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Gende Steeotypes and the Ontogenetically Adaptive Role of Feedback Pefeences
Intoduction & Theoy
It is acknowledged that feedback is an integal pat of the leaning pocess and that diffeent types of feedback ae suited to diffeent types of situations (e.g., Specto, 2000). The cuent eseach examines how gende steeotypes affect woking adults' feedback pefeences in the context of taining. Based on Social Role theoy (Eagly, 1987), this pape theoizes why these pefeences ae ontogenetically adaptive in the social sense of the wod. Social Role theoy (Eagly, 1987) pedicts that male paticipants will pefe feedback which is consistent with male steeotypes and that female paticipants will pefe feedback which is consistent with female steeotypes. I hypothesize that female paticipants will epot feeling most satisfied when they eceive gende-consistent feedback egading thei leadeship style (democatic and intepesonally-oiented) and that male paticipants will epot feeling most satisfied when they eceive gende-consistent feedback egading…
references. These results were consistent with open-ended responses. The top reason why male participants were most satisfied/agreed with gender-consistent feedback was that it fit with their prescribed social-role. Similarly, the top reason why male participants were most dissatisfied/disagreed with gender-inconsistent feedback was that it differed from with their prescribed social-role. Participants preferring gender-inconsistent feedback will receive lower ratings regarding leadership quality from their peers. Participants preferring gender-consistent feedback will receive higher ratings regarding leadership quality from their peers.
If the results show that individuals prefer feedback that is in line with gender stereotypes, then it can be concluded that social roles serve an adaptive function in the workplace. By adopting social norms and standards, the individual makes social interactions easier. People are reassured in their respective roles through reinforcement and encouragement of what society has taught them they should be, and thereby derive a sense of stability, security and identity.
If the results instead show that individuals defy social conventions by responding to non-stereotypical feedback, then further studies will be needed to investigate the source of the deviation from socially acceptable gender roles. Research shows that people tend to want to socially adapt to a given environment by fitting in with social norms.
Gender Stereotypes and Body Image
The media's influence in western culture is pervasive. Through magazines, television and print ads such as billboards, advertisers have consistently adopted gender stereotypes in terms of body image, and use these stereotypes to sell their products. Although it is certainly no secret that the stereotypical womanly ideal is slender to the point of unhealthy, the body image presented as the male ideal is similarly unrealistic. Men are consistently presented an overly muscular, perfectly lean physique as the stereotypical ideal to which they must aspire. In considering the effects of such unrealistic stereotypical ideals, it is important to consider just what the ideals presented are, before one discusses the effects they have. Finally, it is an interesting extension of the issue to look at the effects of the female stereotype on men and vice versa.
The primary factor that typifies female stereotypes in the media is…
Anderson, A.E., & DiDomenico, L. "Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A dose-response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders?"
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11, (1992). 283-287.
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R., & Fehr, B. Social Psychology. New York: Prentice Hall,
Barber, N. "Gender differences in effects of mood on body image." Sex Roles 44(1/2), (2001),
gender stereotypes in relation to guys in nursing, as well as talk about gender discrimination instances within the realm of nursing, and studies techniques utilized for advertising equal academic chances throughout nursing researches. The essay reveals that gender discrimination is still common within nursing careers. Nursing professors ought to prepare male nursing pupils to connect efficiently with female customers also. Function modeling is the restorative relationship with customers and is one method that could assist male pupils. In basic, the professors must offer equal learning chances to nursing pupils.
Gender discrimination is any difference, exemption or constraint made on the basis of socially built gender duties and standards which restricts an individual from taking pleasure in complete human rights (Cottingham et al., 2001, p. 49). Guys are left out from a number of types of training and from particular positions. For instance, the requirements for accessing specific senior positions in…
Anthony AS. Gender bias and discrimination in nursing education. Can we change it?. Nurse Educator. 2004;29:121 -- 125
Brady MS, Sherrod DR. Retaining men in nursing programs designed for women. Journal of Nursing Education. 2003;42:159 -- 162
Burth K. Male nurses still face bias. American Journal of Nursing. 1998;98:64 -- 65
Cottingham J, Fonn S, Garcia-Moreno C, Gruskin S, Klugman B, Ndeto Mwau A, et al. Transforming health systems: Gender and rights in reproductive health. 2001;Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/transforming_healthsystems_gender/text.pdf
cause of gender stereotypes?
The debate about what causes gender stereotypes tends to be divided between two camps: that of nature vs. nurture. 'Nature' advocates suggest that there are profound biological differences between the sexes; 'nurture' proponents focus upon culture. Overall, although there are clear biological differences between men and women, what culture 'does' with those differences suggests that 'nurturing' or cultural context can have a profound, often hidden way in which men and women are able or not able to express themselves.
According to Natalie Angier, men as well as women can be affected by stereotypes in a negative fashion. In her essay, "Why men don't last" Angier notes that men tend to be more prone to violence, drug addiction, gambling and other negative social outlets to deal with their emotions. Women may be more apt to be depressed, but men are more likely to be 'successful' suicides. Males…
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
Gender and Communication: Breaking Gender Barriers in the Workplace
Gender barriers have existed within the workplace ever since women in America came out of the kitchen and went to work during World War II. Like with any new experience of empowerment, when the men came home, the country's women were wholly a changed group. Women had entered the workforce, and they were there to stay, despite the misgivings of much of the country's male population. While the working environment in today's day and age is certainly far different and equally far improved from those initial days undertaken by women in the workplace, the truth remains that gender inequality within the business world is a factor that is still vastly relevant, despite mandated government equality rules. Though men and women enter the same businesses every day, in order to do the same jobs, certain gender barriers continue to exist. Further, in…
Catalyst. 2005. Women take care, men take charge: stereotypic of U.S. business leaders exposed. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/file/53/women %20take%20care,%20men%20take%20charge%20stereotyping%20of%20u.s.%20business%20leaders%20exposed.pdf [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Eagly, A. And Johnson, B. 1990. Gender and leadership style: a meta-analysis. Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention (CHIP). Web. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010 [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Price, K., Schmidt, S., and Stitt, C. 1983. Sec of leader, leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction. Sex Roles, 9.1: pp. 31-42. Web. Retrieved from: http://temple.academia.edu/stuartschmidt/Papers/527541/Sex_of_leader_leader_behavior_and_subordinate_satisfaction [Accessed on 2 March 2012].
Riggio, R. 2010. Do men and women lead differently? Who's better? Cutting Edge
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…
Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson
Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.
Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).
Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…
references to at least two of the texts read
Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far
Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned
Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)
Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.
However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465.
Feldman, Lorelei "Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping" Retrieved, November 20, 2007 at http://www.unc.edu/~lorelei/sexroles.html
Garfinkle, Harold. Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Polity. 1991.
Spykerman, Sara "Gender Roles and Work: Recent Research" 1997, Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep/genroles.html
The role of stereotypes in the selection and acceptance of female leaders.
As Carter & Silva (2010) point out, there are several stereotypes about women's behavior and goals that influences the selection and acceptance of female leaders. Some of the stereotypes about women include the myth that women will leave their positions to start families; the myth that women don't actually aspire to upper management; and the myth that there are regional differences that invalidate the gender bias argument altogether (Carter & Silva, 2010, p. 1). In fact, empirical research debunks each one of these myths and points to a deeper issue related to ongoing misogyny in the corporate world.
One of the prevailing stereotypes held by both men and women is that women are "better at stereotypically feminine 'caretaking skills' such as supporting and rewarding," and that men are better at the "taking charge" skills "such as influencing…
Amble, B. (2005). Gender stereotypes block women's advancement. Management Issues. 20 Oct, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.management-issues.com/2006/8/24/research/gender-stereotypes-block-womens-advancement.asp
Carter, N.M. & Silva, C. (2011). Delusions of progress. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:6KLe4O9kjt8J:www.maternity-coaching.co.uk/uploaded/articles/Delusions-of-Progress.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8377PPjIZHJNykWXmAosw1iHBGLouB-HxKWOLGcMmEB6OTs-ttb2jBosZ8iA146ZWRi18H1f8vmndEmZb0cAQJscorvhFFpG0vuSJI6U67tmnMghCykXqIMNqAdu-1SABk02n&sig=AHIEtbRKrIlENimvwKNBOYrekj9eGob39Q
King, S. (2012). Critical success factors for women leaders. Institute for Management Studies. Retrieved online: http://www.ims-online.com/outline.asp?id=king1
Marcus, L.P. (2010). Developing women leaders: Five factors that matter. Retrieved online: http://marcusventures.com/notebook/developing-women-leaders-five-factors-that-matter
Back in history, the only roles of a Korean woman were to be a good daughter, a good wife, and a good mother. She was expected to sacrifice for her family, caring not only for her husband but also for her in-laws. Similarly in America, as the picture published in 1950's "Harmony at Home" shows, only men were authoritative. In the picture, the man is the only one sitting comfortably on the sofa while two women standing on the side seem helpless. Both are leaning on the man. The question remains: is this condition still relevant today? In "Change in the Status of Women in South Korea," Anita Li states, "the employment rate for women has risen steadily from 42.8% in 1980 to 50% in 2008. Furthermore, these women are increasingly engaging in leadership roles in the workforce. Though the gender distinction still remains in our society, the trend…
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…
Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37
Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.
Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209
Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
Friends, colleagues and family members play a role in the development of one's identity and rank in this case (Humphrey, 2003).
Gender is reflected and accomplished within the scope of ordinary routines. In this way people 'do' gender. Gender "socialization" according to Kimmel begins and birth and continues throughout ones life; parents, family, friends, environment all influence gender differences in children (Kimmel, 122). Parents for example may possess ideas of what children need based on gender specific ideas, thus socialize children in certain ways based on their sex.
Gender is announced as Kimmel points out the moment a baby is born, revealing sex before anything else (Kimmel, 1999). Expectations about how someone of a certain gender should be treated lead to actions, result in behaviors and cause actions and consequences. Gender stereotypes may lead to inequalities. Early treatment may reflect a parent's acceptance of societal roles for boys and girls…
Humphrey, J. (2003 - Mar). "Guthrie's six degrees of separation and provocative."
Oracle Online, 115(7): 1. Retrieved:
Kimmel, M.S. (2000). The gendered society. New York: Oxford University Press.
There is no male equivalent of Sugar Cane in Some Like it Hot. Unlike the unequivocally feminine Sugar Cane, neither Joe nor Jerry plays the role of the cad or the cowboy. In fact, Joe shows genuine emotion and caring for Sugar as his feelings for her deepen. Joe and Jerry, like Sugar Cane, are musicians. All three are therefore portrayed as social equals regardless of gender.
Gender and sexuality are treated differently in Some Like it Hot. The key scenes in Some Like it Hot with allusions to homosexuality are the ones in which Osgood pursues Daphne. Osgood challenges conventional gender roles and stereotypes. He has been married "six or seven times" and only his mama has kept track. His inability to remain in a stable heterosexual relationship may be viewed as a typically male, cavalier attitude toward marriage. However, given the last line of Some Like it Hot,…
Wilder, Billy (Dir.). Some Like it Hot. Feature film. 1959.
The challenges families face include lack of social support, lack of guidance, lack of information, prejudice, and hostility. Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms. Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance. A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…
Duron, L. (2013) Raising My Rainbow. New York: Random House.
Kuhn, S. (2014). Breaking free of gender stereotypes. She Knows. Retrieved online: http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/1033051/raising-a-gender-neutral-child
Lucas-Stannard, P. (2012). Gender Neutral Parenting.
Martin, K.A. (2005). William wants a doll. Gender and Society 19(4), 456-479.
Gender Portrayals in Media
Since the advent of the television during the latter part of 1920s, men and women have been portrayed differently in movies, television, radio, music videos, news, and social media. Stereotyping men and women aided in developing sustainability strategies for marketing and advertising efforts. Essentially, it is about appeal and influencing the consumer. Unfortunately, the various mediums are fraught with sexism and racial disparities, which are difficult to overcome since the mediums are controlled by those in power. This level of control may be disguised as marketing techniques for certain target groups. By devising an appealing image for a consumer in which he or she may identify, advertisers establish a connection, thus building loyalty and developing a following. Hence, gender portrayals are fundamental practices to reach a large group of consumers by creating categorical images.
Gender Socializer: Television
Several of the popular radio soap operas made the…
esearch shows that females and males start school on a level playing field or with girls outperforming boys on most measures (Chapman 2010). Yet by the time of middle and high school, females have already begun to ghettoize themselves. The ghettoization of females is tacitly supported by educators. Attempts to reach out to female students has been criticized harshly as an attempt to "feminize" education and take something away from boys rather than give something to all students (Frawley 2005, p. 1). The very notion that helping girls would be detrimental to boys is a sexist belief. Gender biases also represent a fundamental failure to recognize the "middle ground" for children who "are not strongly gender-typed" at any age (Frawley 2005, p. 2).
Female students may be discouraged from reaching peak athletic performance because of gender bias too. Stereotypes are often reinforced in classrooms, as female students are "negatively sanctioned...for…
Banks, T.L. (1990). Gender bias in the classroom. 14 S. Ill U.L.J. 527 (1989-1990).
Chapman, a. (2010). Gender bias in education. Critical Multicultural Pavillion. Retrieved online: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/genderbias.html
Frawley, T. (2005). Gender Bias in the Classroom: Current Controversies and Implications for Teachers. Childhood Education. Retrieved online: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3614/is_200507/ai_n14683848/
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial
and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.
"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.
A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…
Steffensmeier D. Emilie a. (1996) Gender and Crime: Toward a Gendered
Theory of Female Offending. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 459+.
gender selection ETHICS
History attests to the fact that couples from oyal families down to rural peasants have shown preference for a male child leading to numerous problems for the girl child and creating a sex ratio imbalance in some traditional societies. When preference for a male child is more pronounced and obvious, any method that can allow a couple to choose the gender of their unborn child is likely to create tremendous potential for gender discrimination and sex-ratio imbalance. Sex-selection or gender-selection as it is commonly known as is one such method that threatens to put female children at risk of being outnumbered by their male counterparts. The pre-conception gender selection techniques along with some other means of choosing the gender of the unborn child has come under severe criticism because of the ethical issues they raise. We must understand that while preference for a specific sex is limited…
Clark Liana R. 1985. "Sex Preselection: The Advent of the Made-to-Order Child." The Pharos, Fall, pp. 2-7
Elizabeth Mathiot-Moen-author; Annette Burfoot - editor Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies Publisher: Westview Press. Boulder, CO. 1999.
Fletcher John C. 1980."Ethics and Amniocentesis for Fetal Sex Identification." Hastings Center Report 10: 15-18.
Gargan Edward A. 1991. "Ultrasonic Tests Skew Ratio of Births in India." New York Times, June 13.
However, although his identity is false, the goodness he has done for the Native population is true, and although he has lied about his past, his lies have not hurt his community, rather they have been a source of healing. The priest's goodness while a priest, however, is one reason why he finds the dissemblance of members of his community so frustrating. In contrast to the life-sustaining lies of Father Damien, that help others with the fullness of a community-sustained myth or holy legend, Sister Leopolda, a nun on the reservation, has made a claim to have Christ's stigmata simply to secure her own sainthood for selfish reasons, in a way that divides the community. She lies in a form that sustains gender stereotypes of women needing to physically suffer to serve as well.
This is one reason why Father Damien believes the woman's actions are evil as well as…
Erdrich, Louise. The Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse: A Novel. New York: Perennial, 2004.
If the individual's personality and cognitive processes gear him or her up to be rebellious, then he or she might become attracted to persons with different ethnic features. Other cognitive factors such as memory or ethnic and gender stereotypes may come into play when viewing arousing imagery. For instance, if a woman was once raped by a man with a mustache, she might respond negatively to a photo of a man in a mustache, even if the man is found alluring to other women. Likewise, a person who is prejudiced against African-American people might not find potentially arousing images of Blacks stimulating.
Finally, physical traits such as gender play a key role in the way people respond to images that are potentially arousing. Gender and sexual orientation affect one's view of physical beauty and attractiveness. A gay man will not find Angelina Jolie's photo to be sexually arousing, whereas a…
In another case, Tannen talks about a wife named Diana who likes making suggestions to her husband by starting her statements with "let's," like "let's park over there" or "let's clean up now, before lunch." Although, Diana's purpose in making these suggestions is precisely to make suggestions, her husband began to resist them, assuming that Diana was trying to manipulate with him and control him (Tannen, n.d.). So strong is the idea among many men that men should be the ones controlling and owning that Diana's husband took it to a new level, being obsessed with the idea and resisting genuine suggestions of her wife's for fear of losing what he believed was his possession.
Women do resist these hierarchical gendered relationships. Tannen mentions another case, involving a couple. Because of the husband's decision to make decisions for her, the wife often had to drive old used cars that constantly…
Solnit, R. (2008, Apr. 13) Men who explain things. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 February 2012, from http://articles.latimes.com/print/2008/apr/13/opinion/op-solnit13
Tannen, D. (n.d.) Can't we talk? Retrieved 17 February 2012, from http://raysweb.net/poems/articles/tannen.html
I use the above family as an example that I think that the socialization of children remains the primary job of the parent and that parents can help determine how external society influences impact their children. Whether society freaked out because of an image of a little boy with pink toenails is not nearly so important as how a family reacts if a little boy wants to paint his toenails pink. The little boy in the family I described accompanies his mom and sister to the salon and I have seen him with green painted toenails (his favorite color) and know there would be no objections if he wanted pink ones. His sister has rejected the "girl" Legos in favor of "boy" sets, but will vehemently argue with you if you suggested that Ninjago was marketed towards boys.
I do not think that there was less gender stereotyping in toys…
Klein, M. (2011, April 13). J. Crew's toenail-painting ad causes pink scare. Retrieved March
9, 2012 from Ms. Magazine blog website: http://msmagazine.com/blog/blog/2011/04/13/j-crews-toenail-painting-ad-causes-pink-scare/
Melanie. (2008, October 5). Gender socialization in the media from childhood to adulthood.
Retrieved March 9, 2012 from FeministFatale website: http://www.feministfatale.com/2008/10/gender-socialization-in-the-media-from-childhood-to-adulthood/
" (Barry, 36) He continues to suggest that women shouldn't care what they look like either. He says that women may say they are obsessed with looks because men want them to be, but argues that (a) women shouldn't be idiots just because men are, and (b) that men don't recognize women's beauty efforts anyway. "Many men would no notice if a woman had upward of four hands." (Barry, 36)
McLaughlin does not deny that the gender stereotypes are precisely as Barry reports them to be, though she recognizes as stereotypical what he claims as truth. She says that it had always before been that "what mattered in life was how women looked and what men did." (McLaughlin, 31) This is talking about the same thing Barry is when he says that men would find some way to bolster self-esteem other than appearance. However, McLaughlin continues to point out, that…
The idea that gender differences in education might be genetically-based is confirmed somewhat in other studies that suggest that some genetic differences might influence achievement in certain areas of education (Zohar, 1998). However, genetic influences only comprise a small portion of the available studies. Many other studies point out the tremendous influence stereotyping has on gender and education, and suggesting that males and females are traditionally assigned certain 'roles' within the classroom which they tend to live up to over time (Ayim, Diller, Houston & Morgan, 1996).
The most common of these beliefs is that males are more adept at mathematical and analytical tasks whereas females are better at achieving 'soft' skills including English, philosophy etc. (Ayim, et. al, 1996).
There is a body of evidence available which suggests that gender differentiation is evident in the classroom. The traditional views that males are more adept at analytical skills and…
Alsup, J.K & Sprigler, D.N. (2003). "An analysis of gender and the mathematical reasoning ability sub-skill of analysis-synthesis." Education, 123(4): 763
Ayim, M., Diller, a., Houston, B., & Morgan, K.P. (1996). "The gender question in education: Theory, pedagogy, and politics." Boulder: Westview Press.
Zohar, a.H. (1998). "Individual differences in some special abilities are genetically influenced." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21(3): 431-432
Leaders have important roles at different ranks in organizations. A manager's leadership style has an effect on the work and attitudes of employees. Leaders ought to lead their subordinates in a manner that makes them happy to carry out their responsibilities. The thesis statement for the purpose is given as follows. "Any organization should aim to acquire and retain the best talent and effective leadership ensures that good employees are kept happy and satisfied at their positions." (Shagufta Parvenn & Adeel Tariq, 2012).
Gender and sex are often viewed as interchangeable terms. This is not correct as there are nuances to the meaning of each word. The World Health Organization's definition of gender encompasses the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors that the society appropriates to men and women. Sex, on the other hand, is physiological and biological characteristics defining men and women. Sex is denoted by 'Female or…
gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.
Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…
Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.
Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.
Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.
" This temporary lesson actually applies on a wider scale to life. Clothing, in our society, is closely integrated with sexuality and gender definition. Men often determine who they will have a sexual interest in based on the clothing of the person in question. A woman in a housecoat is not generally seen as a sexual target in the same way that a woman in a leather miniskirt is. ecause women are seen as weaker than men and as belonging to them sexually based on the gender roles of our society, men tend to think they have power over people wearing women's clothes, whether that person be a boy or a girl. This is a power they would not assume that they have over boys, and it is the association with femininity and the stereotypes that are perpetrated about females in general that causes this.
A reflection of how gender…
Kortenhaus, Carole. "Gender Role Stereotyping in Children's Literature: An Update." Sex Roles a Journal of Research. February, 1993. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n3-4_v28/ai_13810759
Peters, John. "Gender Socialization of Adolescents in the Home: Research and Discussion." Adolescence. Winter, 1994. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n116_v29/ai_16477249
Witt, Susan. "Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles." Adolescence. Summer, 1997. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n126_v32/ai_19619406
Atlantic, the author outlines several issues using multiple case studies from the media. The issues cover the gamut of gender-related issues in the workplace, particularly focusing on equitable pay, structural inequality, and harassment. Because of the brevity of the piece, it is understandable that it might oversimplify several of the issues. However, generally the article offers insight into how the sociology of gender plays out in the real world.
One of the most interesting features in the article was a description of research showing that even office temperatures are determined by men. "the formula used to calculate standard office thermostat temperatures was biased, and based on the resting metabolic rate of a 40-year-old man who weighs 154 pounds," (Zhou, 2015). As a result, the ambient temperature of the office is designed for this "normative" person, and a normative person in a patriarchal society is a man. This interesting but simple…
Zhou, L. (2015). Year in Review: The Biggest Stories About Gender Inequality at Work. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/gender-equality-workplace-2015/422328/
Employees' job satisfaction and success is tremendously influenced by managers. Studies show that men and women have varying preferences for the choice of the gender of their manager. Several studies have concentrated on this matter. Unfortunately, the outcomes of the studies are inconsistent. This paper, therefore, seeks to review past findings of research with the intention of exploring and casting light on the relationship between the variables in the modern workplace (Jackson, Alberti, & Snipes, 2014).
Effect of Gender on Leadership Style
Available research shows that men and women face different evaluation parameters in their leadership roles. Success in performance for a man is often attributed to the internal characteristics of the man and his skills and abilities. On the other hand, success for a woman is attributed to external factors that relate to a situation. These include the simplicity of the task or chance. There is a general perception…
Societies are organized in an exceedingly gendered manner; that is, the “natural” difference between females and males and attributing distinct traits to both genders lies at the heart of all social institutions’ structures, right from families to job structures, to the private-public division, to power accessibility. Hence, resource access and the enjoyment of secure property rights remain highly gendered within several areas across the globe. Females, both minor and adult, suffer particularly due to unfair land rights, besides encountering obstacles when it comes to accessing resources and even their own inheritance. That is not to say that males (adult as well as minor) are never faced with such challenges (consider the example of first sons inheriting more as compared to their younger brothers). Furthermore, right to resource access can also end up impacting people’s ability of accessing other services. For instance, a female’s limited rights or lack of property ownership…
Television shows and the perpetuation of gender inequality
The television and media in general plays a key role in shaping the mentality of the viewers and in effect creating a culture for a nation. The American TV has continuously portrayed the white males as the main subject and players in their programming. Indeed they account for two thirds of the characters on TV with women diminished in number and role. The women, when brought into the scene are often portrayed as obsessed with their beauty, they are thin, passive, young and predominantly concerned with their relationships. These are depictions that place the female gender way below the males since the females are seen to be playing a very remote and insignificant roles as compared to the men in those TV programs, this translates to how women are seen in the real life situation.
On the other hand, men are depicted…
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
Men from the Girls: The Gendered Language of Televised Sports, Michael Messner, Margaret Carlisle Duncan, and Kerry Jensen discuss the different ways that men and women are presented in television broadcasts of sporting events. To do this, they analyzed the commentary that accompanied specific gendered sports events: the "Final Four" games of the men's and women's 1989 National Collegiate Athletic Association championships and the mixed doubles matches of the 1989 U.S. Open Tennis Tournament. What they found is that sports commentators use different types of speech to describe male and female athletes, in a manner that they believed would result in the marginalization of those athletes.
They began the article by describing the history of men's and women's sports coverage. What prior research revealed is that men received a greater amount of coverage for sports. This gives the impression that men are participating in sports to a much greater extent…
Messner, M., Duncan, M.C., & Jensen, K. (1993). Separating the men from the girls: The gendered language of televised sports. Gender & Society, 7(1), 121-137.
Parks, J. & Roberton, M. (2005). Explaining age and gender effects on attitudes towards sexist language. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24(4), 401-411.
Gender reflection: On identifying with a particular gender
Until I took a class in critical theory, I never gave much thought to my gender. I am sure that some of this is by virtue of being a straight male. I have female friends who have experienced discrimination or harassment in school and at work by virtue of not being male. I do not believe I have experienced such direct prejudice as a result of my gender. Also, physical fitness is a very important part of my life, and many of my female friends and girlfriends have been very passionate about working out, yet unlike me they have been told not to lift weights or box because this would give them 'bulky' and masculine-looking muscles (which is not true). Obviously, I have never faced such discrimination based upon my interests or because I look strong.
I have come to understand that…
"Dude, you're a fag." YouTube. 20 Sept 2011. [8 Apr 2013]
Fogel, Curtis. Review of Kath Woodward, Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: The 'I' of the Tiger.
New York: Routledge, 2007. Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies, 19 (2007): 1-2. [8 Apr 2013] http://www.genderforum.org/issues/illuminating-gender-ii/kath-woodward-boxing-masculinity-and-identity-the-i-of-the-tiger-new-york-routledge-2007/
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…
Throughout the course of history, art has been used as a form of expression and to define social customs / traditions. In some cases, this is occurring with it serving as a symbol of the larger ideas that are most important to specific ethnic groups, religions, nationalities and gender. The result, is that each work will be interpreted differently, depending upon the perspectives that are taken. This means that there are techniques which influence the way someone sees specific works and how they are interpreted. In the case of gender and Western society, there are different interpretations about what it means to be a man or woman. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at a number of artists and their interpretations. Together, these elements will illustrate how they are influencing art and the attitudes embraced inside the different works. (Barniskis, 2013) (Malossi, 1999) (Woolfolk, 2010)
Adams, E. (2007). After the Rain. Ann Arbor, MI: Proquest.
Barnes, R. (2002). Teaching Art to Young Children. New York, NY: Springer.
Barniskis, S.C. (2013). Teaching art to teens in public libraries. Teaching Artist Journal,
11( 2), 81-96
However, Johnson (n.d.) offers an optimistic view showing how patriarchy may be dismantled even in systems in which it appears to be pervasive, such as the military. In "Unraveling the Gender Knot," Johnson (n.d.) points out that it is a myth that gender disparity is inevitable and immutable. In fact, social systems are malleable and changeable. Change begins with "awareness and training about issues of privilege," according to Johnson (n.d., p. 240). Awareness stems from the willingness of all members of the military to recognize their role in the perpetuation of hegemony. African-American males find themselves in a peculiar position knowing that hegemony is a destructive force for the subjugated, but unwilling to surrender the privileges and powers of being at the upper rungs of the social ladder. As Hinojosa (2010) notes, there are distinct and tangible benefits to men in the military.
Power and identity are both socially…
Acker, J. (1992). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21(5). (Sep., 1992), pp. 565-569.
Fields, J. (2001). Normal queers. Symbolic Interaction 24(2): 165-187.
Hinojosa, R. (2010). Doing hegemony. The Journal of Men's Studies 18(2): 179-194.
Johnson (n.d.). Unraveling the gender knot.
Gender and Sex: Blurred Lines or Clear Boundaries?
One of the hottest songs of summer 2013 was a song by Robin Thicke called "Blurred Lines." The song gained popularity because of its catchy tune, and many people who found themselves dancing along to the song found themselves surprised by the lyrics when they actually listened to the song. In fact, the lyrics to the song were sufficiently suggestive that discussions about whether they were a symbol of rape culture became almost as popular as the song itself. The lyrics were not helped by the video for the song, which featured Thicke, two guest artists, and three scantily clad models in situations that could only be described as bizarre, leading to allegations that the video marginalized its female performers. Adding fuel to this fire was a performance by Thicke featuring Miley Cyrus, in which they seemingly referenced the video and Miley…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Lynskey, Dorian. "Blurred Lines: The most controversial song of the decade." The Guardian.
The Guardian, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…
271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.
Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…
Resources have provided me with friendships and acquaintances across the human spectrum. As result, my best friend, colleagues, and supervisors are homosexuals.
I believe my professional background has contributed a great amount to the fact that I can see human beings for their inner qualities such as integrity and ethics. These are issues that manifest themselves across the human spectrum, regardless of sexual orientation, race, class, or gender. If any person manifests a solid set of values and integrity, I respect them on this basis. Surely this is better than jumping to generalized conclusions as a result of differences in orientation or appearance. I have learned to believe that everyone is truly equal, and entitled to the rights guaranteed by our constitution.
The messages internalized during my growing years steered me somewhat towards a prejudicial view, especially regarding gay people. I received no message regarding homosexuality from my parents, since they never discussed the issue with me.
They did however teach us to respect women. The older children and peers I grew up with furthermore provided only one-sided, stereotypical views of gay people. Gay bashing was a common practice, including name-calling. All my friends, including me, had anti-gay sentiments, and made no secret of this. I grew up in a neighborhood where my friends were mostly male, and I was in strong competition with both my friends and my brothers to show off my masculinity. I played baseball, football and basketball, and enjoyed hunting and fishing. Having grown up in this environment, I maintained my prejudicial perceptions until I attended college.
College life provided me with a new set of peers, friends, and a new perspective regarding gay people. I met people from across the human spectrum, and realized that there was no single "right" way to do or view things. I am therefore proud to say that I am able to change my views when I see that these are no longer necessary.
Even Freud believed that girls have penis envy, which is only fully resolved by marrying a male and having a male child. This desperate longing to have a man as a way of finding one's identity and place in society is parodied and mocked in Pink's video "Stupid Girls."
Individuals look to culture, including the media, as a way of defining themselves. A thirteen-year-old girl who is told that it is normal to make one's body sexually desirable to men and not to seek self-empowerment through personal growth will be extremely anxious about how she presents herself to the world in a physical manner. Even a 3rd grade boy receives messages that affect his perceptions of gender. For example, if the little boy is told that he cannot wear a pink t-shirt because 'pink is for girls,' even though his young sister wears 'boyish' blue, or if he is told…
Typical examples include the occupations held by males and females and their recreational interests. Social role theory is particularly important in connection with sexual mores that prescribe very different sexual and courtship roles based on gender.
Connection between concept and article:
The article Gender Is a Relative Term in Politics, Study Finds incorporates the concept of social role theory in the way it describes the extreme rarity of female political candidates facing male candidates in high-level face-to-face debates in connection with political races. In the Unites States, it has been almost a quarter of a century since a male and female candidate for high-level national political office faced each other in a debate.
This is a direct function of the extent to which social expectation influences males and females differently to aspire to political office or achieve other positions of relative social power.
While the article focuses on the issue…
As I walked down the pedestrianized shopping mall, I immediately took note of the configurations of people on the sidewalk. There were many groups of females together -- either in twos, or groups of four or more. There were also some lone females, too, of course. There were many couples, and also a few groups of male friends. When looking at these different configurations of people and individuals, the way they "do" gender became almost immediately apparent. The most obvious and glaring sign of "gendered" identity is clothing. Women on this shopping street tended to dress quite nicely. Many were wearing high heels, and those who were in flats were in stylish ones as opposed to sneakers. Some of the men were dressed nicely too, but many were wearing sloppy clothing such as old T-shirts, shorts, and flip-flops. In addition to the differences in what men and women were…
By examining violence and women in both Sin City and the Tekken series, one is able to see how seemingly similar representations of gender and violence actually create wildly different meanings depending on the particular medium. While Sin City and Tekken participate in the visual language of gender, when it comes to the relationship between gender and violence, Sin City focuses on the victimization of women's bodies at the hands of men while Tekken disavows any connection between the violence committed and the gender of those committing it. This analysis reveals an important distinction between violence committed by or against gendered individuals and violence committed because of gender, because as Tekken demonstrates, the former situation actually offers the possibility for a more expansive representation of gender.
Bryce, J.O., & utter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Bryce, J.O., & Rutter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Funk, J.B., Baldacci, H.B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization? Journal
of adolescence, 27(1), 23-39.
Namco Bandai (2009). Tekken 6 [videogame]. Tokyo: Katsuhiro Harada.
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…
Arkin, L. (1995). The role of women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/arkin.html
Chaucer, G. (1475). The Canterbury Tales. Retrieved online: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Shakespeare, W. (1601). Twelfth Night. Retrieved online: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/full.html
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/sggk_neilson.pdf
hom it May Concern
Gender Analysis of olverine Image
Media presentations of gender nearly always cater to stereotypical depictions of either male or female. They seldom showcase individuals who do no prescribe to the gender binary, but rather exploit preconceived notions of what it means to be either wholly male or wholly female. Advertisements which are targeted to female audiences will usually portray symbols with traditionally female appeal, such as flowers or pastel colors in pink or light yellow. They endorse the highly feminine aspect of womanhood and encourage the consumer to buy into that definition of woman. Femininity is equaled to being a woman and unfeminine women are therefore considered other. According to this same set of rules, males must prescribe to the stereotypes of masculinity, such as lack of emotion, oneness with nature and manual labor, and authoritativeness above all things (Beckwith 130). It…
Beckwith, Karen. "A Common Language of Gender." Politics and Gender. 1(1), 2005. 128-37.
"Gender Analysis." English 100 Writing Communities and Identities. 8th ed. 43-71.
Lorber, Judith. "Believing is Seeing: Biology as Ideology." The Gendered Society Reader. Ed.
Kimmel, Michael S., Aronson, Amy, and Kaler, Amy. Toronto, ON: Oxford UP, 2011. 11-18.
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…
Gender Equality in the Gulf
Historically, there has been a marked dearth of gender equality and women’s empowerment in the countries compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There are a number of reasons responsible for this situation. Firstly, these countries are all predominantly Muslim. Traditional gender roles (and stereotypes) largely exist in Islam and in countries which adhere to this faith as their national religion. Women are supposed to remain covered up in their raiment and relegated to domestic roles. The problem is that women account for approximately 50 percent of the population in the GCC countries, yet only constitute approximately 25 percent of the labor force in those countries (World Bank). Therefore, these countries are disadvantageously affected in certain aspects of economics and society because of the lack of female contributions in both of…
Gender Bias in Job Fair
Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
Terminology and Definitions
Permission to Conduct Study
Transmittal Letter/Survey Instructions
Gender Bias in the Recruitment Process at Job Fairs
Administrative Research Problem
Gender bias is problematic for organizations that wish to increase innovation and avoid legal problems due to their hiring practices. Federal law requires that organizations should not exclude persons in their hiring practices based on their gender, race, or ethnicity. Hiring must be based solely on the person's ability and suitability for the job. Avoiding bias helps organizations to increase innovation due to the different perspectives that each person will add to the organization. Bias in hiring practices can be intentional or unintentional. Regardless of the motive, it is necessary to avoid bias in hiring practices. This research intends to explore the question surrounding job fairs. The study will explore the question of whether bias exists during…
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170
Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; Baup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and Bipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer B, Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
hereas the trial began in the early 2000s, matters escalated across time and thousands of employees have gotten actively engaged in solving their problems with almart. The company is likely to lose billions of dollars out of this enterprise (Goudreau).
It is difficult to determine when a person is being discriminated because of his or her gender. Many tend to mistake casual actions for discrimination, this happening because people have gotten used to have their behavior governed by stereotypes. It is actually hard for someone today not to associate particular matters with things that he or she has seen in other people. Society needs to understand that women are not bad drivers and that it is not normal for men to financially support women.
The feminist movement mainly relies on the concept of a woman and everything that it stands for. Feminists are not necessarily fueled by their desire to…
Goudreau, Jenna, "Walmart Faces The Largest Sex Discrimination Lawsuit In U.S. History," Retrieved July 28, 2011, from the Forbes Website: http://blogs.forbes.com/work-in-progress/2010/04/27/wal-mart-faces-the-largest-sex-discrimination-lawsuit-in-u-s-history/
Mcclain, Linda C. "Some ABCs of Feminist Sex Education," Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15.1 (2006)
"Gender Discrimination - Further Readings," Retrieved July 28, 2011, from the Law Library Website: http://law.jrank.org/pages/12485/Gender-Discrimination.html
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Gender and Counseling
The past few years have seen significant advances in the field of counseling. Psychologists and psychiatrists have gained a better understanding of the human psyche. Based on their insights, they have been able to identify new problems and propose more effective methods of treatment.
Many of the problems identified affect the mental health and role of men in society. This is a significant advance, since men's problems have previously been ignored. However, despite such advances, many men are still reluctant to seek help for their mental of psychological problems.
The first part of this paper examines the various gender roles that have been assigned to men in American society. It studies how, through a process of socialization, men are required to acquire several key characteristics that are defined as "masculine," such as aggression, competitiveness and the ability to restrain their emotions.
The next part then examines how…
Allen, Jo Ann and Sylvia Gordon. 1990. "Creating a Framework for Change." Men in Therapy: The Challenge of Change. Richard L. Meth and Robert S. Pasick. New York: The Guilford Press.
Connell, Robert W. 1987. Gender and Power. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Eckert, P. 1989. "The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation," Language Variation and Change (Cambridge), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 245-267
Grant, J. 1988. "Women as managers: What they can offer to organizations," in Organizational Dynamics (New York), Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 56-63.
Gender Politics and the Nation
The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.
Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).
Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…
Enloe, Cynthia. 2001. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics Updated Edition with a New Preface. University of California Press.
Gender Perspectives on Globalization
The social impact of globalization: case of Indian nurses migration
The globalization advent can be dated back to the post WWII era leading to the cold war period where countries increasingly chose the nations that they aligned their diplomatic, political and economic allegiances to. This trend was informed by the global economic trends that prevailed after the WWII and the need for economic allies in order for a country and to some extent a region to survive. The World Bank (2014a) advances globalization as the increased interdependence of countries on each other due to the ever increasing finance, trade, human resources and ideologies at the global level. It is characterized by the significant increase in the international trade patterns and the establishment of cross-border investments and these are noted to be the two major characteristics of globalization as sated by Mrak M. (2000:Pp3-6) and these cannot…
Costinot A. Donaldson D., (2012). Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Advantage: Old Idea, New Evidence. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://economics.mit.edu/files/7536
Gill R., (2011). Nursing Shortage in India with special reference to International Migration of Nurses. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CFUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsocialmedicine.info%2Findex.php%2Fsocialmedicine%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F517%2F1088&ei=GEF2VJeBA4Ldao7_grgG&usg=AFQjCNF2NHcvOH9zERhetMyAYZN1uKua2A&sig2=VzqxICFENaDFRwkKDJ8YeA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.bGQ
Nagarajan R., (2010). India tops with 56,000 migrant doctors in OECD countries. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India-tops-with-56000-migrant-doctors-in-OECD-countries/articleshow/7154050.cms
Senior K., (2010). Wanted: 2.4 million nurses, and that's just in India. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/5/10-020510.pdf
Nonetheless, the example is similar. An entire nation of people is in an uprising against a powerful dictator, led by one man, defeats their enemies to get to victory. There are echoes here of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s in the United States led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It is only when testimonial literature comes onto the scene that we understand how important both of these former points are. Testimonial narrative makes real the pain of poverty.
Gustavo Gutierrez's preferential option for the poor definitely becomes a misnomer when testimonial literature is introduced into the picture. The problem with preferential option for the poor is that it is a term specifically designed for the vocabulary of academics which seek to side with the poverty-stricken Other which they, the academics, most likely have little to no contact with on a daily basis.
However, they wish to have…
Bucur, Maria. "Between the Mother of the Wounded and the Virgin of Jiu: Romanian Women and the Gender of Heroism during the Great War." Journal of Women's History 12.2 (2000): 30-56.
Cockburn, Cynthia. "On The Machinery of Dominance: Women, Men, and Technical Know-How." WSQ:
Women's Studies Quarterly 37.1-2 (2009): 269-273. Project MUSE.
ithin these transactions, however, the relationship of women towards males in their lives is often reinforced in advertising, either by the woman's desire to buy products to beautify herself or her home, or to cook and clean the home.
In contemporary life, it seems more difficult to trace the architectural genealogy of suburban and urban malls and shopping locations in as clear and in as sexually defined a fashion as the Burlington Arcade. Like the arcade, however, malls and other stores are public places where everyone is free to come in, but must behave according to the rules of the store, or else the shoppers are forced to leave by security guards. The exchanges are impersonal, like in any store, or in prostitution, and are governed by financial transactions, even though the employee may be forced to tell the customer to have a nice day, or behave according to a…
Rendell, Jane. "Industrious Females' and 'Professional Beauties." In Strangely Familiar: Narratives of Architecture in the City. Ed. Lain Borden et al. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. 32-6.