Gender Discrimination Essays (Examples)

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Discrimination and Affirmative Action

Words: 985 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3988602

Discrimination and Affirmative Action

DISCIMINATION

The current study investigates gender discrimination and the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Women report through survey questions on how they view gender discrimination against women today, their level of commitment to an organization, and their level of agreement on how satisfied they are in their jobs. The purpose of this study is discussing certain issues that pertain particularly to women, because majority of women's find barriers when moving towards the top.

According to the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission, the definition of glass ceiling refers to "the artificial barriers present in the workplace to the advancement of women and minorities." egardless of achievements, the glass ceiling is an "unseen" barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the top of the corporate ladder. The glass ceiling still persists in today's society even though the equity gap between men and women in managerial…… [Read More]

References

Connerley M.L. & P.B. Pedersen (2005), Leadership in a diverse and multicultural environment: developing awareness, knowledge, and skills, Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage. Pp. 101-115

Edgar F. & Geare A. (2004), "Employee demographics in human resource management research," Research and practice in human research management, 12(1), 61-91.

Faderman, Lillian, 2005, Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present. London: The Women's Press, pp. 167-168

Finnis, John, (2004), "Law, Morality, and 'Sexual Orientation'" Notre Dame Law Review 69: 1049-1076.
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Discriminations Evaluated Laws Protecting Citizens

Words: 835 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49397282



Individuals with disabilities may experience mental anguish, but also feelings of embarrassment about their ability, or inability to perform tasks that they normally might were they not disabled. These feelings may lead to depression or feelings of worthlessness, guilt or sadness, which are unacceptable in a society that promotes equality and fair treatment under the law. People with disabilities incorporate a large segment of the population, including people with HIV, cancer or physical handicaps resulting from chronic illnesses like multiple sclerosis (DDA DirectGov).

Other characteristics of individuals who feel discriminated against may include fear, as in the case of women who are discriminated against sexually (Gregory, 2003). As part of our research, we note that more women are fighting back, thanks to feminist movements encouraging women to speak out when they feel discriminated against. Any type of discrimination, as evidenced by our research, interferes with a person's ability to lead…… [Read More]

References

DirectGov. (n.d.). The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA). http://www.direct.gov/uk/en/DisabledPeople/RightsAndObligations/DisabilityRights/DG_4001068

Gregory, R.F. (2003). Women and workplace discrimination: Overcoming barriers to gender equity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Higginbotham, Jr. a.L. (1990, Nov). 45 years in law and civil rights; many of the greatest battles in the war on discrimination were waged in court. Ebony, 46(1): 80
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Gendered Experience in the Workplace

Words: 1793 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53086658

"For example, the more women considered prejudice to occur across a variety of contexts, the more they reported depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem." (Foster & Dixon, 2002, p.1)

These findings about the limits of group conciousness hint that perhaps, rather than focusing on a generalized female conciousness raising outside of the workplace, focusing on specific managerial objectives of female advancement within specific industries and workplaces might be more beneficial. Change the conciousness of managers, specifically male managers, through diversity workshops and penalizing sexism, rather than focus on changing female's perceptions of their competance alone. Create a sense of 'it's everywhere,' one also runs the risk of creating a sense that 'there is nothing I can do' and of learned helplessness in the hearts of female workers. Even from my own unwitting beneficical experience of sexism, I know how difficult it is to be confrontational as an entry-level employee, when one…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthis, Kristine. "The role of sexist discrimination in adult women's identity development." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. November 2002, p.1-4. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2002_Nov/ai_97728461/pg_1

Mindi D. Foster and Kenneth L. Dion. "The role of hardiness in moderating the relationship between global/specific attributions and actions against discrimination." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. August 2004, p.1-5. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_3-4_51/ai_n6212699

Renzetti, Claire M. & Daniel Curran, Women, Men, and Society. Fifth Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2002
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Gender and Sexaulity There Is

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63395672

hereas the trial began in the early 2000s, matters escalated across time and thousands of employees have gotten actively engaged in solving their problems with almart. The company is likely to lose billions of dollars out of this enterprise (Goudreau).

It is difficult to determine when a person is being discriminated because of his or her gender. Many tend to mistake casual actions for discrimination, this happening because people have gotten used to have their behavior governed by stereotypes. It is actually hard for someone today not to associate particular matters with things that he or she has seen in other people. Society needs to understand that women are not bad drivers and that it is not normal for men to financially support women.

The feminist movement mainly relies on the concept of a woman and everything that it stands for. Feminists are not necessarily fueled by their desire to…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Goudreau, Jenna, "Walmart Faces The Largest Sex Discrimination Lawsuit In U.S. History," Retrieved July 28, 2011, from the Forbes Website: http://blogs.forbes.com/work-in-progress/2010/04/27/wal-mart-faces-the-largest-sex-discrimination-lawsuit-in-u-s-history/

Mcclain, Linda C. "Some ABCs of Feminist Sex Education," Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15.1 (2006)

"Gender Discrimination - Further Readings," Retrieved July 28, 2011, from the Law Library Website:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/12485/Gender-Discrimination.html
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Discrimination Within Resort and Hotel

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21649415



Another form of discrimination that is most evident in this scenario is age discrimination. Age discrimination has had a long history of being under litigated precisely because it is hard to monitor and to positively identify. However, it is a significant problem within the arena of business ethics because age plays a large role in the image of a resort. Managers believe that having young employees instills a sense of modernity to their establishment and therefore recruitment usually occurs for the young rather than the old. This discrimination could be occurring within the baderman island resorts precisely because it is pictured as a destination of relaxation and modernity. Golfing ranges and spas can ill afford to give the image of traditional and old-aged. However, ensuring that age is not a factor within the resort is one of the primary manager ethical concerns. In this case the quota system may not…… [Read More]

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Discrimination Against Women in California

Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10108592

Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California omen's Law Center (CLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California.

CLC found that in 59% of the surveyed cases of women homicide victims the murder was not the first abusive episode; and a "history of threats to the victims' life" by the killer was available in 47% of the cases. Because seeking a "restraining order" and/or domestic violence services increases a victim's safety in many cases, 68% of abused murder victims "...never obtained, or attempted to obtain, a protective order against their abusive partner" (CLC, 2003). Just 20% of those women killed by intimate partners had an active restraining order against their abuser at the time they were murdered.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Austin, Emily. "Teen Dating Violence and School Response." California Commission on the Status of Women. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at http://www.CWLC.org.

Bellasalma, Patricia. "Taking a Close Look at Prop. 4, Californians Will Vote No as they Have Two Times When Similar Measures Were on the Ballot." California Progress Report. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008, at http://www.californiaprogressreport.com.(2008).

Buckland, Katie. "Lawsuit Charges Hormone Cream Manufacturers with Deceptive Marketing." California Women's Law Center. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at http://www.CWLC.org.(2005).

California Now. "Women's Health Care: Struggles & Strange Bedfellows." Retrieved 9 December 2008, at http://www.canow.org.(2008).
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Gender Dynamics in Educ Org

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45235201

Of the 19 students attending that day (gender breakdown was nine boys and ten girls) the boys asked questions 9 times and answered questions (those of the teacher and/or classmates) 13 times. By comparison, the girls asked questions 4 times, and answered questions 5 times. Then, when the students split into groups toward the end of the class to check each other's previous work, the groups were split along gender lines. The focus of the students, and the atmosphere of the class overall, was more diffuse than those of either of the other two classes. One interesting thing I noticed during this small group work (which could perhaps also have a bearing on the findings of Datnow et al.) was that in these groups, the now gender-segregated girls asked for teacher help with and clarification of the task at hand a great deal more than did the boys, in their…… [Read More]

Reference

Datnow, a. et al. (April 2001). How context mediates policy: The implementation of single gender public schooling in California. Teachers college record, 103(2). 184-206.
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Gender and Violence

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49486588

Gender and Violence

Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass and Their Eyes Were Watching God share much in common, though the works were written at different points in time. Douglass's autobiography first appeared in 1845, written to prove that a slave could develop, virtually unaided, into a moral and intellectual human being, and a speaker of power and eloquence. Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God appeared almost a century later in 1937 and is seen as a work that documents the legitimate experiences of black people, especially women. Yet, protagonists whose lives were shaped by violence, oppression, patriarchal control, and a quest for personal freedom characterize both works. One reason that could be attributed to the stark similarity in Douglass and Hurston's narratives is the historical context and effects of slavery and oppression of the black people. Thus, the blatant enslavement and brutality described by Douglass manifests itself in…… [Read More]

References

Douglass, F. (1995). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Unknown

Dover Thrift Edition).

Hurston, Z.N. (1978). Their Eyes Were Watching God. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
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Gender Selection

Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79485112

gender selection ETHICS

History attests to the fact that couples from oyal families down to rural peasants have shown preference for a male child leading to numerous problems for the girl child and creating a sex ratio imbalance in some traditional societies. When preference for a male child is more pronounced and obvious, any method that can allow a couple to choose the gender of their unborn child is likely to create tremendous potential for gender discrimination and sex-ratio imbalance. Sex-selection or gender-selection as it is commonly known as is one such method that threatens to put female children at risk of being outnumbered by their male counterparts. The pre-conception gender selection techniques along with some other means of choosing the gender of the unborn child has come under severe criticism because of the ethical issues they raise. We must understand that while preference for a specific sex is limited…… [Read More]

References

Clark Liana R. 1985. "Sex Preselection: The Advent of the Made-to-Order Child." The Pharos, Fall, pp. 2-7

Elizabeth Mathiot-Moen-author; Annette Burfoot - editor Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies Publisher: Westview Press. Boulder, CO. 1999.

Fletcher John C. 1980."Ethics and Amniocentesis for Fetal Sex Identification." Hastings Center Report 10: 15-18.

Gargan Edward A. 1991. "Ultrasonic Tests Skew Ratio of Births in India." New York Times, June 13.
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Gender a Society Is a

Words: 2484 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48723572

Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.

3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity

The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…… [Read More]

References

Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.

Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59441463

Enos, T. (1996). Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=42471043

Mussap, A.J. (2008). Masculine Gender Role Stress and the Pursuit of Muscularity. International Journal of Men's Health, 7(1), 72+. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035170430
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Gender Divide

Words: 3400 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32780731

Gender Divide

Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?

In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Antill, John K., Cotton, Sandra, Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Russell Graeme. (1996) The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks. Journal Title: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 3-4. p215.

Babcock, Linda; & Laschever, Sara (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blanton, Kimberly (2003, June 13). Study Finds Men Routinely Ask for More Money Than Women in Salary Negotiations. The Boston Globe Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.

Cardwell, Margaret (2003). Babcock, Linda & Sara Laschever. Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Library Journal, 128, 101.
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Gender Work and Global Economy The Impact

Words: 1606 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40671198

Gender, Work and Global Economy: The Impact of Globalization on Human Trafficking

The process of globalization has facilitated an integrated world economy and although it has had numerous positive impacts, it continues to produce negative impacts as well. For instance, it has led to the increase of human trafficking at such an alarming rate that it is now considered the third most wide spread and fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world - after weapon and drug trafficking. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime UNDOC (2015) human trafficking is the recruitment, transfer, transportation, or receipt of people by improper means such as fraud, threat, coercion, abduction or use of force with the aim of exploiting them.

Kempadoo (2005) explains that the vice first caught the attention of the public at the start of the 21st century and it is now a lucrative business that has became…… [Read More]

References

Acker, Joan.(2004). Gender, Capitalism and Globalization. In critical sociology, Vol. (30)1, 1-27.

Burke, M.C. (2013). Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge

Kempadoo, Kamala. (2005). Introduction: from Moral Panic to Global Justice: Changing Perspective On Trafficking "In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights: Paradigm Publishers 193-204.

Kuokkanen, Rauna (2006). Globalization as Radicalized, Sexual Violence . International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(2): Taylor and Francis . P.299 -315.
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Discrimination LGBT Discrimination Amongst the

Words: 1307 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96788775



Another area of discrimination within the LGT community is with regard to the transgendered subset vs. The larger gay community. Societal oppression against transgendered individuals has been documented in the scholarly literature for some time now (Carroll, Gilroy, & Ryan, 2002; Lev, 2004; Pepper and Lorah, 2008). However, even within the generally defined group labeled transgendered, there are subgroup: MTF, transitioning from male to female; FTM, transitioning from female to male; transsexual, enlisting surgical procedures and/or hormones; and genderqueer, not identifying with either label of male or female (Singh, Hays, & Watson, 2009). However, despite gender diversification within the transgender community, group members continue to face transphobia and transprejudice because of a lack of understanding, knowledge and acceptance (Singh, oyd, & Whitman, 2010).

In addition to prejudice from outside of the LGT community, transgendered persons can be victims of misunderstanding and discrimination within the LG community (Namaste, 2000). Singh et…… [Read More]

Bibliography

19th Amendment, Accessed 24 June 2011,

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/trials/conlaw/nineteentham.htm.

Carroll, L. (2010). Counseling sexual and gender minorities. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Merrill/Pearson.
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Gender Bias in the Workplace

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21421843

Gender Bias in the Workplace

Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture of power and the roles of gender in a prevalent culture reverberate meaningful patrimonial control, with the maneuvering of a female gender an appurtenant element of its objective. Women working in a professional environment have to prove their importance within the acrimonious periphery created by men. Despite the changes, which have been brought in by many laws and movements, women today still do not enjoy a working environment where they would be given a status equal to that of a man.

In order to promote equal opportunities for both men and women in a working environment, the United States passed an act called Equal Employment Opportunity Act during the year 1972. This Act aims at eliminating illegal discrimination in a…… [Read More]

References

EEOC. 35 Years Of Ensuring The Promise Of Opportunity. Available on the address http://www.eeoc.gov/35th/history/index.html. Accessed on 22 Jul. 2003.

U.S Department Of Labor. Title IX, Education Amendments Of 1972. Available on the address
U.S. Agency Sues Morgan Stanley For Sex Bias. Reuters Business Report. 10 Sept. 2001.

Samuels S.U. Fetal Rights, Women's Rights: Gender Equality In The Workplace. University of Wisconsin Press. 1995.
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Gender Challenges the All American

Words: 3864 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26224881



Jamieson explains that the phrase Catch-22, serves as another synonym for double bind. Paula Caplan, a psychologist, notes, "Mothers are caught in a perfect Catch-22. They are supposed to be concerned with emotions and closeness in relationships, but because autonomy has been designated by the white male middle class in North America as the pinnacle of emotional health,"

Mothers in the workplace, however, who do what comes natural to them are sometimes treated as they are immature or even sick.

The gender of the leader does matter to perceivers who filter judgments to the demands of cultural expectations. "Applause from the same sensitive and collaborative leadership is more likely to go to a man than a woman."

In addition, women, particularly leaders frequently experience greater scrutiny for errors, even small ones they make, and are more likely to be criticized than men in leadership positions.

Viewpoints Regarding Genders

Rather than…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Booker, Stacie Kress. 1 May 2006. Perking up: progressive businesses try to offer a range of benefits and policies that help retain employees and make them more productive. Florida Trend. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-145982865.html.

Case Studies. 2008. Colorado State University. 21 Feb. 2008.  http://writing.colostate.edu/index.cfm .

Charting the U.S. Labor Market in 2006. 28 Sept. 2007. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Bureau of Labor Statistics United States Department of Labor. Section 6: Families. 23 Feb. 2009. http://www.bls.gov/LaborForceStatistics fromthe CurrentPopulation Survey>.

Chin, Jean Lau, Bernice E. Lott, Joy K. Rice, and Janis Sanchez-Hucles. 2007. Women and Leadership: Transforming Visions and Diverse Voices Blackwell Publishing. 21 Feb. 2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZyhRWzTm_RwC.
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Gender and Education There Are

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96293753



The idea that gender differences in education might be genetically-based is confirmed somewhat in other studies that suggest that some genetic differences might influence achievement in certain areas of education (Zohar, 1998). However, genetic influences only comprise a small portion of the available studies. Many other studies point out the tremendous influence stereotyping has on gender and education, and suggesting that males and females are traditionally assigned certain 'roles' within the classroom which they tend to live up to over time (Ayim, Diller, Houston & Morgan, 1996).

The most common of these beliefs is that males are more adept at mathematical and analytical tasks whereas females are better at achieving 'soft' skills including English, philosophy etc. (Ayim, et. al, 1996).

Conclusions

There is a body of evidence available which suggests that gender differentiation is evident in the classroom. The traditional views that males are more adept at analytical skills and…… [Read More]

References

Alsup, J.K & Sprigler, D.N. (2003). "An analysis of gender and the mathematical reasoning ability sub-skill of analysis-synthesis." Education, 123(4): 763

Ayim, M., Diller, a., Houston, B., & Morgan, K.P. (1996). "The gender question in education: Theory, pedagogy, and politics." Boulder: Westview Press.

Zohar, a.H. (1998). "Individual differences in some special abilities are genetically influenced." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21(3): 431-432

Gender/Education
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Discrimination and Harassment Discrimination Is an Act

Words: 745 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86286847

Discrimination and Harassment

Discrimination is an act of prejudice where unfairness towards a person or group of persons is demonstrated. It is an act of unreasonably treating a person less fairly as compared to how others are treated. Discrimination can manifest itself in many instances in our lives, either within the social environment, workplace, school, and many others. In reference and respect to every person's human rights, discrimination is prohibited under human rights and constitutional laws. According to an online source, this especially includes discrimination based on the following attributes.

race, colour, sex, age, trade union activity, religion, criminal record, political opinion, marital status, impairment (including HIV status), disability (including physical and intellectual), medical record, national extraction, nationality, social origin, sexual orientation, gender identity inc. transexuality

Harassment, on the other hand, is a form of abusing or injuring a person or group of persons, either physically, mentally, or emotionally. As…… [Read More]

References

Discrimination and Sexual Harassment.

http://www.apesma.asn.au/adviceonline/contents.htm

Workplace Bias.

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/walmart_7-5.html
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Gender and Perceived and Objective Measures of Success

Words: 809 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23991286

individual's gender is an important factor that influences their career, success, and even their subjective evaluation of their career (e.g., Orser & Leck, 2010; Schneidhofer, Schiffinger, & Mayrhofer, 2010). A number of different models have been proposed to explain how a person's gender influences one's vocational aspirations, career choice, and perceived success (see Schoon & Eccles, 2014). These influences affect both objective and subjective measures of career success/attainment.

For example, Orser and Leck (2010) examined how gender moderates objective career factors as well as subjective career factors. Data was collected from a large sample of male and female managers, executives, and CEOs (N = 521). Two objective dependent measures of success were collected: 1) total compensation (annual salary, bonuses, and other financial remuneration) and 2) ascendancy (defined by the number of reporting levels below the participant). One subjective dependent measure was also collected (personal opinion regarding how successful the participant…… [Read More]

References

Herrbach, O., & Mignonac, K. (2012). Perceived gender discrimination and women's subjective career success: The moderating role of career anchors. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 67(1), 25-50.

Orser, B., & Leck, J. (2010). Gender influences on career success outcomes.Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(5), 386-407.

Schneidhofer, T. M., Schiffinger, M., & Mayrhofer, W. (2010). Mind the (gender) gap. Gender, gender role types, and their effects on objective career success over time. Management Revue, 437-457.

Schneidhofer, T. M., Schiffinger, M., & Mayrhofer, W. (2011). Still a man's world? The influence of gender and gender role type on income in two business school graduate cohorts over time. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 31(1), 65-82.
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Gender African-American Men Understand the

Words: 1906 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93712317

439).

However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.

Power and identity are both socially…… [Read More]

References

Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.

Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.

Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.

Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
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Gender Identity Disorder and Gender

Words: 1852 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90743680

Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.

It is generally accepted that gender socialization…… [Read More]

References

Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37

Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.

Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209

Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
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Gender Judging Mothers Although Women

Words: 1388 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47608326

After a literature review of existing studies on the subject, "we have clear indications that breast-feeding helps prevent an extra incident of gastrointestinal illness in some kids -- an unpleasant few days of diarrhea or vomiting, but rarely life-threatening in developed countries" noted Hana osin in a controversial article in The Atlantic (osin 2009). Despite graphic public advertisements that link breast-feeding with putting a child at great medical risk, the evidence is less certain than one might assume. Although breast-feeding has been credited with everything from improving babies' IQs to preventing obesity, the ability to prevent these conditions with breast-feeding remains uncertain, particularly when women's economic status is taken into consideration when evaluating the studies (osin 2009).

Cultural biases against trusting a woman to actively make choices about how they will be mothers may have more to do with the censure of women who choose to discount so-called common wisdom…… [Read More]

References

Baram, Marcus. (2006). Moms-to-be get mixed message about drinking. ABC News.

Retrieved June 30, 2011 at  http://abcnews.go.com /Health/story?id=2654849&page=1

Hanley, J.J. (2002). Refrigerator mothers. PBS: POV. Retrieved June 30, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/pov/refrigeratormothers/interview.php

Italy launches cocktail glass poster. (2011). The Telegraph. Retrieved June 30, 2011 at  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/7764241/Italy-launches-foetus-in-cocktail-glass-poster-to-stop-women-drinking.html
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Gender Pay Discrimination in the

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52051105

"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to more than overcome the effect of adverse shifts in overall wage structure (that is rising labor-market returns to skills and to employment in high-paying male sectors) on their relative wages by improving their qualifications relative to men. So, although on average women continue to have less labor-market experience than men, they have narrowed the gender difference in experience considerably. They also have upgraded their occupations relative to men's, as they moved out of clerical and service occupations and into professional and managerial jobs. Women also have benefited from a decrease in the "unexplained" pay gap. Such a shift may reflect an upgrading of women's unmeasured labor-market skills, a decline in labor market discrimination against women, or a shift in labor market…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gender Pay Gap Nothing to do with Discrimination (2008) Management-Issues. 21 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.management-issues.com/2008/10/21/research/gender-pay-gap-nothing-to-do-with-discrimination.asp

Blau, Francine D. And Kahn, Lawrence M. (2001) the Gender Pay Gap. National Bureau of Economic Research. Summer 2001. Online available at http://www.nber.org/reporter/summer01/blaukahn.html

Behind the Pay Gap Press Release (2007) AAUW. 23 Apr 2007. Online available at http://www.aauw.org/about/newsroom//pressreleases/042307_paygap.cfm
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Gender in Sports in the

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9741790

Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial

and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard

Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.

"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
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Gender Studies -- the World Split Open

Words: 2036 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43732110

Gender Studies -- the orld Split Open

hy were American women unhappy? In building her case regarding the unhappiness that women in America experienced in the 1950s, the author of The orld Split Open: How the Modern omen's Movement Changed America -- Ruth Rosen -- goes into great detail. On page 13 Rosen points out that after II in the American culture, women getting pregnant and having babies, was extremely common and normal. In fact, a woman who was not married was "an embarrassment," and the author quotes actress Debbie Reynolds (from the film The Tender Trap) as saying that marriage is "the most important thing in the world" and that a woman is not "really a woman" until she has a wedding and babies (Rosen, 13).

But after taking care of babies all day, doing housework, running errands and cooking dinner for the family -- all the while using…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America.

New York: Viking, 2000.
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Gender Race and Constitutional Change

Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83041050

The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)

Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at  http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7635.html 

Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),

Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)

Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)
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Gender and Jim Crow - Political Activism

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63707843

Gender and Jim Crow - Political Activism by Middle Class, African-American omen

Conventional wisdom paints the period between the late 19th century to the 1950s as a time of racial discrimination and violence for African-Americans in the southern states. However, in Gender and Jim Crow, Glenda Gilmore presents an account of how white supremacist politics were also mediated by gender, and how this period of racial discrimination was also marked by political activism on the part of middle class African-American women.

In the early parts of the book, Gilmore illustrates how gender was used as a tool in Jim Crow segregation. hite men in North Carolina, for example, justified white supremacy and disenfranchised black men by raising the specter of the black rapist and appealing for the safety of white women in their homes. This pushed black men into what Gilmore termed a "vortex of silence" (134).

Black women, on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996
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Discrimination and Affirmative Action

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55745048

Discrimination and Affirmative Action

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) prohibits private and state and local government employers with 15 or more employees from discriminating against individuals on the basis of disability. Title I of the ADA also generally requires covered employers to make reasonable accommodations -- changes in the workplace or in the way things are usually done that provide individuals with disabilities equal employment opportunities." (U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission, 2008) In order to meet the ADA's definition of disability the individual must have a "physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; (2) has a record of such an impairment; or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment. This definition of disability may differ from the definition used in other laws. For example, the term "disabled veteran" means an individual…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chapter 4-1, Equal Employment Opportunity Program (Sept. 12, 2003) U.S. Department of Justice. retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/jmd/ps/chpt4-1.html

Dunn, CP (1997) The Normative Defense for Affirmative Action. Journal of Management Inquiry. Retrieved from: http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/dunnweb/pubs.aa.html

ETERANS WITH SERVICE-CONNECTED DISABILITIES AND THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA): A GUIDE FOR EMPLOYERS (2008) U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission. Retrieved from: http://archive.eeoc.gov/facts/veterans-disabilities-employers.ht

NSPECTOR GENERAL INSTRUCTION 1440.1 (2005) SUBJECT: Equal Employment Opportunity Program. Department of Defense. Retrieved from: http://www.dodig.mil/fo/Foia/ERR/IGDINST%201440.1%20IG%20Signed%2011-09-05.pdf
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Gender in Poetry Literature Lesson Duration

Words: 1983 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71176397

Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson

Lesson Duation

mins

Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.

Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).

Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…… [Read More]

references to at least two of the texts read

Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far

Lesson 5

Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned

Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
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Gender Bias in Job Fair Summary Conclusions

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80210745

Gender Bias in Job Fair

Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Terminology and Definitions

Permission to Conduct Study

Transmittal Letter/Survey Instructions

Survey/Interview Questions

Gender Bias in the Recruitment Process at Job Fairs

Administrative Research Problem

Gender bias is problematic for organizations that wish to increase innovation and avoid legal problems due to their hiring practices. Federal law requires that organizations should not exclude persons in their hiring practices based on their gender, race, or ethnicity. Hiring must be based solely on the person's ability and suitability for the job. Avoiding bias helps organizations to increase innovation due to the different perspectives that each person will add to the organization. Bias in hiring practices can be intentional or unintentional. Regardless of the motive, it is necessary to avoid bias in hiring practices. This research intends to explore the question surrounding job fairs. The study will explore the question of whether bias exists during…… [Read More]

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Gender and Smell Recognition

Words: 2005 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32789944

Gender and Smell Recognition

WHOSE IS SHARPER?

It is common belief that women have a sharper sense of smell than men. However, there are separate studies suggesting that the sense is as strong in men as in women. Can women really identify smells better than men? Is women's sense of smell stronger in detecting certain types of scents, like cologne and perfume?

Feminine Smelling Ability Superior

Standard tests establish the superiority of women's smelling ability to that of men in terms of odor detection, discrimination and identification (SIRC, 2012). Women convincingly scored higher than men in these tests. A research said that this capability in females was shown in studied female newborns. ut other studies can refute this established finding. A separate study hinted that this feminine capability may be stronger to certain scents but not to others. Female sensitiveness to smell has been demonstrated to be 10,000 stronger to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bjorn, G. (2011). Olfaction differences between the sexes. Science and Technology:

The Daily Smell. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from http://dev.thedailysmell.com/2010/11/12/science-of-smell-olfaction-differences-between-the-sexes

Bhuta, M.F. (2007). Sex and the nose: human pheromonal responses. 100 (6) The

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The Royal Society of Medicine. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1885393
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Gender Wage Gap There Are Many Different

Words: 803 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72216221

Gender Wage Gap

There are many different types of bias within the working environment. At times, one had to be a white-male to be a manger in many organizations. The wage-gender gap, or the discrepancies between equally qualified men and women, has diminished in many career paths, but still exists. The "glass ceiling" clearly remains a powerful force within the workplace. Qualified women are blocked from upper-level managerial positions, but their absence at the very top skews the curve when they are clustered in the middle. It seems that it takes about 30% penetration of women managers to begin to more rapidly move the distribution effect, suggesting that now; women remain concentrated in workplace settings with lower wages -- in almost every industry (Cohen and Huffman, 2007, 699).

Ernst and Young, a major accounting firm, realizes that it is in their best interest to find new and innovative ways to…… [Read More]

Sources:

Accounting for Good People: Talent Management. (July 21, 2007). Galegroup. Retrieved from: http://www.galegroup.com.

Collinson, David and Jeff Hearn. (1994). Men, Women, and Organizations. Gender,

Work and Organization. 1(1): 2-22.

Hymowitz, C. (June 14, 2007). Coaching Men on Mentoring Women is Ernst and Young
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Discrimination and Affirmative Action Should

Words: 1396 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2861523

In order to assure that workforce advancement for existing disabled veterans is according to federal guidelines, the Bonneville "action program plan" offers classes and training in "resume writing" and "how to prepare for an interview." Each employee, including disabled veterans, are encouraged to complete an individual development plan with their manager, and are also encouraged to utilize career counselors with their departments.

All these things are mentioned because it is apparent that the federal government has gone to great lengths to open the door for disabled veterans. That doesn't mean, again, that any job opening with a federal agency or a contractor who has been hired by the federal government will automatically go to a disabled veteran. Not at all.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has its own version of an "Affirmative Action Program Plan for Disabled Veterans" (www.usda.gov/da/employ/VETPLAN.01.htm);this is very similar to the Bonneville plan, only it appears that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bergmann, Barbara. (1996). In Defense of Affirmative Action. New York: Basic Books, 42-47.

Bonneville Power Administration. (2004). Disabled Veteran's Affirmative Action Program

Plan. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2006 at http://www.jobs.bpa.gov/How_To_Apply/disabledaction.cfm.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2001). Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Plan. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2006 at http://www.usda.gov/da/employ/VETPLAN.01.htm.
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Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51201453

Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith

In "Country Lovers" and "What It's Like to be a Black Girl (For Those of You Who Aren't)," Nadine Gordimer and Patricia Smith, respectively, demonstrate that issues of race and ethnicity are issues that are devoid of space and time. Gordimer focuses on the impact that apartheid has on Thebedi, a young, black girl, in South Africa, whereas Smith focuses on how American society has shaped her perception of herself due to a long history of racial discrimination. Both Gordimer's story and Smith's poem allow the reader to see how society shapes perceptions of others and perceptions of oneself based on race and ethnicity.

Gordimer has first-hand experience on the effects of apartheid as she grew up in South Africa and witnessed how people were discriminated against based upon the color of their skin. In South Africa, apartheid governed how society was structured…… [Read More]

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Gendered Managerial Styles the Role

Words: 3258 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71532462



Gender and Organizational Social Change Models

The increasing number of women in managerial positions represents a social change. Women are in these positions, and must earn their way to be accepted by both males and females. There are other changes within organizational styles that may be impacted by the entrance of more female managers into the workplace. For instance, the older authoritarian styles of the early part of the century are slowly being replaced by a more "team" approach (McGuire and Hutchings, 2006). These cultural changes within organizations represent a switch to an organizational culture that is more oriented towards the female managerial style. Male managers may need to soften their approach in order to make the transition to a "team oriented" organization.

The differences in the way in which males and females approach problems is an accepted paradigm in psychology. Historically, women have had difficulty adjusting to the male…… [Read More]

References

Aaltio, L. And Huang, J. 2007. Women managers' careers in information technology in China: high flyers with emotional costs? Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 2, pp. 227-244.

Akgun, a., Byrne, J., Lynn, G., and Keskin, H. 2007. Organizational unlearning as changes in beliefs and routines in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 6, pp. 794-812.

American Psychological Association (APA). 2006. When the Boss is a Woman. March 22, 2006. Psychology Matters. Available at http://www.psychologymatters.org/womanboss.html

Diefenbach, T. 2007. The managerialistic ideology of organisational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 1., pp. 126-144.
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Discrimination and Federal Law

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15845743

Discrimination in Employment

Title VII of the Civil ights Act of 1964 specifically prohibits discrimination in the workplace based upon a candidate's "race, color, religion, sex, or national origin" (Title VII, 1964). The act also makes it illegal to refuse to hire employees based upon membership in these specific, protected categories (Title VII, 1964). It is also illegal to refuse to promote individuals based upon membership in such categories (Title VII, 1964). The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 provides further protections for women by making it illegal to discriminate against an employee due to pregnancy or the potential to become pregnant (PDA, 1978). The Equal Pay Act of 1963 makes it illegal to pay men and women different wages for the same types of categories of work solely on the basis of gender (EPA, 1963).

Further protections for specific groups include the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, which…… [Read More]

References

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. EEOC. Retrieved from:

http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/adea.cfm

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. EEOC. Retrieved from:

http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/ada.cfm
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Discrimination Policy When it Comes

Words: 502 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56106013

"

The organization that I work for has many advantages because of its decision to support non-discrimination.

One of the most important elements of life is diversity. By supporting non-discrimination laws the company provides a local atmosphere in which diversity is embraced and the company has a large diverse local pool to draw from for employees.

The support of anti-discrimination laws also sends a strong clear message to the workforce of the company.

We are aware that the company supports and embraces diversity, not because it is mandated to by employment laws, but because it believes it is the right thing to do for mankind.

Everybody in America, at this point is aware that to discriminate based on race, culture, gender or other factors in the workplace is illegal.

It sets the company up for large fines if it is caught practicing or promoting discrimination in the company.

This makes…… [Read More]

REFERENCE

Vise, David (2005) Microsoft Backtracks, Supports Gay Rights Bill

The Washington Post
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Gender and International Relations International

Words: 10127 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58775378

57).

Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).

If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.

On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Gender Roles

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43798718

Gender oles

Women in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is religiously and socially conservative. There is a relatively high level of cultural homogeneity inspired by tribal and Islamic factors. In these circumstances, it is not easy to differentiate between Arabic and Islamic cultures in these circumstances. Some cultural beliefs including the view that women should not be lawyers or engineers have nothing to do with Islam but have increasingly become part of the cultural values of the communities which happen to be largely Islamic. The function of women in the wider society is restricted. Saudi Arabia, thus, has one of the lowest numbers of women in public work places; especially those who are graduates. The government has recently embarked on gender sensitization programs aimed at discouraging gender-based discrimination. Stake holders have also undertaken to make sure that there is more participation of women in education. They seek to increase the number…… [Read More]

References

Julia Ismael. (2013). The Islamic Influence on the Role of Women and Girls in the United States. Writing 406-1, Writing and Inquiry,. Seattle: Antioch University.

Madeleine K. Albright. (2006). The Great Divide: How Westerners and Muslims View Each Other. Pew Global Attitudes Project.

Shakir Ahmed Alsaleh. (n.d.). Gender Inequality in Saudi Arabia: Myth and Reality. University for Health Sciences Riyadh.

Yahya Al Alhareth, Yasra Al Alhareth, & Ibtisam Al Dighrir. (2015). Review of Women and Society in Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Educational Research, 121-125.
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Discrimination Dean Moore's Primary Responsibility

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36078626

Hall by publishing the truth in any letter of recommendation (Dershowitz,

2002).

In reality, Dean Moore's refusal was not the result of any prejudicial or otherwise impermissible basis. Nevertheless, the dean's strongest possible position would be to offer to write the requested letter but to inform Ms. Hall that any such letter would necessarily, as a matter of social responsibility and sound public policy, have to include a description of the circumstances of Ms. Hall's departure from NBSU in conjunction with an objective and fair description of her actual academic performance and technical competence. Even if her refusal to provide any letter is justified, defending a discrimination lawsuit is expensive and potentially damaging to the institution. On the other hand, there is no such thing as a legal claim arising from someone's refusal to lie and any suit brought by Ms. Hall based on the dean's insistence on full disclosure…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Simon & Schuster.

Halbert, T, Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati,

OH: West.
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Voices Let's Talk About Gender

Words: 1142 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42555777

Kaminer, in her own voice, mentions, too, in that paragraph, that in its verdict, the Supreme Court "managed, barely, to outlaw discrimination based on gender," implicitly noting that the sexist Price Waterhouse "voice" (as represented by that partner) was drowned out by the more objective "voice" of the Supreme Court. (Within this context, though, Kaminer also presents the sexist Price Waterhouse partner's "voice" as the whole firm's "voice," which may or may not have been true. Similarly, in this same case, the Supreme Court "spoke" its verdict in one "voice" (although there was considerable dissent, since, according to Kaminer, the Court "just barely" "managed" the verdict).

Also, in Kaminer's view (voice) the Price Waterhouse complainant suffered sex discrimination (i.e., a generalized hostility toward women, but directed in this instance at herself), while, on the other hand, Joseph Oncale, "a former oil rig worker who claimed to have been subjected to…… [Read More]

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Legislative Acts Against Discrimination

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84288214

integrate readings Chapters 5 & 6 Pynes, J.E.(2013). Human resources management public nonprofit organizations: A strategic approach (4th ed.). Jossey-Bass: San Francisco response: Case Study: Reeves, Chapter 3: Some Counselors More Equal Others website information http://prezi.

The case study relates to a situation involving state employees being discriminated on account of their gender. Rose Paddock, the central actor in this case, complained with regard to how the Department of Labor was inclined to favor men by providing them with bigger salaries in spite of the fact that their jobs entailed the same duties and qualifications as jobs that were probable to be occupied by women. The job under discussion, an Employment Counselor position in the Department of Human Services, has an equivalent job in the Department of Labor. The latter is paid better and the fact that there are more men in the Department of Labor while there are more…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Pynes, J.E. (2004). "Human Resources Management for Public and Nonprofit Organizations." John Wiley & Sons.

Reeves, T.Z. (2006). "Cases in public human resource management." Thomson Wadsworth.
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Labor Discrimination - Equal Pay

Words: 6312 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68485530

Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth ader Ginsberg was so incensed she read her scathing dissent aloud from the bench. She defended Lilly Ledbetter's right to sue her employer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. For pay discrimination on the basis of sex, giving a not-so-gentle reminder of the realities of the American workplace." (Steiger, 2007) Specifically written by Justice Ginsburg is that as follows:

worker knows immediately if she is denied a promotion or transfer, if she is fired or refused employment. And promotions, transfers, hirings, and firings are generally public events, known to co-workers. When an employer makes a decision of such open and definitive character, an employee can immediately seek out an explanation and evaluate it for pretext. Compensation disparities, in contrast, are often hidden from sight." (Steiger, 2007)

Steiger reports that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abrams, Jim (2009) House Approves Bill to Fight Wage Discrimination. Yahoo News. 9 Jan 2009. Online available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090109/ap_on_go_co/pay_equity

Barko, N. (2000. June 19). The Other Gender Gap. (Online) Available http://www.prospect.org/archives/V11-15/barko-n.html.

Bland, T.S. (1999, July). Equal Pay Enforcement Heats Up. HR Magazine, p. 138-145.

Bland, T.S., Nail, T.N., Knox, D.P. (2000, May). OFCCP, White House push comparable worth. HR News, p. 22-24.
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Women and Gender International Human Rights

Words: 5450 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39241588

International Human ights, Women and Gender

International Human ights: Women and Gender

Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).

Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).

The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…… [Read More]

References

Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.

Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.

CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.

CEDAW. (2010). General recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations Publications.
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Women Sex Discrimination in Career

Words: 2792 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30862379

Yet women with similar or comparable education and experience or achievement still earn less than men in work organizations. A missing link or the absent ingredient, between performance and a just payoff, was identified as women's own ability to comfortably and consistently draw the attention they deserve to the contributions they made or gave. Findings of a study conducted on 322 male and female executives showed that women were less comfortable in promoting themselves than men. Many of them still believed that self-promotion by women was still unacceptable and that hard work alone would not put them in the same level as men. Women were also found to be "over-preparers" who wanted their work to be technically correct but who did not bring this sense of accuracy and care to the attention or notice of influential individuals in the organization. Goodson found that even women who understood the importance of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Auster, Ellen R. professional Women's Mid-career Satisfaction. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research, June 2001

2. Hultin, Mia. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: an Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination. Administrative Science Quarterly: Connell University Johnson Graduate School

3. Lemons. Mary A. Contextual and Cognitive Determinants of Procedural Justice: Perceptions in Promotion Barriers for Women. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation

4. Moya, Miguel. Close Relationships, Gender and Career Salience. Sex Roles: a Journal of Reserch: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2000
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Actions Lawsuits in Employment Sex-Discrimination Lawsuits When

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16507825

Actions Lawsuits in Employment Sex-Discrimination Lawsuits: When are they Appropriate?

The class action lawsuit is a somewhat controversial tool, particularly in the case of employment discrimination. In many ways, it is a hallmark of judicial efficiency. After all, if a number of plaintiffs have the same claim against a defendant, it is inefficient to try the same case a number of times. Moreover, later plaintiffs may be unable to recover if earlier plaintiffs exhaust a defendant's financial resources. Therefore, if a company has an employment policy that is facially discriminatory, or has a readily-provable and consistent disparate impact, class-action litigation can be appropriate. However, in many ways the class actions lawsuit is not well-suited for employment discrimination lawsuits. Employment discrimination, particularly gender-based employment discrimination, is frequently subtle and a finding of discrimination is not going to be based on company policies, but on the treatment of a particular individual. Moreover,…… [Read More]

References

Cummings, S.L. (2011). Privatizing public interest law. UCLA Public Law Series. Retrieved January 25, 2012 from eScholarship website:

http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/0q7515ht

Epstein, R. (2003). Class actions: Aggregation, amplification, and distortion. University of Chicago Law Review, 70, 475-518.

McKinney, C. (2011, June 20). Supreme Court blocks class action sex discrimination suit.
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Class and Gender

Words: 4228 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11311644

Oppression of Class And Gender

Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)

According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.

All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."

(MAX WEER: asic Terms)

Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. (http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html)

Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com)

Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. (http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937

"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
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Globalization's Effect on Gender Studies

Words: 1551 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77333111



Women like Nancy, are now forced to deal with leasing two cultures in one lifetime; yet many are finding that the two are not as radically different as one might believe. All though Nancy is offered more opportunity for education and employment within the context of Los Angeles California, she still must face the grim reality of making less money than her male counterparts on top of the ancient burden her culture inherently places on her shoulders. Many women within Chinatown understand these similarities between their Eastern and Western sentiments, yet don't understand why the United States has chosen such a covert route of gender discrimination due to the open practice of their Chinese heritage. Many others still believe in the American Dream as open to women, and only see the differences between the rigidly patriarchal Chinese society, and the more lax one found in the United States. We now…… [Read More]

References

Brysk, Allison & Shafir, Gershon. (2004). People out of place: globalization, human rights, and the citizenship gap. Routledge.

Lakes, Richard D. & Carter, Patricia, a. (2004). Globalizing education for work:

comparative perspectives on gender and the new economy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Zhou, Min. (1992). Chinatown: the socioeconomic potential of an urban enclave.
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Psychology-Gender a Whole Array of

Words: 1785 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23041525

I was stricken at the site of gender representation at the management level in this country, for example.

Jane Eyre and characters like her made me develop a sense of reality when it came to gender roles that was partly distorted. I was of course inclined to think that I had every right to get the same opportunities as my male counterparts and generally I did in my country. but, the trust I had developed in my male coworkers and those I came in contact with was a little far stretched because of characters like Jane. The physical part of a relationship between a man and a woman was not treated in detail because the era did not allow such extravagancy, but the sexual aspects that were left unsaid or that were just alluded to were impossible to understand for a child and hard to explain later for a young…… [Read More]