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The eradication of global hunger is a noble goal, and implies a human society that has progressed to a point where all humans are engaged in some form of implicit social contract with each other. e care about global hunger because we do not want to see other humans starve, regardless of the circumstances that brought about their hunger. Before tackling the issue of global hunger, however, we must admit that people in many parts of the world are born into Hobbes' state of nature, with no inherent rights to even the basic necessities of life, including food. Eradicating global hunger means that somebody, somewhere must fill that in providing the necessities. This paper will explore the role that genetic engineering can play in ending world hunger.
Assumptions and underpinnings
If genetic engineering is to eradicate world hunger, we must understand how it can do this. e know…
Gurian-Sherman, D. (2009). Failure to yield: Evaluating the performance of genetically engineered crops.
Lobell, D. & Asner, G. (2003). Climate and management contributions to recent trends in U.S. agricultural yields. Science. Vol. 299 (14 Feb 2003). Retrieved February 18, 2012 from http://scholar.googleusercontent.com/scholar?q=cache:waOodCXE7SMJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=en&as_sdt=0,10
Lobell, D., Cassman, K. & Field, C. (2009). Crop yield gaps: Their importance, magnitudes and causes. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. Vol. 34 (2009) 179-204.
Owen, M. & Zelaya, I. (2005). Herbicide-resistant crops and weed resistance to herbicides. Pest Management Science. Vol. 61 (3) 301-311.
(iohazards: The Next Generation?
There is a wide variety of such products and that includes salmon which grow twice as fast as the regular salmon, but nobody is thinking of the consequences when these fish will escape from the farms where they are being cultivated. Some types of plants like poplar, eucalyptus and pine are being modified so that their rate of growth increases and are able to stop reacting from high doses of herbicides. This will help the plants from being converted more easily for paper pulp. There are many efforts to develop bananas that may be useful for giving vaccines to individuals, and many other such experiments are still going on. This sort of results are leading companies like Monsanto, DuPont and Dow to start finding new methods of reaching the components of vaccines, antibodies for human diseases and different types of proteins to be used in industry…
Epstein, Ron. Ethical Dangers of Genetic Engineering. Synthesis/Regeneration 20. Fall, 1999. Retrieved at http://www.greens.org/s-r/20/20-01.html . Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Fong, Mira. Genetic Trespassing and Environmental Ethics. Retrieved at http://online.sfsu.edu /%7Erone/GEessays/GENETIC%20TRESPASSING.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The process of altering genes, or genetic engineering, has become a more heated subject as science and technology continue to evolve. In fact, with DNA technology, genetic modifications within plants and other organisms has become a major development, especially in the world of agriculture and medicine. However, there is still the possibility of the inability to contain the spreading and somewhat "tainting" of non-genetically modified organisms, which seem to be the major concerns of scientists, environmentalists, and organic farmers throughout the nation.
The four articles discuss the possible uses of altering an organism's genetic code in order to further production and efficiency. Three of the articles discuss the prospect of genetically altered genes, as well as the arguments for and against such approval of biotech creations. In February, the United States Department of Agriculture approved an otherwise disallowed manufacturing of genetically engineered sugar beets (Pollack, 2011). In the…
Bhanoo, Sindya N. "Altering a Mouse Gene Turns Up Aggression, Study Says." The New York Times [New York] 27 Jan. 2011, Science sec. Print.
Bittman, Mark. "Why Aren't G.M.O. Foods Labeled?" The New York Times [New York] 15 Feb. 2011, Opinionator sec. Print.
Pollack, Andrew. "U.S. Approves Corn Modified for Ethanol." The New York Times [New York] 11 Feb. 2011, Business Day sec. Print.
Pollack, Andrew. "U.S. Says Farmers May Grow Engineered Sugar Beets." The New York Times [New York] 4 Feb. 2011, Business Day sec. Print.
The human body has 25,000 genes approximately which are inherited birth that give the person physical and emotional attributes. Some genes can be defective predisposing one to diseases that may attack them later in life. Other genes may remain dormant and get passed down to their future generations who will suffer from the disease (More 3). This threat can be removed through genetic engineering through preventing or completely eradicating the threat completely. This is done by identifying and repairing them or introducing genes that can negate or combat the defective gene's detrimental effects. Gene therapy can be used to find remedies to non-genetic diseases and it has enabled the treatment of autoimmune and cardiac diseases over the last decade. Genetic engineering has been applied to human reproduction whereby genetic diseases can be identified at the fetal stage so as to enable the doctors take remedial action. Hopefully, as time goes…
Boylan, Michael, and Kevin, Brown E. Genetic engineering: science and ethics on the new frontier. Michigan: UOM Press, 2009.
Fridell, Ron. Genetic Engineering. New York: Publisher Lerner, 2006.
Glenn, L.M."Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics"
ActionBioscience.org. 8 June 2004. 23 Apr. 2010.
Even though Irene is almost perfect, it is her imperfection, an unacceptable chance of heart failure that precludes her from achieving her dream to go into space. Yet in the end her heart does not fail. Initially she questions Vincent's "validity" and surreptitiously has him sequenced. Later she is appalled to discover that he is a "God child," but in the end she helps him maintain his deception and go into space.
The character of Jerome under goes a metamorphosis during the film. A genetically superior specimen, he is paralyzed when he attempts suicide after finishing second in a swimming race and cannot accept his failure. As Vincent observes when he first meets Jerome "there is no gene for fate." Jerome's redemption is achieved through Vincent. Early in their relationship Jerome is bitter about his fate as demonstrated through his over use of alcohol among other things. As the story…
Arnold P. (2009, November 9). Pros and cons of genetic engineering in humans. Bright Hub Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/22210.aspx
Glenn, L.M. (2004). Ethical issues in genetic engineering and transgenics. American Institute of Biological Sciences. In ActionBioscience.org. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/glenn.html
The Hastings Center. (2010). Willard Gaylin. The Hastings Center website. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.thehastingscenter.org/About/Board/Detail.aspx?id=1262
Niccol, A. (Director). (1997). Gattica. [Motion picture]. United States: Columbia Pictures.
Harry Collins with Delta & Pine Land asserts that "protection systems" (the terminator seed) will "…help farmers in all areas of the world gain access to the most technologically advanced tools and products" allowing them to produce "more profitable crops" (Shand, 3). Collins goes on to insist that "traditional farming practices" -- using saved seeds to plant next season's crops -- brings "a gross disadvantage to Third World farmers" because they get "locked into obsolete varieties" (Shand, 4). However, Shand explains that farmers that are "resource-poor" are unlikely to buy terminator seeds and yet they may well wind up with "sterile seed after exchanging or buying seed from better-off farm neighbors." Neth Dano of the Southeast Asian Institute for Community Education (SEARICE) believes that these revolutionary seeds "…could drive millions of farmers out of plant breeding and, since no one else will breed for their needs, out of agriculture altogether"…
Conway, Gordon, 1997, The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for all in the Twenty-First Century. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY.
Eicher, Carl K., Maredia, Karim, and Sithole-Niang, Idah, 2005, 'Biotechnology and the African Farmer,' Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University.
Fresco, Louise O. 2001, 'Spotlight / 2001 -- Genetically Modified Crops,' Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Retrieved August 14, 2011, from http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0111sp.htm.
Gartrell, Adam. 2011, 'Africa famine a major crisis: Costello,' The Sydney Morning Herald, Retrieved August 14, 2011, from http://news.smh.com.au .
This is because of the various allergies, and antibiotic resistant plants and crops. However, arguments are now being made in favor of GE, and there is now evidence that it is possible to produce health as well as environmental benefits to man by the process of GE. Will GE be able to stop world hunger? It is now thought that GE food is necessary if the world were to be fed, that is, the food production and the health care of people would be greatly improved by GE, and this is especially true because of the fact that because of soil erosion, it is no longer possible to cultivate more and more crops in the traditional method. (Biotechnology, Genetically Modified Organisms)
Therefore, GE is of great importance to eradicate the hunger of the millions and millions of people of the world who are hungry. GE will also be of great…
Definition of Genetic Engineering. Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:genetic+engineeringAccessed on 8 March, 2005
McDonagh, Sean. The Pros and Cons of GE Food. Retrieved at http://www.columban.com/stateofplanet4.htm . Accessed on 8 March, 2005
Pusztai, Arpad. Biotechnology, Genetically Modified Organisms. Retrieved at http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/pusztai.html . Accessed on 8 March, 2005
Rader, Charles. M.A Report on Genetically Engineered Crops. April 2003. Retrieved at http://members.tripod.com/c_rader0/gemod.htm. Accessed on 8 March, 2005
The alteration of the genetic structure of any organism is done by means of Genetic engineering that provides characters beneficial or pleasing to the individual performing the alternation. In other words it is a treatment of the DNA or RNA pool (Sarah. 2002). For instance, the most greatly well-known example of genetic engineering is the sheep Dolly that was cloned in the year 1996. Here, in order to create Dolly, the scientists took out cells from the udder of a pregnant, six-year-old ewe and then these cells were put into not related host eggs that had their DNA separated. Thus, as an alternate of creating one fertilized egg, a reproduction or a duplicate of an adult animal was made (Sarah. 2002).
Dolly; being a living proof where a fertilized egg is divided few times and later the cells of individual are removed from an embryo. Thus, this sheep…
Sarah. "Brock-Star " Brocky. Genetic Engineering Alters Life: Imagine the perfect child.
January 2002. www.marian.creighton.edu
Natassja, Voltin. Genetic Engineering.
Genetic Engineering is a tool in the hands of man to break the species barriers to create a more productive and controllable world. This is a delicately balanced issue and unless we exercise enough restraint and responsibility we may end up endangering ourselves and all other forms of life.
Genetic Engineering is the science of gene manipulation. Genetic information is specific to each and every organism in the world. Genetic Engineering is in effect the science that deals with the controlling of the expression of the individual genes within a cell. Today the advancements in science have made possible the selective study of the individual segments of the DNA of a particular species, to isolate them and to infuse them in the DNA of a totally different organism. Genetic Engineering can be viewed as a breakthrough in the study of organisms that effectively disintegrates the distinctions that exists in the…
OLD.R.W, Primrose S.B, "Principles of Gene Manipulation: An Introduction to Genetic Engineering," 1994, Fifth Edition, Blackwell Science, pg 46
Chhatwal.G.R "Textbook of Biotechnology," Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd., First
Edition, 1998 Reprint, pg 
Venter Craig', "GE fantasy shattered by human genome project," Accessed on December 12th, 2002, http://www.btinternet.com/~nlpwessex/Documents/GEfantasy.htm
" he Ecumenical Review, 54.
Kneen looks at agricultural genetic engineering and takes the view that because agricultural genetic engineering may help solve food shortage problems as well as enhance the environment, such activities should be looked at positively. Kneen puts good arguments together to make his points, but also writes from a biased viewpoint, so his article should be used in conjunction with other writers who are not quite so biased. His claims that genetic engineering is the only way to increase production and reduce loss to pests seems like hyperbole. He looks to theology, not science, to determine how we should apply genetic knowledge.
Morse, Allison. 1998. "Searching for the Holy Grail: he Human Genome Project and Its Implications." Journal of Law and Health 13.
Morse explains the scope of the Human Genome Project, the extensive research project conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department…
This paper looks at theories of distributive justice, considering whether distributive justice should help equalize the innate differences between people and proposes that such increased equality between people might be one result of human genetic engineering. However, such an approach has a troubling history, having been attempted by Nazi Germany. The author looks at Rawls's Principles of Distributive Justice in detail. The arguments are sophisticated and complex and the intended audience is someone familiar with the issues discussed.
Robertson, John A. 1994. "The Question of Human Cloning." The Hastings Center Report 24.
Robertson attempt to put media reports in perspective, describing how very far developments in such things as genetic engineering and cloning are from the nightmare fictionall accounts we have seen in Brave New World, and more recently, in Jurassic Park. He presents a variety of scenarios where cloning might be used to control the genes of offspring for infertile couples. Robertson cautiously argues in favor of using cloned embryos to provide transplant organs for a sick sibling, and shows a bias toward what he considers to be responsible use of the technology. he article contains some technical descriptions of the biologic processes but focuses on effects on society.
Genetic engineering is one of the major discoveries of the 20th Century and an important topic in biology because of its link on broad understanding of life development. While its referred to as genetic modification, this field provides humanity with the ability to tackle hunger, combat diseases, and even regulate human behavior. The importance of this issue to the biological field is attributed to its far-reaching implications that have generated controversial philosophical and moral debates. Generally, genetic engineering or genetic modification can be defined as the use of various techniques to modify or manipulate organisms through reproduction and heredity procedures. This field is described as gene cloning or recombinant DNA technology with which gene DNA molecules from different sources are pooled in vitro or cells and entered into host organisms that they are able to propagate ("Genetic Engineering," n.d.).
The Daily Telegraph published an article regarding the morality…
Alleyne, R. (2012, August 16). Genetically Engineering 'Ethical' Babies is a Moral Obligation,
Says Oxford Professor. The Telegraph. Retrieved January 17, 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/9480372/Genetically-engineering-ethical-babies-is-a-moral-obligation-says-Oxford-professor.html
"Extreme Genetic Engineering: An Introduction to Synthetic Biology" (2007, January). ETC
Group. Retrieved January 17, 2013, from https://www.cbd.int/doc/emerging-issues/etcgroup-introduction-synthetic-biology-2011-013-en.pdf
Consider the use of genetic modification, for example, to modify genes not for life-saving procedures but for aesthetic changes. Remember that when one alters the DNA of a human being, even for a supposedly benign but necessary fashion, like making a short child taller, this DNA will be passed down to future generations of that child. This calls into question the ownership of the child's DNA. (Bereano, 1995) Modifying a child's gene to save his or her life, without a very young child's consent, might be considered within ethical guidelines, like providing resuscitation to an unconscious person who cannot give consent, but non-necessary procedures are far more questionable. hat if the short child wished to become a jockey, or a gymnast? How can a parent determine what the child finds aesthetically pleasing, or even how society will define such constructs as beauty, good character, or intelligence, when that child is…
Anders Aberg, "Bridging the Gap between Model Systems and Human
Biology." Originally published in Genetic Engineering News. Nov 1, 2005. Vol. 25, No. 19. [6 Nov 2006]
Bereano, Phillip L. "Body and Soul: The price of biotech." Seattle Times. 20 Aug 1995:
One on hand, you have various proponents who will argue that this will address these kinds of issues. This is because you are modifying the DNA enough, that are creating changes in the way various organisms are responding to their environment. Over the course of time, this will have a positive impact on world hunger by: ensuring that there are more available strains of plants, the organisms are able to cope with the extreme weather conditions, there are larger crop yields and many products will stay fresh longer. These different factors are important, because they are showing how genetic engineering can address the fundamental problems affecting many different regions of the world. As, this will provide: developed and developing nations with greater choices about their food supply. Once this takes place, it means that this will have a positive impact upon the issue of world hunger by: making certain that…
Aleteri, M. (2004). Genetic Engineering in Agriculture. Oakland, CA: First Books.
Cohen, M. (2010). Genetic Engineering. New York, NY: Crabtree Publishing.
Cunningham, W. (2008). Principles of environmental science: Inquiry and applications. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Easton, T. (2008). Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial environmental issues. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Genetic engineering is neither good nor bad, but the outcome could be judged as one or the other (Dawkins, 1998). We, as a species, have been manipulating nature's gene pool since before recorded history, intentionally selecting for specific traits in food crops, flowers, trees, race horses, pets, our romantic partners, and for many of us, our friends. This human-mediated selection process represents a mechanism of evolution, one with significant power and impact. The historical goals of such manipulations have been the enhancement of species survival and lifestyle. Determining whether these intentional selection pressures produce good or bad outcomes most often occurs in hindsight, but not always. Some efforts are obviously a good or bad idea from the start, and even when we can predict the outcome our record is mixed.
Almost everyone would agree that eliminating a lethal virus like smallpox from the world would be a generally good…
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2011). Smallpox. Website. Retrieved July 14, 2011 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/smallpox.html
Mitchell, Philip B., Meiser, Bettina, Wilde, Alex, Fullerton, Janice, Donald, Jennifer, Wilhelm, Kay, and Schofield, Peter R. (2010). Predictive and diagnostic genetic testing in psychiatry. Clinical Laboratory Medicine, 30, 829-846.
Whitaker, R. (2002). Mad in America: Bad science, bad medicine, and the enduring mistreatment of the mentally ill. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Dawkins, Richard. (1998, August 19). Where do the real dangers of genetic engineering lie? London Evening Standard. Retrieved July 14, 2011 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/17464103/Where-Do-the-Real-Dangers-of-Genetic-Engineering-l
Likewise, aspects of genetic engineering and stem cell technology offer long-term hope for victims of traumatic paralysis through the use of to repair spinal cord damage by providing artificially engineered nerve growth.
Precisely because genetic engineering allows scientists to manipulate the very essence of what makes us who we are, the field has generated significant opposition.
eligious beliefs about the sanctity and "special" character of human life inspired intense political opposition to the wider incorporation of genetic engineering science necessary to reap its full benefit by successfully promoting and lobbying for bans on federal funding on some of the most beneficial applications of genetic engineering (Pollack 2007).
Secular medical ethicists have also raised concerns based on the potential use of genetic engineering for full-scale human cloning. In principle, the same technologies that enable the development of autogenic human tissues and organs are also capable of producing human beings…
Aldridge, Susan (1998) the Thread of Life: The Story of Genes and Genetic Engineering. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Elias, Paul. Pursuing Healthier Bacon through Genetic Engineering. The Associated Press; Mar. 26/06. Retrieved March 31, 2008, from the U.S.A. Today website, at http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/biotech/2006-03-26-biotech-bacon_x.htm?POE=TECISVA
Gribbin, John. (2002) the Scientists: A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors. New York: Random House.
Pollack, Andrew. After Stem-Cell Breakthrough the Real Work Begins. The New York Times, Nov. 27/07 (p. F1) Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House
Ethics of Genetic Engineering
In February 1997, genetic engineering was thrust into the spotlight when Dolly, the first mammal clone, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. he world has had heated discussions over the issues surrounding genetic engineering ever since. he selective engineering of genetics is invaluable to the health and happiness of humans. he importance of this issue has played second fiddle to the arguments, for and against genetic engineering. he impact of genetic engineering on our everyday lives can be enormous. While many feel genetic engineering is unethical, this paper will show the benefits are substantial.
In the past, the majority of people have been against the use of these experimental procedures because of the possibility of deadly outcomes. Because not much is known about genetic engineering, this discovery could improve our lives and should be allowed to progress despite the risks it poses and the public outcry against…
The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution" (Stableford 1996). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools. Exposing it to ultra-high frequency sound waves can break up DNA, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section (Stableford 1996). A more accurate way of DNA splicing is the use of "restriction enzymes, which are produced by various species of bacteria" (Clarke 1994). The restriction enzymes cut the DNA strand at a particular location called a nucleotide base, which makes up a DNA molecule. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to another strand of DNA by using enzymes called lipases. The final important step in the creation of a new DNA strand is giving it the ability to self-replicate. This can be accomplished by using special pieces of DNA, called vectors, that permit the generation of multiple copies of a total DNA strand and fusing it to the newly created DNA structure. Another newly developed method, called polymerase chain reaction, allows for faster replication of DNA strands and does not require the use of vectors (Clarke 1994).
Along with altering the cells of living tissues, genetic engineering has also proven extremely helpful in the alteration of bacterial genes. "Transforming bacterial cells is easier than transforming the cells of complex organisms" (Stableford 1996). Two reasons are evident for this ease of manipulation: DNA enters, and functions easily in bacteria, and the transformed bacteria cells can be easily selected out from the non-transformed ones. Bacterial bioengineering has many uses in our society; it can produce synthetic insulins, a growth hormone for the treatment of dwarfism and interferon for treatment of cancers and viral diseases (Stableford 1996).
Throughout the centuries disease has plagued the world, forcing everyone to take part in a virtual "lottery with the agents of death" (Stableford 1996). Whether viral or bacterial in nature, such disease is currently combated with the application of vaccines and antibiotics. These treatments, however, contain many unsolved problems. The difficulty with applying
Ethics Analysis of Genetic Engineering and Genetically Modified Organisms
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Ethics and Morality
Contemporary Ethics Analysis of Genetic Engineering and Genetically Modified Organisms
Ethics and Morality
According to the article "Can a genetically-modified organism-containing diet influence embryo development? A preliminary study on pre-implantation mouse embryos," "Millions of test is used every year for a wide variety of scientific and medical purposes. This article, discusses issues involving a genetically modified organism (GMO) which is an organism whose genetic construction has been transformed by integrating a gene that will express a necessary trait, often termed gene splicing. Most of the time the transferred gene permits the organism to express a trait that will add to its desirability to producers or consumers of the end product. However, there are ethics that are supposed to be involved but are being crossed all the time. Some…
Aris, A. (2011). Maternal and Fetal Exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified Foods in Eastern Towns of Quebec Canada. Reproductive Toxicology, 31, 528-533.
B. Cisterna, 1. F. (2008). Contemporary Ethics Analysis of Genetic Engineering and Genetically Modified Organisms. European Journal of Histochemistry, 1-267.
Chao, E. (2008). A risk Classification Scheme. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 52, 208-222.
Chao, S. (2012). Potential Allergenicity research of Cry 1C Protein From Gentically Modified Rice. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 7.
Kass Silver Ethics Cloning
Genetic engineering is one of the most contentious and confusion ethical issues that is faced by modern society. An investigation into hypothetical cases where cloning is used can help to expose some of the ethical considerations implicit in genetic engineering technology. This paper will review the case of a child born as a clone of the father, using the perspective of Lee M. Silver, author of Remaking Eden. Similarly, the case of a child cloned to provide bone marrow for a sibling will be discussed through the perspective of Dr. Leon R. Kass, author of Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity. These two cases reveal a great deal about the differing perspectives of the authors, and the polarization of the debate that surrounds the future of genetic engineering.
The first case to be analyzed is that of the creation of a child (named Repete) who…
Kass, Leon. 2004. Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. Encounter Books.
Silver, Lee. 1998. Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World. Perennial.
Ethics of Human Cloning
Genetic engineering and cloning have played important roles in agriculture for many generations. Bananas and seedless grapes, for example, are, quite literally, living genetic clones (Krock, 2001). Prior to the last decade of the 20th Century, human cloning was purely a subject of science fiction, but by the dawn of the 21st Century, researchers had already cloned several mammals successfully.
In 1978, medical science had progressed to the point of in vitro fertilization, producing Louise Brown, the first "test-tube baby," conceived in a laboratory and implanted into her mother's womb. By 1997, British researcher Ian Wimut implanted sheep embryos, cloned from the DNA nucleus in an adult sheep's mammary gland, into thirteen female sheep, one of whom became pregnant, eventually delivering a female yew, named "Dolly" (Krock, 2001). Three years later, scientists working at Advanced
Cell Technology in Massachusetts managed to impregnate a cow with an…
Bronowski, J. (1965) Science and Human Values.
Harper & Row: New York
Horgan, J. (1997) The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age. Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass
Ladd, J. Ed. (1979) Ethical Issues Related to Life and Death.
However, while it is tempting to claim genetic influences as superior to environmental ones, there is still a great debate over whether and individual can overcome their genetics setbacks or be enhanced by their genetic superiority. The former is often achievable as in the case of the addict who has recovered from their addiction, the latter brings us to the morally trepidatious ground of eugenics where by genetic engineering can enhance the good traits and limit the bad traits. The problem there is who decides which traits to keep or loose? Usually decisions left up to a higher authority.
Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.
Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key…
Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.
Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key to Public Health: Strides in Genetics Research Are Making a Difference in Public Health. State Legislatures, 29, 28.
Parens, E. (2004). Genetic Differences and Human Identities: On Why Talking about Behavioral Genetics Is Important and Difficult. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 1-9.
Positive and Negative Engineering
Summary of "For Both Positive and Negative Engineering"
Are we justified in using genetic engineering to create one type of person over another? This is the complex question addressed by the author in the article. The two fundamental issues raised by positive engineering are whether we are justified in attempting to change human nature, and whether genetic engineering is an acceptable means of achieving this change. The author asks, since negative changes are made regarding genes and positive changes are made to environments, why positive changes should not be made at the genetic level. The author aimed to address the different sources and reasons for resistance to the idea of positive engineering, as well as to focus on the justifiable doubts to this concept.
One of the key reasons people may be resistant to the positive engineering is an objection to "playing God." Determining what characteristics…
Designing Babies: Genetic Engineering
The rapid development of science and technology has led to an advanced knowledge in the human genome with an increasing ability to change and modify genes to assist people designing babies that suit their wishes in the future. The genetic screening techniques are already being used in some countries where embryos are selected by sex and genes resistance to diseases. The argument in support of genetic engineering is that in the future, scientists will have the ability to replace the faulty genes with healthy DNA genes thereby eradicating the genetic diseases. Through genetic engineering it will be possible to design babies who will be highly intelligent, becoming great leaders and scientists in the future. Additionally, it will be possible to correct genetic diseases passed from generation to generation assisting families to install genes that offer lifelong protection against diseases. Despite the aforementioned benefits suggested by the…
Mill J. S. On Liberty, In Utilitarianism, on liberty, considerations on representative government. London: Everyman.
Parker, M. "The best possible child." Journal of Medical Ethics 33.5 (2007): 279-83. Web.
Regalado, Antonio. "Engineering the Perfect Baby." MIT Technology Review (2015).
Lo, Bernard and Parham, Lindsay. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research. Endocr Rev 30.3 (2007): 204 -- 213.
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.
The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and…
Stegemann, S. & Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plants tissue
Grafts. Science, pg 649-651. Retrieved on April 1, 2010 from www.sciencemag.com.
The cavalcade of America. (1946). Retrieved on April 7, 2010 from http://www.otrr.org/FILES/Scripts_pdf
human genetic. There are four references used for this paper.
There are remarkable advancements being made in the field of genetics. It is important to examine whether the material should be transferred between organisms, as well as the effects on food today.
Many people wonder if genetic material should be transferred from one organism to another.
hile benefits have been shown in biotechnology, it is important for scientists to utilize technology carefully and wisely, since "any technology has the potential for being abused, and there is the possibility that genetically engineered 'monsters' could be created with the use of recombinant DNA techniques (Phillips)."
Although gene therapy research is increasing, in a majority of cases it is still too ineffective to be beneficial. Humans should not compete with or alter nature since "gene therapy alters an individual's genetic blueprint, which in time could lead to 'selective breeding' (unknown)."
Conko, Gregory. The benefits of biotech: as the world's population grows, environmental stewardship will require science to find ways to produce more food on less land.
Agriculture). Regulation. (2003): 22 March.
Phillips, G.C., M.A. O'Connell, I.M. Ray, R.G. Cantrell, and C. Sengupta-Gopalan.
The Importance of Plant Biotechnology in the Future Development of Arid
To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).
In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.
(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff
Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…
Brumfiel, G (March 29, 2013) Tiny DNA Switches Aim to Revolutionize 'Cellular' Computing. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2013/03/29/175604770/tiny-dna-switches-aim-to-revolutionize-cellular-computing
Lovgren, Stefan (2003-02-24). Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes. National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/02/0224_030224_DNAcomputer.html
Heaven D (02 April 2013) DNA transistors pave way for living computers Newscientishttp://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23337-dna-transistors-pave-way-for-living-computers.html
Strain D (June 2, 2011 ) Flexible DNA computer finds square roots Science News http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/330621/description/Flexible_DNA_computer_finds_square_roots_
Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.
Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…
Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.
Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.
Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.
hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?
Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.
Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…
Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British
Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.bmj.com .
Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.
Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au .
However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.
A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.
20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/
This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.
The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx
This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.
20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/
The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx
What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna
Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/ejelonu.html
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)
In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)
Exclusion of People from the Experiment
If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…
Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol3_g/Bhuiya_2012_G60-65.pdf>.
Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from http://www.csid.unt.edu/files/What's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf
Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from http://cf.ac.uk/jomec/resources/GMREPFIN.pdf
Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from http://www.tufts.edu/~skrimsky/PDF/GMOethics.PDF
Genetically Engineered Food
Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…
Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."
Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.
Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.
Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
Realist Moral Theories Unit IV: Bioethics
The moral of the film "ottaca" is quite obvious and the development of events also quite predictable. The film starts from the idea that parents want their children to have the best start in life. The majority of parents would agree with it. This idea is put into the context of genetic engineering, a palpable reality today. The moral is that letting doctors apply genetics to do every magic possible in order to get the "best version of you" by eliminating all the "less perfect possibilities" is wrong.
Most religions teach one to mind the body as well as the soul in order to be in harmony with od and the rest of the universe. They also teach about free will. Causal determinism, on the other side, superposes the end over the beginning and leaves no chance for the "chance." According to this philosophical…
Gottaca's predictable end warns us of the danger of deifying science and placing all our hopes into it.
"Gottaca," 1997.Directed by Andrew Niccol, produced by Columbia Pictures Corporation, Jersey Films, United States
Shapshay, Sandra.2009. Bioethics and the Movies. JHU Press
Principles of Management and Technology
Multiculturalism and Diversity
"Diversity is desirable for innovation, flexibility, and organizational success."
Diversity can be a valuable asset for any organization. Having people from different backgrounds and cultures offers a broader range of different perspectives and different opinions. Having this as an asset can spawn higher levels of innovation and flexibility because of the depth of perspective -- more people with different ideas can collaborate in a way that ultimately leads to organizational success. Today's most successful organizations embrace diversity however the results of diversity are not always successful. hile many organizations have sought to increase the diversity of their workforces, researchers have found both positive and negative effects of demographic diversity on organizational outcomes (Olsen & Martins, 2012).
New Business Ventures
Discuss the reasons why small businesses are so important to the U.S. economy.
Small business accounts for the bulk of the…
Olsen, J., & Martins, L. (2012). Understanding organizational diversity management programs: A theoretical framework and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1168-1187.
SBA. (2012, September). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from Small Business Association: http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/FAQ_Sept_2012.pdf
The famous 1991 novel, Jurassic Park, is based on the subject of a wildlife preserve for dinosaurs. The renowned writer of this novel, Michael Crichton, hoisted the conventional phantom of the revivification of species that have been wiped out from the face of the earth by using conserving DNA samples ("Jurassic Park' 20 Years" C10). The uncontrolled genetic engineering produced outcomes that were not the concern of just the scientists in the novel but are the concern of the whole human civilization (Sharp 507).
Crichton was able to craft a vibrantly dramatic action-adventure story with the Jurassic Park that revolved around the ideas of gluttony and crookedness of science. In this vivid tale of Crichton, an affluent investor builds a theme park that was located on an island off the coast of Costa ica. The peculiar part of the tale is that the investor hires a scientist to…
Fisher, B. & Magid, R. "Jurassic Park: When Dinosaurs Rule the Box Office." American Cinematographer June 1993: 37+. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
"Jurassic Park' 20 Years Later: How Close? Film Trilogy about Resurrected Dinosaurs Debuts on Blu-Ray." The Washington Times (Washington, DC) 25 Oct. 2011: C10. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
Sharp, Michael D., ed. Popular Contemporary Writers. Vol. 4. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference, 2006. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
Trembley, Elizabeth A. Michael Crichton: A Critical Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
Buck vs. Bell
Lee M. Silver's Remaking Eden and Dr. Leon R. Kass' Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity provide differing perspectives on the applicability of the issue of the case of Buck vs. Bell to today's society. In Buck vs. Bell, eugenics and Social Darwinism spurred a Supreme Court decision that allowed forced sterilization. In Remaking Eden, the perspective of Silver effectively argues that the case of Buck vs. Bell is not at all applicable to genetic issues today. Silver's optimistic stance on genetic engineering seems to indicate that human innovativeness and ingenuity will allow humans to successfully use genetic technologies to improve the world. In contrast, Kass' perspective suggests that the case of Buck vs. Bell is highly applicable to genetic issues today. Kass notes that even well-meaning and benevolent applications of technology can have devastating impacts on human dignity, echoing a theme found in the violation…
Kass, Leon. 2004. Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. Encounter Books.
Silver, Lee. 1998. Remaking Eden. Perennial.
Syracuse University, Personal Home Pages. Buck Vs. Bell. http://web.syr.edu/~slbignes
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
Harvard college's "oncomouse," which is a mouse that has been genetically engineered to make it more susceptible to cancer, and thus of more use in research, could be patented under Canadian patent law. The Patent Examiner refused to grant the patent, stating that higher life forms were not inventions under the applicable law because they were not compositions of matter. The majority opinion upheld the Patent Examiner's decision. Justice Binnie dissented to the majority's opinion. Justice Bastarache wrote the majority opinion.
The majority opinion, authored by Justice Bastarache represents the court's actual decision. Majority opinions represent the decision of the court. In some cases, there is no actual majority opinion because of partial dissents and concurrences, but that is not applicable in this case. The majority felt that Parliament did not intend for every conceivable subject matter to be patentable, and points to the fact that Parliament wrote an exhaustive…
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.
Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…
Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf
"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms
Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.
United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
Okanagan Specialty Fruits is a small company that has invented a new technology which has enabled them to genetically engineer apples in such a way that they do not turn into a brown color when cut or sliced. Okanagan is trying to bring this product in the market given the fact that they believe the non-browning apple will be accepted by food companies and consumers. It will also help increase the number of apple sales since retailers can now sell sliced apples. However, the company has received different receptions regarding bringing the genetically engineered apples in the market. There are those who oppose the Arctic Apple as Okanagan named it, while there are those willing to give them a chance to sell the product in the market. Despite the fact that American family has been consuming genetically engineered foods, Arctic Apple will be the first version of genetically…
Andrew, P. (2012, July 12). That Fresh Look, Genetically Buffed. The New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/13/business/growers-fret-over-a-new-apple-that-wont-turn-brown.html?pagewanted=all
Medical Advancements in Medicine and Health
Write a three-page paper on what you believe is the most significant medical advancement (s) in medicine and health and support your argument.
Genetic engineering is one of the most significant medical advancements of the century and will have a major impact on medicine, health, politics and church and state relationships.
Genetic engineering. A controversial issue or a blessing in disguise? The Human Genome Project (HGP), sponsored in the United tates has created the field of genomics --understanding genetic material on a large scale.
But what actually is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering in theory, allows cells to grow in a petri dish, with the end result of creating the type of genetic alteration you want. Imagine the medical ramifications of being able to genetically create the characteristics we want in a species. Think of the benefits to mankind and the enhancements that would be…
Sources of Information:
Publications www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/genechoice/index.html" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project
Books www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/hgn/v9n1/15cshl.html" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care
Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
Genetically Modified Trees
Scientists and environmentalists must join one another in support of genetically modified trees. Biotechnology has afforded mankind a new method for preserving and restoring the natural landscape of the earth through genetic engineering. The use of genetically modified trees will not only help support the natural landscape but also improve preservation efforts and encourage balance between the needs of environmentalists and commercial enterprises.
For thousands of years mankind has relied on trees for economic and health reasons. In recent years however the landscape has significantly changed as more and more natural forests are depleted to due natural and unnatural causes. This has resulted in multiple deleterious effects on both the health, economy and well being of mankind and the environment. Biotechnology has afforded new hope however, allowing researchers to produce artificial trees offering many of the same benefits, if not more benefits than natural forests offer both…
Avise, J.C. 2004. The Hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine and the environment." New York: Oxford University Pres.
Booth, D.E. 1994. Valuing nature: The decline and preservation of old growth forests.
Lanham: Rowman Littlefield Publishing.
Sedjo, R. 2004. Genetically engineered trees: Promise and concerns. Resources for the Future. http://www.rff.org/rff/News/Features/Genetically-Engineered-Trees.cfm . Accessed 10/21/2005.
Genomics and Implications for the Future
The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…
Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health
Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.
Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:
In Genentech, Hughes examines the remarkable rise of the Genentech company, which was an industry pioneer in the field of genetic engineering. The basic premise of Hughes’s book is that Genentech radically transformed biotechnology and even made a broader impact beyond the medical technology and science sectors. Themes Hughes addresses in Genentech include the business practices and processes needed to start a radical, innovative firm, particularly one with a business model based on science. Another major theme covered in Genentech is intellectual property, which is a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry, which eventually became heavily and inextricably entrenched in genetic science. Hughes also covers the theme of ethics: especially the conflicts of interest that can arise between the altruistic aims of academia and applied science and the commercial goals of a profit-driven enterprise.
Hughes offers an overview and history of the firm, which was created in 1976 by Herbert…
Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on iosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.
VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods
The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness…
Finucane, Melissa L. (2002) Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002, 61.
Genetically modified Organisms: Consumers, Food Safety and the Environment. Vol 2 of the FAO ethics services. Organization of the United Nations. Food & Agriculture Organization 2001.
Hossain, Ferdaus, and Onyango, Benjamin (2004) Products Attributes and Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Foods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 28, No.2. June 2004.
Li, Quan; Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; and Wahl, Thomas I. (2002) Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in Beijing, China. Journal of Agrobiotechnology Management and Economics. Vol. 5. No.4, Article 3.
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…
Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2
McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.
Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php
Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
Analysis and Opinion:
Unfortunately, the bases of some of the most vocal critics of science come from those who are completely ignorant of the many benefits of modern science. Meanwhile, the profit motivation sometimes inspires irresponsible risk taking by those who are more greedy than ignorant. Scientific technology must not be limited by ignorance, but it must be regulated so that legitimate ecological concerns are not overlooked for the sake of short-term financial gains. While the criticisms voiced by religious conservatives and the uneducated lay public are unfounded (Bishop 1997), the profit motive certainly does increase the chances of ecologically dangerous developments associated with modern scientific applications, such as those within the agricultural engineering sciences (ifkin 2004).
The risk presented by the process of "gene flow" described by ifkin (2004) is particularly dangerous ecologically. Agricultural scientists are currently developing very hardy strains of vegetables, such as tomatoes with "antifreeze" genes…
Bishop, J.M. (1997) Enemies of Promise.
Rifkin, J. (2004) the Biotech Century: Playing Ecological Roulette with Mother Nature's Designs.
Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]
Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…
1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004
2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,
Vol 182 Issue
3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,
Genomes and Comparative Genomics
Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.
The Role of DNA
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…
Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56
Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist
Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist
TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.
Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.
Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…
GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html
Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org
Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.
Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
It has been argued that GMOs are needed in order to supply the world's food needs. However, cautionary positions by environmental groups must be heeded as well. Technology must move forward and concentrate on underserved areas of the world. However, technology must be cautious in its actions and make certain that what they produce is safe. This issue has extremists on both ends of the spectrum. hat is needed is a union between these two philosophies. More productive crops and production methods are needed, but this development must proceed with even more caution than the green revolution due to the ability to defy nature and combine plant material in a way that is not possible using green revolution methods.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Evenson, R. Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution. Research Seminar on Knowledge for Development. October 14, 2003. Center for International Development. Harvard University. http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/sed/docs/k4dev/evenson_semrpt_031014.pdf .
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (FAO) Crop breeding: the Green Revolution and the preceding millennia. 2003. www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo2.htm. Accessed December 6.
Taylor, J. Founder of 'Green Revolution' Lauds GM Crops. June 1, 2004. Environment News. Heartland Institute. http://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=14989 . Accessed December 6, 2007.
iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).
Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…
Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html
2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team. http://library.thnkques.org/TQ0312238/cgi-bin/view.cgi
Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia. http://www.angelfire.com/az2/MystiCat/biopsychology.htm
Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc. http://biosci.usc.edu/documents/bisc121-fuhrman_11/403.pdf
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER
The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).
The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…
Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.
The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015
CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)
Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…
bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
I do not believe that wearing glasses or make-up is wrong, even though this is an enhancement of the human body by improving one's life by being able to see, or covering blemishes and unsightly birthmarks that might make an individual self-conscious. Is selecting the best sperm donor really so much different than a man or a woman basing his or her choice of a mate upon that individual's appearance, intelligence, and lack of unpleasant 'skeletons' in the genetic closet? Svaulescu's idea that one has a moral obligation to screen for genetic defects or to personally improve the human race through reproduction makes one queasy, but the idea of leaving everything up to nature, in theory, would mean an end of folic acid for pregnant women or even birth control.
But really, the ultimate argument for allowing patients to attempt to engineer their offspring by selecting 'better sperm' may be…
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.