Genetically Modified Food Essays (Examples)

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Genetically Engineered Food Over the Last Ten

Words: 2308 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6757825

Genetically Engineered Food

Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."

Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.

Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.

Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
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GMO - Genetically Modified Organisms

Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18912903

Furthermore, these crops could exhaust soil to such a degree that no more crops could be developed there, and thus contribute to rather than alleviate the problem of world hunger.

Another problem cited by opponents is the danger to biodiversity that might be created by GMO's. Genetically modifying foods may have a negative impact on the environment by destroying biodiversity, according to this group. Proponents however argue that biodiversity is encouraged rather than destroyed by genetic engineering. Indeed, they place it in the same category with modifications that have been brought about in nature itself in order to adjust to different environments, or by human beings in the past.

Biological engineering is a very controversial issue, and it appears that it will remain so for a long time, even while the field grows and develops beyond attempts to stop it.… [Read More]

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Genetically Modified Crops Foods and Hormones

Words: 1866 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2795548

This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.

Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.

Conclusion

Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…… [Read More]

References

GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html

Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from  http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org 

Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.

Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from  http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
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Genetically Modified GM Crops Specifically

Words: 2025 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50893239

For example, if birds feed on seeds and a certain variety of insect, without the seeds, the birds may disappear, and the insects would then overpopulate the area.

In addition, the cost of GM crops is initially high to the farmer. These seeds cost much more to develop and test, and so, they are much more costly to the farmer. They might benefit Third World agriculture in many ways, but few Third World farmers could possibly afford the increased cost of these seeds, and so, they would not be available to a majority of the people that need them the most. Cost is an important factor in the continued growth of GM crops, and so, manufacturers must eventually address the cost of these seeds, and reduce the cost so that more people can afford to plant them.

While no study has found GM food to be harmful to humans, opponents…… [Read More]

References

Black, Richard. 2004, 'Study Finds Benefits in GM Crops.' BBC.com. [Online]. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4046427.stm.

Editors. 2005, 'Genetically Modified Foods.' World Health Organization. [Online]. Available at http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/.

Goldstein, M.C., & Goldstein, M.A. 2002, Controversies in Food and Nutrition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Pickrell, John. 2004, 'GM Organisms: Instant Expert.' NewScientist.com. [Online]. Available at http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35.
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In Favor of Genetically Modified Crops

Words: 1822 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73074903

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.

The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.

Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.foodcomm.org.uk/biotech_summary.htm.

Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/7361/newsDate/06-Jul-2000/story.htm.

Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.
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Benefits and Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods or Organisms

Words: 2177 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61352608

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER

The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).

The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.

The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015

from http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2013/11/23/regulatory-similarities-betweengmo-foods-and-phar.aspx

CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
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Genetically Modified Organisms Discuss General

Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52750771

For this reason, biological containment measures are being developed to control plants by inhibiting gene flow through pollen and/or seed (Eastham and Sweet). For example, outcrossing can be controlled by ensuring that the pollen of the GMO is sterile (Mills, 2006).

3) Explain interest in subject.

I believe GMO technology will greatly benefit society by increasing the availability and quality of food, but, at the same time, I acknowledge real biosafety concerns posed by outcrossing. For this reason, I am interested in molecular strategies for gene containment in GMO crops to ensure that they are responsibly deployed and that they are available for larger-scale commercial release than is currently possible.

ibliography

Eastham, K. And Sweet, J. (2002, March). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): The significance of gene flow through pollen transfer. European Environment Agency (EEA) Environmental issue report No 28. http://www.mindfully.org/GE/GE4/Pollen-Transfer-Gene-FlowEEAMar02.htm

Genetically modified organism. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism

Mills, N. (2006). Genetically modified…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eastham, K. And Sweet, J. (2002, March). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): The significance of gene flow through pollen transfer. European Environment Agency (EEA) Environmental issue report No 28.   http://www.mindfully.org/ GE/GE4/Pollen-Transfer-Gene-FlowEEAMar02.htm 

Genetically modified organism. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism

Mills, N. (2006). Genetically modified organisms. http://www.deh.gov.au/soe/2006/publications/emerging/gmo/index.html
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Thumps Up for Genetically Modified

Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6560399

As such, the question that those who oppose GMOs should be asking themselves is whether people should be left to starve to death basing on the fear of unknown long-term implications of GMOs or not.

eference List

Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.

Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.

Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.

Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.

Nottingham, Stephen. Eat your genes: how genetically modified food is entering our diet. 2nd updated ed. London: Zed Books Ltd., 2003

George Kennedy "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified…… [Read More]

Reference List

Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.

Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.

Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.

Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.
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Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop

Words: 2537 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34104641

98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…… [Read More]

Bibliography

What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at'  http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html 

Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html

Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at:  http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
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Genetically Engineered Crops and the Third World

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95979525

genetically engineered crops, or genetically modified (GM) foods, as they are often called. Specifically it will discuss why genetically engineered crops will help residents of the Third World. Ultimately, each year the world is generating too many people to feed adequately. Without the use of genetically engineered food, some people simply will not be able to survive. genetically modified foods offer an alternative for many people of the world, and many studies have shown they are not as harmful as some people imagine them to be. Genetically modified foods are the wave of the future, they offer numerous benefits, and they should be available to Third World countries who hope to produce more food, live healthier lives, and improve their farming techniques to help them survive and thrive in a new millennium.

Genetically modified foods are not fresh technology they have existed for many years. In fact, studies into genetically…… [Read More]

References

Bongaarts, John. "Seeds of Contention: World Hunger and the Global Controversy over GM Crops." Population and Development Review 28.3 (2002): 576.

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 7 Nov. 2005.

< http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/

Goldstein, Myrna Chandler, and Mark A. Goldstein. Controversies in Food and Nutrition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
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Ethics of Food Production

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70649987

Food

Genetically Modified Crops -- America says 'Yes' while the European Union and the Sudan says 'No!

Recently, the famine-stricken nation of the Sudan turned away an entire load of crops and seeds that could have filled the bellies of many of its hungry citizens. hy did it do so? as it madness? No, it was because of the fact that the products in question contained genetically modified crops. "Eat GM or Starve," said the United States, according to an association designed to prevent the introduction of GM crops into the international as well as the national food supply. (OCO, 2004) Proponents of these crops, however, pointed out that the genetic modifications were to make the crops more disease resistant and hardier to the harsh climates of the Sudan.

Genetically modified crops remain one of the most controversial agricultural issues today. Despite fears regarding the safety of these so-called franken-foods,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conference on Coexistence -- COC. (2004) Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.foeeurope.org/GMOs/conference/home.htm

U.S. bullying impoverished Sudan." (March 19, 2004) Organic Consumers Organization (OCO). Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/sudan031904.cfm
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Should Food Products Be Labeled if They Contain Gmos

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94382712

Genetically Modified Foods

' There has been a great deal of controversy over genetically modified foods (GMOs). First, many individuals and organizations oppose the concept of altering the genetics of foods for any reason. And secondly, there is a hot debate as to whether or not food manufacturers should publish / label their packages as containing GMOs. This paper covers the controversies and provides several angles to the debates.

The way in which companies modify food genetically is through " ... the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup" of the seeds to be changed materially (Schneider, et al., 2014). There are two ways GMOs can be produced through "recombination": either by moving genes from one organism to another organism; or by making changes in genes within an organism "that are already present" (Schneider, p. 1). The changes that occur after being genetically engineered result in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jalonick, M.C. (2014). Debate over genetically modified foods continues amid confusion.

PBS News Hour. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from http://www.pbs.org.

Kopicki, A. (2013). Strong Support for Labeling Modified Foods. The New York Times.

Retrieved September 16, 2015, from  http://www.nytimes.com .
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Peter Andree Entitled Gm Food Regulation An

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 369608

Peter Andree entitled "GM Food egulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food egulation in Canada." Andree reports on a trade dispute of an ongoing nature over genetically modified organisms occurring between the European Union and the United States and Canada reporting that a "more precautionary approach" has been witnessed recently in regulating GMOs. Andree examines the regulatory approaches toward GMOs.

According to Andree (2006), the regulatory approach in Canada has been influenced greatly by the model in the United States and there have been more than sixty genetically modified foods that Canada has approved upon the basis of "limited sets of compositional and nutritional data" demonstrating the "substantial equivalence to products already on the market." (Andree, 2006, p.377-8) Andree states that there are major differences in the data requirements for GM regulation between that of the European Union and the United States and Canada. The EC regulations…… [Read More]

References

Andree, P. (2006) GM Food Regulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food Regulation in Canada. Science and Public Policy, volume 33, number 5, June 2006, pages 377 -- 389, Beech Tree Publishing, 10 Watford Close, Guildford, Surrey GU1 2EP, England.
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Ethical Issues Concerning the Genetically

Words: 2634 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7990519

For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)

In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)

Exclusion of People from the Experiment

If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…… [Read More]

Works cited

Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol3_g/Bhuiya_2012_G60-65.pdf&gt;.

Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from http://www.csid.unt.edu/files/What's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf

Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from http://cf.ac.uk/jomec/resources/GMREPFIN.pdf

Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from http://www.tufts.edu/~skrimsky/PDF/GMOethics.PDF
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Political Science Politics of Food

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50976700



There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.

eferences

Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html

Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:

http://www.tigweb.org/express/panorama/article.html?ContentID=5697

Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:

http://www.answers.com/topic/political-economy-of-food

Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City

Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html

Williams,…… [Read More]

References

Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Report_Food_Security_98.html

Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:

http://www.tigweb.org/express/panorama/article.html?ContentID=5697

Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
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Company Strategy Whole Foods on the Surface

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33275950

Company Strategy: Whole Foods

On the surface, Whole Foods has a unique, almost counterintuitive philosophy. ather than stressing value and volume in terms of food sales, it instead offers more expensive organic and specialty goods. However, its niche marketing strategy has proven to be extremely lucrative. Whole Foods is an interesting case study as a company in the manner in which it has simultaneously capitalized upon popular trends in food without trying to be 'all things to all people.' In 2013, the company had same-store sales growth of 7.5%. It has rapidly expanded: "the company's growth strategy is to seek new locations for its stores in highly populated, often urban, areas. Each store averages around 38,000 square feet, and about 30% of the company's stores were acquired, meaning that they were other health-food stores that were bought out and re-branded as Whole Foods" (Frankel 2013).

Whole Foods' vision and mission…… [Read More]

References

Brown, Joshua. (2013). What Whole Foods learned from the recession. The Reformed Broker.

Retrieved: http://www.thereformedbroker.com/2012/08/12/what-whole-foods-learned-from-the-recession/

Dennis, Brady. (2013). Whole Foods executive explains strategy behind labeling genetically modified foods. St. Louis Dispatch. Retrieved:

 http://www.stltoday.com/business/local/whole-foods-executive-explains-strategy-behind-labeling-genetically-modified-foods/article_7d2c6059-5159-5d63-b716-04ccf1b7b85a.html
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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…… [Read More]

References

Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online:  http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf 

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms 

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
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Shifting Trends in the Food

Words: 2541 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49490583


How Fast Food Restaurants are Reacting to the Shift to More Organic Foods:
To remain competitive, fast food restaurants have had to turn to
innovative products, often redeveloping their product lines, to meet the
changing demands of consumers for organic foods specifically, and healthier
foods in general. The demand for organic foods has been the mechanism for
industry evolution. As noted, McDonalds phased out their supersize menu
items, in response to society's growing health concerns. In addition,
they've begun to offer more healthy menu choices, such as low-fat items and
fresh salads, to their customers, as well as promoting healthy lifestyles
in their marketing campaigns. In the New England area, McDonald's even
replaced their coffee with Newman's Own Organic blend, in an attempt to
take further advantage of more organically-discriminating tastes of
consumers. This move has been well-received in the region[18]. In
addition, new fast food restaurants are being introduced…… [Read More]

Bibliography
Abelson, J., "An Overarching Goal: Innovation," Boston Globe (September 24,
2006): E2 (database online); available from ProQuest, ProQuest ID:
1136409491.
Brunning, R. "Organic Fast-Food Restaurant to Open in Boulder," Knight
Ridder Tribune (October 12, 2006): 1 (database online); available from
ProQuest, ProQuest ID: 1157712541.
"Fast Food in the United States." Market Line (August 2005) Database
online. Available from Datamonitor.
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Sustainability Foods Eaten Humans Impact Environment Which

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96605125

sustainability foods eaten humans impact environment. hich foods highest impact environment? hich foods smallest? hy? How, individuals, make decisions-based data? Should information shape public policy? If, ?.

There is presently much controversy regarding sustainability and the diverse strategies people could use with the purpose of getting actively involved in helping the environment. The modern society has seven billion individuals and it is important for the authorities to be able to provide for the needs of these people. A great deal of crops and livestock are raised around the world and dominate most rural landscapes. However, the masses know very little regarding how these resources damage the environment as a result of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and methane gas.

Traditional agriculture has developed into industrial agriculture as society started to express more and more interest in experiencing progress when considering food production. Scientists have started to introduce additives as a means…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Koch, Bernhard A., and Askeland, Bjarte, "Damage Caused by Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Survey of Redress Options for Harm to Persons, Property, Or the Environment," (Walter de Gruyter, 14.10.2010)

"the issues," Retrieved October 15, 2012, from the Sustainable Table Website: http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/
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Pesticides the Consumption of Foods

Words: 1820 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56082730

A report by Elliot (2009) also refers to other positive aspects of organically grown food. "…research found higher level of antioxidants -- which help the body to combat cancer and cardiovascular disease -- in organic foods" (Elliot, 2009).

In the final analysis it seems from the literature that there is overwhelming evidence to link pesticides in food with serious health issues and problems in children. This is especially critical with regard to very young children who may suffer from cancer and developmental problems as a result of exposure to food that has been contaminated by chemical pesticides. This leads to the recommendation that more should be done by the health authorities to ensure that young children in particular are not exposed to food that may be detrimental to their health.

eferences

Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many

Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326

Cancer…… [Read More]

References

Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many

Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326

Cancer Patients found to have Higher Pesticide Residues in Body. Retrieved from  http://www.chem-tox.com/cancerchildren/#residues 

Elliott, V. (2009) Organic food 'no better for health than factory-farmed food' says report.
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Case Strategic Audit on Whole Foods

Words: 2908 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94380930

Whole Foods Market

Significant key points

Key financial indicators

Graph of sales growth from year 2002 until 2011.

Opportunities

Threats

Strengths

Weakness

SWOT and TWOS analysis

TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix

Pros and Cons

Implementation

Evaluation and control

The Whole Foods Market is a progressive and focused corporation with presence in three developed markets including U.S., United Kingdom, and Canada. The company has achieved growth since its inception. The increasing market share of the company has enabled it to expand in international markets. The company envisions becoming global leader in organic and natural foods market. The competitors in the sector are large stores, supermarkets, and retail outlets with increased presence. The product range of these companies includes a number of related products along with the natural and organic foods.

The company requires maintaining its double digit growth strategy and aims to expand in global market. However the cost of natural and…… [Read More]

References:

Form 10-K. United States Securities and Exchange Commission, (2011). Form 10-k annual report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the securities exchange act of 1934. Retrieved from Whole Foods Market website: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company Info/PDFs/2011_10K.pdf

Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2012). Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. USA: South-Western Pub.

Lederer, M., Schott, P., Huber, S., & Kurz, M. (2013). Strategic Business Process Analysis: A Procedure Model to Align Business Strategy with Business Process Analysis Methods. In S-BPM ONE-Running Processes (pp. 247-263). New York: Springer.

Ngai, E. (2009). RFID in operations and supply chain management: research and applications, edited by T. Blecker and GQ Huang.
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Food Supply Technology Industrialization and

Words: 1142 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60182596

A farmer in each year can produce enough food to feed a hundred people, according to Pollan (2001), but this productivity comes with a heavy price: "The modern industrial farmer cannot grow that much food without large quantities of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, and fuel. This expensive set of 'inputs,' as they are called, saddles the farmer with debt, jeopardizes his health, erodes his soil and ruins its fertility, pollutes the groundwater, and compromises the safety of the food we eat" (Pollan, 2001, p. 190). These accrued costs accumulated through generations may lead to catastrophic consequences such as global warming and scarcity of edible food and drinkable water.

The drive to industrial efficiency blinded us to several hidden costs of food production. Orr (1994) identifies six of the costs that, if we intend to maintain sustainable growth, need to be curbed. The first obvious cost of industrial food production is…… [Read More]

References

McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002) From cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. New York: North Point Press.

Orr, D.W. (1994) Earth in mind: on education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Pollan, M. (2001) The Botany of desire: a plant's eye view of the world. New York: Random House.
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Food and Policy Discuss the

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65934494

As far as society is concerned, the effects of high obesity rates would include: an increase in health care costs, less productivity and increasing disability rates. This is significant, because the information provides a way of seeing the total impact that obesity is having on the individual and society. Where, the overall long-term costs for the individual will mean the possibility of being exposed to a number of different conditions simultaneously. At the same time, society will have to bear the economic impact that obesity rates will have on the economy, as it will lead to higher costs and less productivity. (Vissche 2010 pp. 355 -- 375)

Describe the Way in which the Issue is being Reported

The issue is being reported as a major health crisis that will have long-term implications on the country. During these reports, the high statistics and the total amounts of obesity are usually highlighted.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

F as in Fat, 2007, American Trails, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,

Doane, S, Battling Obesity in America, 2010, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,

Himba, T, 5 Causes of Obesity, 2010, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,

Visscher, T, 2010, 'The Public Health Impact of Obesity', Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 22, pp. 355 -375.
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Failure of Today's Generation in

Words: 2981 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14701194

Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on iosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.

VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods

The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Finucane, Melissa L. (2002) Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002, 61.

Genetically modified Organisms: Consumers, Food Safety and the Environment. Vol 2 of the FAO ethics services. Organization of the United Nations. Food & Agriculture Organization 2001.

Hossain, Ferdaus, and Onyango, Benjamin (2004) Products Attributes and Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Foods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 28, No.2. June 2004.

Li, Quan; Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; and Wahl, Thomas I. (2002) Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in Beijing, China. Journal of Agrobiotechnology Management and Economics. Vol. 5. No.4, Article 3.
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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]

References

Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
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Gmos Should Labeling Be Required

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85457329

GMO producers also feel that this would give consumers the impression that GMOs are unhealthy or unsafe and that non-GMO crops are preferred (aab & Grobe, 2003).

Valid scientific evidence is lacking as to whether GMOs are healthy or unhealthy in the long run. However, support is building for the position that regardless of the outcome, consumers have the right to know and to make an informed decision. Producers in the U.S. have placed pressure on Europe to withdraw their requirements for the labeling of GMO foods, as they claim that this attitude towards GMO foods will influence decisions in the U.S. (aab & Grobe, 2003). However, so far, these challenges have been met with resistance and labeling practices continue to spread.

On a national level, the battle still rages, but on an international level, the scales seem to tip towards the pro-labeling side and the right of the consumer…… [Read More]

References

NG, J. (2008). UK experts urge RP consumers to push for GMO labeling. Checkbiotech. October 17, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://greenbio.checkbiotech.org/news/uk_experts_urge_rp_consumers_push_gmo_labeling

Raab, C. & Grobe, D. (2003). Labeling Genetically Engineered Food: The Consumer's Right to Know? AgBioForum. 6 (4): 155-161. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://www.agbioforum.missouri.edu/v6n4/v6n4a02-raab.pdf

Whitman, D. (2000). Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful. Retrieved March 24, 2009 at http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2009). 20 Questions on genetically modified foods. Retrieved March 24, 2009 at http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/.
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Sociology Politics

Words: 2317 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 574399

genetically modified (GM) foods in the last half of the 20th century created a whirlwind of controversy in the developed. Critics argue that genetically modified foods are unnatural and unsafe, while supporters note that genetically modified foods can improve crop yields, increase nutrient content, and improve food safety. Over the past decades, the production and distribution of genetically modified foods in North America and Europe has long been discussed, and governmental controls have been implemented. In contrast, many African countries have not had the opportunity to develop GM food policies. hen the U.S. offered genetically modified foods as part of an aid package to African countries in the past years, the act renewed the controversy around genetically modified foods.

This paper will focus on the debate surrounding the use of genetically modified foods as food aid to African countries. First, a brief background to the GM food industry, and GM…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Batalion, Nathan. 50 Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Foods. 05 November 2003.    http://www.cqs.com/50harm.htm   

Bhattacharya, Shaoni. New Scientist Online News 14:06-25 June 03. 05 November 2003. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993874

Brissenden, Michael. U.S.-EU war over genetically modified food intensifies. The World Today - Wednesday, 25 June, 2003 12:45:00. Transcript. 05 November 2003.  http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2003/s888140.htm 

Coghan, Andy. New Scientist Online News 19:00-29 January 03. 05 November 2003. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993317
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Omnivore Science Is a Neutral Human Pursuit

Words: 1613 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70973406

Omnivore

Science is a neutral human pursuit. It is only the application of science that raises potential ethical questions. Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle perfectly exposes the ways science can be manipulated by the hands of its sponsors. Money determines the nature of research, its methodologies, its findings, and its applications. Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma raises similar ethical questions and concerns, focused not on the military but on the food industry. Arguably, the food industry poses far more complicated ethical issues than the military-industrial complex. The military can be viewed as an ethically incorrect institution, as even when it presumably protects the lives of Americans it does so necessarily at the expense of the lives of others. National security is not built on a universal human rights vision, but on a xenophobic model that presumes national superiority and reinforces an "us vs. them" mentality that is at the root…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DuBridge, Lee. "The Social Control of Science."

Ferrie, Helke. "Evidence grows of harmful effects of GMOs on human health." CCPA Monitor. Oct 2011.

Martinelli, Lucia, Karbarz, Malgorzata and Siipi, Helena. "Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food." Croat Med J. 2013;54:91-6.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma.
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Gene Tinkering in Agriculture

Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81543511

genetically modified or altered (GM) crops. Specifically, it will discuss information on GM crops, the risks, the benefits, and how GM crops differ from traditional plant breeding. Genetically modified crops are not new, they have been in existence for many years, but they are extremely controversial - in part because some people do not comprehend their makeup, and in part because they are innovative, and there are still many questions that need to be answered about their affect on people, the environment, and overall health. Basically, GM crops are crops that have been genetically altered through science. Essentially, their DNA, or specific genes, are transferred between one plant and another to create different qualities, such as hardiness, etc. Some people call this "genetic engineering." It takes the best qualities of one plant and mates them with another to create a new sub-species or even species (Editors). These plants are generally…… [Read More]

References

Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/

Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." NewScientist.com. 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005. http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35

Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004



Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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Conflict Issues in Globalization

Words: 1937 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35894566

Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops and Agricultural Hysteria on the Left

One of the most telling images in the modern media of recent date, regarding the issue of genetically modified foodstuffs was the sight of silos of genetically modified seed being sent back from an African nation experiencing a profound crisis of famine. Despite the fact that such seeds would have helped the immediate problem, fears were too great that the nation would be rendered dependant upon subsidized food from the first world, and more to the point, become test subjects for a questionable new technology. However, amongst the strident cries in Europe and Africa against genetically modified produce, which have driven some individuals to engage in 'eco-terrorist' practices of sabotage, the American consumer has become comfortable, one might state, in a kind of blissful ignorance over the debate. American genetically modified crops are not even required to be labeled…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bigman, David. Editor. (2002). Globalization and the Developing Countries. Oxford University Press.

DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The Environment, Natural Resources and Modern Technology, Ames: Iowa State Press.

DeGregori, Thomas R. (2003).

Origins of the Organic Agriculture Debate. Ames: Iowa State Press.
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People Fear DNA Because Criminals

Words: 2851 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35999004

This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008   http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html  

BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm

N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132

D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
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Supplements There Are Many Reasons That Supplements

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53415536

Supplements

There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.

Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong:  http://www.livestrong.com/article/213053-pros-cons-of-gmo-foods/ 

FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO:  http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo8.htm 

WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/are-biotech-foods-safe-to-eat
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Decline of the American Diet

Words: 5127 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39593950

The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."

The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our

World. Boston: Conari Press.

Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:

Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Organic vs Non-Organic Organic vs

Words: 1062 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79858433

From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.

Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.

This informative article demonstrates…… [Read More]

Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.

Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.

This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
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Environmental Crime Economic Globalization and

Words: 2261 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2165518

A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.

Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.

"Give a Weed an Inch, it'll Take a Smile." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 12 June 2005: c1.
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Engineered Crops the Rapid Advancements

Words: 1088 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80687274

Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]

Gene Contamination

Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004

2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,

Vol 182 Issue

3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,
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Group Case Study-Group in What Way Do

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41993429

Group

Case Study-Group

In what way do you consider that cultural differences between the Japanese and Australians have impacted on how this trading relationship was developed?

History teaches the people on how Australia was a country made up of immigrants who were mostly from Britain. The unwanted moved to Australia and tried developing it. The low class Asians also flooded Australia and it became more of a cosmopolitan country due to the mixed race. The Australians are known for not holding on to their past (Les 2012). With the population of Japan being over three times that of Australia, more food stuff is required in Japan. Japan is known for its advanced technology which has raised the lifestyles of its people. This means they demand for better food and not genetically modified foods. Having received a consignment from America which contained genetically modified soya meant for the animals, the Japanese…… [Read More]

References

Brewer P, Sherriff G. (2007). Is There a Cultural Divide in Australian International Trade? Australian Journal of Management. (University Of New South Wales).

Freeman S. And Weinman, D. (2012). Benefits Of 'Clustering' and Niche Strategies:How Smes In The Australian Wine Industrycan Develop A Competitive Advantage Forinternational Expansion.. Case Study 12.1

Les Brown. (2012). Getting Market Entry for Australian Gm-Free Soy Into The Japanese Food Manufacturing Supply Chain. Case Study. 10
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Certified Organic

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34819610

Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm.

Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.

Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.

Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214.
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Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Words: 2664 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8454350

Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.

The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).

There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…… [Read More]

References

Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.

Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.

Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.

Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
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Ethics the Company Can Source

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56809095

The second step is to initiate a supplier code of conduct. The greatest potential for ethical violations falls with suppliers such as agricultural firms or offshored service providers, and these violations can result in negative publicity for the company.

Ultimately, it is not expected that these ethical standards will form a competitive advantage for the company. Having high ethical standards is more of a hygiene factor in that it is something a company needs to have to avoid negative impacts, but few companies get any particular competitive mileage from their ethical policies. There is little impetus to join the fair trade or organic businesses for most of the products we sell. hile many consumers are willing to pay more for said products, it remains a niche category especially in Europe and the UK. This usually means that the volumes are too low to justify the effort. Overall, the best approach…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

FAO. (2001). Ethical issues in food and agriculture. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X9601E/X9601E00.htm

HRW. (2010). Hellish work. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.hrw.org/en/node/91458/section/3

Hussein, M. (2009). Hiring and firing with ethics. Human Resource Management International Digest. Vol. 17 (4) 37-40.

Van Tulder, R. & Kolk, a. (2001). Multinationality and corporate ethics: Codes of conduct in the sporting goods industry. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 32 (2) 267-283.
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Feed the World the Economist

Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4137780

Native populations never had such concepts. That many nations are artificial creations incapable of food self-sufficiency undercuts the self-sufficiency argument. Nations around the world may need, at the very least, to organization into larger, more diverse blocs the way Europe has in order to have any hope of attaining food self-sufficiency.

Externalities

Inefficient and illogical colonial-era boundaries are just one externality that is impacting the ability of the world to feed itself. Trade regulations are another. No matter the justification, trade barriers and tariffs reduce the efficiency of the global food trade. hen nations protect certain industries with these barriers, they fail to take advantage of comparative advantages. orse, such regulations stifle innovation. hen regulations are removed, innovation allows industries to find a new equilibrium. An example of this can be found with Canadian wine production. Prior to the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Act, the Canadian wine industry was subsidized heavily.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Eide, W. & Kracht, U. (2009). Official responses to the world food crisis in light of the human right to food. WorldHunger.org. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from  http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/08/hrf/wb_eide.htm 

Whitman, D. (2000). Genetically modified foods: Harmful or helpful? CSA Illumina. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/review.pdf

Bello, W. (2008). How the World Bank, IMF and WTO destroyed African agriculture. WorldHunger.org. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from  http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/08/editorials/bello_afag.htm
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Sustainable Practices by Dos Toros

Words: 905 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2178799

Economics and Ethics of Sustainable Design

Dos Toros is a U.S. food manufacturing company. The company manufactures foods of different types from plant food to animal food. At this company, there are several deliberate measures that are employed to ensure that these kind of food produced meets the desired standards. In this case, Dos Toros managed to carve a sizeable market share by distinguishing itself. Chipotle Company, on the other hand, is a beef producing company located in Texas. This company sells meat from naturally raised cows. The cows that they slaughter are bred under natural conditions with no adulteration of chemicals. There is no use of drugs in sustaining the lives of the animals. The kinds of food that the cows eat are those availed by nature. This is similar to Dos Toro's approach to business. As a result, both companies have earned a name for their consideration of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Dasmann, Raymond F. Environmental Conservation. 2d. ed. New York: Wiley, 2010. Print.

Henningfeld, Diane Andrews. Genetically Modified Food. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2014. Print.

Leff, Enrique. Green Production: Toward an Environmental Rationality. New York: Guilford, 2011. Print
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Hunger Is the Worst Manifestation

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56901406

It is estimated that 22 million children are stunted in their growth worldwide.

Economic consequences: it is estimated that 67 million children are malnourished which effectively means they will not achieve the expected schooling level like any average child, and if they do, it could be late. The repercussion of that is that they will not be able to earn at equal rate as other age mates who are not malnourished, with a continued cycle, he economy of the society will end up suffering.

In order to bring an end to hunger in the world, there should be systems put in place that protect the weak and vulnerable from organized rogue groups and protected multinationals that construe the food production process to their own evil desires.

There should be very well managed and coordinated trade especially on food items so that the third world can reclaim good use of their…… [Read More]

Reference

GMO Compass (2008). Maize. Retrieved February 24, 2011 from www.gmo-ompass.org/eng/grocery_shopping/crops/18.genetically_modified_maize_eu.html
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Cloned Livestock Produce in EU

Words: 1114 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24475039

In his aticle, Deek Buke posits that "consumes' biggest concen is about isk, especially in light of the bovine spongifom encephalopathy epidemic: scientists, and the egulatoy pocesses, ae no longe tusted" (1998). This distust in the system, both on a scientific and govenmental level, is deep-ooted, in that food is pat of the human expeience which is pesonal and even intimate. People want to be able to tust thei food povides. Theefoe thee is fea that just because cloned beef appeas as edible as non-cloned beef does not guaantee that an animal with defects hamful fo human consumption might be cloned (and that clone cloned, and so on), unleashing geate ham ove a wide aay of people than even the BSE o Foot and Mouth epidemics impacted.

The aguments against cloning have a lot to do with ou collective fea not of the meat itself, but also the implications of…… [Read More]

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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Does a Person's Gender Affect Their Views on Cloning

Words: 3814 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54211973

Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.

It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.

Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."

Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,

IL.
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Diffusion of Innovation Diffusion Research

Words: 3226 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67275597

Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.

Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics

Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses

Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.

UL: http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/world/berlinwallfall.rev.html

Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe

Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1972 in Review." (January 1973). UPI.Com.

Retrieved from: http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1972/1972-Election/12305688736666-2/#title

Butterworth, T. (May 24, 2007). Fifteen People Who Changed The World. Forbes.

Retrieved from:   http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/people-changed-world-tech-07rev_cz_tb_0524changers.html
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Discovery of the Structure of

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81223929

However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.

A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/

This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx

This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.

Ejelonu, A.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from:   http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx  

What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna

Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from:   http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/ejelonu.html
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Exploring Important Issues That Impact the Planet and Its Peoples

Words: 3043 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96083603

Global Environmental & Social Problems

The four unit course in Contemporary Global Environmental and Social Problems explores and critiques some of the most pressing global social / environmental issues and problems that are not limited to one nation or region. Thesis: The most serious environmental and social issues on the planet -- issues that threaten the health, safety and productivity of the human race -- should be given serious, critical thought and research by students, because they will inherit the ramifications and problems related to those pivotal issues.

hile the science will be reviewed, the focus is on how climate change impacts people and the lands and waters they depend on, and on the wildlife. The world is already being impacted by global climate change.

Unit Two delves into the problems associated with human rights, including the nations and political movements that abuse human rights and the leadership that informs…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nilson, L.B. (2010). Teaching at is Best. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Public Broadcast Service. (2012). Is Genetically Modified Food Safe to Eat? Front Line.

KCET. Retrieved November 8, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org.

Schuldt, J.P., Konrath, S.H., and Schwarz, N. (2011). "Global Warming" or "Climate
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Dangers Outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95587717

Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).

orks Cited

Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…… [Read More]

Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num

9&ctrlInfo=Round14%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH

This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past…… [Read More]

References

Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website:   http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2010/cluster7/Agarwal_Nisha_Cloning.pdf  

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website: http://arabidopsis.info/students/microarrays.pps

Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf

Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website:   http://dspace.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2328/12252/2006009592.pdf;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59  ?
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
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Paradox of Technology the 21st

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38719031

Securing Internet commerce is most likely the biggest challenge that software development companies have yet faced. The security problems affecting Internet commerce involve credit card transactions, which raise concerns involving privacy issues, integrity, and authenticity. For example, there is a considerable, and justifiable, fear that confidential information, such as credit cards and personal details, could be intercepted during transmission over the Internet when submitting an order form on the Web. Through this advance in technology, people stand the risk of becoming victim to internet fraud of their personal information.

A third manner in which technology has the potential to be both beneficial to society and detrimental at the same time is through plastic surgery. Plastic surgery is generally separated between two genres; reconstructive surgery corrects or masks birth defects and the destructive effects of trauma, surgery or disease, and cosmetic or aesthetic surgery changes features that the patient finds unflattering.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Johnson, D. & Whitworth, I. (2002). Recent Developments in Plastic Surgery. BMJ, 325(7359): 319.

South Centre Org. (2004). A Developed Agenda for Intellectual Property Negotiations in 2004 and Beyond. Retrieved February 21, 2007 at http://www.southcentre.org/tadp_webpage/research_papers/ipr_project/ipreg_devtoagendamar04.doc.

Stiglitz, Joseph. (2002). Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
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Stat Abuse the Precautionary Principle

Words: 496 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36412692

Despite some evidence that genetically modified crops might be harmful to people and the environment -- something Saunders thinks falls under the umbrella of the precautionary principle -- companies and some governments are claiming that they have "proven the crops are safe" when in fact all they have done is failed to prove that it is unsafe. A study that doesn't show a statistically significant correlation between genetically modified foods and specific harms to people/the environment is not proof the genetically modified foods are safe, that is, it simply doesn't show them to be unsafe. While failing to show a statistically significant correlation is sufficient grounds to assume there is no correlation in some statistical applications (assuming the study was carried out properly, of course), in cases where there is potential harm and the precautionary principle applies, the exact opposite should be the case -- the correlation should be assumed…… [Read More]

Peter T. Saunders of the Mathematics Department of King's College, in London, published an article titled "Use and Abuse of the Precautionary Principle" that deals with a highly specific and unique problem when it comes to the use of statistical information. Many statistical abuses occur when conclusions not fully supported by statistics are asserted, or when differences that are not statistically significant are made to appear greater than they really are. According to Saunders, there are certain situations where it is actually good to use statistics in this way -- specifically, in cases where there is a potential for harm if a correlation exists. That is, things like cigarettes and possible carcinogens should be assumed to be unsafe as soon as any evidence suggests that they might be, unless there is a compelling reason that a potentially harmful substance should be used. Saunders advocates and over-reaction to statistical data in such cases as a means of offering the greatest protection. This is called the "precautionary principle," and it is common sense according to Saunders' explanation. In situations where the precautionary principle applies, any observed change on a population should be taken as a sign that the substance/action/etc. is correlated with that change until it can be positively demonstrated that this is not the case.

After explaining the precautionary principle in great deal and making the foundational logic and ethicality behind this principle quite clear, Saunders turns to how statistics can be abused when this principle is discarded. Despite some evidence that genetically modified crops might be harmful to people and the environment -- something Saunders thinks falls under the umbrella of the precautionary principle -- companies and some governments are claiming that they have "proven the crops are safe" when in fact all they have done is failed to prove that it is unsafe. A study that doesn't show a statistically significant correlation between genetically modified foods and specific harms to people/the environment is not proof the genetically modified foods are safe, that is, it simply doesn't show them to be unsafe. While failing to show a statistically significant correlation is sufficient grounds to assume there is no correlation in some statistical applications (assuming the study was carried out properly, of course), in cases where there is potential harm and the precautionary principle applies, the exact opposite should be the case -- the correlation should be assumed to exist until it can be positively shown not to. Saunders example of a coin is the simplest way to understand this: if you're worried that a coin might be biased towards heads and you flip it three times in a row and get a heads each time, you haven't proven that the coin is biased as the p-value is still 0.125, but you certainly haven't proven that the coin is unbiased just because the p-value is well within the realm of possibility.

Article:  http://www.ratical.com/co-globalize/MaeWanHo/PrecautionP.html
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Suppressed Evidence

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72296329

Suppressed Evidence

First Case. No. The passenger's motion to suppress the seized evidence should not be granted. An accurate description of the apprehension by the two police officers and the rocks of crack cocaine they confiscated from the passenger's pocket and body are fundamental evidence of illegal drug use. The passenger cannot claim any right to suppress the evidence because the actual substance was found in his personal possession and constitutes direct evidence against him. Moreover, the apprehension happened in a high-crime neighborhood where drug use is inherent or quite likely. y omitting or suppressing the direct evidence and presenting an incomplete or misleading account or description, the police officers or judge will commit obstruction of justice.

The driver was not arrested because no such evidence was found in his personal possession. The woman who leaned into the passenger's window and handed him an object was not arrested, either, because…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Atheism. Fallacies of Presumption: Suppressed Evidence. About, Inc., 2005. http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/Skepticism/faq_fall_suppressed.htm

2. Carroll, Robert Todd. The Fallacy of Suppressed Evidence. The Skeptics Dictionary.  http://skepdic.com/refuge/ctlessons/lesson7.html 

3. Medawar, Charles, interviewee. The Conspiracy of Silence: the Suppressed Evidence About Anti-Depressants. Multinational Monitor, July-August 2004. vol 25 (7 & 8). http://multinationalmonitor.org/mm2004/july-aug04/interviewmadewar.html

4. Soil Association. U.S. Public Interest Attorney Uncovers Suppressed Evidence of Potential GM Food Health Risks, February 28, 2000. http://www.soilassociation.org/web/sa/saweb_nsf/0/81256ad8005545498025689006614e1?OpenDocument
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Atwood by the Time of the Flood

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79058201

Atwood

By the time of the Flood, human beings have so thoroughly and inextricably interfered with the natural process of evolution that hybrid animals and plants are commonplace. The names of the genetically modified organisms are part of the common vernacular, uttered in the same sentence as their counterparts that had evolved slowly over the course of the past several million years. Most times, Atwood's descriptions of the life forms on Earth during the Flood are sardonic to underscore the sinister nature of the genetic intervention. For example, in Chapter 6, Toby reflects on her childhood in the "semi-country, before the sprawl had rolled over that stretch of landscape." Within that sprawl comingle the creatures of natural and forced evolution: "there were squirrels, and the first green rabbits. No rakunks, those hadn't been put together yet," (Chapter 6). The reader can easily assume that a rakunk is a raccoon-skunk, but…… [Read More]

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International Institutions Are No Longer

Words: 4839 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37529

As a result, liberal international institutions broke down. Conversely, ineffective international institutions compounded national economic difficulties. (Holm & Sorensen, 1995, p. 148)

Following World War II, the United States assumed a leadership role in developing new types of international institutions. For example, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided for a liberalization of international trade, the Bretton Woods framework created a fixed exchange-rate system (which lasted until 1971), and the International Monetary Fund controlled the flow of credits until the mid- 1970s and once again from the early 1980s thereafter; in addition, these authors note that the EEC institutionalized a free-trade area in the heart of Western Europe at this time (Holm & Sorensen, 1995). According to Mingst (2006) international institutions are defined as those they are comprised of membership from at least three states, having activities in several states, and whose members are held together by a…… [Read More]

References

Burke, T. (1997, June 20). The buck stops everywhere. New Statesman, 126(4339), 14.

Calestous, J. (2005, March). Biotechnology in a globalizing world: The coevolution of technology and social institutions. Bioscience, 55(3), 265.

Danks, C.J., & Kennedy, P. (2001). Globalization and national identities: Crisis or opportunity? New York: Palgrave.

Debrah, Y.A., & Smith, I.G. (2002). Globalization, employment, and the workplace: Diverse impacts. London: Routledge.
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Ethics Profile Monsanto NYSE Mon

Words: 1741 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78752067

By attempting to suppress debate about the subject, Monsanto created and subsequently reinforced the notion that BGH is a harmful substance. Eventually, the company was forced to exit the business, because of the damage they did to the product's reputation.

There are times when good ethics demands that a new product innovation be dropped, and this was likely one of those times. By pursuing profit instead, Monsanto has put the health of many Americans at risk and called even more attention to their unethical practices.

orks Cited

Financial information from MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statemnt.aspx?Symbol=MON

Monsanto 2008 Annual Report. (2008). Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://www.monsanto.com/investors/financial_reports/annual_report/2008/default.asp

No author. (2008). Monsanto Receives Top Award from Leading Legal Publication. Monsanto Corporation. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://monsanto.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=660

No author. (2008). Monsanto Human Rights Policy. Monsanto Corporation. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://www.monsanto.com/pdf/responsibility/human_rights_policy.pdf

Klotter, Jule. (2002). Monsanto PCB Legacy. Townsend…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Financial information from MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statemnt.aspx?Symbol=MON

Monsanto 2008 Annual Report. (2008). Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://www.monsanto.com/investors/financial_reports/annual_report/2008/default.asp

No author. (2008). Monsanto Receives Top Award from Leading Legal Publication. Monsanto Corporation. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://monsanto.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=660

No author. (2008). Monsanto Human Rights Policy. Monsanto Corporation. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://www.monsanto.com/pdf/responsibility/human_rights_policy.pdf
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Oceana Group Limited Is a Company Listed

Words: 2274 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91025240

Oceana Group Limited is a company listed in Johannesburg and Namibia stock exchanger. The company is in the food and beverage industry with core business being fishing as well as allied services sector. The company is engaged in the catching, processing as well as the procurement of various marine species such as pilchard, redeye, sardine anchovy, lobster, herring, tune, horse mackerel as well as hake. Other deep-see species also form their specialty. Their products are prepared and then sold via local and international marketing channels. Additionally, the company provides fruit handling as well as cold storage facilities at an extensive level (Oceana,2011). The company operates via various divisions, subsidiary stakeholders as well as companies.

The South African-based firm engages in the catching, preparing for sale and procuring different fish products in South Africa.It also deals in canned fish products. The company's market capitalization was valued at ZA 3113 million or…… [Read More]

References

Glamis Research Institute (2010). Oceans Group Limited

http://www.glamisresearch.com/reports/Company_Report_pages_1-8.pdf

Glamis Research Institute (2010b).Food and Beverage Industry

http://glamisresearch.com/reports/Industry_Report_pages_1-8.pdf
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Professional Organizations

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20038689

Professional Organizations

The American Public Health Association has 28 different sections, each dedicated to a specific branch of health care, some examples being chiropractic, aging, epidemiology, law and mental health. Within the framework of these sections, the APHA promotes dialogue and advocacy, conducts research and produces publication with the objective of improving the state of health care in America through its programs (APHA, 2014).

The hallmark event for the APHA is its annual meeting, where members can attend from 1000 different roundtables, sessions and panel discussions. At the annual meeting, upwards of 5000 papers are presented as well, making the meeting the single most important event for medical practice in America. Looking at these, it is not difficult to find sessions that interest me. One such section of interest is Food & Nutrition. The food and nutrition section is focused on dietary considerations, and has the mission of providing leadership…… [Read More]

References

APHA.org (2014). Member groups and affiliates. American Public Health Association. Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http://www.apha.org/membergroups/
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Government Force Poor Women to

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97214889

(2, Watson)

Dr. Federoff has in the past been an advocate of widespread use of genetically modified foods, vehemently disagreeing with opponents on the issue: "We wouldn't think of going to our doctor and saying, 'Treat me the way doctors treated people in the 19th Century, and yet that's what we're demanding in food production."

Jonathon Porrit, one of Gordon Brown's leading green advisers, warned last year, "Population growth, plus economic growth, is putting the world under terrible pressure." He said that Britain has no choice but to drastically reduce its population so as to build a "sustainable" society. The trust of which Porritt is a part, Optimum Population Trust (OPT), released data last year suggesting UK population be cut to 30 million persons in favor of sustainability. The represents a fifty percent cut in the UK population. Whether or not an economic downturn has caused Porrit to rehash his…… [Read More]

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Planning and Control

Words: 2421 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95069183

Planning and Control

Formulating Plans and Strategies

Bunge Limited

Bunge is a renowned organization that deals in agribusiness in as many as 40 countries offering the processing service of the products and produces from the farms as well as transport hence acting as the link between the production a t the farms and the final consumer. Bunge also deals in the production of renewable fuels, animal feeds, sugar, flour, fertilizers and oil among other products (Bunge Limited, 2011).

Bunge SWOT analysis

Strengths

The company has several strengths one of them being the fact that they are involved in diverse agribusiness ventures. As noted above, they deal in a range of farm produce and products processing as well as transportation of the goods form the farm to the clients hence enjoying the advantages of economics of scale and hence being able to offer their clients a variety of products in a…… [Read More]

References

Bunge, (2006). How the Brazilian real Affects Bunge. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NDI5NzM5fENoaWxkSUQ9NDQ3MTIzfFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1

Bunge Limited, (2011). Company: About Bunge. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from  http://www.bunge.com/About-Bunge 

Market Publishers, (2010). Bunge Limited (BG) - Financial and Strategic SWOT Analysis

Review. Retrieved September 1, 2014 from http://pdf.marketpublishers.com/global_data/bunge_limited_bg_financial_n_strategic_swot_analysis_review.pdf
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America's International Relations Americanization and Anti-Americanism

Words: 3764 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18456328

Pictures on the news of American flags being burned seem to appear more often than they used to. Perhaps my generation just isn't used to having our nation criticized to the extent that it has been since our response to September 11; we all know there have been anti-American protests in the past, that flags have been burned and protests against certain American military endeavors waged. Anti-Americanism has many definitions and encompasses many things, but "new" is not an applicable descriptor. Sentiments deriding American values, attitudes, and actions have existed since the establishment of the colonies, expressed in a variety of formats and with various causes. What has changed is not the existence of anti-Americanism, but what it means for the nation in international relations today.

his essay will examine anti-Americanism: first, its history and various forms throughout the world; at the same time, the causes of anti-American sentiment will…… [Read More]

Takis, M., 2002. "America the Despised," National Interest, Issue 67, p94

Toinet, M., 1990. "Does Anti-Americanism exist?" In Lacorne, D., et. al., eds., The Rise and Fall of Anti-Americanism, Macmillan, London.

Various Authors, 2005, "America the Dangerous" Foreign Policy, Special edition, Issue 146.
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Seeing Like a State the

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81109503

The interests of land owners often clashes with the state in developed nations, where government collusion with large business conglomerates make decisions that are not in the best interests of those who pay property taxes. Those who pay property taxes also hail from too diverse a political landscape to reach any consensus that might benefit the whole community.

Scott's argument can also be extended to the realm of genetic engineering of crops and the patenting of seeds. What science has offered is a potential disaster wrapped up as a gift. The state-level planning required to either embrace (as in the case of the United States and some developing nations) or reject (as in the case of most of Europe) genetically modified foods is the problem.

Part of the problem with poor state-level decision making is therefore political. In Chapter 4, Scott touches upon the hubris of urban planners and indeed…… [Read More]

Reference

Scott, J.C. (1998). Seeing Like a State. New Haven: Yale University Press.