for oneself. If the problem continues or rise even more than you…… [Read More]
Since the 1980s, the media has become increasingly interested in urban street gangs, both in the entertainment industry, such as in records, movies, and television shows, and as a newsworthy matter in journalistic media. In both cases, media tend to portray gangs in an exceptionally stereotypical fashion. Ironically, however, the images presented in the news media and in the entertainment industry are seemingly mirror opposites. In the entertainment industry, gang life is glorified in movies and music, such as gangsta rap, in which gang members appears as iconoclastic heroes that are fighting to retain their individualistic way of doing things in the face of a world that has done nothing but try to crush them. Indeed, in many ways, this stereotype is identical to the image of the romantic hero. The news media, on the other hand, tends to demonize and villify gang members in its portrayals. Typically it…… [Read More]
Gangs in the Military
In the present era the gang problem is all encompassing and intimidating in a greater measure compared to any other period in history. In the bygone 20 years, gang associations have transcended all socioeconomic, ethnic and racial limits and currently pervade American society. Gangs by way of increased dreadfulness, felony and economic costs influence society. Now we are confronted with the outcome of the gang subculture's startling intensification over the past two decades: diminishing public safety, community image and quality of life. Gangs have the capability of upsetting military discipline and organization.
The attraction of a gang in military is being an element of some entity, security, social status, and an individual enjoying nice things in life, inclusive of wealth, authority and respect. Several gang members are very isolated being the nastiest ones. They are known as lieutenants, keeping themselves in the background always. These lieutenants…… [Read More]
Brotherton and Barrios' assessment of the role of women in Almighty King and Queen Nation (ALKQN), they describe the role of women as functional primarily for the image of the gang rather than their 'usefulness' as members of the gang. In ALKQN, Queens, term used for female members, are often useful for the gang by acting as accomplices in the drug trade, helping to hide and transport drugs and weapons for the gang. Furthermore, female members are functional because they provide a good image for the gang, giving a sense of legitimacy of the existence of the gang, for it helps out marginalized women create autonomy, identity, and at the same time, belongingness, as member of the gang.
It is evident that seeking cohesion in the community by joining gangs is also a way through which women can also assert their autonomy -- that is, by finally making their…… [Read More]
In the 1940s, the Klan began using bombings of their homes to scare blacks who had moved into the "wrong" neighborhood. In 1944, the IRS filed a lien against the Klan for over $600,000 and it was forced to disband. Its numbers by then had dwindled to about 10,000.
During the 1950s, to the present day, the Klan has disintegrated into separate small groups with different purposes depending on location. Their issues today have been updated to illegal immigration and same-sex marriage. Other Klan groups have become neo-Nazi skinheads. It is estimated that their total membership in 2008 is about 6,000.
Outlaws Motorcycle Gang
The Outlaws Motorcycle Gang, one of the biggest outlaw gangs in the country, formed in 1935 in McCook, Illinois. It now has over 200 "gangs" in several countries. Only men who own a specific-size motorcycle can join the club. Their main rival gang is Hell's Angels.…… [Read More]
" This was to show that Tweed was tough on crime. it's no wonder that Bill, the Butcher, leader of the Natives, is so violent. In the course of becoming a mentor to Amsterdam, he explains, "You stay alive with fear. Fear," he says, "preserves the order of things."
is gang wreaks most of its violence on the Irish whom they place at the bottom of the social scale along with blacks. Unlike Tweed who just wants their votes, Bill, the Butcher and his gang would like to kill all of them.
A great wave of Irish immigrants came to America during the 19th century. In the middle of that century a famine swept across Ireland, and Irish Catholics were severely impacted. In only three years, more than 500,000 people with nothing to eat died of starvation (Nickens, 2002). Those that lived migrated in large numbers. According to the movie,…… [Read More]
Gangs: Membership Prevention intervention suppression
There are various strategies that could be adopted in an attempt to reign in the gang membership problem. The strategies offered by youth.Gov, a U.S. government resource for the creation and maintenance of sound youth programs, would come in handy in this regard. The said strategies could be grouped into three main categories, i.e. prevention, intervention, and suppression responses. One strategy relates to strengthening families. It is important to note that “gang members often come from homes where they feel alienated or neglected” (Chaskin 97). It is this feeling and experience of neglect and/or alienation that motivates the said youths to seek solace in gang membership. Thus, strategies meant to strengthen families would be effective in seeking to prevent gang membership. Such strategies could be inclusive of sensitizing families on the various conflict resolution strategies they could pursue in case of misunderstandings, ensuring that there are…… [Read More]
Gangs are a reality in most cities and neighborhoods. To a large extent, gangs thrive on membership – effectively meaning that they strive to recruit new members and ensure that those within the ‘family’ stay. Towards this end, gangs have been known to prey on various targets – including second-generation immigrants and high school/college students - in an attempt to soar their membership and protect certain interests. New York City has a rich history of gang activity. This text concerns itself with gang activity within New York City. In so doing, it will not only give a concise description of the origin of gang activity in the city, but also highlight key facts relating to gangs in the city.
From the onset, it is important to note that today, gangs can be found in almost all five boroughs of the city. In seeking to chart gang activity in New…… [Read More]
Gangs in America have formed the subject of a large number of research works, thereby becoming a growth sector (Sanchez-Jankowski, 2003). The definition of the term ‘gangs’ is: an ongoing informal or formal group, party, or alliance of at least three individuals whose primary activities include perpetrating at least one of the crimes listed below: 1) attacking using a lethal weapon, 2) murder, 3) burglary, 4) selling or holding in possession for production, selling, offering for sale, transporting, or offering to produce controlled substances, 5) arson, 6) shooting at any occupied automobile or inhabited house, 7) intimidating victims and witnesses, and 8) carrying out a grand robbery of a vehicle, vessel, or trailer, in addition to sharing a common sign, symbol, or name, whose members have separately or, as a group, previously or currently participated in some pattern of hang crime (California Department of Justice, 1993).
Classification of…… [Read More]
There are some situations and outcomes within the healthcare industry where it is important to pay attention to what happens, what could be done, what should be done and why all of the above is true. Indeed, one of those things would be the treatment of gang members in emergency room and similar situations. When gang members engage in violence with knives and guns, they commonly end up in emergency rooms seeking treatment. As part of that eventuality, the healthcare staff present at the time is supposed to keep an eye out for visits to their facilities that are indicative of criminal and/or gang activity occurring. This idea would mostly include the physicians. However, the nurses and other important personnel present would matter as well. Gang members showing up with shooting or stabbing wounds would be an obvious example of this. While there can be a steep learning curve and…… [Read More]
However, some gang members specialize in multiple criminal activities such as street robbery, human trafficking and drug trafficking.
Street gangs are the major concern to parents, school administrators and the communities because they recruit students and the youths across the United States to enhance the growth of gang memberships. Street gangs are the most prevalent type of gangs in the United States because they influence a strong control in the large geographical regions. Typically, street gangs are characterized with criminal activities, which include brutality and drug trafficking. Presence of street gangs is broadened with their special relations with DTO (Drug Trafficking Organization) in Mexico, Canada, Columbia and other Central American countries. Type of street gangs includes regional-level street gangs specially known for their drug dealing. Functional regional-level street gangs include Latin Disciples, Florencia, Fresno Bulldogs, Tango Blast and United Blood Nation. Local street gangs also known as neighborhood-based…… [Read More]
In the end, the capacity for gangs persist throughout history has shown that they are not merely one-dimensional juvenile delinquents, as they are often portrayed in media. They are also well-organized groups that have the ability to serve social purposes. This also shows that a reason why society still allows them to exist is because of these social functions (Branch 1997).
Nevertheless, media is also responsible for glamorizing the life of the gangsta, which may be a factor in getting adolescent and vulnerable teenagers to join gangs for the sake of being accepted and being part of a family. The outcome of which, if not death or imprisonment, is even if a gangsta decides to become a regular citizen, he will be held with contempt and suspicion by the community.
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 1: Since the Days of Knights: Historical and Psychological Overview of Gangs. pp. 9-27. Perseus…… [Read More]
Gang Violence Interventions: Pulling Levers Programs
Over two decades of studies have shown partnerships between institutions and communities are required for effective and sustainable interventions to reduce gang violence, but the majority of intervention strategies have taken a reactionary approach, such as increasing policing efforts without addressing the underlying causes of gang violence (Gebo, Boyes-Watson, and Pinto-Wilson, 2010, p. 166). The lack of investment cognitive-behavioral interventions is evident by the prevalence of poorly designed studies investigating the effectiveness of such strategies, which makes drawing conclusions about their value difficult if not impossible (Fisher, Gardner, Montgomery, 2008).
A popular intervention strategy, at least among the law enforcement community, is the 'pulling levers' strategy (Braga, 2008). This strategy is essentially a problem-oriented approach to policing that involves choosing a crime problem, assembling an interagency working group, conducting research on the offender population, and coming up with a list of possible…… [Read More]
To summarize, research on gangs has shown the gang problem to be increasing dramatically. Gang members list many reasons for joining a gang, including protection, peer pressure, economic needs, social needs, power, because relatives are members, a lack of parental or community support, and social status. According to the research, gangs tend to exist in greater numbers in low-income populations, and in single-parent households. Additionally, research has shown that while there certainly are Caucasian gang members, the majority are Hispanic or African-American.
The purpose of this study was to determine why teenage males join and participate in gang activities. The independent variables were socio-economic status, peer influence, lack of family support, self-esteem, and protection. The subjects studied were from a high population area near Houston, TX, where the majority of residents were of Hispanic decent. This study examined the relationship between gang activities and the independent variables. This section…… [Read More]
When Santano looks back on his old life in prison he comments that Fulsom was the "big time." He had more power there. Before the gang, if someone wanted something from him, "They just took it" because he was weak, but being in the gang stopped that because he became strong. He looks back on prison life with a certain sense of nostalgia and tells his girlfriend, "I loved it in there."
The gang allows him to be competent under horrible circumstances. He has been deprived of all the ordinary, normal experiences we take for granted, such as dancing, learning to drive a car, going to the beach, standing in the moonlight with a girl, and making love. All he has ever known is violence and the need to keep others afraid of him in order to protect himself. He's more or less ruined for life on the outside by…… [Read More]
Thrasher (1927) correctly identified the reasons for existence and persistence of gangs: "The gangs… offer a substitute for what society fails to give… it fills a gap and affords an escape….thus the gang, itself a natural and spontaneous type of organization arising through conflict is a symptom of disorganization in the larger social framework." (p. 13)
To prevent the youth from getting into the ills of society parents, teachers, the community and the entire nation should get together and contribute their part to it. Parents and teachers should guide the teens and explain to them about the dangers of becoming a part of a gang. The nation should provide their people with more opportunities so as to better their living conditions. Law enforcing agencies should increase their efficiency to create deterrence among the youth such that they would not indulge in delinquency. It is about time that everyone should recognize…… [Read More]
The presence of gangs has always been of concern to society, largely owing to their criminal behavior. The solution to the problem, however, lies not so much in police and legal action, but in addressing, the social causes of gang development. In other words, society has to change social conditions such as poverty, family abuse and neglect, the educational system, the Criminal Justice system, employment opportunities and the nature of social programs in order to prevent the development of criminally oriented gangs. Indeed, society would probably benefit a great deal if it could stop punishing such behavior and, instead, focus on the creation of a social environment that could prevent the development of criminally oriented gangs.
The primary cause of gang development, it has been well established, is poverty. This is because poverty causes economic and social pressures that lead to youth developing a poor image of self and…… [Read More]
Call for backup before attempting pursuit into unsecured potential gang situations
5.. Examples of gangs deploying military weapons and tactics against law enforcement:
2005: Contract assassination attempt against corrections officer in Lakewood, Wash. By United Blood Nation gang member in active service from Bremerton Navy Station (10)
2005: Ceres, California: Active-duty, U.S. Marine Iraq combat veteran gang member shoots two police, killing one, using military tactics (11)
2006: Verbal testimony by several gang members suggests veterans training gangs for combat (12)
2010: U.S.Marine Corps veterans charged with selling assault weapons to gangs (13)
2011: Twenty-seven AK-47s stolen from California's Fort Irwin Army base (14)
2011: National Gang Threat Assessment report: "Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment, which poses a significant threat because of the potential to engage in lethal encounters with law enforcement and citizens alike" (15)
6. ACTION: If you believe you may encounter military-level threat…… [Read More]
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…… [Read More]
Hybrid Gangs in South Florida
On Public Policy towards Volatile Movements
South Florida has an increasing prevalence of criminal gangs in their communities and it is posing a growing threat to their security and safety. It is clear that in that region criminal hybrid gangs are spreading violence and fear in their neighborhoods making places like their parks unusable, and even bringing corrupt behavior passages to work and school, stopping legitimate businesses consisting of tourism, and bringing down property values. Right now, there are more hybrid gangs in Florida than ever before, with approximately 400 in South Florida alone, as stated by the latest state study. Hybrid gangs are not a new threat, nevertheless the most recent state study displays the problem is getting worse especially in South Florida. In 1991, there were 160 gangs in the south Florida region, but by 2007 the number jumped to beyond 1,500 with…… [Read More]
gang development, research and reduction strategies as outlined by Klein and Maxson in their 2006 study Street Gang Patterns and Policies. It incorporates additional research beyond Klein and Maxson, but focuses on the basic analysis of the problem offered in their study. The specific focus of the paper is on finding solutions that work, as distinguished from the numerous failed solutions examined by Klein and Maxson -- with an emphasis on the reasons for failure given in their assessment.
Klein and Maxson's Street Gang Patterns and Policies (2006) offers a sharp critique of existing paradigms of dealing with the problem of street gangs, and in its place offers informed suggestions based on over three decades of research and observation for revising the overall approach to handling this persistent problem. The problem of street gangs is, of course, very old: one of the first-ever sociological studies, written as the discipline of…… [Read More]
20, California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act, STEP Act California 186.20 (http://www.streetgangs.com/laws/stepact.html)," as well as any community that has a disproportionate juvenile arrest rate, or a high percentage of gang related criminal activity or a high number of gang affiliated acts of violence.
The Act hopes to reduce crimes of violence committed by gang members by alerting local law enforcement to their identity thereby reducing their feelings of anonymity in committing those crimes.
The Act also supports funding for the purpose of education and offering counseling and other services to current and past gang members in the hopes they will decide to leave the gang and become a productive member of society.
The gang problem is a serious one in which the dynamics create a cycle of feeling alone, finding a "family" in the gang membership, committing acts of violence for the gang and becoming incarcerated. The legislative…… [Read More]
gang crime in Boston. I would ask what impact spiritual community involvement has on this crime rate and how can spirituality be used to lower violence.
Ron, I tend to agree with much of what you have written in response to the Boston crime case study. I agree that the spiritual factors and relationship to God are important factors in the human treatment of one another. Criminology seems reluctant to address the impact of religious and spiritual involvement within the community due to the ability to free one's mind. By incorporating stress theory, you seem to link your arguments in a cohesive manner that convinces me that you have compiled a compelling argument.
Valerie, your points about recidivism bring up great ideas in approaching this problem from a different angle. It seems that the criminal justice system is over eager in punishing people, but an appropriate system seems…… [Read More]
The Issue of Gangs
History of Gangs in the United States of America
Northeast egion (specifically New York City
Midwest egion (specifically Chicago)
West egion (specifically Los Angeles)
South egion First period
Current Status of Gangs in the United States of America
Types of Gangs in the United States of America
Factors Triggering Indulgence in Gangs
Impacts of Gang Activities on United States of America
ecommendations for Community esponse
This paper will analyze the nature of gang membership within the United States of America by delving into the historical trends and current status of gang membership in the nation. Moreover, the paper will also discuss the factors that trigger the formation of gangs in the state. In addition, it will also put light on the types of gangs that exist in the U.S.A., and the impacts that these entities have on the nation. Furthermore, it will also propose recommendations…… [Read More]
deviance relates to the American Dream
In his book, Always unning: La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A., Luis J. odriguez uses his own experience and writing talents to tell the story of lives that are caught in the fire of bad luck. Children who happened to be born in some of the poorest neighborhoods of LA in the 1960's, 70s or 80s, as odriguez, were condemned to contamination from the gang life that was going in the streets, around their homes, even creeping into their porches. The U.S. was marching on its way to become a world leader while huge urban areas like those of LA or Chicago were infested and ruled by a way of life that had little or nothing to do with the "American dream." Prostitution, drugs, alcohol and extreme violence, were the four main driving forces of "progress" in the "barrios." Life had little to…… [Read More]
Gangs: Coercion and Prevention
The community problem of gangs and related violence is prevalent all over the United States. Young people join gangs for a variety of reasons. Some may feel isolated from their general school or social communities and search out the connections and community affiliation offered by gangs. Others are seduced by the importance attached to generally laudable qualities like loyalty and honor. In a gang setup, however, these are generally proven by violent or criminal activities. Some young people could also be somewhat seduced by the romantic notion of belonging to a group of people who all stand for the same thing and would give their lives for the cause and each other. To curb the danger related to gangs and gang violence and to protect young people from being coerced into gangs, parents, educators, and government officials need to be aware of the various reasons why…… [Read More]
Gangs in Public School
Many schools especially in urban and suburban areas continue to register gang-related activities within their premises and involving their students. This study appreciates the dangers associated with such gangs to the schools and other stakeholders around them. Various laws and regulation have been passed in different states in the U.S. allow parents to withdraw their children from certain public schools. Schools reputed for gang-related problems stand to lose students. This paper provides the scope of action steps in which schools take to intervene, prevent, and suppress the scope of violent gang activity while establishing crisis response plans. The strategies are developed to address potential actions of school violence including gang activity.
Gang members bring in their attitudes, behaviors, and conflicts to the school compounds. The dangerous gang issues and activities of a given community take place within local schools. Gang members take on each other within…… [Read More]
Gang Prevention Programs in Los Angeles
The issue of gangs and the gang related deaths and violence has been a thing of concern across the nation and in Los Angeles in particular due to the alarming high levels of gang activities within the city. Los Angeles City has been described severally as the "gang capital" of the nation, due to the numerous gangs that are in existence as well as the long history of these gangs, going back to 50 years ago. Los Angeles Police Department (2016) there are approximately 450 active gangs in Los Angeles with a membership exceeding 45,000 members. The membership of these gangs has continued to increase over the last five years due to the lucrative narcotics trade. Over the last three years, it is documented that 16,398 violent crimes were associated to gang activities, 491 of these being homicides and 7,0478 being felony assaults, 98…… [Read More]
Gang Violence Prevention
Study of each and every society around the world gives us a phenomenon, which indicates at a certain graph related to organized crime. American society has long been associated with such a vice, and there have been many unearths made in this direction. There has been a lot of study and research associated with fact that how these gangs formed and what is the major motivational factor behind such activities. Several studies in this regard have brought forward certain phenomenon which forms the basis of gang formations and majority of which is related to unsatisfied social structure. These gangs are formed in the societies, which are highly disintegrated and have developed into individually functioning micro units. Extensive liberalization of political policies and the general promotion of individualistic approach towards life in most countries have motivated certain individuals in direction of organized crime, and this is…… [Read More]
gangs of New York film
Gangs of New York" is a chronological film directed by Martin Scorsese. It is film that blend well with the novel "The Gangs of New York," written by Herbert Asbury (Asbury). The film narrates using commended historical precision, the Five Points district of New York City during the mid-19th century (Gilfoyle 620). This film includes, among other issues, a precise depiction of the grueling socio-political environment of the Five Points; at the same time accentuating on the extensive injustices and harassment caused by this society.
Gangs of New York - Executive summary
The film Gangs of New York has a high level of racism, war, and political corruption. The production of this film occurs between 1846 and 1862. The story narrates about the issues surrounding the Irish immigrants and the Americans citizens who take the name of the Native Americans. Amsterdam Vallon comes back to…… [Read More]
Part I Research Process
Using the Internet Explorer search engine, "ergen County Passaic County" was typed in. It returned no results for any gang issues. The search terms, "ergen county Passaic County gang issues in local community" was entered. It returned the results on an article, "State police survey shows gang activity in all N.J. counties" (Fabiano, 2011). The article named ergen County as one in nine counties with higher than average gang presence. The article also talked about law enforcement officials questioning the results of the survey based on the results not adding up to the number of arrests that were gang related. And, another problem of a significant population of illegal immigrants staying isolated from police and being a breeding ground for gangs.
The search terms, "New Jersey gang statistics" was entered. It returned the 2007 State police survey that compared data to the 2004 survey…… [Read More]
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]
MS-13 -- the focus of a nationwide crackdown by FBI and federal immigration agents -- has become known in recent years for home invasion robberies, drug dealing and machete attacks on its enemies. however, after the sweeping chaos across America, the FBI has heightened concerns that MS-13 could be far more dangerous than thought.
Mara Salvatrucha, or MS-13, continues to expand its influence in the United States. FBI investigations reveal that it is present in almost every state and continues to grow its membership, now targeting younger recruits more than ever before.
To counteract this growth, the FBI formed the MS-13 National Gang Task Force in December 2004. Based at FBI Headquarters, this intelligence-driven task force combines the expertise, resources, and jurisdiction of federal agencies that investigate this violent international street gang. It focuses on maximizing the flow of information and intelligence, coordinating investigations nationally and internationally, and helping state…… [Read More]
Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States. As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations (Klein, 2001). The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence. The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. who appeared to talk about the hard life in their neighborhoods referred to juvenile gangs. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…… [Read More]
A participant in the study notes, "The gang members were scared to come outside, scared to hang out together.' and, 'it is still working.' He noted that graffiti and other signs of gang activity have declined dramatically. He pointed out that a wall near the park had graffiti 24/7, 365 days a year prior to the injunction, but not lately" (Maxson, et al. vii). Thus, gang injunctions control a variety of gang-related activities, but they can help control the spread of graffiti and the actions of tagging crews, keeping neighborhoods not only safer, but less unsightly for the people who live there.
Alonso, Alex. "Gang Injunctions & Civil Abatement in Los Angeles." StreetGangs.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.streetgangs.com/injunctions/
Editors. "Gang Injunction." County of San Diego District Attorney. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.sdcda.org/protecting/gi_workflow.pdf
Maxson, Cheryl L. Karen Hennigan, David Sloane, and Kathy a. Kolnick. "Can Civil Gang Injunctions Change Communities?…… [Read More]
(St. Lawrence). Delivering the intervention while housed in correctional facilities has the advantages of minimizing attrition, maintaining attendance at sessions, successfully delivering greater intervention dosage, and controlling for both the assessments and the intervention delivery. The disadvantages, as indicated above, are twofold: First, incarcerated girls will not have real-world opportunities to practice newly acquired skills between sessions; second, potential concerns exist regarding whether content acquired from an intervention delivered during their incarceration can
be expected to generalize from the institutional setting into their daily lives after they return to their homes (St. Lawrence).
. It is the behaviors of the youth in the gang that are viewed by the larger community as disruptive and harmful to the gang members themselves as well as to the community. Ironically, the sense of solidarity achieved from sharing everyday life with similarly situated people has the unintended effect of drawing many youth into behaviors…… [Read More]
After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Although the LAPD still maintains a heavy presence within these streets, they are not as vehement as seen in the case of the HAMME era.
Many of those affected by L.A. street life are actually not gang members themselves. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle. Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, (andle, 2003). Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…… [Read More]
S. Senator Dianne Feinstein. The legislation makes the provision of over $ billion in funding "for gang prevention, intervention and law enforcement programs over five years and establishes new crimes and tougher penalties to deter and punish members of illegal street gangs." (Feinstein, 2007) the legislation proposed by Feinstein would make illegal participation in a criminal street gang a federal crime. The legislation criminalizes violent crimes in furtherance or in aid of criminal street gangs and creates a new criminal offense for murder and other violent crimes committed in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. Under the present law, "a felon's criminal street gang involvement can be treated at most as a sentencing enhancement, adding no more than 10 years to a sentence. This bill establishes far higher penalties for violent gang crimes, including the possibility of life imprisonment without parole for murder, kidnapping, aggravated sexual abuse, or maiming. If…… [Read More]
al, 1994). Furthermore, the role of police in a community has to change from merely trying to suppress gang activity to actively trying to prevent gang activity. (Spergel, et. al, 1994).
The proliferation of gangs is one of the most pressing social problems facing modern America. While the primary purpose of gangs may be to engage in criminal activity, they serve other social functions that attract teens as gang members. Each teen who becomes involved in a gang runs a significant risk of not being able to participate in normal, non-criminal society. Therefore, it is important to understand how teens become involved in gangs and to focus efforts on prevention. Although no one theory seems capable of entirely explaining how and why teens become involved in gangs, the various criminological theories and the social disorganization theory are capable of giving insight into why children feel attracted to gangs. These theories…… [Read More]
Girls and Gangs
When people think of gangs and gangsters, they often think of young males. While females may be part of gang culture, they are often viewed as being in the periphery. In many ways, this view of female gang membership is correct. For example, females that are affiliated with gangs have oftentimes been reduced to sexual objections, being used for the gratification of gang members, as a way to lure new recruits (Firmin 2009, p. 15). Furthermore, female sexuality has traditionally been seen as a way to ensnare rival gang members, so that female gang members and females associated with gangs have often acted as spies infiltrating rival gang networks (Aabbad 2012, p.272). However, the traditional view of girls as sexual accessories and playthings for gang members does not reflect the reality of the modern-day gang situation. While women still face significant marginalization and sexual violence within the…… [Read More]
There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)
In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…… [Read More]
prison gang is a select group of inmates with an organized chain of command and an established code of conduct. They operate in secrecy with a view to controlling their prison environment through intimidation and violence meted on non-members. Some of the oldest prison gangs in the U.S. were formed as early as 1950s. Some notable example is Gypsy Jokers that operated in Washington State prisons (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Violence in correctional facilities in the United States is something that has been with us for quite a while. Prisoners and prison officers have both fallen victims to this violence.
Think of the San Antonio, Texas incident where 281 prisoners were stabbed and 13 slain (The Ledger, 1984). There was divided opinion on what motivated such heinous acts with some prison officials opining that prison gangs who were divided along racial lines were responsible. Some attacks were thought to be…… [Read More]
In fact, when it comes to terrorism, strangers are, generally, the ambit of their activities.
There have been some activities, however, that have targeted innocent civilians and the motives and actions, in these cases, have ominously paralleled terrorist stratagems and motivations. A case in kind occurred in December, 2004, when an intercity bus in Honduras, Central America was intercepted and sprayed with machine gunfire and 28 passengers, mainly women and children, were killed first by the gunfire then by the assailants climbing abroad the bus and methodically executing the passengers17. The objective was a protest against the Honduran government who had recently reinstated the death penalty.
Another similarity is in their pattern of operation where, like al-Quida, they operate in a form of loose, unstructured cells that form a global dispersed network. Similarly, too, their individual ceils are devoted to similar activities and some are quite sophisticated. These include activities…… [Read More]
Deglamorizing American Street Gangs
Social researcher and author Deborah Lamm eisel (2002) says that the glamorized image of the American street gang as drug dealers is not the image that is consistent with historical research (Lamm eisel 75).
The drug gang} is certainly not a typical street gang... They didn't even grow out of a street gang. These kids started out to make money by pedaling crack and that is a very different phenomenon than street gangs (Knox 66) (Lamm eisel 75)."
Lamm eisel has gone back to the essence of the historical gangs that go back to the earliest immigrants who carved out sections of neighborhoods for themselves using coercion and violence to maintain territorial boundaries. However, it is easy to disagree with Knox, because for decades now street gangs have been associated with the violence and trafficking of illegal drugs.
In a journal article by John M. Hagedorn…… [Read More]
Is it a gang or is it a club? How did it form and why? What does it take to become a member and what are the reasons? These are all important questions to anyone interested in knowing more about motorcycle gangs/clubs. At the very start, one must decide whether to consider the organization a gang or a club.
The definition of an Outlaw Motorcycle Gang interpreted by a recent Canadian Court Decision: Court File No.45646/92 and published in the Blue Line Magazine Feb 1998 is as follows:
They are often used interchangeably with the term "one percenter"
The 1% symbol is commonly displayed on tattoos by members, or on gang colors
Love of the motorcycle, especially the Harley-Davidson
Paramilitary in nature involved in crime close-knit fraternal organization
The definition continues at length, but one is able to perceive the direction of its intent. A gang is not…… [Read More]
Blackjacks gang is motorcycle criminal gang with operations in Arizona and other states in the past five years. In addition to a growing membership that has doubled in the past two years, the gang operates specifically in Phoenix metro area and the southern part of Tucson. The blackjacks not only control adult entertainment venues in Arizona but are also involved in prostitution, extortion, and drug trafficking. In their drug trafficking operations, the criminal gang's drug of choice is Methamphetamine, which is traded in various townships and establishments. Being a diverse and well-established criminal gang with undercover operations, increasing membership, and parental concerns over children's access, obtaining information regarding their activities is critical to countering its threat.
Obtaining Information on the Blackjacks:
As part of the initiative to gather information on the blackjacks, their enterprise, and criminal activities, the plan should include
Using Individual Officers:
To effectively obtain information on the…… [Read More]
S. And maintain approximately as many members (both domestically and abroad) as the Hell's Angels. Their criminal activities are more focused on the manufacturing, distribution, and sales of cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamines. The banditos use "puppet" or minor affiliate clubs who are not themselves Banditos but operate with the Banditos' authority and conduct some the parent club's criminal activities on their behalf.
In the modern era, widespread crackdowns and joint operations initiated by state and federal law enforcement authorities and legislative tools such as the federal acketeer Influenced and Corruption Organizations (ICO) Act have greatly reduced the influence of the Italian Mafia/LCN in American society but organized crime still persists, even if on a much smaller scale than half a century ago. However, whereas the power and reach of LCN has been greatly reduced, a significant influx of newer criminal enterprises has filled much of the gap vacated in…… [Read More]
Monkey Wrench Gang," by Edward Abbey [...] issue, where does Monkey Wrenching (the type of political activity in the Monkey Wrench Gang) fit into protest politics as a bridge to mass movement politics? Is Monkey Wrenching a part of the fabric of participatory democracy? Monkey Wrenching is clearly extraordinary politics, but does it have a place in our participatory representative democracy?
THE MONKEY WRENCH GANG
Participation in America may seem like a dying art, but every day, thousands of Americans participate in their communities, take care of others, and spout their political beliefs for the betterment of all. From grandmothers who read to children in their local library, to college student protesting the war in Iraq, citizens in America have the right to change the world, one person at a time. Edward Abbey's "The Monkey Wrench Gang" is a novel of participation at its best. The motley gang of four…… [Read More]
Risk factors are often found in clusters and their cumulative effect may lead to a greater probability that youth will become involved in crime (Garbarino, 1999). As a result then, there are not one or two factors that could cause someone to join a gang, but rather a collection of factors (Garbarino). It is possible then, by eliminating even one factor among the cluster, that programs could reduce gang involvement.
According to Esbensen (2000), many major cities have introduced gang prevention programs throughout the United States over the past 60 years. Community groups, social workers, and law enforcement personnel manage the different prevention programs in a variety of formats. he national government has also addressed the seriousness of gangs; President George W. Bush has proposed that funding be used for a three-year project to help keep youth out of gangs. First Lady Laura Bush will lead the new effort, Helping…… [Read More]
Young people growing up in Compton, East Los Angeles, and other communities with high rates of poverty, social disorganization, and anomie are exposed to a number of risk factors that are conducive to gang membership. Those risk factors include "poverty, immigration, discrimination, social isolation, limited educational opportunities, low parental monitoring, drug use," and some degree of positive reinforcement for gang membership (Freng & Taylor, n.d., p. 135). Moreover, gangs have historically been entrenched in Los Angeles, and some contemporary gangs can trace their historical roots to the early 20th century, which imbues those social organizations with a relatively high social status coupled with nostalgia and family pressures. esearch has shown that tradition plays an important role in multigenerational gangs in that "the long history of multigenerational gangs, coupled with parents' former involvement with the same neighborhood gangs, brings a sense of tradition to the gangs," ("Gangs, Family, and the Gang…… [Read More]
Career Development Program Juveniles in Gangs
The intervention plan provides various professional and organizational insights on the program and facilitation service. The program recognizes the relevance of initiating capacity, professionalism and skills of the persons involved while contributing towards the achievement of the strategic priorities and goals. The programs provide consultative information and services for the units of planning, team development and implementation of change processes (Bradshaw, et al., 2013). The system coordinates training in the correctional units. The medium-term goals of the project include providing advice and support for the application and development of staff and organizational development initiatives. The suite of program components will build on professional capabilities, leadership and management skills, organizational knowledge and team performance and development.
Various authors have literature on correctional systems. The practical approaches in gang situations include the need to address service delivery problems. The programs involve different stakeholders and…… [Read More]
2. Challenging state legitimacy -- Transnational maras are a significant threat to the authority of legitimate governments. This is especially true in areas where the legitimate authorities are weak or plagued by corruption. It can result in the decreased ability of the government to maintain necessary functions, services, and goods to the public.
3. Acting as surrogate governments -- Transnational maras can completely supplant the legitimate authorities in some regions. In those situations, they establish their own local rules and extort taxes and protection money from the local population.
4. Dominating black market business -- Transnational maras can take over the economic sector by establishing their own businesses, in which case they compete unfairly with legitimate businesses by intimidating them and because they do not have to pay taxes or comply with any of the other restrictions and legal requirements that legitimate businesses must respect.
5. Infiltrating public sector and…… [Read More]
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]
The Gambino crime family began to fall apart after the head of its founder died. It had split into two factions. This book centers on the more ruthless Brooklyn faction. Away from the scrutiny of the Manhattan police, for many years it could do what it wished. Gene Mustain and Jerry Capeci spare no details in detailing the cruel jokes these men told to one another while they engaged in their killing spree, nor the callousness of their attitudes towards their victims. The reason that these criminals were so effective at getting rid of bodies was because they were willing to do the unthinkable -- maim the corpses, and bury them piecemeal to avoid discovery. Some of the maiming they engaged in was gruesome without even a practical point to the violence. One of Roy's cousins was called Dracula, because he specialized in training the blood from the bodies.
The…… [Read More]
Murder Inc. by Graham K. Bell
Starting from the 1920s, the American crime landscape underwent a complete transformation under an all-star gang of thugs, garrotters, and snipers. Ethnic and religious diversity was evident in its members. A majority of them hailed from New York City itself, chosen from its toughest neighborhoods, including Ocean Hill, Brownsville, and Flushing. The exorbitant amount of crime they perpetrated led the media to name them "Murder, Inc.."This merciless gang, considered the innovation of Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel, and other elderly gangsters, was quick to catch the entire nation's attention, and made headlines across the country for more than twenty years. Graham Bell highlights the sinister history of the most infamous Mafia crime organization, including the men's identities and the forging of their partnership (Arcadia Publishing, 2010).
The media labeled 1930s-40s organized crime gangs "Murder, Inc.."These gangs were said to work on behalf…… [Read More]
Alignment helps keep both qualitative and quantitative research studies cohesive, meaningful, and valid. The purpose of the study and its implications for policy or practice should be aligned with the research questions, design, and method. Research by Forster, Grigsby, Unger, et al. (2015) illustrates the concept of alignment in a quantitative study. The research focuses on the links between exposure to violence in the community, social ties with gangs or gang members, social self-control, and aggressive behavior. Based on prior research, the authors hypothesize that exposure to violence in the community would be associated with aggressive behaviors. The authors also hypothesize that having friends or family members in gangs was positively correlated with aggressive behavior, and that lower levels of self-control were also correlated with aggressive behavior. All of these hypotheses have the same dependent variable (aggressive behavior exhibited over the past week). These hypotheses and related research questions are…… [Read More]