Genetic Engineering Essays (Examples)

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Genetic Modifications

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99188165

Genetic Technology

Ronald (2014) outlines some of the advancements that have been made in agricultural technology, including crop improvement, and how these have helped us to feed a rapidly growing human population. She notes that translational research is research that has been translated to agricultural practice. Some of the outcomes of this research include market assisted selection, which is a refined plant breeding technique; genetic engineering, where plants have their genes altered for a variety of reasons; and genome editing, which involves precisely altering DNA sequences in living cells, which is likely to lead to new crop varieties in the future.

Ronald also advocates for the translation of this research to aid subsistence farmers. She notes several advances, such as drought-resistant corn, rice with added Vitamin A and eggplant that is bred to be resistant to certain pests. The thrust of her paper is that there needs to be more support for genetic technologies. Where there is a high level of public skepticism, she claims that there is a link between this and high regulatory costs. This means that there is little incentive to develop solutions for subsistence or specialty crops. She does not, however, present evidence of this link,…… [Read More]


Ronald, P. (2014). Lab to farm: Applying research on plant genetics and genomics to crop improvement. PLOS Biology. Vol. 12 (6) 1-6.

Starr, C., Evers, C.A., & Starr, L. (2013). Biology today and tomorrow without physiology (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole Publishing Co. (Cengage Learning).
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Genetic Influences on Behavior While

Words: 425 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26711372

However, while it is tempting to claim genetic influences as superior to environmental ones, there is still a great debate over whether and individual can overcome their genetics setbacks or be enhanced by their genetic superiority. The former is often achievable as in the case of the addict who has recovered from their addiction, the latter brings us to the morally trepidatious ground of eugenics where by genetic engineering can enhance the good traits and limit the bad traits. The problem there is who decides which traits to keep or loose? Usually decisions left up to a higher authority.… [Read More]


Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.

Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key to Public Health: Strides in Genetics Research Are Making a Difference in Public Health. State Legislatures, 29, 28.

Parens, E. (2004). Genetic Differences and Human Identities: On Why Talking about Behavioral Genetics Is Important and Difficult. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 1-9.
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Genetic Testing

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82071322

Genetic Testing: Identifying Associating Issues

This paper will examine Shelley Burtt's writing "Dilemmas of Genetic Testing" as well as other sources on the subject of genetic testing. After having examined the resources available an opinion will be formed as to whether genetic testing is positive or negative for the patient and the expected child.

Genetic testing is becoming an option more commonly used by women during pregnancies to assess particular information concerning the health of the fetus they carry. Shelley Burtt's writing questions the response to the new technology of genetic testing and the fact that the autonomy of individuals is being set aside as to their choices in continuing a pregnancy where the fetus is found to have genetic defects.

Shelly contends that:

For an anxious parent, genetic testing accompanied by the possibility of therapeutic abortion appears to enhance individual freedom providing an additional measure of control over one's reproductive choices."

Recent News in Genetic Testing:

Pharmaceutical companies are advertising for "at-home" diagnostics in genetic testing. The medical community has expressed dismay that this very important procedure has been reduced to the level of a mere pregnancy test. The provision of genetic counselors in attempt to establish a guideline…… [Read More]


APA Monitor Women's Medical Journal (1999) "Women's Health: A Multilevel Analysis of Women's Status and Self-Rated Health in the United States" 1999 June Vol.30 No.6 [Online] available at

Mann, Rosemary J. (2004) Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, Volume 49, Issue 3, May-June 2004, Pages 182-187

Gates, Elena A. Gates, M.D. (2004) "Communicating Risk in Prenatal Genetic Testing" American College of Nurse Midwives. Elesevierk, Inc.

Marks, Joan H. (2003) "The Importance of Genetic Counseling" The American Medical Association Journal [Online] available at
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For Both Positive and Negative Engineering

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66083934

Positive and Negative Engineering

Summary of "For Both Positive and Negative Engineering"

Are we justified in using genetic engineering to create one type of person over another? This is the complex question addressed by the author in the article. The two fundamental issues raised by positive engineering are whether we are justified in attempting to change human nature, and whether genetic engineering is an acceptable means of achieving this change. The author asks, since negative changes are made regarding genes and positive changes are made to environments, why positive changes should not be made at the genetic level. The author aimed to address the different sources and reasons for resistance to the idea of positive engineering, as well as to focus on the justifiable doubts to this concept.

One of the key reasons people may be resistant to the positive engineering is an objection to "playing God." Determining what characteristics humans should have could be viewed as something that should be left to the divine, out of the realm of human control. Others may have a resistance to messing with natural selection, in which humanity contains certain characteristics due to the promotion of genetic survival.

The author suggests that beyond…… [Read More]

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Dangers Outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95587717

Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).

Works Cited

Adams, Wendy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in biotechnology: xenotransplantation as a case study in consent.

Health Law Journal. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site:

This source discusses the benefits to individuals verses the risks to the general population of genetic engineering.

This article references 104 authors.

Cohen, Jane Maslow. (2001, May 01).…… [Read More]

Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site:


This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
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Eugenics Genetic Enhancement and Eugenics the Word

Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73003805


Genetic Enhancement and Eugenics

The word "eugenics" was coined in 1883 by the English scientist Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin. He intended it to denote the "science" of improving the human stock by giving "the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable." Since Galton's day, "eugenics" has become a word of ugly connotations -- and deservedly. Eugenic aims merged with misinterpretations of the new science of genetics to help produce cruelly oppressive and in the era of the Nazis barbarous social results. Nonetheless, eugenics continues to figure in social discourse in some proposals for human genetic engineering.[footnoteRef:-1] [-1: Daniel Kelves, In the Name of Eugenics, p. xiii.]

Philip Kitcher, in The Lives to Come, describes laissez faire eugenics as the eugenics yet to come in this era of prenatal testing and genetic counseling. It is a form of planning populations. According to Kitcher, when we know how to shape future generations, the character of our descendents will reflect our decisions and the values that those decisions embody. [footnoteRef:0] Laissez faire eugenics implies attempts to honor individual reproductive freedoms in picking traits that we would like to passed…… [Read More]

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Exchange of Genetic Material Between

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26300682

Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.


The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and possibly did some of the first recombination experiments, Burbank deserves to be accredited with the many experiments he did in find viable crosses and graft to promote better strains of plants and trees. Burbank discovered numerous (over 800) varieties of flower's, grasses, grains, vegetables, cacti, and fruit trees still in…… [Read More]


Stegemann, S. & Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plants tissue

Grafts. Science, pg 649-651. Retrieved on April 1, 2010 from

The cavalcade of America. (1946). Retrieved on April 7, 2010 from
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Human Genetic

Words: 417 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22151116

human genetic. There are four references used for this paper.

There are remarkable advancements being made in the field of genetics. It is important to examine whether the material should be transferred between organisms, as well as the effects on food today.

Genetic Material

Many people wonder if genetic material should be transferred from one organism to another.

While benefits have been shown in biotechnology, it is important for scientists to utilize technology carefully and wisely, since "any technology has the potential for being abused, and there is the possibility that genetically engineered 'monsters' could be created with the use of recombinant DNA techniques (Phillips)."

Although gene therapy research is increasing, in a majority of cases it is still too ineffective to be beneficial. Humans should not compete with or alter nature since "gene therapy alters an individual's genetic blueprint, which in time could lead to 'selective breeding' (unknown)."

Biotechnology could change food as we know it today. Proponents of genetical engineering state it "can improve crop yields and nutrient content as well as virus resistance and pesticide tolerance, and offers a way to feed the world's growing population (Vinha)."

In recent years, opponents of Genetical Modified Food have pushed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conko, Gregory. The benefits of biotech: as the world's population grows, environmental stewardship will require science to find ways to produce more food on less land.

Agriculture). Regulation. (2003): 22 March.

Phillips, G.C., M.A. O'Connell, I.M. Ray, R.G. Cantrell, and C. Sengupta-Gopalan.

The Importance of Plant Biotechnology in the Future Development of Arid
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Genetic Algorithms Parallel Genetic Algorithms 1d Bin Packing Supercomputers

Words: 9676 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92159820

Solving the 1D Bin Packing Problem Using a Parallel Genetic Algorithm: A Benchmark Test

The past few decades have witnessed the introduction in a wide range of technological innovations that have had an enormous impact on consumers, businesses and governmental agencies. Computer-based applications in particular have been key in facilitating the delivery of a wide range of services and information, and computer processing speeds have consistently increased incrementally. Computer processing speeds, though, have a natural limit, with electricity being unable to travel faster than the speed of light. Therefore, even the optimal processing speeds attainable in the future will remain constrained in this regard, but there are some alternative approaches to computer processing that can further increase the functionality of computers, including parallel computing and genetic algorithms which are discussed further below.

Parallel Computing

In computing, the term "parallelism" is used to describe a system's architecture, in other words, "The organization and interconnection of components of computer systems" (Faulkner, Senker & Velho, 1999, p. 135). Although processing speeds have continued to double roughly every 18 months following Moore's Law, computers that use sequential architectures are still constrained in several ways in their ability to perform calculation functions. Irrespective of how…… [Read More]


Anderson-Cook, C.M. (2005). Practical genetic algorithms. Journal of the American Statistical

Association, 100(471), 1099.

Benkler, Y. (2004). Sharing nicely: On shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production. Yale Law Journal, 114(2), 273-274.

Blacklight. (2010, October 11). Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center. Retrieved from http://www.
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Tissue Engineering Is an Interdisciplinary

Words: 1965 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76412480

(World Bank, 2007) Modern approaches to plant cloning or tissue culture techniques have been utilized by various nurseries in Thailand and the U.S. To bring rare and new species of plants in the commercial market, sometimes even before the botanists can manage to give the species a name. (Ogden, 2007)

Tissue engineered products have a bright marketing potential since they provide better alternatives to other forms of treatments. Cartilage and skin products have already been clinically approved and are available commercially. The Department of Health and Human Services in the U.S. has estimated that the future worldwide market for products of tissue engineering will be around $500 billion by 2010. A report published by the National Security Research Division of RAND corporation in 2006 has emphasized that tissue engineering will have a positive effect on more than one-third of the issues concerning a country's development including social structure, individual health, governance, economic growth and international commerce. Given the recent strides in tissue engineering and bio-nanotechnology, it may be perfectly possible to fabricate the perfect artificial intelligence device, an artificial brain, in the laboratory. This brings us to the dangers of such technologies, a danger similar to the outcome of the…… [Read More]


Atala, Anthony. (2007) "Principles of Regenerative Medicine"

Academic Press.

Bullis, Kevin. (2008, Jan/Feb) "Tiny Living Machines" Technology Review, Retrieved 1 May, 2008 at

Friedman, Yali. (2007) "The Business of Biotechnology: Profit from the Expanding Influence of..." Logos Press.
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Transcription Is a Process That Genetic Information

Words: 3089 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29595548

Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into RNA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of RNA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.

Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme RNA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by RNA polymerase II. RNA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of RNA from the template of DNA. Transcription occurs only on one of the DNA strands in the gene (Latchman, 2009). The polymerase enzyme bind to the promoter and the helix unwinds making the two strands separate. The eukaryotic gene expression has a sequence of elements located far from the transcription start site and the elements can…… [Read More]


Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.

Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.

Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.
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Should Parents Be Permitted to Choose the Gender of Their Child

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40826416

Genetic Engineering

What is Genetic Engineering? What is its purpose?

Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.

Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- When a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another, it "transfers those traits"; and hence, genetic engineering is not the same as "classical plant and animal breeding" ( Classical breeding is based on "traits"; for example a farmer could breed a yellow cow to a brown cow, and a new color will have been developed in the offspring. But…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British

Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from

Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.

Retrieved March 31, 2016, from
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Human Genome Project One of the Primary

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68761414

Human Genome Project

One of the primary concerns of the biological sciences today is human health. The more information is made known about the human body, the more curative and preventive steps can be taken to ensure the longevity and health of the human body. This is one of the ends of the Human Genome Project (HGP), which was concluded in 2003. The project ran for 13 years and was coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.

US Department of Energy (2012). In addition, the Wellcome Trust in the U.K. became amajor partner in this effort, while contributions were also received from Japan, France, Germany, China, and other countries. The HGP's main goals were to gather information and apply the findings to human health. It should, however, also be noted that the project has several ethical and social implications.

Several main goals were identified for the Human Genome Project (U.S. Department of Energy, 2012). One of these was to identify the 20,000-25,000 genes that might found in human DNA). It also aimed to determine the sequence of 3 billion chemical base pairs that function as the building blocks of human DNA. This information was…… [Read More]


Carroll, M.L. And Ciaffa, J. (2007) The Human Genome Project: A Scientific and Ethical Overview. American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved from:

Green, E. (n.d.) Human Genome Project: Implications for Healthcare. Journal of Managed Care Medicine. Vol. 9, No. 2 Retrieved from:

US Department of Energy. (2012). Human Genome project. Retrieved from:
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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past years, a number of discoveries have been made in the field of biology including, DNA discoveries, genetic engineering, molecular biology, biotechnology, biodiversity, cloning, etc. All these discoveries have a great potential to enhance different aspects of our lives such as health care, agriculture and economy but they also have a…… [Read More]


Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website: 

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website:

Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website:

Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website:;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59?
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Human Genome Project and Its

Words: 2561 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46535812


The ethical concerns about the ability to obtain this information revolve around the possibility of discrimination against people who have less than superior gene pools and that those people will be shunned from society, or worse yet, rounded up and locked up before they have ever done anything wrong.

In addition there is also the concern that the wealthy will be able to genetically order perfect children with the highest IQ's the healthiest DNA and the best looks, while those who are not wealthy will have children the old fashioned way and there will be an eventual class distinction between the children who have been genetically ordered and those who are a toss of the dice.

The other ethical issue involves a perceived right to privacy. The recent health care privacy act has worked to further protect a person's right to decide who has information about him and why it will be shared. If the HGP completes its goal there is a chance that people will lose that right to privacy as leaks and hacking ability extracts it for a fee.

The topic and concerns regarding the HGP is a human rights issue because once the mapping is complete…… [Read More]


Bailey, Ronald (2001) Does Genetic Engineering Endanger Human Freedom?

The American Enterprise


The Nation
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Discovery of the Structure of

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81223929

However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.

A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from:

This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from:

This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.

Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from:

The information from this piece of literature was helpful in providing insights as to the history and relevance of the Human Genome Project.

Hayry, M. (2007). Intrinsic Ethical Issues of Genetic Engineering. Ethics in Biomedical Research. (pp. 73 --…… [Read More]

Works Cited

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from:

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: 

What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from:

Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from:
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Water in Your Area Your Perspective on

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363722

water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)

Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?

There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:

To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.

To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.

To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening

In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.

Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means separating slat form water and thereby increasing the water supply that way, but it is a controversial solution since, although it works, it is also costly.

Australia's Sydney was recently torn over desalination plans. They planned to build a desalination plant that would extract a reasonable amount of seawater from…… [Read More]


FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight

Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges.

Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
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Ethical Issues Concerning the Genetically

Words: 2634 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7990519

For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)

In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)

Exclusion of People from the Experiment

If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is that, 'Do the people have the right to exclude themselves from the experiment?' Previously when any new technology, drug or medicine was introduced in any region the people had a right to be the users of the product or to avoid the usage of the product. Similarly in the case…… [Read More]

Works cited

Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;>.

Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf

Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from

Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from
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Genetically Engineered Food Over the Last Ten

Words: 2308 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6757825

Genetically Engineered Food

Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. When the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods, it becomes clear that while genetically modified foods likely do not pose a sever threat to humans, the potential for environmental disruption is severe, and thus any future expansion of genetically modified foods must be monitored for its potential environmental impact.

As mentioned above, the public discourse surrounding genetically modified…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."

Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.

Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.

Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
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Will Ethics Survive

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57834904

Realist Moral Theories Unit IV: Bioethics

The moral of the film "Gottaca" is quite obvious and the development of events also quite predictable. The film starts from the idea that parents want their children to have the best start in life. The majority of parents would agree with it. This idea is put into the context of genetic engineering, a palpable reality today. The moral is that letting doctors apply genetics to do every magic possible in order to get the "best version of you" by eliminating all the "less perfect possibilities" is wrong.

Most religions teach one to mind the body as well as the soul in order to be in harmony with God and the rest of the universe. They also teach about free will. Causal determinism, on the other side, superposes the end over the beginning and leaves no chance for the "chance." According to this philosophical theory, human beings are preconditioned to develop in a certain way, with the perspective of a predictable end.

The parents who chose to give birth to a "God child" as their first born and then for their second birth, they went for a perfect "full option best version of themselves"…… [Read More]

Gottaca's predictable end warns us of the danger of deifying science and placing all our hopes into it.

"Gottaca," 1997.Directed by Andrew Niccol, produced by Columbia Pictures Corporation, Jersey Films, United States

Shapshay, Sandra.2009. Bioethics and the Movies. JHU Press
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Genetically Modified Food I Chose

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94623030

One of the most interesting articles, "Genetic Engineering Risks," really described the issue with GMOs: the difference between genetically engineered organisms and their non-engineered counterparts is usually just one gene or a handful of genes and genetically engineered organisms have new genes that are put into their DNA using molecular technology; they would not have been able to do this with traditional breeding methods. "Because such a small fraction of genes is typically altered by genetic engineering, the possible risks or ecological effects of this new technology lie with the particular effects these novel genes have on physical and physiological characteristics (the phenotypes) of the newly transgenic carriers."

The fact that there is still genetically modified food happening is outrageous. I really think that it is one of the most important topics that the world faces today. So many studies have shown that genetically modified foods may cause negative health effects. In the article "Doctors Warn of Genetically Modified Food," studies with rats showed infertility problems as well as drastically higher infant death rates; when the infants survived, they were much smaller than normal.

The article also notes how animals that eat crops that have been genetically modified to produce…… [Read More]

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Principles of Management and Technology

Words: 563 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89993645

Management Technology

Principles of Management and Technology

Multiculturalism and Diversity

"Diversity is desirable for innovation, flexibility, and organizational success."

Diversity can be a valuable asset for any organization. Having people from different backgrounds and cultures offers a broader range of different perspectives and different opinions. Having this as an asset can spawn higher levels of innovation and flexibility because of the depth of perspective -- more people with different ideas can collaborate in a way that ultimately leads to organizational success. Today's most successful organizations embrace diversity however the results of diversity are not always successful. While many organizations have sought to increase the diversity of their workforces, researchers have found both positive and negative effects of demographic diversity on organizational outcomes (Olsen & Martins, 2012).

New Business Ventures

Discuss the reasons why small businesses are so important to the U.S. economy.

Small business accounts for the bulk of the U.S. economy and is critical to the overall economic success of the country as well as the world in general. Small businesses comprise what share of the U.S. economy (SBA, 2012)?

Small businesses make up:

99.7% of U.S. employer firms,

64% of net new private-sector jobs,

49.2% of private-sector employment,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Olsen, J., & Martins, L. (2012). Understanding organizational diversity management programs: A theoretical framework and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1168-1187.

SBA. (2012, September). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from Small Business Association:
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Jurassic Park

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82491575

Jurassic Park

The famous 1991 novel, Jurassic Park, is based on the subject of a wildlife preserve for dinosaurs. The renowned writer of this novel, Michael Crichton, hoisted the conventional phantom of the revivification of species that have been wiped out from the face of the earth by using conserving DNA samples ("Jurassic Park' 20 Years" C10). The uncontrolled genetic engineering produced outcomes that were not the concern of just the scientists in the novel but are the concern of the whole human civilization (Sharp 507).

Crichton was able to craft a vibrantly dramatic action-adventure story with the Jurassic Park that revolved around the ideas of gluttony and crookedness of science. In this vivid tale of Crichton, an affluent investor builds a theme park that was located on an island off the coast of Costa Rica. The peculiar part of the tale is that the investor hires a scientist to clone real dinosaurs from DNA specimens instead of crowding the park (set in the Jurassic Age) with artificially made-up dinosaurs. He then invites some guests for visiting the island before its official opening. He does so to check and assess the strength, validity, soundness and safety of the cloning experiment.…… [Read More]


Fisher, B. & Magid, R. "Jurassic Park: When Dinosaurs Rule the Box Office." American Cinematographer June 1993: 37+. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

"Jurassic Park' 20 Years Later: How Close? Film Trilogy about Resurrected Dinosaurs Debuts on Blu-Ray." The Washington Times (Washington, DC) 25 Oct. 2011: C10. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

Sharp, Michael D., ed. Popular Contemporary Writers. Vol. 4. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference, 2006. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

Trembley, Elizabeth A. Michael Crichton: A Critical Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic makeup of such living organisms as animals, plants, or bacteria. Biotechnology refers to using living organisms or their components, such as enzymes, to make products that include wine, cheese, beer, and yogurt. Combining genes from different organisms is known as…… [Read More]


"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004

Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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Buck vs Bell Lee M Silver's Remaking

Words: 1498 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10498583

Buck vs. Bell

Lee M. Silver's Remaking Eden and Dr. Leon R. Kass' Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity provide differing perspectives on the applicability of the issue of the case of Buck vs. Bell to today's society. In Buck vs. Bell, eugenics and Social Darwinism spurred a Supreme Court decision that allowed forced sterilization. In Remaking Eden, the perspective of Silver effectively argues that the case of Buck vs. Bell is not at all applicable to genetic issues today. Silver's optimistic stance on genetic engineering seems to indicate that human innovativeness and ingenuity will allow humans to successfully use genetic technologies to improve the world. In contrast, Kass' perspective suggests that the case of Buck vs. Bell is highly applicable to genetic issues today. Kass notes that even well-meaning and benevolent applications of technology can have devastating impacts on human dignity, echoing a theme found in the violation of the rights of Carrie Buck.

Early this century, the Supreme Court case of Buck vs. Bell upheld the West Virginia law that allowed forced sterilization of those who were considered "feebleminded." In the decision, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. noted, "It is better for all the world, if instead of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kass, Leon. 2004. Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. Encounter Books.

Silver, Lee. 1998. Remaking Eden. Perennial.

Syracuse University, Personal Home Pages. Buck Vs. Bell.
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People Fear DNA Because Criminals

Words: 2851 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35999004

This can contribute directly to human health and development (AgBio). Borlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the BioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to resist weeds, insects and viruses, evolution will drive these pests to become stronger and more dangerous. She speaks for others in wanting a worldwide moratorium on genetic engineering in agriculture.

Recent studies show that U.S. farmers are using just as many toxic pesticides to grow genetically modified foods than the…… [Read More]


AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 

BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins.

N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132

D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
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Cloning Is the Production of

Words: 1554 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73329365

Scientific research and specifically cloning is protected as a first amendment right, coupled with the benefits available with this technology, and the unimaginable benefits that can be reaped in the future, cloning is the hope of the future, despite the worries of critics.… [Read More]


After Dolly: The Uses and Misuses of Human Cloning." The Futurist 40(4) Jul-Aug 2006: p. 62. InfoTrac database. Thomson-Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 5, 2006 .

Cantrell MK. "International Response to Dolly: Will Scientific Freedom Get Sheared?" Journal Law Health (13) 1998-99: p. 69-102.

Clones Cloning Around." World Watch 18(6) Nov-Dec 2005: p. 9. InfoTrac database. Thomson-Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 5, 2006
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Ethics and the Law

Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51263251

Harvard college's "oncomouse," which is a mouse that has been genetically engineered to make it more susceptible to cancer, and thus of more use in research, could be patented under Canadian patent law. The Patent Examiner refused to grant the patent, stating that higher life forms were not inventions under the applicable law because they were not compositions of matter. The majority opinion upheld the Patent Examiner's decision. Justice Binnie dissented to the majority's opinion. Justice Bastarache wrote the majority opinion.

The majority opinion, authored by Justice Bastarache represents the court's actual decision. Majority opinions represent the decision of the court. In some cases, there is no actual majority opinion because of partial dissents and concurrences, but that is not applicable in this case. The majority felt that Parliament did not intend for every conceivable subject matter to be patentable, and points to the fact that Parliament wrote an exhaustive definition limiting patentable subject matter. It focused on two phrases, "manufacture" and "composition of matter" to examine whether the genetic engineering of a mouse would fall under the rubric of the law and felt that neither animal nor plant life fell under those two broad categories. However, rather than focus…… [Read More]

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Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its use; and 4) Enable one skilled in the field to use the sequence for its stated purpose.

The USPTO issued out patents relating to gene fragments due to the fact that the full sequence and function of the gene is not known. The gene fragments are 300 to 500 base…… [Read More]


O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.
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Designer Babies Is an Issue That Has

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58080533

Designer babies is an issue that has attracted huge controversies in the recent past since it a term that implies the co modification of children and was derived from the concept of designer clothing. Generally, this term refers to the use of pre-implantation of genetic diagnosis to choose desired characteristics of a child. Furthermore, designer babies consider the production of children through genetic engineering of human zygotes, embryos, or gametes. The pre-implantation process, which is also known as embryo screening, involves procedures carried out on the embryo before implantation. In some cases, the pre-implantation procedure is conducted on oocytes before fertilization. Notably, designer babies is a concept that has been used by journalists to describe the frightening situation of using genetic technologies to modify embryos while choosing the cosmetic or desirable attributes ("What is a Designer Baby?" par, 2).

Technologies in Designer Babies:

As previously mentioned, designer babies involves the use of genetic technologies to carry out the pre-implantation of genetic diagnosis. The genetic technologies originate from improved reproductive technologies that enable parents and physicians to examine embryos for genetic disorders and choose healthy embryos. While the term is not used by scientists, the advanced reproductive techniques incorporate the use…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Brennan, Jason. "Designer Babies." Bleeding Heart Libertarians: Free Markets and Social Justice. Bleeding Heart Libertarians, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 26 Oct. 2013. < >.

Scott, Cameron. "Designer Baby-Making System Patent Stirs Controversy | Singularity Hub." The Singularity Hub. Singularity Education Group, 7 Oct. 2013. Web. 26 Oct. 2013. .

"What Is a Designer Baby?" BIONET: Explore Life Sciences and Debate the Issues. Bionet, 2002. Web. 26 Oct. 2013. .
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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: Rational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant DNA technology involves recombining DNA molecules in ways pre-determined by the scientists. Using recombitant DNA technology, select genetic traits from various different organisms can be actively selected. Locating those traits on the DNA is the most challenging step in the process of genetic engineering of foods, but gene sequencing technologies…… [Read More]


Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: 

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online:

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: