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In the world today, the most common way in which human beings probably distinguish themselves is by their gender. All human beings, or at least the vast majority, are born as clearly male or female. Perhaps this is also why this distinction has, since ancient times, served as a factor in human relationships and indeed vast-scale human oppression and even slavery. Indeed, to this day many women suffer indignities at the hands of patriarchal societies with a sense of entitlement over the fates of half or more of their populations. Whatever one's personal views on this state of affairs might be, it is interesting indeed to consider ancient literature to determine the various cultural roots of many patriarchal societies and viewpoints that remain existing to this day. Often grounded in religious values, the male-female relationship is complicated not only by the "men are from Mars" ideal, but also…
Sex is a biological given. Some animal species have one sex, some have two, and some have more than two. This is interesting to scientists perhaps, in terms of its physical construction. However, gender is what culture 'does' with these distinctions of physiology. Gender is how culture interprets the apparent biological differences between particular human bodies of different sexual anatomy. hat does it mean, for instance, that a certain body may be capable of giving birth later in life, and another body may not? It is here, in the distinctions between bodies observed and imposed by our culture, where sociologists and theorists of gender identity find their theoretical interests aroused, poised for deconstructive action.
One of the most important theories posed by gender identity scholars is that the distinction of two sexes, male and female as well as the distinction of two genders, man and woman, is questionable.…
Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble, Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, New York: Routledge, Chapman & Hall.
Strong, Brian, et.al. (2003) Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America. Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
Bem Androgyny Test. (2004) Retrieved on October 6, 2004 at http://www.velocity.net/~galen/androgyn.html.
Gender ole Analysis
How Gender is Shaped by Education
How Gender is Shaped by Public Policy
How Gender is Shaped in the Workplace
This report discusses the role played by social institutions such as schools, workplaces and policy making institutions in the shaping of gender roles and norms in society. These institutions hold control over desired resources such as information, wealth and social progress. They control the distribution of these resources by making it contingent on the performance of certain behaviours. It is found that these behaviours vary according to gender with boys expected to excel at certain subjects at school and girls at other regardless of differences in intelligence and cognition. Similarly, women in the workplace are expected to show a preference and aptitude for certain jobs whereas men are encouraged to aim for top management positions because they are perceived to be more intelligent, aggressive and rational. Similarly,…
Agars, M.D. (2004). Reconsidering the Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Advancement of Women in Organizations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol. 28, pp. 103-113. Retrieved on 25 April 2012 from EBSCO Academic Search Primer.
Cabrera, S.F., Sauer, S.J., & Thomas-Hunt, M.C. (2009). The evolving manager Stereotype: The Effects of Industry Gender Typing on Performance Expectation for Leaders and their Teams. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol. 33, pp. 419-428. Retrieved on 25 April 2012 from EBSCO Academic Search Primer.
Good, J, J., Woodzicka, J.A., & Wingfield, L.C. (2010). The Effects of Gender Stereotypic and Counter-Stereotypic Textbook Images on Science Performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 150, (2), pp. 132-147. Retrieved on 25 April 2012 from EBSCO Academic Search Primer.
Hallock, E. (2009). Gender Stereotypes in Canadian Immigration. John and Mary Yaremko Forum on Multiculturalism and Human Rights: Student Symposium on Women's Human Rights.
Gender Roles in Everybody Loves Raymond
Even with the fact that society as a whole has experienced significant progress during recent years, it seems difficult for the media to stop using stereotypes when relating to particular groups. Philip Rosenthal's television sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond is a perfect example concerning gender roles and how the media tends to use them with the purpose of shaping particular characters. In spite of its humor, the show reinforces a series of gender roles and appears to send the message that it is only natural for men to take on particular attitudes and for women to behave in a certain way.
From the very first scenes of the Pilot episode one is likely to observe that the show presents a typical family. Ray, the main character, arrives home after seeing a sports event while his wife is staying at home with the couple's children. The…
Gender roles are the behaviors and traits and expectations that are linked to women and men through socialization, according to Janice Lee and Amie Ashcraft (2005). In fact gender roles define what it means to be a feminine or masculine person. During one's lifetime there is an enormous amount of social pressure to "conform to these gender roles" (Lee, 2005). This paper examines the gender roles learned from family, school, and from the media. People who fail to behave "…according to gender stereotypes are judged less likable, competent, and attractive" than those who do show appropriate traits and behaviors that match their gender (Lee, 7).
Gender role association learned from family
The individual begins to learn his or her gender role not long after birth, associating the values and beliefs that are associated with "masculinity and femininity" from the family. The mother in a family fills the role…
Brym, R.J., and Lie, J. (2009). Sociology: Your Compass for a New World, the Brief Ed:
Your Compass for a New World. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Lee, J.W., and Ashcraft, A.M. (2005). Gender Roles. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers
Long, R. (2011). Social Problems / Chapter 9: Gender Inequality. Retrieved June 29, 2013, from http://dmc122011.delmar.edu/socsi/rlong/problems/chap-09.htm.
Anderson, I. (2007). What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception. The British Psychological Society, 46, 3225-245.
Anderson, I. & Lyons, a. (2005). The Effect of Victims Social Support on Attribution of Blame in Female and Male ape. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(7), 1400-1417.
Davies, M. & McCartney S. (2003). Effects of Gender and Sexuality on Judgments of Victim Blame and ape Myth Acceptance in a Depicted Male ape. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 13, 391-398.
Doherty, K. & Anderson, I. (2004). Making sense of male rape: constructions of gender
Sexuality, and experience of male rape victims. Journal of Community & Applied
Social Psychology, 14(2), 85-103.
Kassing, L.. & Prieto, L.. (2003). The ape Myth and Blame-Based Beliefs of Counselors-in-Training Toward Male Victims of ape. Journal of Counseling & Development, 81(4), 455-461.
Groth, a.N. & Burgess, a.W.…
Anderson, I. (2007). What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception. The British Psychological Society, 46, 3225-245.
Anderson, I. & Lyons, a. (2005). The Effect of Victims Social Support on Attribution of Blame in Female and Male Rape. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(7), 1400-1417.
Davies, M. & McCartney S. (2003). Effects of Gender and Sexuality on Judgments of Victim Blame and Rape Myth Acceptance in a Depicted Male Rape. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 13, 391-398.
Doherty, K. & Anderson, I. (2004). Making sense of male rape: constructions of gender
Gender Identities and Gender oles
One has very little choice as to what sex one is born with, but identifying with a certain gender is a different story. Although an individual can be born with a given sex, that does not guarantee the development of a specific type of gender (Lahey, 2005). Gender identity can have both biological and social influential factors, and it is this that in the end, define these concepts.
By the time a child is 30 months old, they have learned what the concept of gender identity is (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). Children learn that they are part of a certain category, whether it is boy or girl, and they know how to differentiate between a boy and a girl. Although at the beginning stages of gender identity development children still believe that gender could be changed, they are aware of its existence (Lahey, 2005). In…
Lahey, B. (2005). Psychology: An introduction. McGraw Hill: New York, NY. 9ed.
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2008). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior with concept maps and review. Wadsworth Publishing: Belmont, CA. 12ed.
Gender roles are influenced by family, peers, culture and the media. Even fifty years ago, gender roles were much more rigidly defined and people were strongly influenced by their families and the communities in which they lived. The women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s eroded many long-held stereotypical views of what was once known as "the fairer sex." An important piece of legislation that resulted from the women's movement was Title IX, which created sports programs for girls that enabled them to have facilities, equipment and opportunities more comparable to those that had long been enjoyed only by boys. The gay pride movement, a more mobile society, and the proliferation of various media outlets also contributed greatly to the changing nature of gender roles. For the individual, gender identity is shaped from birth to adulthood by a combination of forces. The strength of various influences depends on a person's…
Antill, J.K., Cunningham, J.D., Cotton, S. (2003). Gender-role attitudes in middle childhood: In what ways do parents influence their children? Australian Journal of Psychology 55(3), pp. 148-153).
Pappas, S. (2010). Women still out-clean men at home. LiveScience. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/10318-women-clean-men-home.html
The industry experts believe that there is vague idea about the responsibilities which can be assigned to women. Because of their physical structure, they should not be given physical tasks and because of perceived inabilities at mental part, they are not given decision making jobs.
There are arguments in favor of giving the female workers the same tasks which are given to male workers. The concept is rooted from the slogan of equity which is displayed for the same remuneration. Coming back to the previously discussed argument, when females ask for the same level of remuneration to be given to them for the jobs which are done by both females and males, people consider the vice versa demand in place. It means they start assuming that females should be given the same responsibilities as given to males. As females ask for equality in pay package, organizations and decision makers plan…
Bolino, Mark and Turnley, William. "Old faces, new places: equity theory in cross-cultural contexts." Journal of Organizational Behavior 29.50 (2008): 29-50. Print
Caldwell, Cam, Hayes, Linda., & Long, Do. "Leadership, Trustworthiness and ethical stewardship." Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2010) 497-512. Print.
Chen, Chao, Meindl, James and Hui, Harry. "Deciding on equity or parity: a test of situational, cultural, and individual factors." Journal of Organizational Behavior 19.2 (1999) 115-129. Print.
Covey, Stephen. Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. USA: Free Press, 2004. Print
Gender oles in Much Ado About Nothing and Trifles
Today, gender roles have become far more flexible than as recently as 50 years ago. Women today can enter management positions, have focused careers, and expect salaries on the same level as those of men. Indeed, some women have proved themselves to be as competent, or more so, in leadership positions as men. At the same time, however, women are free to choose for themselves the lives they want, and some prefer lives as home makers and mothers. Society today is far more tolerant of women who choose either a career, homemaking, or a balance of both to live their lives. This is why it is so interesting to examine plays from earlier times, when assigned gender roles were far more rigid. Authors such as Shakespeare in "Much Ado About Nothing" and Susan Glaspell in "Trifles" offer significant comment on the…
Glaspell, S. "Trifles." Retrieved from: http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=GlaTrif.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=1&division=div1
Shakespeare, William. "Much Ado About Nothing." Retrieved from: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/much_ado/full.html
Gender Roles in Contemporary Culture.
Fight Club: Gender roles in contemporary culture
Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk was a rare cultural phenomenon when it was first released. It was a literary work of trade fiction that became a best-seller because of its ability to tap into a cultural obsession of its time, namely the idea that masculinity is a threatened commodity. In the novel, a group of men create a secret club where they attempt to demonstrate their primal masculinity by engaging in bare-fisted brawling. This is portrayed as a way for men to find their identity in a faceless, placeless world where the traditional methods for men to prove themselves have been stripped away. Fight Club exemplifies a recent trend in contemporary attempts to construct a form of primitive masculinity that idealize a primordial past, absent of women and embodying an essentialized views of manhood.
The narrator of Fight…
King, Mark. "Stay-at-home dads on the up: one in seven fathers are main childcarers."
The Guardian. 25 Oct 2011. [13 Oct 2012]
Paton, Graeme. "Boys more likely to struggle in coed schools. The Telegraph. 11 Jul 2011.
.. she would disclose nothing about the one unto the other, save what might avail to their reconcilement." (onfessions, Book IX, 21)
It is certainly true that Monica was patient and long-suffering with her arbitrary son. The pitiful story depicted in onfessions describes how she pursued her rebellious son to Rome, to find he had already left for Milan. She continued to follow him (a model of bravery in itself) and found St. Ambrose, who helped her with the conversion of her son, Augustine, to hristianity.
After six months in assiacum,
Augustine was baptized in the church of St. John the Baptist at Milan. Then he and his mother started out on a trip to Africa, stopping at ivita Vecchia and at Ostia, where death claimed Monica. Mourning for his mother, Augustine penned the finest pages of his onfessions. Monica was a good mother, but Augustine regretted that, as a…
Confessions. Kevin Knight, ed. New Advent, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2007 at http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/110109.htm .
Translations call Grendel's mother a "monster woman," an "ogress," a "monstrous woman," a "witch of the sea" and a "monster-wife" in the phrase in the poem that introduces her. But Christine Alfano believes there is little evidence for this monstrous imagery in the actual Old English language that different translations employ. In Old English she is called an ides, "lady," and aglaecwif, "warrior-woman," not a "monstrous ogress," "witch of the sea," or "monster woman." This is the reader's first introduction to Grendel's mother, and Alfano believes these distortions are particularly pernicious. The initial appearance most likely influences subsequent impressions of this character, and it should have a more human reading of her character (Alfano 2). Alfano also bemoans the translation of "mother" to "dam," a word for an animal. This takes away the human and feminine aspect of Grendel's mother. Other words that describe her as a "rare sort of warrior" are translated arbitrarily by various authors into trans-gender words that take away her role as a woman warrior.
" In response to this change in Luann's career plans, her Aunt Peggy suggests that she is "no playing with the big boys" and encourages her to continue to studies at the local community college.
Luann also makes it clear that she will brook no male chauvinism from the likes of Cotton Hill in spite of everyone else's accepting his behaviors. For instance, when Cotton slaps Luann on the bottom and tells her that only a man can tell her when she looks good, Luanna grabs his hand and advises Cotton that if he ever does that again, he will "draw back a nub instead of a hand." Indeed, according to Dalton and Linder (2009), "Casual viewers (and some critics) underestimate creators Greg Daniels and Mike Judge," but long-time viewers will readily recognize the gender roles being portrayed in "King of the Hill" (p. 4). In fact, Dalton and Linder…
Dalton, M.M. & Linderr, L.R. (2009, Summer). Introduction. Journal of Film and Video, 61(2),
Thompson, E. (2009, Summer). 'I am not down with that': King of the Hill and sitcom satire.
Journal of Film and Video, 61(2), 38-41.
Gender Role Expectations
Gender roles have shaped society for centuries and continue to do so now. Various cultures attribute certain attitudes, behaviors and values to particular genders and deviation from the roles for any of the genders may be viewed as inappropriate. Gender roles are a construct of the society and are what cultures view as fit for both women and men as they interact with one another on a daily basis. Given these societal standards, women and men meeting for the first time expect certain actions and attitudes from the other party especially when they are choosing a long-term mate. Previous research points to men and women responding positively to the traditional sex stereotypes of the other. This paper examines what preferences men and women have when choosing a life or romantic partner.
A look at the Personals on Craigslist in New York City reveals that there is certain…
Austen in her book Sense and Sensibility aggressively and successfully attempts to reconstruct fiction in patriarchal gender conceptions. The dissonance of a masculinized Dashwood and feminized Edward Ferrars amounts to a high degree of reconstruction of gender stereotypes. Traditional writers have urged women to come out strongly and condemn their discrimination by any means be it at family or community level. Moreover, Austen's female gender plays a subordinate role in the family.
Jane Austen is neither completely conservative in her fiction's themes, nor is she promoting a radical form of feminism she insists that something must usually hold a woman back, it may be economics, family background, or her own individuality and in any circumstances a compromise must be made between the individual and society.
At some point Austen seems to support the conventional values of a woman for example finding pleasure in their marriages although at some…
Many employers refused to hire women despite governmental regulations, or hired them at much lower rates than their male counterparts. While society was expanding their gender role again, the limitations surrounding this expansion left women confused as to their position in society (upp, 74). Even those who supported the new roles accepted them only in a temporary fashion, expected women to return again to their role of homemaker and wife following the war years (upp, 75).
When America claimed victory, the positions held by women were extinguished. The men returned home, and resumed their roles as the main bread winner of the family. However, the gender role shift for women did not allow some to simply return to their previous lives. Women had found a freedom in employment, and had fought discrimination and achieved social and economic mobility without the assistance of males. Many women chose to continue their employment,…
Allen, Frederick. Since Yesterday: The 1930's in America. New York: Perennial, 1986.
American Centuries. Gender Roles. 1998. Memorial Hall. 19 April, 2007. http://www.memorialhall.mass.edu/turns/view.jsp?itemid=1344&subthemeid=2.
Cawthorne, Nigel. Sixties Source Book. London: Quantum, 1998.
Goldstein, Josh. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
The psychological burden of such an undertaking will not fail to appear. The vicinity of the Holocaust was yet another element that gave the changes in gender relationships another twist.
In the closing chapter to his book the Second World War: A Short History, Robert Alexander lark Parker emphasized the enormous changing effects the Second World War had at all levels of society in the European countries. Entire cities and villages destroyed, family lives altered for ever, mass murder and atrocities revealed as the war approached an end, all these elements converged toward changed mentalities. Thse affected the gender relationships for good. Even if the process of women's emancipation was still slow and had many obstacles to overcome yet, it rolled like an avalanched that swept the entire Europe and the United States. The old male dominated societies were in no position to oversee women's merits during the war, as…
Clarke Parker, Robert Alexander. The Second World War: A Short History. Oxford University Press, 2001
Noaks and Pridham. Nazism, 1919 -- 1945. Vol IV. The German HomeFront in World War II, pp. 360-2
Overy, R.J. The Origins of the Second World War. Second Edition. Longman. 1998
Whatever the case the main point to understand regarding male gender roles is this- the established "normal" gender role has been blurred due to free expression of true self as well as a feeling in society that this is acceptable behavior (Devor, 1989).
Female Gender oles-Followed and Violated
Similarly to the male gender definition, the female gender role has been defined and forced upon society by longstanding traditions, perceptions of what the true expression of feminine behavior should be, etc. All of this, of course, is amplified by mass media, entertainment, and in the present day, the Internet. Loyal following of the female gender role can be seen in advertising for department stores which depict women as mind numbed robots who will buy every dress in sight because it exists, the dutiful mother serving fresh baked cookies to the children, and icons such as Martha Stewart who make it seem…
Borich, B.J. (1999). What Kind of King. The Gettysburg Review.
Devor, Holly. (1989). Gender Blending: Confronting the Limits of Duality.
Quindlen, Anna (2000). Women are Just Better. In GH Muller & HS Weiner (Eds.), The Short Prose Reader (9th ed., p.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Suarez, Veciana. Thank Heaven for Little Boys. Maasik, & Solomon (2003). Signs of Life in the U.S.A. (4th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martins.
These roles however do not reflect women's status in society, nor do they reflect society's beliefs about equality and gender roles. Women who hold executive positions still earn less than men (Glascock, 2001) do. Women are also viewed unfavorably when they act aggressively or forcefully, whereas men are applauded for their efforts. On television, women are seen as actors, and actors alone.
Women who are empowered are often "dolled" up so that while they are powerful or empowered, they still are subject to the direction and fancies of their male counterparts. This trend is evident on television and in society. Feminist women would much prefer women be afforded equal opportunities and equal pay, as well as regard, on television and in real life. While television attempts to model these aspirations, it falls short of its primary objective.
Within society, women are still unequal to men, even though they are working…
Cantor, M.G. "The American family on television: From Molly Goldberg to Bill Cosby."
Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 22.1: 1991, 205-207.
Douglas, Susan. "Signs of Intelligent Life on TV." Signs of Life in the U.S.A. 5th ed.
Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 270-74.
Both foot binding as well as kimono wearing were accompanied by rituals where only women were allowed. Nor Chinese or Japanese men were allowed to participate to the rituals. Aside from the primary scope of the ceremonies, the practices would also help women bond. The older women, the experienced geishas in Japan or the mother in China, would pass on her wisdom to the younger female, the novice geisha or the daughter. While helping the young Japanese woman put on her kimono, the more experienced geisha would discuss the role of the kimono within society. When binding her daughter's feet, the Chinese mother would tell her how small feet would help her find a rich husband. In both cases, men did not play any part.
Both articles detail the actions that would occur. This a main difference between the two practices as one was extremely painful, and one was rather…
Dalby, L., Kimono
Chapter 3: Cross (Cultural) Dressing
Americans judged the Chinese according to the own ideals and customs. This distorted the American view of China was that it was much like the United States in many ways (Jesperson, 1996, p. 8). When China came under communist control, Americans made the error of thinking that the Chinese were just like them in many ways.
egardless of how one feels about the westernization of China and Chinese culture, its presence cannot be denied. As the Chinese government is forced to loosen its policies regarding the media and censorship, it cannot help the influx of new ideals. The Chinese people are being exposed to western ideas and must decide for themselves whether to accept or reject them. This study will measure the trend in exposure to westernized ideals in the Chinese media and the effects that is having on the attitudes expressed by Chinese college students.
Changing Images of Chinese…
Chang, L. 1999. Gender Role Egalitarian Attitudes in Beijing, Hong Kong, Florida, and Michigan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 30 (6), pp. 722-741.
Jespersen, T. 1996. American Images of China, 1931-1949. H-PCAACA. Stanford, California:
Laikwan, P. 2005. Female Images in Modern China (JWH). Journal of Women's History. 17 (4), pp. 66-85.
Ling, L. 1999. Sex Machine: Global Hypermasculinity and Images of the Asian Woman in Modernity. East Asia Cultures Critique. 7 (2), 277-306.
Gender Roles in the Contemporary Society
ith the contemporary society having reached an impressive level of equality and moral thinking, a series of traditional ideas came to be refuted. omen in particular have experienced much progress across recent centuries and their fight for equality continues to this day. Even with this, there is much controversy concerning the role that women play in the social order. Many are likely to have a limited understanding of their current position and one is likely to come across a series of divisive opinions when asking the question "what makes a woman?" Probably one of the best methods of addressing this discussion would be to consider the idea of a transgender person.
People have been historically accustomed to thinking that men and women are essentially different because of each group taking on gender roles characteristic to it. Even with this, as gender roles became more…
Burket, E. "What Makes a Woman." The New York Times.
"American Transgender [National Geographic]," Retrieved July 01, 2015 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zqMzpSxbdC4
Those who followed the show through all its drama must have wished to be one of the four friends at one time or another. To add to the fantasy, the female characters completely overshadow their male counterparts.
This unusually strong female presence creates an insignificant role for any male characters. There are no main male characters, and most on the show are only involved via one of the four female friends. Without an intimate connection to one of these women, the male characters completely fall into obscurity. These male characters are replaceable, and are treated much like many other shows treat female characters. Their insignificance contributes to the overall female fantasy which governs the show's writing and production.
In many facets of modern day life, especially in cities like New York, working woman face discrimination based on their gender. Therefore in a medium of escapism such as television, many want…
In ilmot's power the woman stays weak and never takes charge. There are many underlying issues that that are uncovered in the treatment of gender roles within the society in which these poems were written.
Men are expected to have a voracious appetite for sex. This appetite for sex is equated with power and power is the key defining feature of male identity. Gender roles and structures of oppression are clear in ilmot's poem. Behm tears them down on a number of levels in her work. Thus, Behm lashes out against oppression against women, which was the norm in her society. The woman in ilmot's poem is the object of desire. She displays the perfect response to male advances. She is at first hesitant and reluctant, but later gives in to his advances. In this way, she acts in the manner of a proper lady. The women are not supposed…
Behm, Aphra. The Disappointment. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.web-
Wilmot, John. The Imperfect Enjoyment. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/imperfect.html
PSYCHOLOGY Psychology: Annotated Bibliography 1Paek, H., Nelsion, M.R., & Vilela, A.M. Examination of gender-role portrayals in television advertising across seven countries. Sex Roles, 64, 192-207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9850-yThe authors of the article have extensively researched gender roles on a cultural, country-wise, and practical level for the selected countries and their advertising strategies. The prime time TV commercials for seven countries were chosen in which China and the United States were also included. In China, it was revealed that very few female models in the advertisements are portrayed as homemakers, and this image was changed from strict role classification under Confucianism to less stringent female-gendered role under Communist reign. In contrast, United States advertisements have shown women as more homemakers, and the high masculinity factor has been associated with mens role. In contrast, women are more of the product users only.Gupta, T., Way, N., Hughes, D., Jia, Y., Chen, X., McGill, R.K., Santos,…
Hare-Mustin, R.T. (1988). Family change and gender differences: Implications for theory and practice. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 37(1), 36-41. https://doi.org/10.2307/584427
Koenig, L.R., Blum, R.W., Shervington, D., Green, J., Li, M., Tabana, H., & Moreau, C. (2021). Unequal gender norms are related to symptoms of depression among young adolescents: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 69, S47-S55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.01.023
Mmari, K., Blum, R.W., Atnafou, R., Chilet, E., Meyer, S., El-Gibaly, O., Basu, S., Bello, B., Maina, B. & Zuo, X. (2017). Exploration of gender norms and socialization among early adolescents: The use of qualitative methods for the global early adolescent study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61, S12-S18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.07.006
Paek, H., Nelsion, M.R., & Vilela, A.M. Examination of gender-role portrayals in television advertising across seven countries. Sex Roles, 64, 192-207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9850-y
IV. Critical Assessment
The nature-nurture debate is an intriguing one but is also one that has no clear result. The issue has been debated by the leading experts in all the various fields of study and, yet, the debate continues. The debate transcends the determination of what color eyes one has and who and what determines this issue. Matters of this sort can be resolved through a simple genetics study but it goes into issues such as why some individuals prefer playing sports over playing music or why some people prefer Coke over Pepsi. Such examples may seem overly simplistic but they demonstrate the essence of the debate. Are such preferences the result of a genetic disposition or parental influence? The simple answer is that there is no clear cut answer as to the question. Hair color, facial features, and other such physical characteristics may be tied to genetics but…
Allen, G.E. (2001). Is a New Eugenics Afoot? Science, 59-61.
Collins, W.A. And Eleanore E. Maccoby, Laurence Steinberg, E. Mavis Hetherington, Marc H. Bornstein (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 218-232.
Colt, G.H. (1998, April). Were You Born That Way? Life Magazine, pp. 40-48.
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity, Youth, and Crisis. New York: Norton.
France has dichotomous gender roles, norms, and values. Attitudes towards gender equality and feminism reveal an underlying misogynistic and patriarchal cognitive schema, and an overall resistance to change. The resistance to change is rooted in the belief that traditional patriarchal gender norms and roles are immutable and sacrosanct. Although not a true indicator of the French public’s beliefs about gender or human rights, the street interviews in one YouTube video show that many people in France do still hold startlingly misogynistic views that conflict with the overall goal of social justice.
1. Describe French-style feminism and the road to equality and parity for women in France.
French-style feminism is qualitatively different from American or British-style feminism; it is uniquely French in that it retains elements of French worldviews and social norms, and also progresses at a snail’s pace. In fact, the pace of change in France makes the pace of…
“French parliament approves landmark gay marriage bill.” YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dwxC_26uRoI&feature=youtu.be
“More Equality for Women.”
“Politics, women and feminism in France.” YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UxYX93Uunk&feature=youtu.be
“Reactions to proposed gay marriage and adoption bill in France.” YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lb4I8EL0OO4&feature=youtu.be
“The Sexual Revolution”
Gender Roles in the Japanese Religious and Social Traditions: Subjugation and Isolation as a Means of Domination
For whatever reason, most cultures in recorded history seem to be largely patriarchal, favoring the masculine over the feminine and significantly reducing the roles that women are expected or even allowed to play in the public and political spheres. Buddhism and Shintoism, the two major religions in Japanese history especially prior to the modern era, are perhaps not as staunchly patriarchal in their mythology, their institutions, and their practices as are many more common and more well-known Western religions, however these religions still helped to form a patriarchy out of the archipelago. As with so many areas of the world, Japan was essentially left with half a history in the story of its men while the story of its women was largely to be kept silent. The following paragraphs trace certain…
" Mimic, however, is to Jones the beginning of horror's conscious assessment of the ideology that spawned the horror in the first place:
[Mimic] is neither campy, nor self-conscious. It is a classic creepy film in the tradition of Them!,…and begins with a plague carried by roaches in the subterranean tunnels of New York city. In order to stop the plague, which is killing the city's children, a female entomologist, who wants to have children herself but can't, invents a new bug by recombining DNA from two different species.
The premise of the film, in fact, would return to cinemas in 2006 in Alfonso Cuaron's Children of Men, in which a society that can no longer reproduce is on the verge of annihilation. Perhaps it is no coincidence that the theme of missing children returns, since Cuaron and Del Toro have long been friends.
Gender oles, Social Themes, and Iconography…
Bennhold, K. (2009). Science: The last frontier for women's movement. Deccan Herald. Retrieved from http://www.deccanherald.com/content/57189/science-last-frontier-womens-movement.htmlWho%20do%20you%20want%20to%20contact ?
Carpenter, J. (1978). Halloween [Film]. Los Angeles: Compass International.
Del Toro, G. (1997). Mimic [Film]. Los Angeles: Miramax.
Jones, E.M. (2004). Good Entomologist/Bad Entomologist. Culture Wars.
Gender Roles According to Plath's the Applicant
The assignment of gender roles is one of the most determinant and irresistible forces in our society. Powerful constructs persist from one generation to the next to indoctrinate us with the duties culturally befitting man and woman. And in a distinctly patriarchal society, these constructs also carry considerable emotional hazard to the feminine experience. So is this described in Sylvia Plath's "The Applicant." The poem, included in Plath's 2nd poetry collection, Ariel, was released in 1965. That Plath committed suicide two years before its released suggests that the despair contained here within was a permeating force in her life.
Indeed, 'The Applicant' is consumed with a numb kind of melancholy that Plath seems to assert comes from a lifetime of objectification and obsequiousness to the will of man. In something that resembles a job interview, the opening of Plath's poem describes the…
Plath, S. (1965). The Applicant. Online at http://www.eliteskills.com/analysis_poetry/The_Applicant_by_Sylvia_Plath_analysis.php
adults treat young people, including how they talk to them, is part of the gendering process wherein a sexual identity is formed. Indeed, omaine (1999) notes that, "Boys and girls live in different worlds in which separate cultures are developed and transmitted, each with quite different patterns of verbal interaction" (p. 190). This paper examines some of the implications of differences in the ways adults speak to boys and girls to determine how such speech differences contribute to later differences not only in speech, but also in attitudes. It is reasonable to suggest that when young people are addressed with respect and consideration, they will respond in kind. When young people are addressed with ridicule and contempt, though, their reactions will inevitably be different.
Likewise, when adults address boys as "young men" or girls as "young women," they are communicating a sense of gender appropriateness that will influence these young…
Gaine, C. & George, R. (1999). Gender, race, and class in schooling: A new introduction.
London: Falmer Press.
Eagly, A.H. & Beall, A.E. (2004). The psychology of gender. New York: Guilford Press.
Romaine, S. (1999). Communicating gender. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Their natural capabilities and willingness to respond to the task are, however, economically constrained because African men or husbands stubbornly remain the decision-makers of the home (wakali).
The American woman may have remained tied to the traditional gender role of subjection to the man but the African woman is much more limited (wakali 2001). The American woman is economically empowered and can make her own decisions. The African woman, in contrast, has no voice or options to make. She is financially and culturally impoverished. Interventions by developed countries do not work. Imposing development strategies is superficial and does not last. The solution to the gender problems of the African woman is not found in the classroom. It can be found only in the African woman herself. She must decide to reject dependence in favor of independence and ignorance for knowledge. She must decide to begin to recognize her own person…
Blakie. Gender Roles and Degrading Women in America. Associated Content: The People's Media Company, November 15, 2005
Burnham-Smith, Denise. Counseling Men: the Effects of Gender role. Education Resources Information Center: University of Southern Maine, 1996
Bwakali, David John. Gender Inequality in Africa. Contemporary Review: Contemporary Review Company Ltd., 2001
Gender norms are socially constructed and thus change over time. East Asian women, from ancient times to the contemporary era. start by tracing social and ideological construction of womanhood and femininity in pre-th century East Asian contexts, and critically examine the shifts and transformations of womens gender roles. Social and ideological construction of woman has varied throughout the past century.Being in pre-19th century East Asian, women were often considered low status. The most deep-rooted ideologies where primarily sexist and originate from the confusion era. Here, the concept of filial piety was the most dominant form of ideology as it relates to woman pre 19th century. According to research conducted by Bauer and Wang, filial piety as practiced pre 19th century, was based on three core tenets (Bauer, 1992). The first tenet is that women must obey men at all times, irrespective of how if this behavior can adversely impact woman…
1. Bauer, John, Wang Feng, Nancy E. Riley, and Zhao Xiaohua. 1992. \\\\\\"Gender Inequality in Urban China, Education and Employment.\\\\\\" Modern China, Vol. 18 No. 3, July 1992 333-370
2. Hooper, Beverley. 1991. \\\\\\"Gender and Education.\\\\\\" Pp. 352-74 in Chinese Education: Problems, Policies, and Prospects, edited by Irving Epstein. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.
3. Wang, Zheng. 1997. \\\\\\"Maoism, Feminism, and the UN Conference on Women: Women\\\\\\'s Studies Research in Contemporary China.\\\\\\" Journal of Women\\\\\\'s History, v8, n4, pp. 126-53.
Previously we have reported that although the anthropometric status of women themselves is not associated with the number of cowives or their marital rank, the growth of children is strongly associated with the number of cowives present and the order of the mother's marriage to the husband. These analyses controlled for variation between seasons and a significant independent effect of household, but did not directly test for associations between aggregate indicators of household nutrition and wealth.
As is shown, the status of women among the Datoga is determined by the respective status of their menfolk. A woman can actively raise her own status by contributing to the increased wealth and prestige of her husband, either by adding to his stock of wives, children, cattle, or cowrie shells. However, she seems to have little status on her own. Presumably if she were not married - not somehow directly attached to…
Components of a Good Life," ewlett (2013b) focuses on AKA and Ngandu concepts of female adolescence, including issues associated with puberty and rites of passage to adulthood. The author links the cultural components of female puberty with evidence from psychological development. Adolescence is a transitional period or life stage, generally characterized by psychic and social exploration, identity formation, and increased risk taking. ewlett's thesis in this chapter is that gender is constructed as a process involving interactions between human biology/developmental psychology, culture, and the ecology of politics and economics.
ewlett's (2013b) data is gathered from field studies, including in-depth open-ended interviews with Aka and Ngandu women. Secondary sources are also cited in the bibliography, especially when referring to psychological or sociological research that substantiates the primary theses of the chapter. The author attempts to draw connections between research in evolutionary biology, developmental psychology, and cultural anthropology. The anecdotes and observations…
Hewlett, Barry S. (1992). Husband-Wife Reciprocity and the Father-Infant Relationship among the Aka Pygmies. In Father-Child Relations: Cultural and Biosocial Contexts. B.S. Hewlett, ed. Pp. 153-176. New York: Aldine de Gru
Hewlett, Bonnie L. 2013b Listen, Here's a Story: Ethnographic Life Narratives from Aka and Ngandu Women in the Congo Basin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaufman, G. (2000). Do gender role attitudes matter? Journal of Family Issues 21(1): 128-144.
Women in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia is religiously and socially conservative. There is a relatively high level of cultural homogeneity inspired by tribal and Islamic factors. In these circumstances, it is not easy to differentiate between Arabic and Islamic cultures in these circumstances. Some cultural beliefs including the view that women should not be lawyers or engineers have nothing to do with Islam but have increasingly become part of the cultural values of the communities which happen to be largely Islamic. The function of women in the wider society is restricted. Saudi Arabia, thus, has one of the lowest numbers of women in public work places; especially those who are graduates. The government has recently embarked on gender sensitization programs aimed at discouraging gender-based discrimination. Stake holders have also undertaken to make sure that there is more participation of women in education. They seek to increase the number…
Julia Ismael. (2013). The Islamic Influence on the Role of Women and Girls in the United States. Writing 406-1, Writing and Inquiry,. Seattle: Antioch University.
Madeleine K. Albright. (2006). The Great Divide: How Westerners and Muslims View Each Other. Pew Global Attitudes Project.
Shakir Ahmed Alsaleh. (n.d.). Gender Inequality in Saudi Arabia: Myth and Reality. University for Health Sciences Riyadh.
Yahya Al Alhareth, Yasra Al Alhareth, & Ibtisam Al Dighrir. (2015). Review of Women and Society in Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Educational Research, 121-125.
What Culture Means Today
Culture is the passing along of values, customs, and ways of behavior that are specific to groups of people. Different races and ethnicities have different cultures. Also, various religions and countries have different cultures. In this sense culture is simply the way that groups of people do things or practice them. People in India, for example, put a lot of spices on their food because it is part of their culture. There are many different important elements of culture. Some of these are the arts including music, visual, and graphic arts. Others involve things like food, clothing and shelter. People prepare their foods differently in different cultures. Similarly, they dress differently and have different types of houses. Culture is important in the study of male and female relationships because it impacts social expectations. A group’s culture greatly affects how males and females are to function in…
Confucianism is one of the major factors that influenced gender views and perception in traditional East Asia, particularly in relation to the treatment of women in these societies. Confucianism is primarily a teaching that was brought by Confucius, a philosopher, political figure, and educator. The teachings of Confucius formed the foundation of education in the traditional societies in East Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan. Confucius teachings affected many things in these societies including fixing gender roles between women and men. Based on these teachings, which influenced nearly every facet of life in the conventional Korean, Japanese and Chinese societies, placed women at a disadvantaged position. The teachings contributed to the development of a patriarchal environment in these societies, which worked to the disadvantaged of women. This paper examines how women exerted power and influence in a patriarchal environment in these three societies and what it teaches us about…
Atlantic, the author outlines several issues using multiple case studies from the media. The issues cover the gamut of gender-related issues in the workplace, particularly focusing on equitable pay, structural inequality, and harassment. Because of the brevity of the piece, it is understandable that it might oversimplify several of the issues. However, generally the article offers insight into how the sociology of gender plays out in the real world.
One of the most interesting features in the article was a description of research showing that even office temperatures are determined by men. "the formula used to calculate standard office thermostat temperatures was biased, and based on the resting metabolic rate of a 40-year-old man who weighs 154 pounds," (Zhou, 2015). As a result, the ambient temperature of the office is designed for this "normative" person, and a normative person in a patriarchal society is a man. This interesting but simple…
Zhou, L. (2015). Year in Review: The Biggest Stories About Gender Inequality at Work. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/gender-equality-workplace-2015/422328/
female combat unit in world history. As the developer of the game Night Witches points out, everyone from the commanders to the pilots were women. With women in positions of leadership and front lines physical combat as well as ancillary support such as technicians and mechanics, the ussian 588 team has become a model for other female combat teams. Yet none have followed. In the United States, however, women were confined to roles deemed appropriate according to prevailing gender norms: roles that were assistive or supportive in nature rather than executive and proactive. The women in British units could and did serve in combat in World War Two. Yet in the United States, women continue to be barred from combat positions even today. Although women are not overtly prevented from serving in positions of power and leadership in the military, gender roles and norms do retain a hierarchal and patriarchal…
"Beware the Night Witches! - Russia's Deadly Female Pilots," (2014). World of War Planes. Retrieved online: http://worldofwarplanes.com/news/nightwitch-history/
Campbell, D. (1993). Women in combat. The Journal of Military History 57(2): 301-323.
"Night Witches," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/bullypulpitgames/night-witches/description
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…
Gender oles and Marriage
The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"
James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…
Allen, J.A. (2004) The Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexuality, Histories, Progressivism. University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Chopin, K. (1997). "The Story of an Hour" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, pp. 158-159.
Davis, S. (1982). "Katherine Chopin." American Realists and Naturalists. D. Pizer and E.N. Harbert (eds). Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 12.
Gilman, C. (1997)."The Yellow Wallpaper" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997, pp. 230-242.
Idealized Gender Roles of Men and Women in Edo and Kabuki
As with many other societies of the time, 18th and 19th century Japan had a strict division of duties and expectations for men and women. This paper examines these idealized gender roles through a close reading of Sanba's The Floating-World Bathhouse, Santo Kyoden's Grilled and Basted Edo-Born Playboy and Tsuuchi Jihei and Tsuuchi Hanemon's Flower of Edo.
In the world of Kabuki and Edo plays, an ideal woman is a good wife or, barring marriage, a good mistress. To a lesser extent, they should also be good mothers.
The "good wife" role is illustrated clearly in the conversations between Saru and Tori in The Floating-World Bathhouse. In comparing their son's wives, Tori boasts of hr daughter-in-law, who "does everything, day and night." This ideal female is contrasted with Saru's nightmare of a daughter-in-law, who is lazy, who…
Male in Today's Society
From the time we are born, the main social message our society sends to males is that real men are stronger than women and do not show emotions. Sex, anger, and humor are the exceptions to this rule. As a result, many men feel intense pressure to be tough and strong. Men grow up believing that they must be unemotional, logical thinkers. As a result, many men have difficulty identifying, sharing, understanding, and working with their feelings and emotions.
Studies also show that boys and men are expected to express anger more than any other emotion (Tucker-Ladd, 2000). This is related to their high rate of criticizing, scapegoating, and attacking others. Unfortunately, they are also three times more likely to be hyperactive than girls and blame their problems on others. Males tend to avoid problems and distract themselves, while females talk out their problems. This actually…
Tucker-Ladd, C. (2000). Psychological Self-Help. Mental Health Net.
ANOVA to the statistical assumptions of an ANOVA are as follows:
The principal assumptions of ANOVA are as follows:
There must be statistical independence of the errors, and no correlation between independent variables and error.
There must be normality of the error distribution.
Homogeneity of variances
The dependent variable is a belief that it is better for the man in a couple relationship to go to work and for the woman to stay home to care for the children and the house. The independent variables are: 1) The respondents' income; 2) the highest year of school completed; and 3) the tendency "to think of self as liberal or conservative."
Ho = A belief in the traditional gender roles in a marriage is unrelated to income, education level, or political self-identification as conservative or liberal.
Ha = A belief in the traditional gender roles in a marriage is related to income,…
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…
Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37
Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.
Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209
Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
Back in history, the only roles of a Korean woman were to be a good daughter, a good wife, and a good mother. She was expected to sacrifice for her family, caring not only for her husband but also for her in-laws. Similarly in America, as the picture published in 1950's "Harmony at Home" shows, only men were authoritative. In the picture, the man is the only one sitting comfortably on the sofa while two women standing on the side seem helpless. Both are leaning on the man. The question remains: is this condition still relevant today? In "Change in the Status of Women in South Korea," Anita Li states, "the employment rate for women has risen steadily from 42.8% in 1980 to 50% in 2008. Furthermore, these women are increasingly engaging in leadership roles in the workforce. Though the gender distinction still remains in our society, the trend…
The factors that mediate and account for gender identity and sex differentiation include those attributed to nature, such as hormones and genes, and those attributed to nurture, such as environment. esearch has demonstrated that hormones and genetics play an integral role in gender identity and associated behaviors (Wilson, 1999; Hines, 2006; Hines (2008). What are these hormones and how exactly have they been determined to influence gender identity? The following outlines scientific findings surrounding nature and its involvement in the development of gender identity.
Gender identity and human sexual behavior are involved in perceptions of oneself as male or female, gender role behaviors, and how sexuality is communicated to others (Wilson, 1999). How gender identity manifests and expresses itself is inherently different in men and women (Wilson, 1999). esearch has demonstrated that testosterone exposure during early periods of development that are considered critical result in permanent behavior change…
Hines, M. (2006). Prenatal testosterone and gender-related behavior. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, S115-S121.
Hines, M. (2008). Early androgen influences on human neural and behavioural development. Early Human Development, 84(12), 805-7.
Wilson, J.D. (1999). The role of androgens in male gender role behavior. Endocrine Reviews, 20(5), 726-37.
Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…
Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.
Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.
Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.
Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…
Arkin, L. (1995). The role of women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/arkin.html
Chaucer, G. (1475). The Canterbury Tales. Retrieved online: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Shakespeare, W. (1601). Twelfth Night. Retrieved online: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/full.html
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/sggk_neilson.pdf
Gender and Sex: Blurred Lines or Clear Boundaries?
One of the hottest songs of summer 2013 was a song by Robin Thicke called "Blurred Lines." The song gained popularity because of its catchy tune, and many people who found themselves dancing along to the song found themselves surprised by the lyrics when they actually listened to the song. In fact, the lyrics to the song were sufficiently suggestive that discussions about whether they were a symbol of rape culture became almost as popular as the song itself. The lyrics were not helped by the video for the song, which featured Thicke, two guest artists, and three scantily clad models in situations that could only be described as bizarre, leading to allegations that the video marginalized its female performers. Adding fuel to this fire was a performance by Thicke featuring Miley Cyrus, in which they seemingly referenced the video and Miley…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Lynskey, Dorian. "Blurred Lines: The most controversial song of the decade." The Guardian.
The Guardian, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
The challenges families face include lack of social support, lack of guidance, lack of information, prejudice, and hostility. Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms. Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance. A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…
Duron, L. (2013) Raising My Rainbow. New York: Random House.
Kuhn, S. (2014). Breaking free of gender stereotypes. She Knows. Retrieved online: http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/1033051/raising-a-gender-neutral-child
Lucas-Stannard, P. (2012). Gender Neutral Parenting.
Martin, K.A. (2005). William wants a doll. Gender and Society 19(4), 456-479.
There is no male equivalent of Sugar Cane in Some Like it Hot. Unlike the unequivocally feminine Sugar Cane, neither Joe nor Jerry plays the role of the cad or the cowboy. In fact, Joe shows genuine emotion and caring for Sugar as his feelings for her deepen. Joe and Jerry, like Sugar Cane, are musicians. All three are therefore portrayed as social equals regardless of gender.
Gender and sexuality are treated differently in Some Like it Hot. The key scenes in Some Like it Hot with allusions to homosexuality are the ones in which Osgood pursues Daphne. Osgood challenges conventional gender roles and stereotypes. He has been married "six or seven times" and only his mama has kept track. His inability to remain in a stable heterosexual relationship may be viewed as a typically male, cavalier attitude toward marriage. However, given the last line of Some Like it Hot,…
Wilder, Billy (Dir.). Some Like it Hot. Feature film. 1959.
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…
Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace
Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…
Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010 [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from: http://temple.academia.edu/stuartschmidt/Papers/527541/Sex_of_leader_leader_behavior_and_subordinate_satisfaction [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge
In the Calvin Klein jeans ad, it is he who is chased and who resists and fends off the female. The imagery is opposite to that of typical gender roles, in which female sexuality is restrained. The man's body is toned, muscular, and hairless. Even if he were more interested in the female behind him, he controls his passion admirably.
The Calvin Klein advertisement allows the female to unleash a deep sexual hunger. Her open mouth, biting action, wet hair, and grabbing motion all show she possesses an animalistic hunger and passion. The wet hair increases the elemental, wild feel of the advertisement. The background is a nebulous dark area, allowing the viewers to imagine any kind of scenario and put themselves into the ad. Target audiences will relate to the imagery on multiple levels: perceiving Calvin Klein "Double Black" Jeans as intensifying a man's innate sexuality and creating desire…
Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)
Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.
However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465.
Feldman, Lorelei "Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping" Retrieved, November 20, 2007 at http://www.unc.edu/~lorelei/sexroles.html
Garfinkle, Harold. Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Polity. 1991.
Spykerman, Sara "Gender Roles and Work: Recent Research" 1997, Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep/genroles.html
Women are just mere followers of what the males would decide.
Taoism is a combination of psychology and philosophy and evolved into a religious faith in 440 CE when it was adopted as a state religion. Taoism, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became one of the three great religions of China. Taoism currently has about 20 million followers. About 30,000 Taoists live in North America, 1,720 in Canada (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005).
Taoist concepts, beliefs and practices include (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005):
Tao is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. "The Tao surrounds everyone and therefore everyone must listen to find enlightenment."
Each believer's goal is to become one with the Tao.
Taoists strongly promote health and vitality.
Taoists believe that the five main organs and orifices of the body correspond to the five parts of the sky: water, fire, wood, metal and earth.
Buddhism." 2005. http://www.fwbo.org/buddhism.html
Buddhism and Gender Equality." 2006. http://www.faithnet.org.uk/KS4/Social%20Harmony/buddhismequality.htm
Inglehart, Ronald. 2002. "Islam, gender, culture, and democracy." International Journal of Comparative Sociology. E.J. Brill
Kohn, Livia. 2006. "Are Women in Daoism Different From Women in Chinese Society." Department of Religious Studies. Queen's University Kingston, ON Taoism."2005. http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/
Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson
Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.
Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).
Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…
references to at least two of the texts read
Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far
Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned
Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
Gender and Domestic Violence
Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…
Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,
L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].
Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.
Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',