Gender Inequality Essays (Examples)

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Gender Inequity in Tibetan Buddhism

Words: 1358 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98286693

Although doctrinally there are no injunctions against gender equity, Mahayana Buddhism remains as many of the other major world religions, profoundly patriarchal. Even with no prescribed hierarchical difference between men and women in Buddhist scripture, in practice, Tibetan Buddhism has exhibited sexist practices, from the different ways men and women are ordained to the total absence of women in important ritual roles. Buddhist nuns have subordinate status, their training being at once “stricter” but still not enabling nuns to participate fully in important ceremonies, rites, and public functions (“Female Inequality in Buddhism”). The Dalai Lama has recently tried to address the issues related to gender inequality in Tibetan Buddhism, engaging in frank discussions about the possibility of full bhik?u?? ordination of women and female incarnations of lamas, including the Dalai Lama (His Holiness the Dalai Lama).
The primary injunction against full gender equality in Tibetan Buddhism is related to sexuality…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allione, Lama Tsultrim. “Women, Buddhism and the Absolute and Relative Truth.” Retrieved online:
Campbell, June. Traveller in Space. London: Continuum, 2002.
Doepke, Michaela. “Interview with the Dalai Lama about the Full Ordination of Women.” Tibetan Buddhism in the West. Retrieved online: 
“Female Inequality in Buddhism.” Buddhist Thought. Retrieved online: 
His Holiness the Dalai Lama. “The Dalai Lama on Full Ordination of Women.” Wisdom Publications. Retrieved online: 
Simmer-Brown, Judith. Dakini’s Warm Breath. Boston: Shambala, 2001.
Tumanov, Vladimir. “Mary Versus Eve: Paternal Uncertainty and the Christian View of Women.” Neophilologus. Oct 2011, 95:107.
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Gender and Communication

Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43528571

Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace

Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…… [Read More]


Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from:  %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from: [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from: [Accessed on 2 March 2012].

Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge
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Gender and Society the Biologically-Based

Words: 1551 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43689532

Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).

Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.

Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…… [Read More]


Humphrey, J. (2003 - Mar). "Guthrie's six degrees of separation and provocative."

Oracle Online, 115(7): 1. Retrieved:

Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Gendered Criminology Theory the Authors

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25317278

A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.

A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…… [Read More]


Steffensmeier D. Emilie a. (1996) Gender and Crime: Toward a Gendered

Theory of Female Offending. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 459+.
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Gender Equity Model Discuss the

Words: 359 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49631547

Moreover, since 1981 "five macro-level comparative tests of the traditional feminist hypothesis that gender inequality is positively associated with rates of rape have been published. Contrary to expectations, they "failed to support the traditional gender inequality hypothesis" and instead supported the "backlash hypothesis" that greater social mobility of women leads to a corresponding increase in violence (haley, 2001: 535). Regardless, in comparing these studies there is some difficulty in defining precisely what is meant by 'gender equality,' whether it mean sex disparities in earnings, education, employment, or less definable and quantitative variables like perceptions of what it means to be 'male' and 'female' (haley 2001:535).

orks Cited

Britton, Dana M. (Sep., 2000). "Feminism in Criminology: Engendering the Outlaw."

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 571: 57-76.

haley, Rachel Bridges (Aug, 2001). "The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender I nequality and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Britton, Dana M. (Sep., 2000). "Feminism in Criminology: Engendering the Outlaw."

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 571: 57-76.

Whaley, Rachel Bridges (Aug, 2001). "The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender I nequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory." Gender and Society. 15. 4: 531-555.
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Gender and Domestic Violence Discussions of Domestic

Words: 2745 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67078141

Gender and Domestic Violence

Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…… [Read More]


Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,

L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from [7 October 2013].

Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.

Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',
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Gender Work and Global Economy The Impact

Words: 1606 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40671198

Gender, Work and Global Economy: The Impact of Globalization on Human Trafficking

The process of globalization has facilitated an integrated world economy and although it has had numerous positive impacts, it continues to produce negative impacts as well. For instance, it has led to the increase of human trafficking at such an alarming rate that it is now considered the third most wide spread and fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world - after weapon and drug trafficking. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime UNDOC (2015) human trafficking is the recruitment, transfer, transportation, or receipt of people by improper means such as fraud, threat, coercion, abduction or use of force with the aim of exploiting them.

Kempadoo (2005) explains that the vice first caught the attention of the public at the start of the 21st century and it is now a lucrative business that has became…… [Read More]


Acker, Joan.(2004). Gender, Capitalism and Globalization. In critical sociology, Vol. (30)1, 1-27.

Burke, M.C. (2013). Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge

Kempadoo, Kamala. (2005). Introduction: from Moral Panic to Global Justice: Changing Perspective On Trafficking "In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights: Paradigm Publishers 193-204.

Kuokkanen, Rauna (2006). Globalization as Radicalized, Sexual Violence . International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(2): Taylor and Francis . P.299 -315.
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Gender Roles

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43798718

Gender oles

Women in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is religiously and socially conservative. There is a relatively high level of cultural homogeneity inspired by tribal and Islamic factors. In these circumstances, it is not easy to differentiate between Arabic and Islamic cultures in these circumstances. Some cultural beliefs including the view that women should not be lawyers or engineers have nothing to do with Islam but have increasingly become part of the cultural values of the communities which happen to be largely Islamic. The function of women in the wider society is restricted. Saudi Arabia, thus, has one of the lowest numbers of women in public work places; especially those who are graduates. The government has recently embarked on gender sensitization programs aimed at discouraging gender-based discrimination. Stake holders have also undertaken to make sure that there is more participation of women in education. They seek to increase the number…… [Read More]


Julia Ismael. (2013). The Islamic Influence on the Role of Women and Girls in the United States. Writing 406-1, Writing and Inquiry,. Seattle: Antioch University.

Madeleine K. Albright. (2006). The Great Divide: How Westerners and Muslims View Each Other. Pew Global Attitudes Project.

Shakir Ahmed Alsaleh. (n.d.). Gender Inequality in Saudi Arabia: Myth and Reality. University for Health Sciences Riyadh.

Yahya Al Alhareth, Yasra Al Alhareth, & Ibtisam Al Dighrir. (2015). Review of Women and Society in Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Educational Research, 121-125.
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Gender Success in the Classroom

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84222937

Eliot, L. (2009, Septmber 8). Girl Brain, Boy Brain? Retrieved November 2010, from Scientific American:

This article takes a number of academic studies and syntheizes into a more popular explanation and format. The author acknowledges that there are verified physical and morphiological differences between the male and female brain, but also strongly suggests that these are predispositions, and it is the experience and social/cultural expectations that help male and female behaviors become dominant.

urphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.

This book takes a global perspective in assessing gender difference in the school system, finding that traditionally, girls have more limited opportunities, but tend to outperform boys both socially and intellectually. Because this is global in scope, it has a broader socio-cultural approach and shows how traditional values within a culture often contribute to a widening of the…… [Read More]

Murphy and Gipps. (1996). Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London: Falmer Press.

Sadker, S. (1994). Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Wood, Murko and Nopoulos. (2008). Ventral Frontal Cortex in Children. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(2), 168-76.
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gender roles and norms article

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24877131

Atlantic, the author outlines several issues using multiple case studies from the media. The issues cover the gamut of gender-related issues in the workplace, particularly focusing on equitable pay, structural inequality, and harassment. Because of the brevity of the piece, it is understandable that it might oversimplify several of the issues. However, generally the article offers insight into how the sociology of gender plays out in the real world.

One of the most interesting features in the article was a description of research showing that even office temperatures are determined by men. "the formula used to calculate standard office thermostat temperatures was biased, and based on the resting metabolic rate of a 40-year-old man who weighs 154 pounds," (Zhou, 2015). As a result, the ambient temperature of the office is designed for this "normative" person, and a normative person in a patriarchal society is a man. This interesting but simple…… [Read More]


Zhou, L. (2015). Year in Review: The Biggest Stories About Gender Inequality at Work.
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Gender Matter in Sports There

Words: 2514 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10104952

234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.

3. Conclusion

Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]


Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.

Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]

Available at:  [Accessed 21 May 2013].

Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
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Gender Bias in British Education Are Boys Really Failing

Words: 2252 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30458456

statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.

Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…… [Read More]


Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology

Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.

Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That

Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
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Gender Differences and Disparities in Science and Engineering Fields and Children

Words: 1901 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57110938

For example, The Council on Gender Parity in Labor, which is concerned with gender equality, has found that that "...gender inequity in science, engineering and technology fields is a workforce problem that inhibits the full utilization of the labor force. "(Gatta M. And Trigg M. 2001)

orks Cited

Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical ork: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006.

Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks

Impeding omen Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006.

Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the omen's Report. July 4, 2006.

Dehyse M.P. Educated oman: The Grad School Adventures of Micella

Phoenix Dehyse. 2004. July 4, 2006.

Etzkowitz H. Barriers to omen in Academic Science and Engineering. 1994.

July 2, 2006.



Works Cited

Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical Work: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006.

Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks

Impeding Women Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006.

Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the Women's Report. July 4, 2006.
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Gender a Society Is a

Words: 2484 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48723572

Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.

3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity

The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…… [Read More]


Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.

Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database:

Enos, T. (1996). Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database:

Mussap, A.J. (2008). Masculine Gender Role Stress and the Pursuit of Muscularity. International Journal of Men's Health, 7(1), 72+. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database:
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Gendered Society Gender and Sociology

Words: 1050 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39266047

Gender is an institution that people either widely accept as one way or another. Within any given society there are cultural norms that people identify with and that help shape their behaviors, values and beliefs. Gender differences thus can be easily created as an institution and can be representative of inequality when that inequality is supported or constructed by society at large (Kimmel, 2000). Kimmel suggests that inequalities are created as norms and arise within relationships, within families and even in the workplace or any other environment in which people work intimately (Kimmel, 2000).

Because gender is an institution according to Kimmel certain behaviors or actions are easily identified and labeled as appropriate or wrong (such as homosexuality) (Kimmel, 2000). If people adopt and follow social norms they will enjoy all the benefits associated with accepting the institution of gender correctly. When they do something incorrectly however people can expect…… [Read More]


Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kleinfeld, J.S. (2002). "Could it be a big world after all? The Six Degrees of Separation

Myth." 2, Nov. 2005: 

Napierkowski. "Six Degrees of Separation." Enotes. October 2003. 2 November 2005.
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Gender Awareness Gender Governs Almost

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72546341

Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.

Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?

Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…… [Read More]

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Gender and Crime

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31654235

Gender and Crime

How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.

The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…… [Read More]


Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from: 

Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Gender Divide

Words: 3400 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32780731

Gender Divide

Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?

In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…… [Read More]


Antill, John K., Cotton, Sandra, Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Russell Graeme. (1996) The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks. Journal Title: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 3-4. p215.

Babcock, Linda; & Laschever, Sara (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blanton, Kimberly (2003, June 13). Study Finds Men Routinely Ask for More Money Than Women in Salary Negotiations. The Boston Globe Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.

Cardwell, Margaret (2003). Babcock, Linda & Sara Laschever. Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Library Journal, 128, 101.
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Gender Race and Constitutional Change

Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83041050

The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)

Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…… [Read More]


Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at 

Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),

Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)

Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)
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Gender Selection

Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79485112

gender selection ETHICS

History attests to the fact that couples from oyal families down to rural peasants have shown preference for a male child leading to numerous problems for the girl child and creating a sex ratio imbalance in some traditional societies. When preference for a male child is more pronounced and obvious, any method that can allow a couple to choose the gender of their unborn child is likely to create tremendous potential for gender discrimination and sex-ratio imbalance. Sex-selection or gender-selection as it is commonly known as is one such method that threatens to put female children at risk of being outnumbered by their male counterparts. The pre-conception gender selection techniques along with some other means of choosing the gender of the unborn child has come under severe criticism because of the ethical issues they raise. We must understand that while preference for a specific sex is limited…… [Read More]


Clark Liana R. 1985. "Sex Preselection: The Advent of the Made-to-Order Child." The Pharos, Fall, pp. 2-7

Elizabeth Mathiot-Moen-author; Annette Burfoot - editor Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies Publisher: Westview Press. Boulder, CO. 1999.

Fletcher John C. 1980."Ethics and Amniocentesis for Fetal Sex Identification." Hastings Center Report 10: 15-18.

Gargan Edward A. 1991. "Ultrasonic Tests Skew Ratio of Births in India." New York Times, June 13.
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Gender Politics and the Nation

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73509222

Gender Politics and the Nation

The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.

Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).

Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Enloe, Cynthia. 2001. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics Updated Edition with a New Preface. University of California Press.
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Gender and Family Gender and

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54687065

The pressures created by single parenting and more specifically the need, by women to contribute economically to the household has also correlated to increase in crime among girls and boys. It is also clear that as the gender roles and expectations of girls as opposed to boys changes and in many ways overlaps there will and have been logical increases in the number of girls in the system and generally experiencing acts of juvenile delinquency.

Many link the decrease in the gap between violent offences among girls and boys to social change, often associated with the lack of paternal involvement. Yet, it is also true that the same can be said of boys, as boys without paternal involvement are much more likely than those with it to offend, in a myriad of ways. Yet, more common "split" and single parent situations are demonstrative of increased female offences. (Schaffner, 2006, p.…… [Read More]


Bridges, G.S. & Myers, M.A. (Eds.). (1994). Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, a., Rutter, M., & Silva, P.A. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Peters, S.R. (2001, December). Relationships' Role in Female Juvenile Delinquency. Corrections Today, 63, 76.

Schaffner, L. (2006). Girls in Trouble with the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
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Gender and War From a

Words: 1672 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58650142

Nonetheless, the example is similar. An entire nation of people is in an uprising against a powerful dictator, led by one man, defeats their enemies to get to victory. There are echoes here of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s in the United States led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

It is only when testimonial literature comes onto the scene that we understand how important both of these former points are. Testimonial narrative makes real the pain of poverty.

Gustavo Gutierrez's preferential option for the poor definitely becomes a misnomer when testimonial literature is introduced into the picture. The problem with preferential option for the poor is that it is a term specifically designed for the vocabulary of academics which seek to side with the poverty-stricken Other which they, the academics, most likely have little to no contact with on a daily basis.

However, they wish to have…… [Read More]


Bucur, Maria. "Between the Mother of the Wounded and the Virgin of Jiu: Romanian Women and the Gender of Heroism during the Great War." Journal of Women's History 12.2 (2000): 30-56.

Project MUSE.

Cockburn, Cynthia. "On The Machinery of Dominance: Women, Men, and Technical Know-How." WSQ:

Women's Studies Quarterly 37.1-2 (2009): 269-273. Project MUSE.
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Gender and International Relations International

Words: 10127 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58775378


Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).

If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.

On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…… [Read More]


Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Gender Pay Discrimination in the

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52051105

"(National ureau of Economic Research, 2001) Analysis of this period was conducted with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and findings indicate that women "were able to more than overcome the effect of adverse shifts in overall wage structure (that is rising labor-market returns to skills and to employment in high-paying male sectors) on their relative wages by improving their qualifications relative to men. So, although on average women continue to have less labor-market experience than men, they have narrowed the gender difference in experience considerably. They also have upgraded their occupations relative to men's, as they moved out of clerical and service occupations and into professional and managerial jobs. Women also have benefited from a decrease in the "unexplained" pay gap. Such a shift may reflect an upgrading of women's unmeasured labor-market skills, a decline in labor market discrimination against women, or a shift in labor market…… [Read More]


Gender Pay Gap Nothing to do with Discrimination (2008) Management-Issues. 21 Oct 2008. Online available at

Blau, Francine D. And Kahn, Lawrence M. (2001) the Gender Pay Gap. National Bureau of Economic Research. Summer 2001. Online available at

Behind the Pay Gap Press Release (2007) AAUW. 23 Apr 2007. Online available at
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Gender Bias in the Workplace

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21421843

Gender Bias in the Workplace

Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture of power and the roles of gender in a prevalent culture reverberate meaningful patrimonial control, with the maneuvering of a female gender an appurtenant element of its objective. Women working in a professional environment have to prove their importance within the acrimonious periphery created by men. Despite the changes, which have been brought in by many laws and movements, women today still do not enjoy a working environment where they would be given a status equal to that of a man.

In order to promote equal opportunities for both men and women in a working environment, the United States passed an act called Equal Employment Opportunity Act during the year 1972. This Act aims at eliminating illegal discrimination in a…… [Read More]


EEOC. 35 Years Of Ensuring The Promise Of Opportunity. Available on the address Accessed on 22 Jul. 2003.

U.S Department Of Labor. Title IX, Education Amendments Of 1972. Available on the address
U.S. Agency Sues Morgan Stanley For Sex Bias. Reuters Business Report. 10 Sept. 2001.

Samuels S.U. Fetal Rights, Women's Rights: Gender Equality In The Workplace. University of Wisconsin Press. 1995.
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Males and Females Inequality in the Workplace

Words: 2073 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50142487

Gender equality establishes the concept and attitude of unbiased and impartial allocation of corporate resources and prospects involving men and women. It establishes equality for men and women in terms of opportunity in social circles. But the corporate world is based on certain gender norms and stereotypes of role provisions. Hence these roles have made certain divisive identities (Sharma, & Sharma, 2012). The social norms of women being the housewife and caretaker of the family have infected eastern and western civilization. Corporations have been hiring women for mid-level and lower level positions, but they are blocked from top level positions (Ntermanakis, as cited by Mihail 2006).

According to Schein, Mueller, Lituchy and Liu (1996), women are afflicted with the typical think-manager-think male norm. In Nichols (1994) opinion, the popular opinion is that women aren't cut out for the tough decisions and roles of management position; hence they are kept out…… [Read More]


Lyman, L.L., Ashby, D.E., & Tripses, J.S. (2005). Leaders who dare: Pushing the boundaries. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Merchant, K., (2012). How Men and Women Differ: Gender differences in Communication Styles, Influence Tactics and Leadership Styles. Retrieved 29 September 2014 from

Michailidis, M.P., Morphitou, R.N., & Theophylatou, I.I. (2012). Women at work equality vs. inequality: barriers for advancing in the workplace. International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 23(20), 4231-4245. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.665071

Ryan, M.K., & Haslam, S.A. (2007). The glass cliff: Exploring the dynamics surrounding the appointment of women to precarious leadership positions. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 549-572.
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Nationalism Gender and the Nation

Words: 5424 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31370211

ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.

The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…… [Read More]


Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004

Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at:

Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004

Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
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Race Gender and Class the

Words: 2170 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15664707

Specifically reported by Coy is that the "recent launch of a black Disney princess may be an indicator of greater cultural diversity, but in terms of the 'girl power' values it carries the view that it is 'a great step . . . [and] could help black children see themselves more positively' (Adesioye, 2009) fails to address how it will reinforce messages of sexualization for black girls." (2009) to excel in the music industry, it is expected and even required that women become sexualized because this is a primary point of the success realized in the music industry as the music industry is highly sexualized overall. A study reported in the work of Stankiewitz and osselli (2008) states that the study examined the way that women were depicted in 1,988 advertisements "from popular U.S. magazines." The advertisements were coded in relation to whether women were presented as sex objects of…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from: 

Coy, M. (2009) Milkshakes, Lady Lumps, and Growing Up to Want Boobies: How the Finlay, a. (2013) Hyper-sexualizing Women Leads to Self-Objectification -- More Destructive and Prevalent than Society Admits

Liang, E. (2011) the Media's Sexualization of Female Athletes: A Bad Call for the modern Game. Vol. 3 No. 10. Retrieved from: 

Naubert, R. (2011) Media's Growing Sexualization of Women. Psych Central. Retrieved from:
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Health Inequalities Several Factors Have

Words: 3135 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10387894

ichard Mitchell and Professor Daniel Dorling from the University of Leeds and Dr. Mary Shaw from the University of Bristol on the parliamentary constituencies of Britain revealed a number of social policy scenarios. The study traced the impact of the variations to society that might be brought through the effective execution of three social and economic policies. Firstly, they examined the efficacy of the policy of modest redistribution of wealth to counteract the health inequalities. During the decades 1980s and 1990s there were a considerable variation in the wealth possessions of rich and poor reflected in the major variations in their health enumerated by mortality rates. The study revealed that by returning to the inequalities in wealth of 1983 about 7500 deaths annually could have been prevented. (educing health inequalities in Britain)

The study assessed the impact of such policy to be most effective in the Birmingham Ladywood constituency in…… [Read More]


Health inequalities kill thousands" (27 September, 1999) Retrieved at Accessed 3 September, 2005

Introduction to health inequalities" Retrieved at Accessed 3 September, 2005

Link BG; Phelan JC. (May, 2005) "Fundamental Sources of Health Inequalities" Policy

Challenges in Modern Health Care. pp: 71-84. Retrieved at Accessed 4 September, 2005
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Misconceptions of Science Sex and Gender

Words: 1363 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52965332

Science of Sex and Gender

Midterm Exam About Two Articles

Science is defined as the attainment of knowledge through practice or study. The concerted human effort in understanding better how the natural works using observable physical evidence is science (Chalmers p.4). There are many definitions of science and all point to one thing. Science involves making observations and studying in order to explain natural phenomena's. Without observation and study, it would not be possible to explain in a logical manner the various happenings that take place naturally. The interesting thing about science is the fact different theories can be formulated to explain the same phenomena. The hypothesis a scientist uses will determine the conclusions they make. Science is interesting because it offers people different explanations to why something happens and all the reasons could be logical or truthful. Having different meaning or theories explaining the same phenomena makes science a…… [Read More]


Chalmers, Alan F. What Is This Thing Called Science? Indianapolis, in: Hackett Publishing, 2013. Print.

Oudshoorn, Nelly. "Endocrinologists and the Conceptualization of Sex, 1920 -- 1940." Journal of the History of Biology 23.2 (1990): 163-86. Print.

Shields, Stephanie a. "Passionate Men, Emotional Women: Psychology Constructs Gender Difference in the Late 19th Century." History of Psychology 10.2 (2007): 92. Print.
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Women's and Gender Studies

Words: 3367 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70447437

omen and Gender Studies

Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins

Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.

Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female

Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):
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Social Order and Inequality

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93626626

Social Order and Inequalities

Social order and inequality

Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.

Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…… [Read More]

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Women and Gender International Human Rights

Words: 5450 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39241588

International Human ights, Women and Gender

International Human ights: Women and Gender

Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).

Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).

The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…… [Read More]


Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.

Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.

CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.

CEDAW. (2010). General recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations Publications.
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Pay Inequality a Moral and Ethical Issue in Business

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80644060

Pay Inequality

Pay equality has for the longest time been one of the most hotly debated topics in the corporate world. When the Equal Pay bill became law in 1963, women were averagely earning just 58.9% of what men were averagely being paid, according to the congressional committee that tabled the bill. In 2011, this percentage had increased to about 77% of what men were averagely being paid for full-time work. These statistics show that there is a somewhat entrenched mentality of paying women lower wages for a job that men would be paid higher for, despite the fact that many firms are claiming to have put in place measures to bring about gender equality in their workplaces (Dontigney, n.d.). This paper examines the issue underlying the equal pay between men and women.

Moral Arguments

Some human resource managers have argued that the difference in pay between women and men…… [Read More]


Andrews, K. (2015, July 14). Why the gender pay gap is a myth. Retrieved from The Spectator:

Babcock, L., & Laschever, S. (2003). Women don't ask Negotiation and the gender divide. Princeton: Princeton University.

Blau, F., & Kahn, L. (2007). The Gender Pay Gap. Academy of Management Perspectives, 7-23.

Bluestone, B., Murphy, W. M., Stevenson, M (1973). Low wages and the working poor. Policy papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 22. Ann Arbor: Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations.
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Misconceptions About Gender Roles

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41273363

Male & Female Roles in Modern American Society

Being a Man

From time immemorial, the society has placed unnecessary pressure on men. There has been a great expectation on masculinity when compared to feminism. hereas there have been several advocacies for gender inequality, such has always been skewed towards the rights of women in the society. This has largely been successful in emphasizing the equal rights of women to men. However, the society has ignored the struggle for equal rights of men. Statements such as "be a man" are often used in society in reference to men. Such phrases imply that men have other physical, emotional and psychological abilities that women lack. The frequent use of such phrases in society serves to put men under pressure to behave and act in a certain way.

The use of such phrases in society against men has served to increase insensitivity and lack…… [Read More]

Work cited

Psychological Association of America. "Men and Women: No Big Difference." American Psychological Association. APA, 20 Oct. 2005. Web. 07 Apr. 2017

Theroux, Paul. Being a Man. In Sunrise with Seamonsters. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1986
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Gender-Based Sexual Inequality Gender Equality

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38089880



The gender-based sexual double standard is logically indefensible on any level.

Piercing the thin veil of justifications offered supporting it requires little more than substitution of the identity of the subjects in any hypothetical or analogy based on the premise. Nevertheless, it persists throughout most of American culture, and sadly, its manifestations in the Western World are infinitely more benign than the cruelty it inspires elsewhere. Ultimately, its roots lie both in the usefulness of rationalization for justifying the truly immoral pursuit of sexual conquests by deception, and (likely) male psychological fears of sexual inadequacy whose details far exceed the scope of this essay.


Baker, ., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus

Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum

Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey eports on Sexual behavior in…… [Read More]


Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus

Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum

Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey Reports on Sexual behavior in the Human Male and Female. New York: Mentor

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essential of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
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Inequalities Are Made and Remade South Wales

Words: 1093 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49286940

Inequalities Are Made and emade South Wales

The objective of this work is to examine the way that inequalities are made and remade in South Wales. As this study will relate, there are inherent inequalities in South Wales both historically and traditionally. The work of Winckler (2009) entitled "Equality Issues in Wales: A esearch eview" that statistics on equality in Wales is based on measurements relating to race, gender, disability, age, sexual orientation, and religion. The report states that there are 10,000 refugees and 2,500 asylum seeker in Wales, in addition to 2,000 Gypsy Travelers. Men are outnumbered by women. 29% of the population is 60 years old or older. An approximate 27% of the adult population is disabled.

Poverty and Social Exclusion

Winckler states that sufficient evidence exists to make the conclusion that ethnic minority groups along with individuals who are disabled and children and young people as well…… [Read More]


Moore, H. And Jorm, L. (nd) Measuring Health Inequalities in New South Wales. NSW Public Health Bulletin. Vol. 12 No. 4.

Regional Inequalities in Wales (2011) Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research. Data and Methods. WISERD. Retrieved from:

Winckler, V. (2009) Equality Issues in Wales: A Research Review. Equality and Human Rights Commission. Spring 2009. Research Report 11. The Bevan Foundation.
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Gender and Science

Words: 840 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22706559

gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.

Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.

Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.

Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.
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Inequalities Impact on Our Lives

Words: 2672 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93995215

Murray characterizes educational romantics as people who believe that the academic achievement of children is determined mainly by the opportunities they receive and has little to do with their intellectual capacity. Educational romantics believe the current K-12 education system is in need of vast improvement.

Murray describes two types of educational romantics, one set on the Left and one on the ight, and differentiates between the two thusly:

"Educational romantics of the Left focus on race, class, and gender. It is children of poor parents, and girls whose performance is artificially depressed, and their academic achievement will blossom as soon as they are liberated from the racism, classism, and sexism embedded in American education. Those of the ight see public education as an ineffectual monopoly, and think that educational achievement will blossom when school choice liberates children from politically correct curricula and obdurate teachers' unions (Murray, 2008)."

Both of these…… [Read More]


Bluestone, B. (2001, December 10). The inequality express. The American Prospect. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from 

Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. (1976). Education and inequality. In Schooling in capitalistic America: Educational reform and contraditions of economic life. New York: Basic Books Inc., 347-352. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from 

Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York: Random House.

Murray, C. (2008). The age of educational romanticism. The New Criterion, Vol. 26, Issue 9, 35-42. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from
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Gender as Socially Constructed Categories

Words: 1103 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22675050

Race/Ethnicity or Sex/Gender as Socially Constructed Categories

Sociological ethnicity and race theories have been dictated by the social construct metaphor, which indicates that these theories are ideological groups that serve to conceal the actual social structural principles. The above notion is a problematical one as it ignores the context wherein ethnicity and race function as bases of social significance as well as working material exclusion principles (Smaje, 1997). While gender and sex are words that are frequently employed interchangeably, their meanings are, in fact, different. Sex represents a categorization on the basis of biological dissimilarities -- for instance, dissimilarities between females and males grounded in their physiology or anatomy. On the other hand, gender represents a categorization on the basis of the societal creation and preservation of cultural differences between females and males. That is, gender denotes a social concept pertaining to culture-bound conduct, rules, and roles for, and relations…… [Read More]


Ford, C. L., & Harawa, N. T. (2010). A new conceptualization of ethnicity for social epidemiologic and health equity research. Social Science & Medicine, 1-8.

Frable, D. E. (1997). Gender, racial, ethnic, sexual, and class identities. Annual Review of Psychology.

LM, H., & DG, B. (2006). Sex/Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Health. In Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Assessing Interactions Among Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health.

R., A. (1990). Sex, gender and the individual. In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 486-526.
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Gender & Status Relationship of

Words: 858 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9232786

. Health insurance is compulsory in Japan and all citizens are covered by health insurance either through an employee health insurance or through the national health insurance (Reid, 2008). In the U.., the Census Bureau reports that citizens 65 years old and older are the most health insured and that the lowest proportion of people who are not covered by health insurance are those who have higher incomes.

The relationship of status to age and gender differs in terms of country. Perhaps one plausible reason is that the difference between the two countries can be a function of other factors such as difference in culture and in value system.


DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B.D., & mith, J.C. (2009). Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United tates: 2008. Retrieved from

Doogue, G. (Interviewer) & Marmot, M. tatus yndrome -- How Your ocial tanding Directly Affects Your Health and…… [Read More]

Status. (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Retrieved from

The Conference Board of Canada 2009. Society: Gender Income Gap. Retrieved from

United Nations Statistics Division. Statistics and Indicators on Women and Men. Retrieved from
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Gender Race Ethnicity and Class

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31886391

England Faces Modern Britain -- From ace and Soccer to Women Bishops and Gay ights" has been chosen for the discussion on the intersection of gender, race and inequality.

The article published in International Herald Tribune by Mark Ashurt is about the various issues which the Modern England is facing. The title itself shows the theme of the article, as the issues of acism, Gender, and Ethnicity are still existent in the Modern Britain. The first issue concerns the soccer world and is related to racism. John Terry, the former England captain is accused of racially abusing an opponent of Queens Park angers (Anton Ferdinand). The verdict of the jury is set to be out soon and will open a number of debated regarding the racism issue. Sports have not saved it from being in the middle of controversies related to racism, sexuality and gender. The article has linked the…… [Read More]


Ashurt, M. (2012, 13th July). England Faces Modern Britain -- From Race and Soccer to Women Bishops and Gay Rights. International Herald Tribune

Wallman, S. (1977). "Ethnicity research in Britain," Current Anthropology, v. 18, n. 3, pp. 531 -- 532.
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gender race power and privilege

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38168880

McIntosh (1988) puts it, the primary issue with privilege and the power that comes with it is that those who are privileged rarely realize or acknowledge it. Denial of power and privilege perpetuates problems, because when men display "unwillingness to grant that they are over privileged," it becomes impossible to engage in meaningful dialogue or generate change (McIntosh, 1988, p. 22). One example of how dialogue is systematically shut down is the backlash against feminism, and the fear of "feminization" of society that is commonly heard among the most powerful and privileged. In the same way, whites fail to recognize white privilege, going so far as to make accusations of "reverse racism" when any attempt is made to reverse structural inequality.

Flagg (1993) also raises a crucial concern about the need for race consciousness, not racial erasure or "color blindness." To be color blind is to deny not only the…… [Read More]


Flagg, B.J. (1993). "Was Blind, but Now I See": White Race Consciousness and the Requirement of Discriminatory Intent. Michigan Law Review, Vol. 91, No. 5 (Mar., 1993), pp. 953-1017.

McIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege and male privilege. In Bender & Braverman, Power, Privilege And Law: A Civil Rights Reader.
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Gender Race and Inequality in Brown S Clotel

Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53602634

Brown's Clotel

William Wells Brown defies notions of race and gender in his novel Clotel, or the President's Daughter by subverting the traditional norms associated with gender via the "cult of domesticity" that saturated the American public consciousness throughout the 19th century, locating true womanhood within the domestic work and life of the home. Brown's portrayal of womanhood, however, in Clotel contradicts the "cult" mentality by depicting not only a strong woman but a strong black woman -- which challenges the racial stereotypes and "ethnic notions" popularized by American media in the antebellum years as well. This paper will show how Brown achieves this contrasting view of race and gender in his novel by developing the character of Clotel in such a way that she resists all stereotypes and even takes on the persona of the tragic heroine when she jumps to her death at the end of the novel…… [Read More]


Brown, W. W. (1853). Clotel, or The President's Daughter. London: Partridge & Oakey.

Child, L. M. (1842). The Quadroons. In, The Liberty Bell. Boston: Anti-Slavery Fair.

Fabi, G. (2001). The Mark Without. In, Passing and the Rise of the African-American

Novel. IL: University of Illinois Press.