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Gay marriage is a topical and controversial issue, as evidenced by the subject's coverage in the media, presence on ballot initiatives and the high visibility of the controversy in general. There are a few different ethical issues where gay marriage is concerned. To opponents, the primary ethical issue relates to concepts such as the sanctity of marriage and the survival of the species. For proponents, the ethical issues are greater, relating to human freedom and the limits of government (and religion's) role in the lives of citizens. Gay marriage does not need to be controversial, however. Using classical ethical theories, it is easy to determine that gay marriage is not an unethical act or concept. The arguments against gay marriage become unwound quickly when examined rationally, as this paper intends to show.
The world of philosophy facilitates the analysis of complex issues from a number of different frameworks.…
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Driver, J. (2009). Utilitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia o Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/utilitarianism-history/
Gaus, G. & Courtland, S. (2010). Liberalism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/liberalism/
Hursthouse, R. (2007). Virtue ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/
A Discussion about the Relevant Factors that Affect Same-Sex Partners in the Modern orld
Gay marriage, or same-sex marriage, is one of the most controversial topics in the modern age. It can be a divisive topic because many people feel strongly about the issue from both sides. Many argue that any form of partnership should have equal rights as the traditional marriages do and cite legal arguments and make reference to the constitution. However, more conservative points-of-view believe that marriage should be preserved as it has been for thousands of years, between a man and a woman. These individuals often use religious or other culturally based arguments to justify their position. This paper will view the argument from both sides and provide insights into why this topic has become one of the most polarizing issues in the range of current topics.
Before covering any of the…
Dictionary. "Same-sex Marriage." 2012. Dictionary. Web. 29 May 2012.
Hartfield, E. "Mixed Numbers for Same-Sex Marriage Support Across Country." 10 May 2012. ABC. Web. 29 May 2012.
Pew Research Center. "Pew Research Center for the People & the Press." 25 April 2012. Pew Research Center. Web. 29 May 2012.
Shapiro, L. "Gay Republicans Encounter Same-Sex Marriage Dilemma." 20 May 2012. Huffington Post. Web. 30 May 2012.
Many same-sex couples want to be granted the right to legally marry. The reason is simple: They are in love with each other. They want to honor their relationship in the greatest way society has to offer, by making a public commitment to stand together in good times and bad life brings. While they receive some state-level protections, they do not receive most of the federal emotional and economic benefits and protections of marriage. They are denied their right to equal protection, both under the U.. Constitution and some state constitutions. The paper will point out that supporting gay marriage by means of legal recognition is the most appropriate form of recognition of same sex partnerships because it eliminates discrimination occurring on the federal and some states' level. Referring to state court decisions of 2009 and 2012 and the well-known 2003 Lawrence vs. Texas decision of the upreme…
Sullivan, A. And Landau, J. "Same-Sex Marriage: Pro and Con." New York. Random House: 1997. Accessed 29 March 2012.
Conservative gay commentator Sullivan, a former New York Republic editor, has compiled two thousand years of argument about the virtually normality in an anthology of historic inclusiveness and evenhandedness. The debate is presented to the reader in several sections, political or religious, and then presents very impressive and convincing arguments pro and con same sex marriage.
I find it very informative because it does not only introduce the reader to the house floor defense of marriage act debate, but also summarizes the impact of court cases like the historic Hawaiian Supreme Court case which would have legalized gay marriage in Hawaii if not for an amendment to the Hawaiian Constitution passed by voters in November 1998 and brings together views from the conservative and liberal side of the political spectrum.
The issue of gay marriage is a very hot topic in today's world of current events. Many have attributed this quest of equality as a civil rights issue that compares to many of the civil rights battles fought in our history. The purpose of this essay is to make an argument for gay marriage as a viable means of expression for society. I will present this argument by using literature that supports this thesis and by adding my own commentary to the subject. I will give three main points to help clarify my argument and present a well defined case that ultimately supports theses actions.
Reason #1: Democracy
Regardless of one's own personal views upon the morality of the subject of gay marriage or homosexuality in general, many people in this country support this issue. Cillizza (2013) recently reported that "that not only is each younger generation increasingly…
Cilliza, Chris. "Why support for gay marriage has risen so quickly. " Washington Post, 19 Mary 2013. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the - fix/wp/2013/03/19/why-support-for-gay-marriage-has-risen-so-quickly/
Sullivan, Andrew . "Here Comes the Groom: A (Conservative) Case for Gay Marriage," the New Republic, August 28, 1989.
Shrodes, Caroline, et al. " The Conscious Reader." 12th edition, 2011. Mycomplab.
Gaiety is the practice of bossom love for similar sex and especially between two males or females, bisexual exclusive. "Continued engagement into such practices more often than not lead to desire to attain psychosocial satisfaction through intense urge to achieve a feeling of love and sense of belonging" (Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of Needs). Hence eventually becoming life long partners as depicted in gay marriages, but marriage is defined as a union between man and woman. "However, gay marriage as a form of civil union is legal and therefore, recognized in some states or nations. It is worth noting that civil unions under a single name or any other have been proposed and established by law in many developed countries for the provision of same-sex relationships with rights, responsibilities and benefits the same as that of opposite-sex civil marriage" (Lawrence A. Kurdek, 1994).
As earlier mentioned,…
Adam Isaiah Green. "Until Death Do Us Part? The Impact of Differential Access to Marriage on a Sample of Urban Men." Sociological Perspectives 49.2 (2006): 163-89 Print.
Bruce Bagemihl. Biological Exuberance, Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. 1999. Print.
Debra L. DeLaet, and Rachel Paine Caufield. "Gay Marriage as a Religious Right: Reframing the Legal Debate over Gay Marriage in the United States." Polity 40.3 (2008): 297-320 Print.
Handlson, Zac. "A Little Sensitivity When Dealing with Same-Sex Issues." Minnesota Daily March 3, 2005. Print.
Three other significant arguments are worth mentioning. First, that gay marriage undermines the sanctity of marriage in some way, and secondly that marriage is purely for the sake of procreation --which is impossible in a gay marriage, and that moreover children are likely to be disadvantaged by such unions. These last two arguments are rather contradictory, as the one argument generally suggests that gay marriages should not be allowed because they might result in children who had no opposite sex parents, and the other that gays cannot participate fully in marriage as it is a procreative union. Either gays will, or will not, have children! The truth is that: Children will be raised in these homes, so they will serve a procreative/nurturing role, and though one parent won't be biologically related, they will still be a parent. Marriage has never been defined purely by procreation because --with the exception of…
Badgett, Lee. "Will Providing Marriage Rights to Same-Sex Couples Undermine Heterosexual Marriage? Evidence from Scandinavia and the Netherlands" a discussion paper presented to the Council on Contemporary Families and the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies, July 2004.
Bagemihl, Bruce. "Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity" New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
Gallagher, Maggie. "What Marriage is for." Children Need Mothers and Fathers. The Weekly Standard. Vol. 008, Issue 45. August, 2003.
Human Rights Campaign (HRC). "Answers to Questions about Marriage Equality." [pamphlet] Washington DC: HRC's Family Net Publications, 2004.
Instead, give gay and straight couples alike the same license, a certificate confirming them as a family, and call it a civil union -- anything, really, other than marriage. For people who feel the word marriage is important, the next stop after the courthouse could be the church, where they could bless their union with all the religious ceremony they wanted. Religions would lose nothing of their role in sanctioning the kinds of unions that they find in keeping with their tenets. And for nonbelievers and those who find the word marriage less important, the civil-union license issued by the state would be all they needed to unlock the benefits reserved in most states and in federal law for married couples (Lindeberger 2009).
In conclusion, having same sex marriage will only become more beneficial to this country because it will lead to peace of mind for gay couples, considering…
Gay Adoption Debate and Poll Should Gays and Lesbians be allowed to Adopt Children?. 2010. 17 April 2010. http://www.youdebate.com/DEBATES/gay_adoption.htm
Bartholet, Elizabeth. Nobody's Children: Abuse and Neglect, Foster Drift, and the Adoption Alternative. 1999. 17 April 2010. http://www.law.harvard.edu/alumni/bulletin/backissues/spri2000/article7.html
Linderberger, Michael. A Gay-Marriage Solution: End Marriage?. 2009. Time. 17 April 2010. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1885190,00.html
However, society's consciousness matured and grew in understanding of what a loving community is, and came to realize that to exclude other human beings based on prejudice is not God's love, but rather fear and ignorance (Conan).
According to Kohut, 14% of the general population in American society believes that homosexuality is due to upbringing, 42% believe it is a matter of lifestyle, and 30% believe people are born homosexual (Conan). Among those people who believe that homosexuals are born, there is strong support for gay marriage, however among those who believe it is a matter of choice, there is heavy opposition (Conan). Interestingly, 80% believe that there should be no restrictions on sex between consenting adults (Conan).
Aside from the religious opposition, there is reason for concern among the legal community. Stanley Kurtz of the Hoover Institution explains that if marriage is redefined to include same-sex couples it could…
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Gay marriage." Talk of the Nation (NPR) National Public Radio.
March 9, 2004. Retrieved December 17, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Graham, Tony. "Legislature OKs Civil-Union Bill." The Philadelphia Inquirer. December 15, 2006. Retrieved December 17, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hymowitz, Kay S. "I do?(Gay Marriage: Why It is Good for Gays, Good for Straights, and Good for America)." Commentary. June 1, 2004. Retrieved December 17, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Therefore, the creation of a completely different category in the governmental database, or system, or computerized record-keeping method is easier than to attempt to somehow integrate the same-sex union which has historically and traditionally not been an issue in the contemporary society.
IV. DECISION: VOTER RATIONALE
It is not so much that gay marriage in California has been banned as the citizens along with many government officials in the state understand that to make the changes to the systems and processes of government that would be required at the level of administrative and record-keeping that much time would be consumed thereby consuming resources and labor hours that could be more effectively used solving some of the larger problems that loom before the state of California and its government and citizens which need to be addressed.
V. it'S NOTHING PERSONAL
The report entitled: "Final Statement from No on Prop 8 Campaign"…
Final Statement from No on Prop 8 Campaign (2008) Vote No on Prop 8. 6 Nov 2008. Online available at http://www.noonprop8.com/
California Gay Marriage Banned as Proposition 8 Passes (2008) the Huffington Post. 8 Nov. 2008. Online available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com /2008/11/05/california-gay-marriage-b_n_141429.html
There are many arguments both for and against gay marriage. It is a hotly debated topic in many countries around the world at present. It has become legal in certain countries: Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain and Canada, have recently legalized it. Should same-sex couples, committed to a long-term monogamous relationship, be allowed to marry? This paper will outline the major arguments that have been put forward by both the advocates and opponents of gay marriage.
The main arguments that are put forth in favor of same-sex marriage are as follows: banning gay marriage would be a form of discrimination; legalizing it does not hurt anyone in any way; gay marriages would benefit society and individuals just as heterosexual ones do; and finally, banning gay marriage mixes church and state in a negative and perhaps dangerous way.
The most compelling of these points is the first one. Banning same-sex…
" (Quoted in Hillary Goodridge & others v. Department of Public Health...") Implementing the Court's decision, Massachusetts made same sex marriage legal in the state on May 17, 2004; it is thus far the only state to do so. Most other states have enacted constitutional provisions that define marriage as a union of one man and one woman.
Conservatives Propose Constitutional Amendment: The legalization of gay marriage in Massachusetts and issuance of marriage licenses by some other states has created a backlash among the conservatives, and right wing religious groups. They have proposed an amendment in the U.S. constitution that would prohibit same-sex marriage at the federal level. On February 24, 2004, President George . Bush proposed a 28th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution called the "Federal Marriage Amendment" (FMA) by declaring: "our nation must enact a constitutional amendment to protect marriage in America." ("President Calls for...") the proposed FMA…
Curry, Tom. "Judge strikes down Nebraska gay marriage ban." MSNBC. May 12, 2005. May 18, 2005. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7834478/
Hillary GOODRIDGE & others [FN1] vs. DEPARTMENT of PUBLIC HEALTH & another. [FN2]." The Massachusetts Court System. November 18, 2003. May 18, 2005. http://www.mass.gov/courts/courtsandjudges/courts/supremejudicialcourt/goodridge.html
Johnson, Ramon. "Federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)." About, Inc.. 2005. May 18, 2005. http://gaylife.about.com/cs/gaymarriage/i/doma.htm
Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA)." About, Inc. 2005. May 18, 2005. http://gaylife.about.com/cs/gaymarriage/i/fma.htm
Though the Christian movement claims that is as useful as saying rape is better than murder, there is much political support for this objective.
Drafting into the political arena, the issue of gay marriage and gay rights is constantly under reform and debate through every infrastructure of state and federal government. The contest of whether or not civil liberties are being breached is the battle-ground of all controversy. As the movement has progressed and continues to grow, more and more laws have been revised and updated to the account of gay rights. and, as this progresses, so then does the debate and cultural war.
Many within the gay community claim that they deserve to have the option of spousal income tax credit, blended credit reports, other tax breaks, and the right to will and probate (eldge, 2007). The consideration for this has had opportunity for amends, but has proven only…
Krantz, L. & McCormick, J., (1999) Christian Statistics. Retrieved April 28, 2007, from the Christian Geography & Statistics web page: http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_christian.html
Bidstrup, S. (2004) Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives, retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Belge, K. (2007), Lesbian and Gay Marriage. Retrieved from about; the World Wide Web: http://lesbianlife.about.com/cs/wedding/a/marriage.htm
These percentages are illustrated in Figure 3.
Interestingly, research has demonstrated that the when public opinion is sought between "gay marriage" and "civil union" the results differed greatly. Although the rights being suggested were similar, when framed as gay marriage, the discussions became polarized along ideological lines, than when framed as civil unions ("Framing," n.d.). Clearly individuals were less threatened by the idea of civil unions than gay marraiges, even if the details of the two concepts were similar. However, Craig, Martinez, Kane, and Gainous (2005) found that many individuals were ambivalent to gay rights issues. With the polarized nature of gay rights, these researchers found that individuals most often had differing viewpoints depending on what the specific topic of gay rights involved, with both positive and negative opinions.
Figure 3: Public Opinion for Civil Unions
(Source: "A stable majority," 2008)
The Constitutional ight to Privacy and Gay Marriage:
A stable majority: Most Americans still oppose same-sex marriage. (1 Apr 2008). Retrieved May 16, 2009, from http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=290 .
An overview of the same-sex marriage debate. (21 Nov 2008). Retrieved May 16, 2009, from http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=288
Bill of Rights transcript. (No date). Retrieved May 16, 2009, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html .
Craig, S., Martinez, M., Kane, J., & Gainous, J. (Mar 2005). Core values, value conflict, and citizens' ambivalence about gay rights. Political Research, 58(1). Retrieved May 16, 2009, from ProQuest database.
American marriage would reflect American principles of liberty and self-government. Unlike the hordes of serfs, servants, and subjects in other parts of the world, American citizens were going to shape their own lives and determine their country's destiny. Just as citizens would be self-governing in the political realm, they would also choose their spouses freely." (Hymowitz, 2004)
Hymowitz shares the fact that the development of the idea of romantic love in the U.S. came at the time of the American Revolution and the new Western seriousness about romantic love "which both sprang from a heightened valuation of the ideal of self-determination." (2004) in the attempt to understand the precise biological nature of gender this work has reviewed the work of Patricia Nell Warren entitled; 'Gender, Gay Marriage...and Galileo" who state the fact that science has discovered that not all women have DNA that is XX and in fact there is…
Hymowitz, Kay S. (2004) Gay Marriage vs. American Marriage. 2004 Summer CITY. Online available at http://www.city-journal.org/html/14_3_gay_marriage.html
Same-sex marriages (SSM),(2008) Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships. Religious Tolerance. Online available at http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_marr.htm
Warren, Patricia Nell (2008) Gender, Gay Marriage...and Galileo" the Bilerico Project. 6 Feb. 2008. Online available at http://www.bilerico.com/2008/02/gender_gay_marriageand_galileo.php
Nishimoto, Ryan (2003) Marriage Makes Cents: How Law & Economics Justifies Same-Sex Marriage" Boston Journal 2003. Online available at http://www.bc.edu/schools/law/lawreviews/meta-elements/journals/bctwj/23_2/06_FMS.htm
Are television networks giving fair representation to gay marriage and gay rights?
A scholarly, empirically researched article in the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media points out that while network television stories do discuss the issue of homosexuality and gay marriage, gays and lesbians are "…rarely given the opportunity to offer their own perspectives" (Moscowitz, 2010, p. 36). The research in this article involved using 93 stories taped from network TV that represented the gay marriage issue. There were 38 stories gleaned from ABC; 29 from NBC, and 26 from CBS. The video was obtained from the Vanderbilt Television News Archive.
A total of 12,419 seconds (about 207 minutes) of total time was carefully reviewed in these 93 news stories on national television. The analysis was conducted based on three components: the news story; each source cited in the story; and "each gay or lesbian couple" (Moscowitz, p. 31). The…
Avery, Alison, Chase, Justin, Johansson, Linda, Litvak, Samantha, Montero, Darrel, and Wydra,
Michael. "America's Changing Attitudes toward Homosexuality, Civil Unions, and Same-
Gender Marriage: 1977-2004." Social Work. 51.1 (2007): 71-78.
Dolan, Maura. "Judge Strikes Down Prop. 8, Allows Gay Marriage in California." Los Angeles
Many are occasions when children are born and disowned by their parents. It cannot be so untraditional for a gay couple to take that child into custody, and ensure that children receive the best care deserved. In fact, it is relevant to note that children raised by gay couples receive parental care and love just like those raised by the opposite sex families..
There is nothing defiant about gay marriages (Hannum 12). In fact, people should look at the causes of gay affiliations before making any accusations on the gays. Historical and psychological researches support the existence of gays. The history of gay couple's dates several years back like in the ancient Greece where evidence of homosexual existence rests. Lesbos was an island in Greece where lesbians lived, and that is evident of the long-lived lifestyle. Researchers evidence the existence of gay behavior to biological, other than, genetic misplacement. In…
Case, Kim, a & Briana, Stewart. "Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes
Toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage." Teaching of Psychology 37.3
(2010): 172-177. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.
Edwards, Jane. "Marriage Is Sacred': The Religious Right's Arguments Against 'Gay Marriage'
Further, the American government and political system was built on multi-cultural, multi-religious and multi-denominational principles (Marcel, 2004).
American is not a Christian nation, or at least it was not created on this ideology. ather historically America has often been referred to as the 'melting pot' where people could seek refuge from persecution on the basis of religion or other practices or beliefs that might be considered personal and individual. eligious fundamentalism has not wrought success in other countries such as Saudi Arabia or for people living under the rule of the Taliban (Marcel, 2004), and thus is also likely to fail as the primary basis for government regulation in this country.
The role of government is to make decisions that support the good of the whole rather than the good of individuals; by nature the law should not determine whether or not something is morally correct or fair (Marcel, 2004).…
Hagelin, R. "Defining Marriage: Who decides?" July, 2004. The Heritage Foundation.
11, November, 2004, http://www.townhall.com/columnists/rebeccahagelin/rh20040714.shtml
Marcel, J. (October - 2004). "12 Reasons Not to Ban Gay Marriages." The American
Reporter, 10(2):496W. 11, November 2004, http://www.american-reporter.com/2,496W/264.html
Thus, the stigma of homosexuality, even in committed same-sex marriages is still seen as a sin by many, and thus, the partners face prejudice, hatred, and injustice because of their sexual orientation. In a society that values freedom and free speech, this seems like an oxymoron at best. According to the Constitution, freedom should apply to all individuals. Interesting, this is one aspect of the five freedoms emulated by the Constitution that has not been tested or ruled on by the U.S. Supreme Court. Most experts and lawmakers agree that the issue of gay marriage is an issue that should be handled by the states, rather than the Federal government.
Assimilation into society may be one of the most difficult aspects of the gay lifestyle. Some gays "cover" to fit in to society, and some openly flaunt their lifestyle. Throughout history, gays have had several options to assimilate into society.…
Lewin, E. (1998). Recognizing Ourselves: Ceremonies of Lesbian and Gay Commitment. New York: Columbia University Press.
Powell, Brian. (2004, October 15 - last update), "Gay marriage," (University of Indiana), Available
http://newsinfo.iu.edu/tips/page/normal/1440.html (Accessed: 2004, December 20).
Stacey, J. (1998). Gay and Lesbian Families: Queer Like Us. In All Our Families: New Policies for a New Century: A Report of the Berkeley Family Forum, Mason, M.A., Skolnick, a., & Sugarman, S.D. (Eds.) (pp. 117-138). New York: Oxford University Press.
As ullivan explains, that suggestion is completely inconsistent with the fact that U.. law allows marriages between elderly couples, infertile couples, and between individuals who choose to remain childless by choice.
ullivan further explains that permitting same-sex marriage would benefit society by reducing homophobia and by providing a positive message to young people who happen to be homosexual. Currently, they suffer from shame and low self-esteem largely because of the way that they must hide their preference from their peers and because they suffer discrimination and persecution for revealing it. Finally, ullivan suggests that the half-way approach of allowing domestic partnerships and civil unions allows for more legal complications in connection with defining eligibility and individual rights where such couples break up.
Argument Against Gay Marriage
Bill Bennett (1996) expresses the argument against legalizing same-sex marriage. He suggests that marriage is a universal institution that is consistently defined as a…
Bennett, William J. "Gay Marriage: Not a Very Good Idea." The Washington Post (May
Johnson, Ramon. (2010). "States and Countries That Allow Gay Marriage: Same-Sex
Marriage by Region." Retrieved March 8, 2010 from the Balanced Politics.org at: http://gaylife.about.com/od/samesexmarriage/a/legalgaymarriag.htm
Conclusion: Homosexual marriage is a controversial topic because it conflicts with our traditional cultural definition of the institution of marriage. It is easy to understand the reasons that many are opposed to legalizing gay marriage, but somewhat harder to understand the justification offered for imposing those reasons on other individuals who may not necessarily share their beliefs.
In many respects, once one examines the specific objections, it becomes hard to distinguish the current status of same sex marriage from the status of interracial marriage fifty years ago. One of the most fundamental features of American life in general, and of American jurisprudence in particular, is that laws must apply equally to all of us.
Certainly, there are valid justifications for limiting marriage to human beings, and for criminalizing marriage between siblings and between adults and children. The crucial difference is that the criteria for those prohibitions are objective. After comparing…
Kurtz, S. The Libertarian Question: Incest, Homosexuality and Adultery
National Review Online (April 30, 2003); Accessed September 12, 2007, at http://www.nationalreview.com/kurtz/kurtz043003.asp
Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, 798 N.E. 2d 941(2003) Massachusetts
hile the theories have existed for some time, finding corroborating evidence is problematic as the research suggests a different path.
Pawelski et al. suggests that children raised in gay homes may experience isolation, peer ridicule, harassment, and depression. They also posit that these children have a higher propensity to consider suicide and attempt suicide. This internal confusion may be exacerbated by the absence of support groups and structures to assist in reducing the impact of this psychological upheaval. As there are sustained efforts to limit the establishment of groups considered "gay- straight alliances" (Pawelski et al.). This seems to suggest that there are serious psychological problems for children living in these arrangements.
This position is however countered by the work of Golombok et al. cited in (Patterson 1032) where they demonstrate that children from lesbian homes do not score lower than children from different sex homes on psychological tests. Daughters…
Allen, Katherine R. And Demo, David H. "The Families of Lesbians and Gay Men: A New
Frontier in Family" Research Journal of Marriage and Family 57.1 (1995): 111-127.s
Kurdek, Lawrence A. "Are Gay and Lesbian Cohabiting Couples Really Different from Heterosexual Married Couples?" Journal of Marriage and Family 66.4 (2004):880-900.
Meezan, William and Rauch, Jonathan. "Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's
Legalizing Gay Marriage
Same-sex marriage is arguably one of the most controversial topics in the current American political debate. In many ways, the fact that the topic is so controversial is surprising. After all, it is difficult to see how same-sex marriage impacts those who are not homosexual or do not have homosexual family members. Moreover, in a society that prides itself on the idea of equality, to deny someone the right to marry someone else on the basis of the gender of either party seems as if it would be offensive. However, there is a strong cultural current against homosexuality. This bias is largely based in religious traditions which not only prohibit homosexual relationships, but go so far as to label homosexual relations as sinful. This is not an American-only phenomenon. hile same-sex marriage is gaining traction around the globe, the reality is that same-sex marriage is still not…
Loving v. Virginia. 18 L. Ed. 2d 1010. U.S. Supreme Ct. 1967.
Phy-Olsen, Allene. Same-Sex marriage. London: Westport, 2006.
Stewart, Briana and Kim Case. "Heterosexual privilege, awareness, prejudice, and support of gay marriage among diversity course students." College Teaching 58 (2010): 3-7.
The United Nations. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights." United Nations. N.p. No date. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.
Same sex marriage and its place in the contemporary society
The political opinion shapers and other leading figures in several areas and disciplines often elicit debate over the concept of same sex marriage, whether this kind of arrangement is a socially acceptable practice and whether it should be granted the legal recognition and implementation in the contemporary society. The next dilemma that bedevils this topic is whether, say the same sex marriage is legally recognized, it should be given the priorities, privileges and social provisions that are granted for the traditional heterosexual marriages. There are glaring lacunas in the same sex marriage push that, in guarded opinion, will need a number of decades of extensive sensitization and social acceptance to bring it to the same level as the heterosexual marriages.
How then is the same sex marriage anchored in the minds and social groupings that advocate for it? The proponents…
Wedgwood R. (2012). The meaning of Same sex Marriage. The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2018 from https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/24/marriage-meaning-and-equality/
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…
Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: http://www.startribune.com/opinion/commentaries/171613511.html?refer=y
Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/12/health/study-examines-effect-of-having-a-gay-parent.html?_r=0
Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from Cnn.com: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-24/opinion/chrisler.gay.parents_1_adoptions-by-gay-people-anti-gay-gay-pride?_s=PM:OPINION
Narth.com. (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from Narth.com: http://www.narth.com/docs/does.html
Its historical design is founded in the marriage relationship and thus depends wholly thereupon" (85). Advocates of same-sex marriages maintain that gay and lesbian partners need the legal framework of marriage to provide them with the same protections that are enjoyed by their heterosexual counterparts; however, these individuals already enjoy the same constitutional protections afforded all American citizens. According to Coolidge, Duncan, Strasser and ardle (2003), any laws that discriminate on the basis of sex are unconstitutional: "All laws that discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation thereby discriminate on the basis of sex and thus are subject to heightened scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since these laws are not substantially related to any important state interest, they are unconstitutional" (209). It would therefore seem that advocates of same-sex marriages are seeking additional legal protections above and beyond those typically provided.
This warped view of…
Alderson, Kevin G. (2004). "A Phenomenological Investigation of Same-Sex Marriage." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 13(2):107.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Coolidge, David Orgon, William C. Duncan, Mark Strasser and Lynn D. Wardle. Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Wardle, Lynn D. (2001). "Multiply and Replenish': Considering Same-Sex Marriage in Light of State Interests in Marital Procreation." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 24(3):771.
Same-Sex Marriage: The Debate
Same-sex marriage is marriage between partners of the same gender (Wikipedia, 2004). This type of marriage is currently legal in only a few countries around the world. In the United States, the degree of legality of same-sex marriage varies between different states. In the U.S., the debate over whether or not to make same sex marriages legally binding remains one of the most controversial political debates of this century.
The moral legitimacy of marriage between same sex partners hinges on how the authoritative definition of marriage is viewed (Wikipedia, 2004). If marriage is perceived as a religious foundation, the interpretation of religious texts and traditions are key; if marriage is a social institution or an economic coupling, pragmatic arguments hold more force, though moral issues still apply. Gay rights advocates believe that marriage is a right that should not be limited to heterosexual couples. Their opponents…
Gomes, Charlene. (September, 2003). The need for full recognition of same-sex marriage. The Humanist. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_marriage#Controversy .
Morris, David. Langer, Gary. (January 21, 2004). Same-Sex Marriage
Most Oppose It, But Balk at Amending Constitution.
Ost, Jason. (2003). Gay and Lesbian Demographics: A Research Focus of the Urban Institute. The Urban Institute. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.urban.org/content/IssuesInFocus/GayandLesbianDemographics/researchfocus/gayresearchfocus.htm .
Homosexual marriage does not pose a threat to me or my manhood therefore I am for it." Although I am heterosexual, I know what it means to long for union with another human being. I will choose a woman for my partner, but if another man desires to choose one of his own sex, there is no harm for me in his choice. In fact, since we are both part of humanity, his legal union, as does mine, brings positive reinforcement to the institution of marriage.
As early as 400 BC Plato in his Symposium discussed the mystery of sexual desire, concluding that humans are always searching for their other half, having been cut in two as punishment by Zeus. The whole humans that existed before this action, according to Aristophanes, Plato's debating companion, all had two heads, four legs and four arms. They were of three types: some with…
Eskridge Jr., William N. "Equality Practice: Liberal Reflections on the Jurisprudence of Civil Unions." Albany Law Review, 2001, Vol. 64, Issue 3, p 853, 29p. (EBSCO Host version unpaged.)
Eskridge Jr., William N. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage: From Sexual Liberty to Civilized Commitment. New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Ettelbrick, Paula L. "Domestic Partnership, Civil Unions, or Marriage: One Size Does Not Fit All." Albany Law Review, 2001, Vol. 64, Issue 3. ((EBSCO Host version unpaged.)
Halpern, Jake. "Out for a Buck." The New Republic. 8 May 2000, Issue 4451:23.
ame sex marriages' has been a ubiquitous argument for critics, activists, and political commentators for quite some time now. While some critics choose to reflect on the religious and ethical stance of gay and lesbian marriages, Andrew Sullivan chooses to explore the political reasoning behind the prohibition of same sex marriages. The excerpt chosen for critiquing belongs to Sullivan's book Virtually Normal: An Argument about Homosexuality (1995), which highlights the author's personal opinion about gay's and lesbian's right to marriage, political opinions on same sex marriages, and the differences between liberal and conservative party's modes of thoughts and actions regarding same sex marriages.
Introduction of the Author
Andrew Sullivan, himself being of homosexual orientation and married, with HIV positive status, is a devout catholic and a 'conservative' political commentator. Andrew Michael Sullivan rapidly rose to popularity in the first half of the 21st century based on few of…
Barry, P.B. (2011). Social theory and practice, 37(2): 333-356.
Fish, E. (2005). The road to recognition: A global perspective on gay marriage. Harvard International Review, Summer 2005, 32-35.
Harris, A. & Cole, G.W. (2008). Conversation on Marriage for lesbian and gay people: introduction to lesbian and gay marriage roundtable. Studies in gender and sexuality, 9, 140-145.
Sullivan, A.M. (1995). Virtually Normal: An argument about homosexuality. Knopf.
Same Sex Couples Should Have Marriage Equality
Same sex marriage, which is commonly known as gay marriage is described as a union or marriage between two people of similar biological sex or gender identity. Same sex marriages have generated numerous debates in the recent past given the increase in the number of gay couples and increased enactment of legislation to support these kinds of marriages. The increase in the number of same sex marriages is attributed to the consideration that marriage is a fundamental right and prohibiting these kinds of marriages amounts to violating the rights of these individuals. From a legislative point-of-view, same sex marriages have been legalized in 37 states in America and 16 countries across the globe. One of the major issues surrounding same sex marriages is whether the couples should have marriage equality. This issue or concern has generated considerable debates that have been characterized by…
Baume, Matt. "Everything You Need to Know Now About Marriage Equality in Missouri." Advocate.com. Here Media Inc., 15 Dec. 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .
"Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples." Committee Opinion Number 574. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Sept. 2013. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .
"Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples in New York Frequently Asked Questions." Lambda Legal- Making the Case for Equality. Lambda Legal, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .
"MARRIAGE EQUALITY." Revel & Riot. Revel & Riot, May 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .
Opponent to Gay Marriage offer Illusory Arguments
The book The Invisible Gorilla: How Our Intuitions Deceive Us by Chabris and Simons truly makes a strong case for how six different types of illusions (or beliefs) truly disserve the human population. The six common illusions that the book discusses are the illusion of memory, the illusion of confidence, the illusion of knowledge, the illusion of cause and the illusion of potential. Chabris and Simon argue that one can see these illusions at work in a range of human interactions and current events. Sometimes these illusions demonstrate the fallibility of the human mind; sometimes they just demonstrate the need of human beings to impose meaning or order upon things or events which lack both.
A current issue that demonstrates several of the six illusions that Chabris and Simons discuss is the debate over gay marriage. Those who oppose gay marriage often demonstrate…
Chabris, C., & Simons, D. (2009). The invisible gorilla: And other ways our intuitions deceive us. New York: Random House.
Forman, S. (2011, June 23). Five arguments against gay marriage: Society must brace for corrosive change. Retrieved from: http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/arguments -
Kidshealth.org. (n.d.). Teaching your child tolerance. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/talk/tolerance.html
Gay Marriage Bill in Texas:
Same sex marriages and other kinds of same-sex unions have become controversial issues in the modern United States. This issue has been characterized by attempts by the American federal government and several state legislatures to enact regulations that either allow or prohibit these kinds of unions or marriages. In the past few years, the public opinion regarding the issue has changed to become more tolerant and accepting because of the changes in the United States' society. As a result of these changes, enacting a gay marriage bill in Texas would be a significant step in ensuring that people are treated in similar ways by the government. The development of such bill is fueled by the need to treat people equally, the need to be more accepting and tolerant, and the changes in today's society. In light of these factors, the proposal of a gay marriage…
Fikac, Peggy. "Same-sex Marriage Bill Now on Table." San Antonio Express-News. Hearst Newspapers, LLC, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. .
Johnson, Luke. "Ted Cruz Introduces Anti-Gay Marriage Bill." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 13 Feb. 2014. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. .
added for a few specific points. Otherwise it can be assumed that I have added my thoughts about what the authors have said. In Part Two, I have included other sources and cited them properly.
Equal Treatment the eal Issue
In this piece the author assumes a basic fact: that because something is essentially a fundamental right at least at some point it becomes necessary for our social institutions (including government and possibly religious ones) to protect the use of the activities the rights allow for. This is what the U.S.A. Today article meant in paragraphs 4, 5, and 6, for example. ights, after all, would be useless if there were all type of obstacles put in their way of their actually being exercised. History and the law have placed themselves on the administrative side of this argument by allowing for the creation of a number of their own institutions…
Frank, N. (2010). What Does the Empirical Research Say about the Impact of Openly Gay Service on the Military? Palm Center. Retrievable from http://www.palmcenter.org/publications/dadt/what_does_empirical_research_say_about_impact_openly_gay_service_military .
Hunter, P. (1994). Homosexuality: The paradox of evolution. Retrievable at http://www.adherents.com/misc/paradoxEvolution.html .
Random History (2011). Same-Sex Unions throughout Time: A History of Gay Marriage. RandomHistory.com. Retrievable at http://www.randomhistory.com/history-of-gay-marriage.html.
Gay Marriage be permitted in the United States
Over the last several years, the issue of gay marriage has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because there has been a shift in social attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality within society. As, more people are supporting the idea that these individuals are entitled to the same constitutional protections as the rest of the general public. At the heart of this debate, is the controversy surrounding gay marriage. Where, both sides have made compelling arguments that are in support and against making this practice legal. For many individuals, the issue has become clouded with heated emotions that are not based on logic. Instead, the two sides are busy saying how bad the situation will be if the opposition is to prevail. These kinds of scare tactics have caused many middle of the road Christians, to…
Jefferson, Lee. "What does the Bible actually say about Gay Marriage." Huffington Post, 2011. Web. 21 Oct. 2011
Essig, Laurie. "Same Sex Marriage." 2000
Sullivan, Anderw. "Why the M Word Matters to Me." 2004
There are many reasons for accepting the rights and legitimacy of gay couples to marry. The most important of these is the right to personal freedom. The misunderstanding that homosexual stereotypes project are an element that prevents the understanding of gay marriage.
idstrup. K. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Card. O.S. Homosexual "Marriage" and Civilization. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.ornery.org/essays/warwatch/2004-02-15-1.html
DEUNKING STEREOTYPES: AOUT GAY & LESIAN RELATIONSHIPS. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Heights/5883/debunking.html
Gay Marriage. Pew Forum.2005. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=39
Kolasinksi. a. The SECULAR CASE AGAINST GAY MARRIAGE. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1082190/posts
Same-sex couples deserve exactly the same benefits and protections under the law as everyone else. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.soyouwanna.com/site/pros_cons/gaymarriage/gaymarriage3.html
Shell, S.M. The Liberal Case against Gay Marriage. 2004. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.thepublicinterest.com/archives/2004summer/article1.html
Wright, M. In Favor of Gay Marriage. 2003. Accessed…
Bidstrup. K. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Card. O.S. Homosexual "Marriage" and Civilization. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.ornery.org/essays/warwatch/2004-02-15-1.html
DEBUNKING STEREOTYPES: ABOUT GAY & LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Heights/5883/debunking.html
Gay Marriage. Pew Forum.2005. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=39
5. Hladky, Gregory . Proviso causes same-sex vote again. ristol Press. April 2005. On the Internet at http://www.bristolpress.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=14344465&RD=1643&PAG=461&dept_id=10486&rfi=6
6. Same-Sex Marriage in California - Overview and Issues. March 2005.
7. Hochkeppel, Christine. Gay marriage movement gains ground across U.S. The Daily Free Press - online edition. February 2004. On the Internet at http://www.dailyfreepress.com/media/paper87/news/2004/02/20/
8. -275860. Office of the General Counsel. United States General Accounting Office. January 1997. On the Internet at http://www.icantmarryyou.com/images/1049.pdf
-275860. Office of the General Counsel. United States General Accounting Office. January 1997. On the Internet at http://www.icantmarryyou.com/images/1049.pdf
Hochkeppel, Christine. Gay marriage movement gains ground across U.S. The Daily Free Press - online edition. February 2004. On the Internet at http://www.dailyfreepress.com/media/paper87/news/2004/02/20/News/Gay-Marriage.Movement.Gains.Ground.Across.U-614021.shtml
Same-Sex Marriage in California - Overview and Issues. March 2005.
Wattles, Vicki. The Old Prejudice Against Same-Sex Couples Shows Clear Signs of Easing. 2001.
Hladky, Gregory . Proviso causes same-sex vote again. ristol Press. April 2005.…
1. NYC recognizes Canada's gay marriages. April 2005. On the Internet at http://www.samesexmarriage.ca/legal/nyc070405.htm
2. Peter Jennifer. Massachusetts warns non-residents' gay marriages will be void. May 2004. http://www.amptoons.com/blog/archives/2005/02/04/new-york-court-rules-gays-must-be-allowed-to-marry/
4. Wattles, Vicki. The Old Prejudice Against Same-Sex Couples Shows Clear Signs of Easing. 2001.
5. Hladky, Gregory B. Proviso causes same-sex vote again. Bristol Press. April 2005. On the Internet at http://www.bristolpress.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=14344465&BRD=1643&PAG=461&dept_id=10486&rfi=6
In fact, the language specifically includes all people in an effort to create a place where all people are free. A law that infringes upon the rights of a citizen to be free is a law that must be changed.
The second part of the 14th amendment upon which the ban on gay marriage infringes is the right to property. Married couples share a great number of benefits not available to persons without a certificate of marriage. One of these benefits falls under the heading of Estate Planning. A married person inherits a portion of the spouse's estate after the spouse dies. A married person also receives an exemption from estate and gift taxes if property is given or left to the spouse. Gay couples are not allowed to receive these benefits in most states, because they are not allowed to be married in most states (NOLO).
Another property benefit…
Mathabane, Gail. "Gays face same battle interracial couple fought." USA Today. 25 Jan.
2004. Web. 17 Mar. 2010.
Olson, Theodore B. "The Conservative Case for Gay Marriage." Newsweek. 18 Jan.
2010: 68 -- 70. Print.
Even a Democrat, President Clinton signed the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act, which defines marriage to be a "legal union between one man and one woman." (Nwazota, 2003)
Currently many conservative political leaders from the Republican Party have aligned themselves President Bush's position on a formal amendment defining marriage in solely heterosexual terms. Several religious institutions, most recently the Catholic Church, have formally renounced the idea of same-sex marriage, referring to religious texts that define marriage as solely the union of a man and woman. But advocates of gay marriage counter that religious doctrine should not influence the creation of law, pointing to the Constitution's ban on an established religion, often referred to as separation of church and state. (Nwazota, 2005) to many Americans, marriage remains a cultural and religious institution and not just a legal debate, but their moral centers affect the way they see the law and the…
McNeil-Lerher News hour. PBS Online. November 18, 2004 "Supreme Court Lets Stand Massachusetts High Court Ruling on Gay Marriages. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/law/gay_marriage/index.html
Nwazota, Kristina. "The Legal Debate over Same Sex Marriage." Dec 2003. McNeil-Lerher News hour. PBS Online. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec03/gay_8-13.html
Rutterberg, Jim. "Gay Marriage Ruling a Test of the Mayor's Political Mettle." New York Times. Metro Section. Feb 7, 2005. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/07/nyregion/07marriage.html?oref=login
pro-gay marriage. It establish a tone specific audience. It convey logos, pathos, ethos, depending audience. The thesis statement sentence paragraph.
In favor of same-sex marriage
Marriage is an institution that is supposed to foster social stability as well as honor the respect and love the partners feel for one another. Gay marriage is increasingly supported by a majority of the American public. "One major reason is that the wish and push to be married cast gay men and lesbians in the most benign, conservative light imaginable, not as enemies of tradition but as aspirants to it. In the quest for integration and validation, saying 'I do' to 'I do' is much more effective -- not to mention more reflective of the way most gay people live" (Bruni 2012). The arguments against homosexuality -- that it is perverse and dangerous to the family -- are undercut by the very real impulse…
Bruni, Frank. "To know us is to let us love." The New York Times. 26 Jun 2011. [9 Apr 2012]
Head, Tom. "Four reasons to support same-sex marriage." About.com. 1 Jun 2006. [9 Apr 2012]
Defense of Gay Marriage
Over time, the issue of gay marriage has been regarded controversial. Proponents and opponents of the same continue to front arguments in support of their positions. I strongly believe that gay couples should enjoy the same marriage benefits their heterosexual counterparts enjoy. In this text, I discuss gay marriage and why it should be permitted.
Why Gay Marriage Should Be Permitted
Most of those opposed to gay marriage cite procreation as being the primary purpose of marriage and as such, individuals of the same sex should not be allowed to marry owing to the fact that they can't procreate. The view of procreation as an inalienable component of marriage is however defective. If procreation is indeed an inalienable constituent of marriage, should a heterosexual couple that cannot procreate as a result of issues to do with infertility be denied marriage? In my opinion, procreation just like…
Knox, D. & Schacht, C. (2012). Choices in Relationships: An Introduction to Marriage and the Family. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Rosenthal, M. (2012). Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
This is a highly successful use of logos because it directly appeals to the conservative viewpoints of marriage, but merely extends it use to the gay subculture.
Lastly, pathos persuades audiences by arousing the emotions. This is where Sullivan truly shines in meeting his goal of gaining the compassion of conservatives. In particular, Sullivan's reliance on personally experienced pain is very real and heart wrenching. On growing up gay and trying to envision his future, Sullivan states, "I could never have a marriage, never have a family, never be a full and equal part of the weddings and relationships and holidays that give families structure and meaning. When I looked forward, I saw nothing but emptiness and loneliness." He then goes on to argue that gay marriage will give adolescents and young adults the stability and social support they need in their relationships. Sullivan's subsequent comments are an emotional outcry…
Sullivan, Andrew. "The Conservative Case for Gay Marriage." Time. 23 Jun. 2003. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,460232,00.html
However, how can one marry someone who they don't love? Isn't it wrong to keep two consenting adults from uniting under the act of marriage? It is almost as if the government obliges gay people to marry people that they are not attracted to in order to receive the legal marital benefits. This is, in fact, wrong, as it virtually means that the marriage institution would become perverted by people who would only marry because of interest.
According to Franke (2006), "the U.S. Supreme Court found laws that criminalized same-sex sex unconstitutional in Lawrence v. Texas." Gay people have found a precedent in the case, as they consider that the Supreme Court case Brown vs. The Board of Education is very similar to the one presently under discussion. The 1954 case involved the establishment of separate public schools for white and for black children, arguing that these institutions had been,…
1. Boykin K. "Your Blues Ain't like Mine: Blacks and Gay Marriage," the Crisis Jan.-Feb. 2004
2. Franke K.M. "The Politics of Same-Sex Marriage Politics," Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15.1 (2006)
3. Lewin, E (1998). Recognizing Ourselves: Ceremonies of Lesbian and Gay Commitment. New York: Columbia University Press.
4. Murdoch J. Price D. (2001). Courting Justice: Gay Men and Lesbians V. The Supreme Court (New York: Basic Books
Mill, Kant, Religion, And Gay Marriage
In theory, freedom and liberty for all appears to be an excellent concept, one which nearly everyone would embrace. However, the practice of this ideology is not always as halcyon as its theoretical mandate. Quite frequently, it is possible for there to be conflicts of interests presented due to the notion that everyone feels entitled to pursue that which he or she wishes. There are numerous examples of this intrinsic conflict of what essentially is a question of free will. One of the most salient of these examples can be illustrated in the issue of the rights of gays to pursue lawful marriage. On the one hand, various members of the gay and lesbian community believe that they should be legally permitted to engage in same sex marriages under their rights of freedom and the pursuance of their own respective happiness.
The conflict, of…
But in 1973, the American Psychological Association announced that they would be removing homosexuality from the list of recognized mental illnesses, as growing numbers of researchers and doctors realized that it represented fairly normal sexual behavior (Head par. 17).
A quick bit of simple arithmetic can tell you that it still took thirty years after the medical community determined that homosexuality was not dangerous or especially abnormal for the law to catch up. And in many instances, there still aren't laws protecting gays. All that the Supreme Court ruling did was ban laws that banned homosexual behavior; they cannot make laws to protect gay rights.
This has been the major issue plaguing the civil rights of homosexuals. Until the legislative branch of the government becomes involved in mandating that certain rights are protected, nothing that the judicial branch does will ever really be secure. This was shown most recently in…
Cornell. "Civil Rights: An Overview." Cornell University Law School Website. Accessed 15 April 2009. http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/civil_rights
Head, Tom. "The American Gay Rights Movement: A Short History." Accessed 15 April 2009. http://civilliberty.about.com /od/gendersexuality/tp/History-Gay-Rights-Movement.htm
Stanford. "Civil Rights." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 15 April 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/civil-rights/#SexOri
Same sex marriage has been a topic of much debate in recent years. Many believe that same sex marriage should not be allowed, while others assert that homosexuals should have the right to be legally married. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the historical context, political impact, sociological impact and the psychological and philosophical perspectives of this issue.
Gay Marriage in a historical context
According to Coolidge et al. (2003) marriage provides a legal gateway to many protections and benefits in American society. In fact many of these protections and benefits do not exist outside of becoming legally married (Mcwhirter 2004). These include access to health care and medical decision making for your partner and your children; parenting and immigration rights; inheritance, taxation, Social Security, and other government benefits (Mcwhirter 2004). It is because of these protections and benefits that same sex marriage has become such…
Conger, J.J. (1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
Duncan, D.G. (2004). The Federal Marriage Amendment and Rule by Judges. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 27(2), 543+.
Coolidge, D.O. Wardle, L.D., Strasser, M., Duncan, W.C., (Eds.). (2003). Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate / . Westport, CT: Praeger.
DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G.M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
e are supported in this by a statement which Justice Kennedy made during a 2003 Supreme Court case on the subject, wherein the Justice observed that "gay people have a 'liberty under the Due Process Clause [that] gives them the full right to engage in [intimate] conduct without intervention of the government.'
No matter how unpopular a group's sexual norms, he explained, the government may not 'demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.'" (Masci, 1) This would essentially acknowledge that discrimination against the rights of homosexuals qualifies as a form of civil rights violation, strengthening the legal precedent now becoming an ever greater likelihood. Those parties who have objected have also shown a great deal of resolve, as suggested by their victory in the typically left-leaning state of California. Primarily, this denotes that on both sides of the issue, parties are politically…
Anitel, S. (2007). Gays' Discrimination at the Workplace Decreases Productivity.
Softpedia. Online at http://news.softpedia.com/news/Gays-039-Work-Discrimination-Decreases-Productivity-70002.shtml
Head, T. (2006). Workplace Discrimination. About: Civil Liberties.
Masci, D. (2008). An overview of the same-sex marriage debate. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Online at http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=288
Further arguments that gay marriages do not contribute to the greater good are debatable, based largely on faith-based belief rather than empirical research.
In the 1930s, sociologist Edwin Schur wrote extensively about the idea of victimless crimes. For Schur, victimless crimes involve an exchange of commodities or services that are socially-disapproved. These exchanges are voluntary and do not cause anyone harm (Schur, 3).
Schur himself cited consensual homosexual unions as an example of victimless crimes. Schur writes that society has enacted laws against such deviant behavior based not on any harm these crimes cause, but because these crimes violate prevailing standards of socially acceptable behavior. These standards, however, are fluid and subject to change. Given this, Schur argues that laws against homosexuality, for example, penalize people who should not be labeled as criminals in the first place. Their actions meet the criteria of non-coercion and no harm. Therefore, no one…
Battles, Kathleen and Wendy Hilton-Morrow. "Gay characters in conventional spaces: Will and Grace and the situation comedy genre." Critical Studies in Media Communications, 19, March 2001: 87-105.
Clinton, Bill. "Congress Should Ban Antigay Job Discrimination." In Discrimination. Mary E. Williams, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. "Gay Marriage Should Not Be Legal." In Gay Marriage. Kate Burns, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press, 2005.
Gallagher, John. "Homosexuals Seek Equal Rights, Not Special Rights." In Homosexuality Helen Cothran, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
"ith such a Biblical event casting its shadow over the theological landscape, how could "gay" advocates sidestep the obvious implication that God considered homosexuality a despicable sin?" (Vitagliano, 2003)
In the eyes of the Church then, homosexuality is an unnatural and sinful behavior simply because it disobeys the heterosexual human relations, as they were initially intended by the Divinity. "It is a sin grievous to God and repulsive to Christians because it rejects God's design for mankind as heterosexual beings" (ildmon, 2007). And its currently increasing acceptance in the contemporaneous community is only based on the desire to be perceived as modern and open-minded, when we should in fact be focusing on how to convince the gays to renounce their habits.
The risks of accepting and allowing gay rights revolve around the emergence of future negative effects. It is like opening Pandora's Box, from which numerous problems will come out,…
Bidstrup, S., Gay Marriages: The Arguments and the Motives, 2004, http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm last accessed on March 31, 2009
Doherty, E., the Hidden Agenda of Homosexual Politics, the Forerunner, November 1993
Herek, G.M., Facts about Homosexuality and Child Molestation, University of California, 2009, http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/facts_molestation.html last accessed on March 31, 2009
Eskridge, W.N., Spedale, D.R., Gay Marriage: For Better or for Worse?: What We've Learned from the Evidence, Oxford University Press, 2006
If he is opposed to the law, why speak of upholding it? Obama consistently pursues a cautious, bipartisan policy regarding most major social issues -- despite the substantial lack of bipartisanship on the part of conservatives in the U.S. Congress. He has been willing to sacrifice the once-sacrosanct public option for health care, and does not seem to wish to raise divisive topics such as gay marriage before a legislature whom he is desperately trying to placate.
This is also true regarding the 'don't ask, don't tell policy' regarding gays in the military. Obama's language has been slightly stronger on this issue, perhaps because gay men and women have come out who have served with distinction in Iraq: He has said: "I believe 'don't ask, don't tell' doesn't contribute to our national security. In fact, I believe preventing patriotic Americans from serving their country weakens our national security" (Obcamb 2009).…
"Gay bishop invited to prayer at Obama inauguration event." On Top magazine. January 12,
2009. October 22, 2009
Linkins, Jay. "Obama once supported gay marriage." Huffington Post. February 12, 2009.
Marriage of Homosexuals
The practice of homosexuality might be perceived as offensive to some; others might view this act as a violation of their culture and of their religious preferences. Still others view homosexuality as a threat to the institution of a traditional marriage. hile the objection to homosexuality and homosexual marriage might range in its content, the one thing should be considered is the level of freedom that individuals are allotted to make their own decisions. If two people have certain personal preferences that do not physically harm anyone else then what kind of control should be exerted over their own personal decisions? Does the majority or lawmakers have the right to infringe on personal freedoms just because they don't agree with personal choices? I argue that the state has no right whatsoever to deny freedoms to this class of individuals simply on the basis that it…
Abbott, D. (2011). Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Unwanted Same-Sex Attractions and Behavior. Journal of Human Sexuality, 5-65.
Beyer, J. (2002). Public Dilemmas and Gay Marriage. Journal of Social Psychology, 9-16.
Carlos, F. (2010). Political and Sexual Attitudes Concerning Same-Sex Sexual Behavior. Sexuality & Culture, 306-326.
Gay Donor or Gay Dad?
Challenges Faced by Same-Sex Parented Families
The prototypical U.S. family has historically been defined as a heterosexual arrangement that divided responsibilities by gender (Farrell, VandeVusse, and Ocobock 284). Men were responsible for earning enough money to keep the family economically viable, while women were responsible primarily for childrearing and household chores.
In the decades since II, the prevalence of the traditional U.S. family has decreased as nontraditional arrangements have increased (Farrell, VandeVusse, and Ocobock 284). omen now make up almost 50% of the workforce, in part because a single wage earner is often insufficient to meet the economic needs of many families. The pervasive use of contraception has increased the age at which marriage and pregnancy occurs, and cohabitation, single parents, and same-sex parents are becoming more common.
Based on the 2010 U.S. Census data, heterosexual married parents represent 67.4% of all U.S. families, while…
Bowe, John. "Gay Donor or Gay Dad?" New York Times Magazine 19 Nov. 2006. Web. 29 May 2012.
Farrell, Betty, VandeVusse, Alicia, and Ocobock, Abigail. "Family Change and the State of Family Sociology." Current Sociology 60.3 (2012): 283-301.
Lofquist, Daphne, Lugaila, Terry, O'Connell, Martin, and Feliz, Sarah. "Households and Families: 2010." U.S. Census Bureau Apr. 2010: 1-21. Web. 29 May 2012.
Subsequent to his homosexual life, McClurkin had chosen to follow the path of the church, which, he claims, had cleansed him of his "unnatural" behavior. During a recent speech, McClurkin had declared that he does not agree with homosexuality and that the act is a very perverted. (Keith Boykin)
Apart from hiring anti-gay people to run his campaigns, Obama has stated during an interview that he did not directly agree to a marriage between two persons of the same sex. Despite that, he also stated that he does not wish to interfere with people's preferences, as that would mean that he would also interfere with the concept of an American life.
1. Boykin, Keith. (2007). Barack Obama and the Gay Issue. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from Keith Boykin eb site: http://www.keithboykin.com/arch/2007/10/23/barack_obama_an
2. (2008). Obama Says He Is Against Same-Sex Marriage but Also Against Ending Its Practice in Calif.…
1. Boykin, Keith. (2007). Barack Obama and the Gay Issue. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from Keith Boykin Web site: http://www.keithboykin.com/arch/2007/10/23/barack_obama_an
2. (2008). Obama Says He Is Against Same-Sex Marriage but Also Against Ending Its Practice in Calif. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from ABC news Web site: http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2008/11/obama-on-mtv-i.html
Moral issues should not come to play. Individuals who are against the adoptions do not care about equality or that research does not support their fears. Nor do these individuals care that the American Academy of Pediatrics, among an entire list of other human services and medical organizations for the betterment of children and families has taken a stand that adoption by gay parents and gay parenting in general does not offer real or significant emotional dangers to children. ather, the emotional danger comes when parents -- be they heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual -- abuse their children.
It is how children are raised that is of concern, not who raises them, argues the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Children of gay, lesbian and bisexual and transgender parents are similar to children with heterosexual parents with respect to their emotional and personal development. it's the quality of the parent-child…
Dennet, Harley. May 30, 2008. Gay adoption report overdue. Sydney Star Observer
June, 2008. http://www.ssonet.com.au/display.asp?ArticleID=8339
Petre, Jonathan. May 24, 2008. Church pulls out of Catholic agencies over 'gay equality' adoption law. Daily Mail. 5 June, 2008. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1021721/Church-pulls-Catholic-agencies-gay-equality-adoption-law.html
Muskera, Dave. May 14, 2008. A Gay Adoption Head Scratcher American Chronicle
Smedley, Agnes. Daughters of Earth. 1929. The Feminist Press of CUNY Reissue 1987.
It is interesting to read Agnes Smedley's philosophy of marriage as expressed in the early feminist classic Daughters of Earth in light of the current controversy over gay marriage. The author takes an explicitly deflationary view of marriage's effect upon women, and also to a lesser extent, a negative view of the male's participation in what she considers a form of social bondage. Rather than seeing personal connections as a source of positive alliance between individuals, she sees marriage as a threat to society and the formation of effective unions of labor and politics.
Smedley calls marriage "a relic of human slavery," rather than as a potential right all human beings ought to strive to. Because of the history of marriage and its limiting legal and social constraints upon the female partner, the author believes…
Of this group. 50% were male, 50% were female, 38% were White, 35% were Black, and 16% were Hispanic. Adoption statistics are difficult to find because reporting is not as complete as it should be. The government spent $2.6 billion dollars to conduct the 1990 Census, but still it under-represented minorities and categorized children as "natural or by adoption" without differentiating, while special laws were implemented to "protect" and separate adoption affected families. In 1995, a "continuous" census (instead of every ten years) was proposed but has not been implemented. Even the government cannot rely on its most often cited broad official "guesstimate" of "5 to 10 million adoptees in the U.S." Private agency or independent adoptions account for more than 80% of adoptions in a state like California, but these are difficult to track, particularly when they cross state and country borders. In addition, no one knows how many…
Altstein, H., M. Coster, L. First-Hartling, C. Ford, B. Glasoe, S. Hairston, J. Kasoff, and a.W. Grier (1994, May-June). Child Welfare League of America, 261-269.
Bachrach, C.A., London, K.A. And Maza, P. (1991). On the path to adoption: adoption seeking in the U.S., 1998. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53(3), 705-718.
Barth, R. (1994, September 1). "Adoption research: Building blocks for the next decade." Child Welfare.
Belge, K. (2007). Lesbian and gay adoption rights. Lesbian Life. Retrieved September 28, 2007 at http://lesbianlife.about.com/cs/families/a/adoption_2.htm .
" It said that an expanding range of adult parenting arrangements and the growing disconnection between marriage and children. The report believed that it would be wise to examine the events, which have been happening. Canada recently stood at the forefront of Western nations in instituting radical changes in family law. The U.S.A. seemed to be taking the same direction (Cere).
The dominant stand among legal elites, including the two groups, which wrote the two reports, was that the family law should not aim at protecting the rights of children to grow up with their own, married parents (Cere 2005). Instead, it should protect and promote a concept called "family diversity." The stand drew from the belief that societies flourished when people of different backgrounds lived and worked together. The authors of the reports argued that society would be better off with all kinds of families co-existing and viewed as…
Buckley, William. F. Does Marriage Matter? National Review: National Review, Inc., December 22, 2003
Cere, Daniel. Love and Marriage. Public Interest: The National Affairs, Inc., Spring 2005
Hoffnung, Michele. Wanting it All: Career, Marriage and Motherhood During Colle Educated Women's 20s. Sex Roles: a Journal of research: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2004
News and Society. Cohabitation Not Equal to Marriage: Vanier Study Reports. Community Action: Community Action Publishers, October 26, 2005
When a child has already been abandoned by his or her biological parents, why would the state not allow for that child to have a brighter future in the care of a couple who would truly care for him or her? In this view, gender plays a miniscule role in the overall well being of the child. ather, "The best interests of the child would certainly be advanced in situations lie those presented here by allowing two adults who actually function as a child's parents to become the child's legal parents," (Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil ights 2004:72). With the concept of legality in terms of a parent-child relationship comes support like no foster parent or orphanage could ever offer. Adoption policies are strict and require parents to meet specific requirements, therefore offering the child the most potential possible. Gay and lesbian couples are no exception…
Avery, Alison; Chase, Justin; Johansson, Linda; Litvak, Samantha; Montero, Darrel & Wydra, Michael. (2007). America's changing attitudes toward homosexuality, civil unions, and same-gender marriage: 1977-2004. Social Work. 52(1):71-83.
Clinton, Kate. (2006). Reading between the Holy lines. The Progressive. 70(5):39.
Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil Rights. (2004). Report on marriage rights for same-sex couples in New York: The Association of the Bar of the City of New York Committee on Lesbian and Gay Rights, Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil Rights. Colombia Journal of Gender and Law. 13(1):70-85.
Severino, Roger. (2007). Or for poorer? How same-sex marriage threatens religious liberty. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy. 30(3):939-945.
It delved into the historical record of integration of blacks into the military, public opinions and health risks and unit disruption. It also incorporated the findings of scientific literature on group cohesion, sexuality and relevant health and legal issues and their implementation. Only one policy would fulfill the President's directive. It would consider sexual orientation as not inherent in determining who may serve in the military. It would set a standard of professional conduct for all personnel in the pursuit of good order and discipline. And it would be enforced in every level of the chain of command so as to maintain effective unit performance (Rostker et al.).
Policy for Ending Discrimination
This policy binds all service members to the same standard of professional behavior (Rostker et al., 2000). It draws upon actual conduct, not behavior from presumed sexual orientation. It elicits tolerance and restraint for the good of the…
Burrelli, D.F. And Feder, J. (2009). Homosexuals and the U.S. military: current issues.
CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service: Federation of American
Scientists. Retrieved on March 5, 2010 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL30113.pdf
Roberts, R and Roberts C. (2010). Society ready to accept gays in the military. Topeka Capital-Journal: ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on March 5, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4179/is_20100222/ai_n50180056
Literature Review on homosexual parenting
For a period extending back to the last twenty years, the number of households headed by same-sex parents in the United States has subtly increased. According to a unanimous agreement in the U.S. In 2010, the number of same-sex couples who stay together was estimated to be 646,464, out of which 514,735 were unmarried couples of the same sex while 131,729 were married couples of similar sex. In another survey carried out in the U.S. In 2000, it was established that almost 163,879 households had children although they were headed by similar sex couples. With about 33% of households belonging to similar sex females, it was found out that bisexual or Lesbians had higher chances of being parents as compared to isexual or gays who accounted for just 22% although these male couples had at least a child below the age of 18…
Aist J.R. (2014). Homosexual vs. Heterosexual Parenting: Is There Really "No Difference"? Retrieved from
Allen, D. (2013). High school graduation rates among children of same-sex households. Review of Economics of the Household 11:635-658.
Allen, D.W. Pakaluk C. & Price J. (2013). Nontraditional Families and Childhood Progress through School: A Comment on Rosenfeld. Demography 50(3), 955-961.
Crouse J.S. (2014). What About That Australian Study About Same-Sex Parenting? Gay parents give themselves good ratings. The American spectator retrieved from
Like many other positions that have been presented in opposition to gay marriages, this argument is also largely defective. In the past, several studies have clearly demonstrated that children of heterosexual couples are no different from children raised in a same-sex marriage setting. In one such study, "no differences were found between children raised by heterosexual or same-sex parents in the following four areas: Cognitive development, psychological adjustment, gender identity, or sexual preference partners" (Fiona 36). For this reason therefore, same-sex couples can also "bear" children via adoption and proceed to raise them in a familial environment that is no different from that of a heterosexual couple. As ardle, Strasser, Duncan, and Coolidge note, in some ways, i.e. when it comes to appreciating the diverse world in which we live in, children of same-sex parents could be better off than those from heterosexual households (37).
Approximately 4 decades ago,…
Fiona, Tasker. "Same-Sex Parenting and Child Development: Reviewing the Contribution of Parental Gender." Journal of Marriage and Family 72.1 (2010); 35-40. Print.
Hallowell, Billy. "Be Legal? Supreme Court Tackles This Key Question Today." The Blaze. N.p., 27th March 2013. Web. 14th April 2013 < http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/03/27/does-the-constitution-require-that-gay-marriage-be-legal-supreme-court-tackles-this-key-question-today/ >.
Knox, David, and Caroline Schacht. Choices in Relationships: An Introduction to Marriage and the Family. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Starr, V. Hale, and Mark McCormick. Jury Selection. 4th ed. New York: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2012. Print.
advertising geared to the gay and lesbian communities. Specifically, it will discuss advertising in the context of gay and lesbian culture, and how particular ad campaigns are significant to the gay and lesbian communities. While society has become more accepting of the gay and lesbian lifestyle, there are still many aspects of culture and society that disapprove of the gay/lesbian experience. Traditionally, mainstream advertising has not courted gays and lesbians, but some advertisers have recognized the size and dimensions of the market, and are beginning to break down the barriers in advertising to gays and lesbians in mainstream markets. In the last decade, advertising has become more open, and the gay lifestyle has become more accepted. Advertisers will continue to create new markets to create new opportunities for business and industry, and the gay/lesbian market is still waiting to be fully tapped.
The gay and lesbian lifestyle has existed for…
Author not Available. "Mainstream/B2B Advertising Best Practices." CommercialCloset.org. 2004. 19 July 2004. http://www.commercialcloset.org/cgi-bin/iowa/index.html?page=best
Boyce, David B. "Coded Desire in 1920's Advertising." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.1 (2000): 26-30.
Buford, Howard. "Understanding Gay Consumers." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.2 (2000): 26-28.
Burnett, John J. "Gays: Feelings about Advertising and Media Used." Journal of Advertising Research (2000): 75.