Genetic Engineering Essays (Examples)

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Genetic Influences on Behavior While

Words: 425 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26711372

However, while it is tempting to claim genetic influences as superior to environmental ones, there is still a great debate over whether and individual can overcome their genetics setbacks or be enhanced by their genetic superiority. The former is often achievable as in the case of the addict who has recovered from their addiction, the latter brings us to the morally trepidatious ground of eugenics where by genetic engineering can enhance the good traits and limit the bad traits. The problem there is who decides which traits to keep or loose? Usually decisions left up to a higher authority.


Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.

Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key…… [Read More]


Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.

Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key to Public Health: Strides in Genetics Research Are Making a Difference in Public Health. State Legislatures, 29, 28.

Parens, E. (2004). Genetic Differences and Human Identities: On Why Talking about Behavioral Genetics Is Important and Difficult. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 1-9.
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For Both Positive and Negative Engineering

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66083934

Positive and Negative Engineering

Summary of "For Both Positive and Negative Engineering"

Are we justified in using genetic engineering to create one type of person over another? This is the complex question addressed by the author in the article. The two fundamental issues raised by positive engineering are whether we are justified in attempting to change human nature, and whether genetic engineering is an acceptable means of achieving this change. The author asks, since negative changes are made regarding genes and positive changes are made to environments, why positive changes should not be made at the genetic level. The author aimed to address the different sources and reasons for resistance to the idea of positive engineering, as well as to focus on the justifiable doubts to this concept.

One of the key reasons people may be resistant to the positive engineering is an objection to "playing God." Determining what characteristics…… [Read More]

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Genetically Engineering Designed Babies

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58461266

Designing Babies: Genetic Engineering

The rapid development of science and technology has led to an advanced knowledge in the human genome with an increasing ability to change and modify genes to assist people designing babies that suit their wishes in the future. The genetic screening techniques are already being used in some countries where embryos are selected by sex and genes resistance to diseases. The argument in support of genetic engineering is that in the future, scientists will have the ability to replace the faulty genes with healthy DNA genes thereby eradicating the genetic diseases. Through genetic engineering it will be possible to design babies who will be highly intelligent, becoming great leaders and scientists in the future. Additionally, it will be possible to correct genetic diseases passed from generation to generation assisting families to install genes that offer lifelong protection against diseases. Despite the aforementioned benefits suggested by the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mill J. S. On Liberty[1859], In Utilitarianism, on liberty, considerations on representative government. London: Everyman.

Parker, M. "The best possible child." Journal of Medical Ethics 33.5 (2007): 279-83. Web.

Regalado, Antonio. "Engineering the Perfect Baby." MIT Technology Review (2015).

Lo, Bernard and Parham, Lindsay. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research. Endocr Rev 30.3 (2007): 204 -- 213.
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Dangers Outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95587717

Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).

orks Cited

Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…… [Read More]

Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site:


This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
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Exchange of Genetic Material Between

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26300682

Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.


The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and…… [Read More]


Stegemann, S. & Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plants tissue

Grafts. Science, pg 649-651. Retrieved on April 1, 2010 from

The cavalcade of America. (1946). Retrieved on April 7, 2010 from
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Human Genetic

Words: 417 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22151116

human genetic. There are four references used for this paper.

There are remarkable advancements being made in the field of genetics. It is important to examine whether the material should be transferred between organisms, as well as the effects on food today.

Genetic Material

Many people wonder if genetic material should be transferred from one organism to another.

hile benefits have been shown in biotechnology, it is important for scientists to utilize technology carefully and wisely, since "any technology has the potential for being abused, and there is the possibility that genetically engineered 'monsters' could be created with the use of recombinant DNA techniques (Phillips)."

Although gene therapy research is increasing, in a majority of cases it is still too ineffective to be beneficial. Humans should not compete with or alter nature since "gene therapy alters an individual's genetic blueprint, which in time could lead to 'selective breeding' (unknown)."

Biotechnology…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conko, Gregory. The benefits of biotech: as the world's population grows, environmental stewardship will require science to find ways to produce more food on less land.

Agriculture). Regulation. (2003): 22 March.

Phillips, G.C., M.A. O'Connell, I.M. Ray, R.G. Cantrell, and C. Sengupta-Gopalan.

The Importance of Plant Biotechnology in the Future Development of Arid
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Genetic Algorithms Parallel Genetic Algorithms 1d Bin Packing Supercomputers

Words: 9676 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92159820

Solving the 1D Bin Packing Problem Using a Parallel Genetic Algorithm: A Benchmark Test

The past few decades have witnessed the introduction in a wide range of technological innovations that have had an enormous impact on consumers, businesses and governmental agencies. Computer-based applications in particular have been key in facilitating the delivery of a wide range of services and information, and computer processing speeds have consistently increased incrementally. Computer processing speeds, though, have a natural limit, with electricity being unable to travel faster than the speed of light. Therefore, even the optimal processing speeds attainable in the future will remain constrained in this regard, but there are some alternative approaches to computer processing that can further increase the functionality of computers, including parallel computing and genetic algorithms which are discussed further below.

Parallel Computing

In computing, the term "parallelism" is used to describe a system's architecture, in other words, "The…… [Read More]


Anderson-Cook, C.M. (2005). Practical genetic algorithms. Journal of the American Statistical

Association, 100(471), 1099.

Benkler, Y. (2004). Sharing nicely: On shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production. Yale Law Journal, 114(2), 273-274.

Blacklight. (2010, October 11). Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center. Retrieved from http://www.
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Programming Genetic Circuits Is Fundamentally

Words: 2235 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48470094

To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).

In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.

(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff


Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…… [Read More]


Brumfiel, G (March 29, 2013) Tiny DNA Switches Aim to Revolutionize 'Cellular' Computing. NPR.

Lovgren, Stefan (2003-02-24). Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes. National Geographic. 

Heaven D (02 April 2013) DNA transistors pave way for living computers Newscientis

Strain D (June 2, 2011 ) Flexible DNA computer finds square roots Science News
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Transcription Is a Process That Genetic Information

Words: 3089 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29595548

Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.

Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…… [Read More]


Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.

Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.

Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.
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Should Parents Be Permitted to Choose the Gender of Their Child

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40826416

Genetic Engineering

hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?

Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.

Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British

Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from

Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.

Retrieved March 31, 2016, from
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Human Genome Project One of the Primary

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68761414

Human Genome Project

One of the primary concerns of the biological sciences today is human health. The more information is made known about the human body, the more curative and preventive steps can be taken to ensure the longevity and health of the human body. This is one of the ends of the Human Genome Project (HGP), which was concluded in 2003. The project ran for 13 years and was coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.

US Department of Energy (2012). In addition, the Wellcome Trust in the U.K. became amajor partner in this effort, while contributions were also received from Japan, France, Germany, China, and other countries. The HGP's main goals were to gather information and apply the findings to human health. It should, however, also be noted that the project has several ethical and social implications.

Several main goals were identified…… [Read More]


Carroll, M.L. And Ciaffa, J. (2007) The Human Genome Project: A Scientific and Ethical Overview. American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved from:

Green, E. (n.d.) Human Genome Project: Implications for Healthcare. Journal of Managed Care Medicine. Vol. 9, No. 2 Retrieved from:

US Department of Energy. (2012). Human Genome project. Retrieved from:
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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past…… [Read More]


Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website: 

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website:

Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website:

Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website:;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59 ?
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Human Genome Project and Its

Words: 2561 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46535812


The ethical concerns about the ability to obtain this information revolve around the possibility of discrimination against people who have less than superior gene pools and that those people will be shunned from society, or worse yet, rounded up and locked up before they have ever done anything wrong.

In addition there is also the concern that the wealthy will be able to genetically order perfect children with the highest IQ's the healthiest DNA and the best looks, while those who are not wealthy will have children the old fashioned way and there will be an eventual class distinction between the children who have been genetically ordered and those who are a toss of the dice.

The other ethical issue involves a perceived right to privacy. The recent health care privacy act has worked to further protect a person's right to decide who has information about him and why…… [Read More]


Bailey, Ronald (2001) Does Genetic Engineering Endanger Human Freedom?

The American Enterprise


The Nation
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Discovery of the Structure of

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81223929

However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.

A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from:

This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from:

This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.

Ejelonu, A.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from:

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: 

What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from:

Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from:
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Water in Your Area Your Perspective on

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363722

water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)

Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?

There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:

To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.

To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.

To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening

In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.

Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…… [Read More]


FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight

Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges.

Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
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Ethical Issues Concerning the Genetically

Words: 2634 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7990519

For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)

In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)

Exclusion of People from the Experiment

If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…… [Read More]

Works cited

Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;>.

Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf

Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from

Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from
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Genetically Engineered Food Over the Last Ten

Words: 2308 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6757825

Genetically Engineered Food

Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."

Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.

Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.

Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
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Genetics Option 3 Darwin's Perspective According to

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51827752


Option 3: Darwin's Perspective

According to Darwin, the survival of a species is determined by the degree of strength of its members. Thus, the "fittest" in terms of physical prowess as well as to a degree mental capacity survives. Human beings have long used their mental capacity to overcome the challenges of the physical environment. The very first discoveries of tools, fire and the wheel have set the species apart from the rest of life on earth. Human beings use their mental capacity to create tools in order to ensure and facilitate their survival in the face of challenges such as weather, predators and illness. From the Darwinian viewpoint, genetic engineering is simply the next step in the evolution of the human capacity to ensure the survival of their species. Some of the unforeseen results of technological advancement have admittedly been devastating, but another uniquely human capacity is accountability.…… [Read More]


Chartrand, Sabra. "Patents: A Human Gene Is patented as a Potential Tool Against AIDS, But Ethical Questions Remain." Human Genome Sciences Inc. (

Ehrenreich, Barbara. "The Economics of Cloning."

Kolata, Gina. "A Clone is Born." Reprinted from: Clone: The Road to Dolly and the Path Ahead 1998.

Longstaff, Simon. "Genes for Sale."
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Will Ethics Survive

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57834904

Realist Moral Theories Unit IV: Bioethics

The moral of the film "ottaca" is quite obvious and the development of events also quite predictable. The film starts from the idea that parents want their children to have the best start in life. The majority of parents would agree with it. This idea is put into the context of genetic engineering, a palpable reality today. The moral is that letting doctors apply genetics to do every magic possible in order to get the "best version of you" by eliminating all the "less perfect possibilities" is wrong.

Most religions teach one to mind the body as well as the soul in order to be in harmony with od and the rest of the universe. They also teach about free will. Causal determinism, on the other side, superposes the end over the beginning and leaves no chance for the "chance." According to this philosophical…… [Read More]

Gottaca's predictable end warns us of the danger of deifying science and placing all our hopes into it.

"Gottaca," 1997.Directed by Andrew Niccol, produced by Columbia Pictures Corporation, Jersey Films, United States

Shapshay, Sandra.2009. Bioethics and the Movies. JHU Press
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Principles of Management and Technology

Words: 563 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89993645

Management Technology

Principles of Management and Technology

Multiculturalism and Diversity

"Diversity is desirable for innovation, flexibility, and organizational success."

Diversity can be a valuable asset for any organization. Having people from different backgrounds and cultures offers a broader range of different perspectives and different opinions. Having this as an asset can spawn higher levels of innovation and flexibility because of the depth of perspective -- more people with different ideas can collaborate in a way that ultimately leads to organizational success. Today's most successful organizations embrace diversity however the results of diversity are not always successful. hile many organizations have sought to increase the diversity of their workforces, researchers have found both positive and negative effects of demographic diversity on organizational outcomes (Olsen & Martins, 2012).

New Business Ventures

Discuss the reasons why small businesses are so important to the U.S. economy.

Small business accounts for the bulk of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Olsen, J., & Martins, L. (2012). Understanding organizational diversity management programs: A theoretical framework and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1168-1187.

SBA. (2012, September). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from Small Business Association:
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Jurassic Park

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82491575

Jurassic Park

The famous 1991 novel, Jurassic Park, is based on the subject of a wildlife preserve for dinosaurs. The renowned writer of this novel, Michael Crichton, hoisted the conventional phantom of the revivification of species that have been wiped out from the face of the earth by using conserving DNA samples ("Jurassic Park' 20 Years" C10). The uncontrolled genetic engineering produced outcomes that were not the concern of just the scientists in the novel but are the concern of the whole human civilization (Sharp 507).

Crichton was able to craft a vibrantly dramatic action-adventure story with the Jurassic Park that revolved around the ideas of gluttony and crookedness of science. In this vivid tale of Crichton, an affluent investor builds a theme park that was located on an island off the coast of Costa ica. The peculiar part of the tale is that the investor hires a scientist to…… [Read More]


Fisher, B. & Magid, R. "Jurassic Park: When Dinosaurs Rule the Box Office." American Cinematographer June 1993: 37+. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

"Jurassic Park' 20 Years Later: How Close? Film Trilogy about Resurrected Dinosaurs Debuts on Blu-Ray." The Washington Times (Washington, DC) 25 Oct. 2011: C10. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

Sharp, Michael D., ed. Popular Contemporary Writers. Vol. 4. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference, 2006. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

Trembley, Elizabeth A. Michael Crichton: A Critical Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]


"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004

Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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Buck vs Bell Lee M Silver's Remaking

Words: 1498 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10498583

Buck vs. Bell

Lee M. Silver's Remaking Eden and Dr. Leon R. Kass' Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity provide differing perspectives on the applicability of the issue of the case of Buck vs. Bell to today's society. In Buck vs. Bell, eugenics and Social Darwinism spurred a Supreme Court decision that allowed forced sterilization. In Remaking Eden, the perspective of Silver effectively argues that the case of Buck vs. Bell is not at all applicable to genetic issues today. Silver's optimistic stance on genetic engineering seems to indicate that human innovativeness and ingenuity will allow humans to successfully use genetic technologies to improve the world. In contrast, Kass' perspective suggests that the case of Buck vs. Bell is highly applicable to genetic issues today. Kass notes that even well-meaning and benevolent applications of technology can have devastating impacts on human dignity, echoing a theme found in the violation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kass, Leon. 2004. Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. Encounter Books.

Silver, Lee. 1998. Remaking Eden. Perennial.

Syracuse University, Personal Home Pages. Buck Vs. Bell.
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People Fear DNA Because Criminals

Words: 2851 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35999004

This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…… [Read More]


AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 

BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins.

N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132

D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
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Ethics and the Law

Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51263251

Harvard college's "oncomouse," which is a mouse that has been genetically engineered to make it more susceptible to cancer, and thus of more use in research, could be patented under Canadian patent law. The Patent Examiner refused to grant the patent, stating that higher life forms were not inventions under the applicable law because they were not compositions of matter. The majority opinion upheld the Patent Examiner's decision. Justice Binnie dissented to the majority's opinion. Justice Bastarache wrote the majority opinion.

The majority opinion, authored by Justice Bastarache represents the court's actual decision. Majority opinions represent the decision of the court. In some cases, there is no actual majority opinion because of partial dissents and concurrences, but that is not applicable in this case. The majority felt that Parliament did not intend for every conceivable subject matter to be patentable, and points to the fact that Parliament wrote an exhaustive…… [Read More]

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Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]


O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.
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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…… [Read More]


Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: 

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: 

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online:
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Arctic Technology Okanagan Specialty Fruits Is a

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23568042

Arctic technology

Okanagan Specialty Fruits is a small company that has invented a new technology which has enabled them to genetically engineer apples in such a way that they do not turn into a brown color when cut or sliced. Okanagan is trying to bring this product in the market given the fact that they believe the non-browning apple will be accepted by food companies and consumers. It will also help increase the number of apple sales since retailers can now sell sliced apples. However, the company has received different receptions regarding bringing the genetically engineered apples in the market. There are those who oppose the Arctic Apple as Okanagan named it, while there are those willing to give them a chance to sell the product in the market. Despite the fact that American family has been consuming genetically engineered foods, Arctic Apple will be the first version of genetically…… [Read More]


Andrew, P. (2012, July 12). That Fresh Look, Genetically Buffed. The New York Times.

Retrieved from
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Most Significant Advancement's

Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25812474

Medical Advancements in Medicine and Health

Write a three-page paper on what you believe is the most significant medical advancement (s) in medicine and health and support your argument.

Genetic engineering is one of the most significant medical advancements of the century and will have a major impact on medicine, health, politics and church and state relationships.

Genetic engineering. A controversial issue or a blessing in disguise? The Human Genome Project (HGP), sponsored in the United tates has created the field of genomics --understanding genetic material on a large scale.

But what actually is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering in theory, allows cells to grow in a petri dish, with the end result of creating the type of genetic alteration you want. Imagine the medical ramifications of being able to genetically create the characteristics we want in a species. Think of the benefits to mankind and the enhancements that would be…… [Read More]

Sources of Information:

Publications" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project

Books" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care


Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program
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Ethical Argument

Words: 3188 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36427916

Ethical Argument

Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.

The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…… [Read More]


National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.

James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.

Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.

R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
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Genetically Modified Trees

Words: 1448 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95172873

Genetically Modified Trees

Scientists and environmentalists must join one another in support of genetically modified trees. Biotechnology has afforded mankind a new method for preserving and restoring the natural landscape of the earth through genetic engineering. The use of genetically modified trees will not only help support the natural landscape but also improve preservation efforts and encourage balance between the needs of environmentalists and commercial enterprises.

For thousands of years mankind has relied on trees for economic and health reasons. In recent years however the landscape has significantly changed as more and more natural forests are depleted to due natural and unnatural causes. This has resulted in multiple deleterious effects on both the health, economy and well being of mankind and the environment. Biotechnology has afforded new hope however, allowing researchers to produce artificial trees offering many of the same benefits, if not more benefits than natural forests offer both…… [Read More]


Avise, J.C. 2004. The Hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine and the environment." New York: Oxford University Pres.

Booth, D.E. 1994. Valuing nature: The decline and preservation of old growth forests.

Lanham: Rowman Littlefield Publishing.

Sedjo, R. 2004. Genetically engineered trees: Promise and concerns. Resources for the Future. Accessed 10/21/2005.
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Genomics and Implications for the Future the

Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19542026

Genomics and Implications for the Future

The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview.

Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health

Perspectives 112(16):934.

Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.

Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:
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Failure of Today's Generation in

Words: 2981 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14701194

Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on iosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.

VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods

The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness…… [Read More]


Finucane, Melissa L. (2002) Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002, 61.

Genetically modified Organisms: Consumers, Food Safety and the Environment. Vol 2 of the FAO ethics services. Organization of the United Nations. Food & Agriculture Organization 2001.

Hossain, Ferdaus, and Onyango, Benjamin (2004) Products Attributes and Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Foods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 28, No.2. June 2004.

Li, Quan; Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; and Wahl, Thomas I. (2002) Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in Beijing, China. Journal of Agrobiotechnology Management and Economics. Vol. 5. No.4, Article 3.
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Technology the Hazards and Benefits

Words: 763 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3188091

Analysis and Opinion:

Unfortunately, the bases of some of the most vocal critics of science come from those who are completely ignorant of the many benefits of modern science. Meanwhile, the profit motivation sometimes inspires irresponsible risk taking by those who are more greedy than ignorant. Scientific technology must not be limited by ignorance, but it must be regulated so that legitimate ecological concerns are not overlooked for the sake of short-term financial gains. While the criticisms voiced by religious conservatives and the uneducated lay public are unfounded (Bishop 1997), the profit motive certainly does increase the chances of ecologically dangerous developments associated with modern scientific applications, such as those within the agricultural engineering sciences (ifkin 2004).

The risk presented by the process of "gene flow" described by ifkin (2004) is particularly dangerous ecologically. Agricultural scientists are currently developing very hardy strains of vegetables, such as tomatoes with "antifreeze" genes…… [Read More]


Bishop, J.M. (1997) Enemies of Promise.

Rifkin, J. (2004) the Biotech Century: Playing Ecological Roulette with Mother Nature's Designs.
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Engineered Crops the Rapid Advancements

Words: 1088 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80687274

Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]

Gene Contamination

Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…… [Read More]


1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004

2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,

Vol 182 Issue

3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,
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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]


Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL:

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000)

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL:
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Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics

Words: 2012 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94040147

Genomes and Comparative Genomics

Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.

The Role of DNA

One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…… [Read More]


Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
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Behavioral Biology

Words: 2124 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34673982

ehavioral iology

iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).

Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…… [Read More]


Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology. 

2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team.

Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia.

Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc.
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Genetically Modified Crops Foods and Hormones

Words: 1866 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2795548

This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.

Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.


Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…… [Read More]


GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from sumptionpros.html

Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from 

Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.

Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from
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Green Revolution vs Gmos as

Words: 1538 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9702657

It has been argued that GMOs are needed in order to supply the world's food needs. However, cautionary positions by environmental groups must be heeded as well. Technology must move forward and concentrate on underserved areas of the world. However, technology must be cautious in its actions and make certain that what they produce is safe. This issue has extremists on both ends of the spectrum. hat is needed is a union between these two philosophies. More productive crops and production methods are needed, but this development must proceed with even more caution than the green revolution due to the ability to defy nature and combine plant material in a way that is not possible using green revolution methods.

orks Cited

Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.

Evenson, R.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.

Evenson, R. Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution. Research Seminar on Knowledge for Development. October 14, 2003. Center for International Development. Harvard University.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (FAO) Crop breeding: the Green Revolution and the preceding millennia. 2003. Accessed December 6.

Taylor, J. Founder of 'Green Revolution' Lauds GM Crops. June 1, 2004. Environment News. Heartland Institute. Accessed December 6, 2007.
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Benefits and Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods or Organisms

Words: 2177 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61352608


The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).

The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…… [Read More]


Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.

The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015


CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment: