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The persons in this camp identify benefits such as disease resistant plants and plants that produce higher yield with less maintenance cost. They eagerly point to the advances in corn production and other spheres as evidence of the safety and viability of genetic modification.
There is also a median position where the benefits of the technology are acknowledged but these persons believe that greater testing in the laboratory should be undertaken before any products are released into the wild. In the extreme position there are some who believe that all testing is essentially man tinkering with God's work and it should not be done at all. The main concern for GM is the introduction of new genes into the food system for human consumption. It is believed that the result of that activity will cannot be know in the short-term and by the time it is determined that it was…
GM Basics. (2003). GM food debate. Retrieved from http://www.food.gov.uk/gmdebate/aboutgm/gm_basics?view=GM%20Microsite
How it is done. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.bionetonline.org/english/content/ff_tool.htm#
Klintman, M. (2002). The genetically modified (GM) food labelling controversy: Ideological and epistemic crossovers. Social Studies of Science 32(1) 71-91.
Lassen, a. & Jamison, a. (2006). Genetic technologies meet the public: The discourses of concern. Science, Technology, & Human Values 31(1):8-28.
onald (2014) outlines some of the advancements that have been made in agricultural technology, including crop improvement, and how these have helped us to feed a rapidly growing human population. She notes that translational research is research that has been translated to agricultural practice. Some of the outcomes of this research include market assisted selection, which is a refined plant breeding technique; genetic engineering, where plants have their genes altered for a variety of reasons; and genome editing, which involves precisely altering DNA sequences in living cells, which is likely to lead to new crop varieties in the future.
onald also advocates for the translation of this research to aid subsistence farmers. She notes several advances, such as drought-resistant corn, rice with added Vitamin A and eggplant that is bred to be resistant to certain pests. The thrust of her paper is that there needs to be more…
Ronald, P. (2014). Lab to farm: Applying research on plant genetics and genomics to crop improvement. PLOS Biology. Vol. 12 (6) 1-6.
Starr, C., Evers, C.A., & Starr, L. (2013). Biology today and tomorrow without physiology (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole Publishing Co. (Cengage Learning).
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…
Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy
Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia
Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?
Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.
Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…
Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British
Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.bmj.com .
Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.
Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au .
For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)
In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)
Exclusion of People from the Experiment
If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…
Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol3_g/Bhuiya_2012_G60-65.pdf>.
Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from http://www.csid.unt.edu/files/What's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf
Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from http://cf.ac.uk/jomec/resources/GMREPFIN.pdf
Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from http://www.tufts.edu/~skrimsky/PDF/GMOethics.PDF
A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.
Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…
Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.
"Give a Weed an Inch, it'll Take a Smile." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 12 June 2005: c1.
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
science marches forward, reproductive cloning of humans will likely become a reality. It has already been accomplished with dogs, cats, cows and monkeys. This means that one day a person will be able to have a child with his/her own cells. hat do you think some of the family law issues will be as this form of alternative reproduction becomes a reality?
As soon as Dr. Ian ilmut made a breakthrough announcement that he, and his team, had successfully cloned an adult sheep in 1997, the salience of the controversy about cloning humans and genetic modifications in the human genome virtually erupted (Rose, 1999). It became clear at this point that it was feasibly possible to conduct a range of scientifically assisted reproduction such as human cloning for example. There could also be a mix of genetic information bestowed on a child. For example, family planning could resemble something along…
Aldrich, L. (2010). New York's One Judge-One Family Response to Family Violence. Juvenille Family Court, 77-86.
Berman, D., & Alfini, J. (2012). Lawyer Colonization of Family Mediation: Consequences and Implications. Marquette Law Review, 95-887.
Edwards, L. (2008). Child Protection Mediation: A 25-Year Perspective. Family Court Review, 69-80.
MacDowell, E. (2011). When Courts Collide: Integrated Domestic Violence Courts and Court Pluralism. Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 95.
Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops and Agricultural Hysteria on the Left
One of the most telling images in the modern media of recent date, regarding the issue of genetically modified foodstuffs was the sight of silos of genetically modified seed being sent back from an African nation experiencing a profound crisis of famine. Despite the fact that such seeds would have helped the immediate problem, fears were too great that the nation would be rendered dependant upon subsidized food from the first world, and more to the point, become test subjects for a questionable new technology. However, amongst the strident cries in Europe and Africa against genetically modified produce, which have driven some individuals to engage in 'eco-terrorist' practices of sabotage, the American consumer has become comfortable, one might state, in a kind of blissful ignorance over the debate. American genetically modified crops are not even required to be labeled…
Bigman, David. Editor. (2002). Globalization and the Developing Countries. Oxford University Press.
DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The Environment, Natural Resources and Modern Technology, Ames: Iowa State Press.
DeGregori, Thomas R. (2003).
Origins of the Organic Agriculture Debate. Ames: Iowa State Press.
Genetically Engineered Food
Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…
Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."
Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.
Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.
Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.
Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…
Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf
"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms
Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.
United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…
Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search
Premier database December 29, 2010.
Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.
DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.
Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.
Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…
GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html
Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org
Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.
Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
Proteomics is the study of proteins, and focuses on the role that proteins play in the organism, including how those proteins are structured. Animal proteomics focuses on proteins in animals. It is a very interesting component of reproductive biology because proteins can be modified in various organisms through genetic manipulation. In fact, the term proteomics reflects the combination of protein and genomes and demonstrates that proteins are subject to genetic modification. Some of these modifications may be accidental; stress and time can lead to changes in protein structure and function. However, many of these modifications are an intentional part of modern animal husbandry, where genetic manipulation and reproductive biology techniques are frequently more responsible for the creation of new animals than actual sexual reproduction. Understanding animal proteomics helps further the modern agricultural industry, which relies upon mass production of animal meat in a tightly controlled environment. Proteomics is…
Bendixen, E., Danielsen, M., Hollung, K., Gianazza, E., & Miller, I. (2011). Farm animal proteomics- a review. J Proteomics, 74(3), 282-93.
Picard, B., Berri, C., Lefaucheur, L., Molette, C., Sayd, T., & Terlouw, C. (2010). Skeletal muscle proteomics in livestock production. Brief Funct Genomics, 9(3), 259-78.
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…
Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2
McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.
Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php
Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
Evolution Is True
What Is Evolution?
This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…
Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin
Neuner, K. (2012). Why Evolution Is True - Notes & Review. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from https://vialogue.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/why-evolution-is-true-notes-review/
Vecchi, D. (2009). Review - Why Evolution is True. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=4953
Annunaki Mystery: Are Homo Sapiens the Result of an Alteration of Homo Erectus DNA Mixed with Unspecified Cells of the Ancient Sumerian Gods Known as the Annunaki?
The objective of this study is to examine the creation of Adam and Eve which is related in the Holy Bible account of the Garden of Eden and to examine other ancient texts which relate the creation of mankind and to determine if homo sapiens are the result of an alteration of homo erectus DNA mixed with unspecified cells of the ancient Sumerian gods known as the Annunaki.
It has been posited by some researchers that the real event that took place in the Garden of Eden was not in actuality something that was eaten by Adam and Eve but instead was a genetic altering of the DNA of humankind. This present study entails a review of an exhaustive amount of literature that…
Royce, M. (2012) Theory: Blood of the Gods. Rh Negative Registry. 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.rhnegativeregistry.com/blood-of-the-gods-by-mabel-royce.html
Boulay, RA (1990) Flying Serpents ad Dragons. Poloneus Library. (Ed) Roberto Solarion (1997). Retrieved from: http://poloneum.com/FLYING%20SERPENTS%20AND%20DRAGONS.pdf
Alford, Alan A. (1999) Gods of the New Millennium: The Shattering Truth of Human Origins.
Human Origins -- Creation and/or Evolution? Science (Fossils & Genetics, Age of the Earth) and Theology (Death & Sin, Image & Soul, Adam & Eve) (2008) ASA Education. Retrieved from: http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/origins/humans.htm#adam-eve
Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on iosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.
VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods
The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness…
Finucane, Melissa L. (2002) Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002, 61.
Genetically modified Organisms: Consumers, Food Safety and the Environment. Vol 2 of the FAO ethics services. Organization of the United Nations. Food & Agriculture Organization 2001.
Hossain, Ferdaus, and Onyango, Benjamin (2004) Products Attributes and Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Foods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 28, No.2. June 2004.
Li, Quan; Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; and Wahl, Thomas I. (2002) Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in Beijing, China. Journal of Agrobiotechnology Management and Economics. Vol. 5. No.4, Article 3.
Genetically Modified Crops
Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.
The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.
Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide.…
Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.foodcomm.org.uk/biotech_summary.htm.
Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/7361/newsDate/06-Jul-2000/story.htm .
Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER
The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).
The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…
Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.
The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015
CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
.....biological well-being and the features of the environment and how these affect a person's behavior and criminal tendencies is made clear by biological theories. Research has proved that the common traits and actions seen in criminals like delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity are a function of several biological features such as physical problems, blood glucose levels and eating habits, external head damage, mental function and makeup, heredity, body systems and impaired mental function. The supporters of this theory believe that the biological insight into conventional actions of criminal minds give more effective tools, mechanisms, beliefs and examples which can work smoothly with the normal anticrime systems in keeping up their work quality.
The basic belief of the study targeted at biological makeup and criminality is that there is a connection between delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity and crime. Several studies apply their own developed methods and parameters, a trend which…
This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair" (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).
In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, NA, and lipids. He noted that, "mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk" (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO "causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth" (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased…
American Cancer Society (n.d.) Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-facts-and-figures-2010 [Accessed: April 19, 2011].
American Cancer Society (n.d.) What Causes Cancer?, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/index [Accessed: April 19, 2011].
Croce, C. (2008) Oncogenes and Cancer, N Engl J. Med, 358, p. 502-511.
Hasty, P. (2005) the impact of DNA damage, genetic mutation and cellular responses on cancer prevention, longevity and aging: observations in humans and mice, Mech Ageing Dev, 126(1), p.71-77.
stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.
The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…
It has been argued that GMOs are needed in order to supply the world's food needs. However, cautionary positions by environmental groups must be heeded as well. Technology must move forward and concentrate on underserved areas of the world. However, technology must be cautious in its actions and make certain that what they produce is safe. This issue has extremists on both ends of the spectrum. hat is needed is a union between these two philosophies. More productive crops and production methods are needed, but this development must proceed with even more caution than the green revolution due to the ability to defy nature and combine plant material in a way that is not possible using green revolution methods.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Evenson, R. Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution. Research Seminar on Knowledge for Development. October 14, 2003. Center for International Development. Harvard University. http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/sed/docs/k4dev/evenson_semrpt_031014.pdf .
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (FAO) Crop breeding: the Green Revolution and the preceding millennia. 2003. www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo2.htm. Accessed December 6.
Taylor, J. Founder of 'Green Revolution' Lauds GM Crops. June 1, 2004. Environment News. Heartland Institute. http://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=14989 . Accessed December 6, 2007.
Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]
Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…
1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004
2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,
Vol 182 Issue
3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,
Organic Agriculture, Gardening and Retail
Global Emerging Industry
The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of entering into the industry of either retail of organic food or perhaps the possible agricultural realm of the organic food industry. This work will examine all aspects of the organic food industry in brief as well as exploring the marketing possibilities as well as the financial report of a sampling of those doing business within this industry.
Organic food products are growing in terms of customer demand and that is good news for those in the business and indeed for those who desire to see this industry expand which will offer more choices in health wise consumption to consumers as well as providing employment for those who may be otherwise considered non-employable due to educational limitations and finally this industry may very well provide at least some of the…
10 Reasons to Buy Local Food (2004) [Online] available at: http://www.mariquita.com/articles/10reasons.local.htm
Whole Food Market Investor Relations [Online] located at: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/investor/fiscal04highlights.html
United States Department of Agriculture (2004) (USDA) News Release No. 0423.04[Online] available at: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/p/s.70a/7010B?contentidonly=true& ; contentid=
Whole Foods Market: Our History [Online] available at: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/history.html
Since the events of September 11th, terrorism has been a crucial concern for Americans specifically, and the global society in general.
As Wilkins (2005) notes, although it is generally agreed to be justifiable to commit violence in the act of self-defense against aggressors, many of the victims of terrorism are innocent of any crime, and that the question of "collective guilt" must come into play when determining the justification for terrorism. There is a "distinction between moral guilt and metaphysical guilt (which) can be explained partially in terms of the difference between the failure to do one's duty and the failure to perform a supererogatory act. We have a duty to mutla aid to other human beings" (p. 340).
Therefore, it is justifiable to inflict violence upon innocent individuals when this guilt is apparent, such as the case of the plight of the Jews and the aggression of…
An-Na'im, A.A. "Islam, Islamic Law." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 101-108.
Bolte, A. "Do Wedding Dresses Come in Lavender? The Prospects and Implications of Same-Sex Marriage?" Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 399-410.
Goering, S. "Gene Therapies and the Pursuit of a Better Human." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 659-668.
Leth, F. "Confessed Cannibal Given 8.5-Year Prison Sentence." Title of Source. Day Month Year: pages.
By the time of the Flood, human beings have so thoroughly and inextricably interfered with the natural process of evolution that hybrid animals and plants are commonplace. The names of the genetically modified organisms are part of the common vernacular, uttered in the same sentence as their counterparts that had evolved slowly over the course of the past several million years. Most times, Atwood's descriptions of the life forms on Earth during the Flood are sardonic to underscore the sinister nature of the genetic intervention. For example, in Chapter 6, Toby reflects on her childhood in the "semi-country, before the sprawl had rolled over that stretch of landscape." Within that sprawl comingle the creatures of natural and forced evolution: "there were squirrels, and the first green rabbits. No rakunks, those hadn't been put together yet," (Chapter 6). The reader can easily assume that a rakunk is a raccoon-skunk, but…
China's Big Mac Attack" by James L. Watson, and "Heartburn; Fearful Over the Future, Europe Seizes on Food" by oger Cohen. Specifically, it will explain what each writer is saying, comparing and/or contrasting the perspectives on globalization presented by each writer. Globalization is a difficult issue facing not only America, but also most industrial nations of the world. However, America's culture seems to be spreading much faster than that of other cultures, and that frightens many people who want to retain their own culture and place in the world.
American culture is spreading around the world, because of large, multinational companies like McDonald's and Coca-Cola that have a desirable product, and the funds to spread their company worldwide. While Americans are complacent about their food, their companies expanding around the world, and even the genetic modification of many common foods they eat, many people in the world are not. They…
Cohen, Roger. "Heartburn: Fearful Over the Future, Europe Seizes on Food."
Watson, James L. "China's Big Mac Attack."
Genetically Modified Crops -- America says 'Yes' while the European Union and the Sudan says 'No!
Recently, the famine-stricken nation of the Sudan turned away an entire load of crops and seeds that could have filled the bellies of many of its hungry citizens. hy did it do so? as it madness? No, it was because of the fact that the products in question contained genetically modified crops. "Eat GM or Starve," said the United States, according to an association designed to prevent the introduction of GM crops into the international as well as the national food supply. (OCO, 2004) Proponents of these crops, however, pointed out that the genetic modifications were to make the crops more disease resistant and hardier to the harsh climates of the Sudan.
Genetically modified crops remain one of the most controversial agricultural issues today. Despite fears regarding the safety of these so-called franken-foods,…
Conference on Coexistence -- COC. (2004) Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.foeeurope.org/GMOs/conference/home.htm
U.S. bullying impoverished Sudan." (March 19, 2004) Organic Consumers Organization (OCO). Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/sudan031904.cfm
Of the top 150 medications that are sold by prescription in the U.S. 118 of these are medications that are either "derived from or modeled on naturally occurring substances." (SEAM Global, 2005) Some of the medications that count on habitat presently being destroyed are "aspirin, morphine, vincristine, taxol, digitalis, and most antibiotics."(SEAM Global, 2005)
VI. Internet/Networking: Role Played in Preservation
Through global and subglobal assessments of the ecosystem and monitoring of data in relation to global changes information may be shared from one region to another and earlier attempts made in changing, slowing or altogether avoidance of more extreme conditions. As stated on the web page of "GreenFacts.org": "Some ecosystem problems have been reduced by innovative local responses...Therefore institutions are needed at multiple levels to strengthen the adaptive capacity and effectiveness of sub-national and local responses. (GreenFacts.org, 2005)
VII. Globalization and Changes in Production
Changes have been seen in the…
Globalization's Effects "A World Connected" Online available at http://www.aworldconnected.org/article.php/231.html
Shah, Anup (2005) Effects of Consumerism 2005 April 18 Online available at http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption/Effects.asp
Globalization: Negative Effects of Development (2005) Walon Laboratories Online available at http://whalonlab.msu.edu/Student_Webpages/2003_EC_Projects / Globalization/page_6.html.
Robbins, Richard H. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism. Allyn & Bacon. Copyright: 2002.
UK student / a suitable candidate Information Personal Information First Name: Rasoul Last Name: Abousaeedi Birth Date: January 28th 1984 Born: Kerman, Iran. Hometown: Kerman, Iran Education B.ID
Why studying in the UK would help me and why I am a suitable candidate
The focus of my education has been on plant protection and plant pathology. I received my B. Sc. In Plant Protection and my M. Sc. In Plant Pathology. Understanding how to grow healthy, disease-resistant plants are a crucial component of creating a better food supply for the world. My thesis was on the "Induction of systemic acquired resistance against Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens in barley plants by chemicals."
Biotechnology can provide ample opportunities to ensure that healthy, nutritious vegetables, fruits, and grains are more available and are more resistant to pests, diseases, and the elements. My most recent publication delivered to the 7th National Biotechnology Congress of…
healthy Nutrition: A Chemistry View Point
Chemistry is a branch of sciences that deals with the compositions of matter and helps in identifying the substances that form matter. Living as well as non-living bodies are formed with substances. These substances differ in their composition, nature, properties, and reactions with other substances. There is a vital role of chemicals and chemistry in everyday life of human beings. The impacts of chemical substances on living beings can also be divided into direct and indirect categories. The impact of environmental substances is indirect in nature whereas direct impacts are chemical composition of food, nutrition, vitamins, and physical activity.
The following sections are focused on detailed review of relevance for chemistry and chemicals on healthy eating habits, nutrition, and vitamins. The significant role of physical activity and exercising is also elaborated in the sections below. There are significant benefits of healthy diet and exercise.…
Papadopolus, K. (2008). Food Chemistry Research Developments. USA: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Sladyk, K., & O'Sullivan, B. (2010). Occupation, activity, Skills, patterns, Demands, context, and Balance. Occupational Therapy Essentials for Clinical Competence, 33.
Willett, W. (2012). Nutritional epidemiology (Vol. 40). USA: OUP.
Pesticides which were invented to destroy large quantities of insects that were harming crops, are actually causing a great deal of harm to the environment. This has been an issue particularly in the agricultural field. Farmers and those in the agricultural field have for a long time had to deal with insects which try to attack their crops and ruin their potential harvest. To combat these bugs, scientists were able to create chemical combinations which would kill the insects and then protect the crops which could then be sold and given to humans. These chemicals, such as DDT, were very successful and farmers had more to harvest than they had in years past (right 2007). However, there was an unforeseen result of the mass spraying of poisonous chemicals on the food stuffs. Human beings were negatively affected in a multitude of ways including contracting illnesses as a result of ingesting…
Bassil, K.L. et al. (2007). Cancer health effects of pesticides. Canadian Family of Physicians.
The College of Family Physicians of Canada: Canada. (53:10). 1704-11.
Lear, L. (1997). Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Hoyten.
Savage, S. (2012). When increased pesticide use is a good thing. Science 2.0.
Paley's Argument From Design
William Paley's version of the argument from design is that Nature has a discernible order to it; a design and therefore it can be inferred that there is a Creator behind it. Paley reached this conclusion through using an analogy involving a watch and an ordinary stone, on the basis of which he inferred that if from finding a watch on the ground, it can be reasoned that the watch was an object that had been designed by someone for a purpose, the same logic could also be applied to a stone. Paley built his theory by addressing conceivable objections to his analogy: the conclusion that the watch had been designed for a purpose would have been reached even if an observer had no prior knowledge of the object; or if the watch was not working at the time of reasoning; or even in the case…
Unlike either deontological or utilitarian ethics, virtue ethics focuses on character. Because virtue ethics are not consequentialist, overall virtue ethical frameworks are more akin to deontological analysis of moral right and wrong. One’s intentions are as important as one’s actions; the consequences of one’s actions are important but not as much as remaining honest, compassionate, and willing to learn. At the same time, Aristotle and other proponents of virtue ethics believed that it is most important to be a good person, and to live a good life, than it is to ascribe to some external moral code.
Two virtues that are important to living a flourishing or successful life, in Aristotle’s sense, include magnanimity and temperance (“Traditional Theories of Ethics,” n.d.). Magnanimity is best understood as understated confidence, evident in behaviors like good sportsmanship whether one wins or loses. Temperance is moderation in all areas of life: not going to…
One of the most controversial issues in food politics today is the question of genetically modified organisms. Many consumers dispute whether such products are safe at all. But while the evidence regarding the safety of GMOs continues to be debated within the scientific community, another debate has arisen, specifically regarding the need to label products which contain GMOs within them. Because of the ubiquitous nature of GMOs in agriculture, GMO-containing products can span from everything from foods to pesticides. Producers oppose such labeling requirements, arguing that there is no evidence that GMOs cause consumers any harm. Proponents argue in favor of consumer choice.
In Favor Of Labeling GMOs
Perhaps the most obvious argument in favor of labeling GMO-containing products is that of consumer choice. Even if the products have not been found to cause harm, according to current scientific evidence, this does not mean that consumers do not have a…
The safety, or lack thereof, of genetically modified foods is subject to considerable debate in the public sphere. In order to render a reasonable opinion on the subject of feeding GMO foods to my children, I would want to defer to the best available science, and add a dash of reason. The first thing that would need to be established is the methodology by which one assesses the concept of safety. Clearly, there are no safety issues in the sense of GMO foods being poison (i.e. having immediate negative health effects). The question of GMO safety therefore is more a question of long-term impacts on human health.
A major study on the safety of genetically modified foods determined that, based on the traditional human food consumption patterns, there are no safety issues with the consumption of plant-based GMO foods (Konig et al, 2004). Further studies have examined the…
working for a community mental health agency that serves male adolescents aged 14-16 who have received a diagnosis of conduct disorder. You have been asked by your director of clinical training to answer the following questions (choose only one): a) What family treatment modes have been found to be effective (best practices, evidence-based) for treating this population?
Submit an annotated bibliography with an entry for each of your resources. Include the references in proper APA format. Write a brief summary highlighting the theory, treatment, intervention, and research methodology discussed in each resource.
Authors conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all…
Brestan, EV. & Eyberg, EM (1998) Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids Journ. Clin. Child Psyc. 27, 180-189
Burke, JD, Loeber, B., & Birmaher, R. (2002) Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years, Part II, J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 41, 1275-1293.
Kumpfer, K & Alvarado, R (2003). Family-Strengthening Approaches for the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors American Psychologist, 58, 457-465
Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation with Autism
An Examination of the Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation ith and ithout Autism
To excuse students from physical education is the safe way out, but it does not meet their needs since it becomes costly to them in the long run. The inference here is not to say that physical educators advocate placing children in a program of physical education which will aggravate an injury, cause frustration, or to make him do things which are beyond their ability. -- Nancy Allison Close, Donald K. Matthews, 1973
This paper provides an overview of what physical education (PE) teachers should consider when developing activities and lesson plans for students with the cognitive and physical constraints associated with…
Ammerman, Robert T. And Michel Hersen. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Bauman, Joanne. (2004). Benefits and Barriers to Fitness for Children with Disabilities. The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability. Available: http://www.ncpad.
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males and 1 in 2000 females (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Fragile X syndrome is the result of a single gene mutation, a mutation of the FM1 gene, located on the X chromosome. Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes). Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes and one pair is an allosome, also known as sex the chromosomes. The allosomes determine the person's gender. Female infants receive two X chromosomes (one each from mother and father), whereas males receive one X chromosome (from the mother) and one Y chromosome (from the father). The site of the Fragile X mutation is on one of these X chromosomes (Sadock & Sadock, 2007).
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Test Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K.W & Spence, J.T. (Eds.) pp. 89 -- 195. The psychology of learning and motivation (Volume 2). New York: Academic Press.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - a level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others.
The inability to communicate easily with others is devastating for many children with autism. Being disconnected from other members of the human community is always a difficult condition, but it is especially difficult to the young. An adult who finds himself or herself unable to communicate will already have established connections with other people.
But a child with autism often has the greatest possible difficulties communicating and so establishing those connections to begin with.…
Einfeld, S., & Tonge, B. (1994). The Developmental Behavior Checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 81-101. http://www.behavior.org/autism/index.cfm?page=http%3A//www.behavior.org/autism/autism_causes.cfm http://cecp.air.org/fba/default.htm
Koegel, R., Rincover, A., & Egel, A. (1982). Educating and Understanding Autistic Children. San Diego: College-Hill.
Kozloff, M. (1983). Reaching the autistic child: A parent teaching program. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Paluszny, M. (1979). Autism: A Practical Guide for Parents and Professionals. NY: Syracuse University Press.
person within the Christian worldview. Specifically it will discuss technology, the environment, and the media as it relates to my personal Christian worldview. As noted in this course, understanding a worldview can help a person understand other people and all their roles in today's society. Today's culture is broad, and influenced by a variety of sources, from scientific to religious, and they combine to create a contemporary Christian worldview in others and myself. Personally, my worldview is one of balance between my Christian beliefs and scientific study and analysis, which may be fairly common for a modern Christian worldview.
First, it is necessary to define worldview and what it is. A worldview encompasses every aspect of life, so understanding it is crucial in decision-making and living life to the fullest. It is really a wide-ranging perception of the world around us, formed using a Christian viewpoint. In other words, it…
Editors. (2009). About us. Retrieved 22 June 2009 from the Evangelical Climate Initiative Web site: http://christiansandclimate.org/about/ .
Gibson, T.S. (2004). Proposed levels of Christian spiritual maturity. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32(4), 295+.
Holy Bible. New King James Version.
Schmeltekopf, D.D. & Vitanza, D.M. (Eds.). (2006). The future of Baptist higher education. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.
It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.
Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.
ehavior may change, he states, as a…
Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association. http://www.snc.edu/psych/korshavn/natnur02.htm (March28, 2002).
Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/children/05/30/born.bad.wmd/ (March28, 2002).
Fujita, F. May 1, 1996. The Nature/Nurture Controversy. Sci.Psychology.Personality FAQ. http://www.iusb.edu/~ffujita/Documents/nn.html (March28, 2002).
Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,
Large size is a primary expressing symptom of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The authors also used imaging analysis hardware and software, as well as using the patented CpGenome DNA modification kit for further testing.
Explain how the article relates to genetics topics addressed in lecture.
The article relates to a wide range of genetics topics including chromosomal abnormalities, alleles, the use of fluorescence in chromosomal analysis testing, cytogenetic abnormalities, genotypes, phenotypes, karyotypes, and the process of chromosomal rearrangement or deletion de novo.
Explain the significance of the species chosen for use in the study.
The species chosen for use in the study was human; significance does not need to be explained. The authors did need to receive consent from the parents for all diagnostic procedures, which were performed within the ethical guidelines of the Institutional Review Board of the Hannover Medical School.
Explain the most significant conclusions presented in the article.
Etiology of Theories on Addiction
There are different sorts of addictions and substance abuse methods that plague the world today. However, in order to cure an addiction, one needs to go down to its root cause, and eliminate it, after which the damages caused can be mitigated and prevented. There are several theories and approaches to tackle an addiction problem. Most trained professionals use these theories in their treatment plan to get a better understanding of when and how the addiction came into being. After which, along with therapy, counseling and medication, the road to recovery can begin.
Medical etiology is the study of causes of an illness or any psychological condition. When a diseases is uncovered which the doctors are unable to explain and understand, an etiologist is responsible for determining the reason for its origin and being (Alcoholism, 2005). In this manner, the etiologist and the doctors are…
Alcoholism, N.I. (2005). Module 2: Etiology and Natural History of Alcoholism. National Institute of on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
O' Farrell, T., & Fals-Stewart, W. (1999). Treatment models and methods: Family models. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sheehan, T., & Owen, P. (1999). Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook. New York: Oxford University Press.
In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).
Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…
Ahrams, P., Cardozo, L., & Fall, M. (2002). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society [Electronic version]. Neurourology & • Urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.
Astroza Eulufi, C, Velasco, P.A., Watson, A., & Guzman, K.S. (2008). Enterocistoplastia por cystitis intersticial: Resultados diferidos [Enterocystoplasty for interstitial cystits: Deferred results] (Electronic version]. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, .32(10), 1019-1023.
Elizawahri, A., Bissada, N.K., Herchorn, S., Aboul-Enein. H., Ghoneim, M., Bissada, M.A.Glazer. A.A. (2004). Urinary conduit formation using urinary diversion of intestinal augmentations: II. Does it have a role in patients with interstitial cystitis? The Journal of Urology, 171, 1559- 1562.
Fall, M., Oberpenning, F.. & Pecker, R. (2008). Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: Can we make evidence-based decisions? European Urology, 54, 65-78.
Digestive Disorder: Diverticulitis
The patient is a 37-year-old female with a family history of colorectal cancer mandating regular colonoscopies before the age of 40. The patient's diverticulosis was discovered during a routine colonoscopy at age 35. She was asymptomatic for 2 years, but developed diverticulitis at age 37. When she began experiencing significant pain her lower left abdominal area, she suspected diverticulitis, called her gastroenterologist who referred her to the emergency room for a cat scan, which confirmed the diagnosis, and then given a course of antibiotics, which resolved the issue.
"Diverticulitis develops when feces become trapped in pouches (diverticula) that have formed along the wall of the large intestine. This allows bacteria to grow and cause an infection or inflammation and pressure that may lead to a small perforation or tear in the wall of the intestine. Peritonitis, an infection of the lining of the abdominal…
Davis B.R. & Matthews, J.B. (2006). Diverticular disease of the colon. In M. Wolfe et al., eds., Therapy of Digestive Disorders, 2nd ed., pp. 855-859. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Maconi, G., Barbara, G., Bosetti, C., Cuomo, R., & Annibale, B. (2011). Treatment of diverticular disease of the colon and prevention of acute diverticulitis: A systematic review. Dis. Colon Rectum, 54(10), 1326-38.
Martin, S.T., & Stocchi, L. (2011). New and emerging treatments for the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis. Clin. Exp. Gastroenterol., 4, 203-212.
Unlu, C., Daniels, L., Vrouenraets, B.C., & Boermeester, M.A. (2011). A systematic review of high-fibre dietary therapy in diverticular disease. Int. J. Colorectal Dis. doi: 10.1007/s00384-011-1308-3. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-011-1308-3
It will not focus on achieving a certain standard of thinness, and will emphasize the importance of behavioral modification as an essential component of healthy living. A national and comprehensive obesity campaign can be effective, if implemented correctly and in a fashion that promotes overall wellness, not simply achievement of a standard of thinness. Obesity can be conquered if it is approached from the perspective that healthy and well people are the norm and the ideal American person.
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
Behrens, Laurence & osen, Leonard J. Writing and eading Across the Curriculum.
A pp. 440-516). New York: Longman: 2001.
Crister, Greg. "Too much of a good thing." (2001). In Laurence Behrens and Leonard J.
osen (Eds.) Writing and…
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
Shape of Things:
Theatrical Convention from Class: Suspension of Disbelief -- the audience is made to believe that a man or any person for that matter could become so obsessed with a single person that they are willing to completely change themselves, including having plastic surgery and destroying their interpersonal relationships for a person whose only appeal to them is a sexual one.
Potential Convention: Given the subject matter of the play and the heightened emotions the ending portrays at least on the part of one character that I would try to have the actors deliver their dialogue and their attitudes as realistically as possible.
In the Blood:
Theatrical Convention from Class: Pathos -- the audience is meant to feel sympathy for the main character of this play and to understand her sense of desperation and her inability to find a way to preserve herself and her sense of dignity…
Albee, E. (2000). The Goat or Who is Sylvia? Overlook TP.
Edson, M. (1995). Wit. Faber & Faber.
LaBute, N. (2001). The Shape of Things.
Parks, S. (1999). In the Blood.
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
Expanding Traditional Definition of a Gene
Expands Traditional Definition A Gene
Expanding the traditional definition of a gene through epigenetics:
Changes to the human gene through exposure to external forces in the environment
Increasingly, the field of epigenetics is challenging traditional conceptions of what constitutes the human gene. While it has long been acknowledged that parents can pass their DNA onto their offspring, epigenetics acknowledges the potential for changes in human DNA which subsequently causes a change in the genetic composition of the child. Epigenetics acknowledges "the external environment's effects upon genes can influence disease, and some of these effects can be inherited in humans" (Simmons 2008). While it is difficult to design a study to test environmental factors, historical and experimental research does support this hypothesis. "For example, Swedish scientists recently conducted investigations examining whether nutrition affected the death rate associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes and whether these…
Egger, G. (et al. 2004) Epigenetics in human disease and prospects for epigenetic therapy. Nature 429, 457 -- 463. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/Epigenetics-in-human-disease-and-prospects-for-13630
Roseboom, T. (et al. 2001). Effects of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine on adult disease in later life: an overview. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 185 (2001) 93 -- 98.
Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/epigenetic-influences-and-disease-895
Herrera, B. (et al. 2011). Genetics and epigenetics of obesity. Maturitas, 69(1): 41 -- 49.
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…
Butterworth, F. (1998, July 26). Why the South's murder rate is so high. The New York Times on the Web. ( http://www.nytimes.com )
Capra. F. (1996). The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Carlson, N.R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., & Bowdle, B.F. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.
Medical Conditions -- There are a number of factors that can increase the likelyhood of type-2 diabetes: hypertension, eleveted cholesterol, and a condition called Symdrome X, or metabolic syndrome (combination of obesity, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor diet). Cushing's syndrome, cortisol excess and testosterone deficiency are also associated with the disease. Often, it is a number of co-dependent conditions that seem to give rise to diabetes (Jack & Boseman, 2004).
Genetics -- There is ample evidence that there is a strong inheritable genetic condition in type-2 diabetes. In addition, there is a genetic mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in early onset diabetes (Lee & Hasim, 2001). There is a stronger inheritance pattern for type-2 diabetes with a significant association between family members. Typically, this is excacerbated by cultural and lifestyle factors that, while not inherited, are culturally shared. Gene expression promoted by a diet…
In this Nature vs. Nurture essay example, we will offer topics, titles, an outline, and what it takes to make a great paper. We begin with a strong introduction and thesis statement, followed by body paragraphs that offer in depth analysis of the topics as well as current evidence. We end the essay with a succinct recap of everything under the conclusion section. In critical essays, the main thing to focus on is development of a strong perspective to offer readers a unique and interpretive analysis of a text or topic(s).
What came first, the chicken or the egg? Is Nurture more influential than Nature?
To be or not to be: Nature versus Nurture
The Eternal Debate: Nature versus Nurture
Selected Title: Understanding Origins: Nature versus Nurture
Background on the Debate of Nature vs. Nurture
Interaction of Genes and Environment
Personality Traits and Genetics