Genetically Modified Food Essays (Examples)

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Genetically Engineered Food Over the Last Ten

Words: 2308 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6757825

Genetically Engineered Food

Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. When the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods, it becomes clear that while genetically modified foods likely do not pose a sever threat to humans, the potential for environmental disruption is severe, and thus any future expansion of genetically modified foods must be monitored for its potential environmental impact.

As mentioned above, the public discourse surrounding genetically modified…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."

Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.

Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.

Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
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GMO - Genetically Modified Organisms

Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18912903

Furthermore, these crops could exhaust soil to such a degree that no more crops could be developed there, and thus contribute to rather than alleviate the problem of world hunger.

Another problem cited by opponents is the danger to biodiversity that might be created by GMO's. Genetically modifying foods may have a negative impact on the environment by destroying biodiversity, according to this group. Proponents however argue that biodiversity is encouraged rather than destroyed by genetic engineering. Indeed, they place it in the same category with modifications that have been brought about in nature itself in order to adjust to different environments, or by human beings in the past.

Biological engineering is a very controversial issue, and it appears that it will remain so for a long time, even while the field grows and develops beyond attempts to stop it.… [Read More]

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Genetically Modified Crops Foods and Hormones

Words: 1866 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2795548

This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.

Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.


Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and hunger in the world. Lack of food is only part of the reason why there is food shortage. There are other contributing factors, such as the availability of farming land and land tenure systems, wars etc., which should be taken into account. The long-term effects of consumption of genetically modified…… [Read More]


GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from sumptionpros.html

Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from 

Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.

Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from
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Genetically Modified GM Crops Specifically

Words: 2025 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50893239

For example, if birds feed on seeds and a certain variety of insect, without the seeds, the birds may disappear, and the insects would then overpopulate the area.

In addition, the cost of GM crops is initially high to the farmer. These seeds cost much more to develop and test, and so, they are much more costly to the farmer. They might benefit Third World agriculture in many ways, but few Third World farmers could possibly afford the increased cost of these seeds, and so, they would not be available to a majority of the people that need them the most. Cost is an important factor in the continued growth of GM crops, and so, manufacturers must eventually address the cost of these seeds, and reduce the cost so that more people can afford to plant them.

While no study has found GM food to be harmful to humans, opponents say it is too soon to be sure. GM crops have not been on the market for that long, and often, foods and nutrients have extremely long-term affects on the human body, not showing up for years or even decades. More long-term studies need to be developed that will track…… [Read More]


Black, Richard. 2004, 'Study Finds Benefits in GM Crops.' [Online]. Available at

Editors. 2005, 'Genetically Modified Foods.' World Health Organization. [Online]. Available at

Goldstein, M.C., & Goldstein, M.A. 2002, Controversies in Food and Nutrition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Pickrell, John. 2004, 'GM Organisms: Instant Expert.' [Online]. Available at
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In Favor of Genetically Modified Crops

Words: 1822 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73074903

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.

The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.

Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide. American farmers are the largest producers of GM crops. The United States comprises nearly two-thirds of all biotechnology crops planted around the world. GM crops grown by U.S. farmers include corn, cotton, soybeans, canola, squash, and papaya. Other major producers of GM crops are Argentina, Canada, Brazil, China and South…… [Read More]


Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at:

Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at:

Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.
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Benefits and Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods or Organisms

Words: 2177 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61352608


The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).

The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015). The proportion was to pull down the figure from 23.4% in 1990 to 11.7% in 1992. But as of last year, the rate of hungry people was 14.5%. Despite the reduction, the target was not likely to be achieved this year. From 991 million, the number went down to 790…… [Read More]


Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.

The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015


CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
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Genetically Modified Organisms Discuss General

Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52750771

For this reason, biological containment measures are being developed to control plants by inhibiting gene flow through pollen and/or seed (Eastham and Sweet). For example, outcrossing can be controlled by ensuring that the pollen of the GMO is sterile (Mills, 2006).

3) Explain interest in subject.

I believe GMO technology will greatly benefit society by increasing the availability and quality of food, but, at the same time, I acknowledge real biosafety concerns posed by outcrossing. For this reason, I am interested in molecular strategies for gene containment in GMO crops to ensure that they are responsibly deployed and that they are available for larger-scale commercial release than is currently possible.… [Read More]


Eastham, K. And Sweet, J. (2002, March). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): The significance of gene flow through pollen transfer. European Environment Agency (EEA) Environmental issue report No 28. 

Genetically modified organism. Wikipedia.

Mills, N. (2006). Genetically modified organisms.
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Thumps Up for Genetically Modified

Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6560399

As such, the question that those who oppose GMOs should be asking themselves is whether people should be left to starve to death basing on the fear of unknown long-term implications of GMOs or not.

Reference List

Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.

Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.

Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.

Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.

Nottingham, Stephen. Eat your genes: how genetically modified food is entering our diet. 2nd updated ed. London: Zed Books Ltd., 2003

George Kennedy "Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.

Stephen Nottingham, Eat your genes: how genetically modified food is entering our diet. 2nd updated ed. London: Zed Books Ltd., 2003.

Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science &…… [Read More]

Reference List

Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.

Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.

Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.

Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.
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Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop

Words: 2537 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34104641

98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science Panel, 2003)

VIII. Controversy Surrounding Transgenic Crops

The work of Schahczenski and Adam (2006) states that there has been "great controversy among government agencies, business consortia, researchers, and certain nonprofit organizations" concerning the "capacity to produce transgenic crops." In 2001 it is related that the Experiment Station Committee on Organization…… [Read More]


What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at' 

Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at:

Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at:
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Food Inc Food Inc How the Industrial

Words: 1607 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96598387

Food Inc.

Food, Inc.: How the Industrial Food is Making us Sicker, Fatter and Poorer -- and What You Can do About It (Karl Weber [editor])


"When you think of the California economy, you think of high-tech industries like Silicon Valley, you think of Hollywood. You don't think of poor, desperate migrants picking fruits and vegetables with their bare hands" (p. 4).

This is interesting because people often associate places with a few eye-catching things, ignoring many other sides of those places. It reminds me of how Korea is associated with high-tech industry, Hyundai and Samsung, but people do not think of Korean art, music, history, or its ordinary people much.

"Factory farms strive to increase the number of animals they raise every year. To do so, however, they use some practices that present health concerns for consumers" (p. 22).

This is an interesting point because industries today try to outdo their competitors by increasing the level of production at all costs. In reality, consumer health must be protected even at the cost of slow production, but what happens is that consumer health is compromised for the sake of greater production. That is totally wrong.

3. ". . .…… [Read More]

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Food Inc The 2008 Documentary

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49416920

It is shocking to see how corn and corn products are used in almost every aspect of our lives from the beverages we drink to cheese to the fuel that powers our vehicles. One of the most disconcerting insights about the corn industry is the realization of how dependent we are, as consumers, on a crop that was primarily first used for food and how science has found a way to utilize it in a variety of food-related and non-food related applications.

One of the most important messages of Food, Inc. is that the condition of the food industry is a direct result of the demands of the public and how changes in consumer behavior can affect the industry as a whole. That is, consumers have the power to change the dynamic of the industry by reducing demand for certain products that are more conscious of how livestock is treated and how corn, soybeans, and other food products are processed.

While Food, Inc. is relatable on a variety of levels, it is more difficult to relate to when it addresses vegetable libel laws and the role that Monsanto plays in dictating farming practices. More specifically, it is difficult to comprehend…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Food, Inc. Directed by Robert Kenner. United States: Magnolia Pictures, 2008. DVD.
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Genetically Engineered Crops and the Third World

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95979525

genetically engineered crops, or genetically modified (GM) foods, as they are often called. Specifically it will discuss why genetically engineered crops will help residents of the Third World. Ultimately, each year the world is generating too many people to feed adequately. Without the use of genetically engineered food, some people simply will not be able to survive. genetically modified foods offer an alternative for many people of the world, and many studies have shown they are not as harmful as some people imagine them to be. Genetically modified foods are the wave of the future, they offer numerous benefits, and they should be available to Third World countries who hope to produce more food, live healthier lives, and improve their farming techniques to help them survive and thrive in a new millennium.

Genetically modified foods are not fresh technology they have existed for many years. In fact, studies into genetically modifying plant crops began in the 1980s (Goldstein, and Goldstein 235). Most people will agree they are extremely contentious -- partly because some people do not appreciate them, and partly because they are relatively new to the marketplace and many questions still need to be answered about their effects on…… [Read More]


Bongaarts, John. "Seeds of Contention: World Hunger and the Global Controversy over GM Crops." Population and Development Review 28.3 (2002): 576.

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 7 Nov. 2005.


Goldstein, Myrna Chandler, and Mark A. Goldstein. Controversies in Food and Nutrition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
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Ethics of Food Production

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70649987


Genetically Modified Crops -- America says 'Yes' while the European Union and the Sudan says 'No!

Recently, the famine-stricken nation of the Sudan turned away an entire load of crops and seeds that could have filled the bellies of many of its hungry citizens. Why did it do so? Was it madness? No, it was because of the fact that the products in question contained genetically modified crops. "Eat GM or Starve," said the United States, according to an association designed to prevent the introduction of GM crops into the international as well as the national food supply. (OCO, 2004) Proponents of these crops, however, pointed out that the genetic modifications were to make the crops more disease resistant and hardier to the harsh climates of the Sudan.

Genetically modified crops remain one of the most controversial agricultural issues today. Despite fears regarding the safety of these so-called franken-foods, and the resistance of the European community in particular to their usage and introduction into the national food supply, as a destruction of ways of traditional methods of farming, the United States has quietly and seamlessly, some would say courageously integrated these products into our own food supply. Organic foods…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conference on Coexistence -- COC. (2004) Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at

U.S. bullying impoverished Sudan." (March 19, 2004) Organic Consumers Organization (OCO). Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at
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Should Food Products Be Labeled if They Contain Gmos

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94382712

Genetically Modified Foods

' There has been a great deal of controversy over genetically modified foods (GMOs). First, many individuals and organizations oppose the concept of altering the genetics of foods for any reason. And secondly, there is a hot debate as to whether or not food manufacturers should publish / label their packages as containing GMOs. This paper covers the controversies and provides several angles to the debates.

The way in which companies modify food genetically is through " ... the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup" of the seeds to be changed materially (Schneider, et al., 2014). There are two ways GMOs can be produced through "recombination": either by moving genes from one organism to another organism; or by making changes in genes within an organism "that are already present" (Schneider, p. 1). The changes that occur after being genetically engineered result in what Schneider calls, "the expression of attributes not found in the original organism" (p. 1). Foods that have been genetically engineered include: a) "delayed-ripening tomatoes"; b) "pest-resistant crops ... " such as beetle-resistant potatoes; and c) herbicide-tolerant soybeans (Schneider, p. 1).

Who Benefits From GMOs?

The Sierra Club, an interest…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jalonick, M.C. (2014). Debate over genetically modified foods continues amid confusion.

PBS News Hour. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from

Kopicki, A. (2013). Strong Support for Labeling Modified Foods. The New York Times.

Retrieved September 16, 2015, from
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Food Inc The Industrialization of Farming and

Words: 2392 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27410920

Food, Inc.

The Industrialization of Farming and Agriculture:

Effects on the Environment and the Way We Live

The film Food, Inc. By award winning documentary maker Robert Kenner starts out with a simple goal: it wants to find out where our food comes from. In his quest to answer this question, however, Kenner, and his two narrators, Pollan and Schlosser, find some unpleasant and startling facts about the way in which our food is raised, caught and ultimately produced for mass distribution. Essentially, this wonderfully executed film exposes the negative impact that industrialization has had on farming, on our health and on our environment. This paper will thus prove these negative effects by referencing topics covered by the movie, including what society should do in order to reverse the irrevocable damage that this way of producing food is bound to have upon our society. [1: "Food, Inc.' Film Looks at Corporate Impact on What We Eat | Daily Dish | Los Angeles Times." Top of the Ticket | Jay Carney's Newest Warning to Syria on Violence | Los Angeles Times. Web. 07 May 2011. . ] [2: Official Food, Inc. Movie Site - Hungry For Change? Web. 07 May 2011.…… [Read More]

Resources. Web. 7 May 2011. . ] [14: "Monsanto ~ Monsanto at a Glance." Monsanto ~ Home. Web. 07 May 2011. . ]

The documentary thus broaches many different and important topics, all of which prove the negativity of agricultural industrialization, which is quite a sad fact. At the end of the film, change is encouraged in all areas of society. First is that people must demand good quality food. Also, consumer can "vote" to change the system, three times a day, they can buy companies that treat things with respect. They can also choose foods that are in season, that are organic. People must read labels, know what's in their foods and buy locally. They can help Congress pass laws that will protect consumers and give the USDA and the FDA the powers to protect us. These are all solutions that can alleviate the problem that is threatening our society and we can help "with every bite." [15: Food, Inc. Dir. Robert Kenner. Perf. Michael Pollan and Eric Schlosser. Magnolia Pictures, 2008. DVD. ]

The documentary is a serious social commentary that proves the negative impacts of industrialization on our society and on what we eat. This documentary is also a great place to start to see what we can do to change the world. According to a review the film has a "deceptively cheery palette, but helmer Robert Kenner's doc -- which does for the supermarket what 'Jaws' did for the beach -- marches straight into the dark side of cutthroat agri-business, corporatized meat and the greedy manipulation of both genetics and the law." This is completely true, the film is a great compilation of negatives and what we can do to turn them into positives. One can only hope that we can start changing the world sooner rather than later. [16: "ROBERT KENNER FILMS - Food, Inc." Robert Kenner Films. Web. 07 May 2011. . ]
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Food Inc Agrobusiness Is Dirty

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45041949

The section on animals was particularly heart-wrenching. In a society built on consumer excess, the meat industry has proliferated to the extent that it has become a disgusting parody of itself. We are no longer talking about families gathered around the table for a weekly pig roast. Now, Americans feel entitled to eating hamburgers twice a day, chicken every day, pork, beef, lamb, in various forms. The sense of entitlement to gorging leads to the overproduction of meat and the crossing over of ethical boundaries with regards to humane treatment of farm animals. Moreover, the gluttony evident in the American diet is also the primary cause of a wide range of health problems -- and not just obesity.

Then we see how corn and soy production has proliferated to the extent that (a) monocrops are destroying the viability of the soil and the integrity of local ecosystems; (b) food manufacturers are forced to find new ways of modifying corn and soy to fulfill the supply orders. The result is ridiculous: a panoply of products on the supermarket shelves that contain nothing but processed crap. Americans then pour millions of dollars into diet programs and worse yet, low-fat and diet foods…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Pollan, Michael. Food, Inc. Feature Film. 2009.
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Peter Andree Entitled Gm Food Regulation An

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 369608

Peter Andree entitled "GM Food Regulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food Regulation in Canada." Andree reports on a trade dispute of an ongoing nature over genetically modified organisms occurring between the European Union and the United States and Canada reporting that a "more precautionary approach" has been witnessed recently in regulating GMOs. Andree examines the regulatory approaches toward GMOs.

According to Andree (2006), the regulatory approach in Canada has been influenced greatly by the model in the United States and there have been more than sixty genetically modified foods that Canada has approved upon the basis of "limited sets of compositional and nutritional data" demonstrating the "substantial equivalence to products already on the market." (Andree, 2006, p.377-8) Andree states that there are major differences in the data requirements for GM regulation between that of the European Union and the United States and Canada. The EC regulations are reported to require scientific evaluation of an extensive nature of these GMOs before their release and that the regulations require the accounting of "indirect, immediate, delayed, or unforeseen effect of GMOs" in addition to the "potential cumulative long-term effects associated with the interaction with other GMOs and the environment."…… [Read More]


Andree, P. (2006) GM Food Regulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food Regulation in Canada. Science and Public Policy, volume 33, number 5, June 2006, pages 377 -- 389, Beech Tree Publishing, 10 Watford Close, Guildford, Surrey GU1 2EP, England.
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Ethical Issues Concerning the Genetically

Words: 2634 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7990519

For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)

In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)

Exclusion of People from the Experiment

If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is that, 'Do the people have the right to exclude themselves from the experiment?' Previously when any new technology, drug or medicine was introduced in any region the people had a right to be the users of the product or to avoid the usage of the product. Similarly in the case…… [Read More]

Works cited

Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;;.

Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf

Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from

Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from
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Political Science Politics of Food

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50976700

There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.… [Read More]


Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site:

Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:

Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
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Company Strategy Whole Foods on the Surface

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33275950

Company Strategy: Whole Foods

On the surface, Whole Foods has a unique, almost counterintuitive philosophy. Rather than stressing value and volume in terms of food sales, it instead offers more expensive organic and specialty goods. However, its niche marketing strategy has proven to be extremely lucrative. Whole Foods is an interesting case study as a company in the manner in which it has simultaneously capitalized upon popular trends in food without trying to be 'all things to all people.' In 2013, the company had same-store sales growth of 7.5%. It has rapidly expanded: "the company's growth strategy is to seek new locations for its stores in highly populated, often urban, areas. Each store averages around 38,000 square feet, and about 30% of the company's stores were acquired, meaning that they were other health-food stores that were bought out and re-branded as Whole Foods" (Frankel 2013).

Whole Foods' vision and mission statement affirms its commitment to organic produce, sustainable practices (including recycling) and minimizing waste. Its website proclaims: "We believe that companies, like individuals, must assume their share of responsibility as tenants of Planet Earth" (Our mission and culture, 2013, Whole Foods). It has also pledged to support community organizations such…… [Read More]


Brown, Joshua. (2013). What Whole Foods learned from the recession. The Reformed Broker.


Dennis, Brady. (2013). Whole Foods executive explains strategy behind labeling genetically modified foods. St. Louis Dispatch. Retrieved:
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Food Inc As Its Title

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3140676

This includes breeding chickens with breasts so large they can hardly stand. Humans view animals as disposable commodities. And people have fewer and fewer options not to eat this 'engineered' meat and also to afford it.

The ideal situation for all animals raised in agriculture would be to live in the conditions of Polyface Farm. However, the solution to improve the lives of animals in the film is not an easy one. Although it would be nice if every film functioned like Salatin's, it would be difficult to feed the world's burgeoning population using such small-scale farming techniques, or at least to do so at the current cost of food. We will, the film suggests, have to allow food to cost more. But many families are already cash-strapped as it is, in terms of putting food on the dinner table. The film acknowledges this, showing how for some families shopping at Wal-Mart and buying inexpensive, processed foods such as corn-fed meats seem to be the only viable alternatives.

The 'answer' may well be to simply eat less meat -- eat as much ethically-produced meat as you can afford, which is likely to be vastly less than the mainstay of most…… [Read More]

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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: Rational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant DNA technology involves recombining DNA molecules in ways pre-determined by the scientists. Using recombitant DNA technology, select genetic traits from various different organisms can be actively selected. Locating those traits on the DNA is the most challenging step in the process of genetic engineering of foods, but gene sequencing technologies…… [Read More]


Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: 

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online:

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online:
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Shifting Trends in the Food

Words: 2541 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49490583

How Fast Food Restaurants are Reacting to the Shift to More Organic Foods:
To remain competitive, fast food restaurants have had to turn to
innovative products, often redeveloping their product lines, to meet the
changing demands of consumers for organic foods specifically, and healthier
foods in general. The demand for organic foods has been the mechanism for
industry evolution. As noted, McDonalds phased out their supersize menu
items, in response to society's growing health concerns. In addition,
they've begun to offer more healthy menu choices, such as low-fat items and
fresh salads, to their customers, as well as promoting healthy lifestyles
in their marketing campaigns. In the New England area, McDonald's even
replaced their coffee with Newman's Own Organic blend, in an attempt to
take further advantage of more organically-discriminating tastes of
consumers. This move has been well-received in the region[18]. In
addition, new fast food restaurants are being introduced to the
marketplace, in response to these new consumer demands. Company's like
Healthy Express are still relatively small players in the industry, but are
slowly garnering market share from their less healthy competitors[19].
Another industry innovator is Organic to Go (O To Go). Based in
Seattle, Washington, the company "is…… [Read More]

Abelson, J., "An Overarching Goal: Innovation," Boston Globe (September 24,
2006): E2 (database online); available from ProQuest, ProQuest ID:
Brunning, R. "Organic Fast-Food Restaurant to Open in Boulder," Knight
Ridder Tribune (October 12, 2006): 1 (database online); available from
ProQuest, ProQuest ID: 1157712541.
"Fast Food in the United States." Market Line (August 2005) Database
online. Available from Datamonitor.
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Sustainability Foods Eaten Humans Impact Environment Which

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96605125

sustainability foods eaten humans impact environment. Which foods highest impact environment? Which foods smallest? Why? How, individuals, make decisions-based data? Should information shape public policy? If, ?.

There is presently much controversy regarding sustainability and the diverse strategies people could use with the purpose of getting actively involved in helping the environment. The modern society has seven billion individuals and it is important for the authorities to be able to provide for the needs of these people. A great deal of crops and livestock are raised around the world and dominate most rural landscapes. However, the masses know very little regarding how these resources damage the environment as a result of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and methane gas.

Traditional agriculture has developed into industrial agriculture as society started to express more and more interest in experiencing progress when considering food production. Scientists have started to introduce additives as a means to increase the amount of foods produced. This means that foods that one can find at the local supermarket are likely to be heavily processed using substances that directly damage the environment. The downside about sustainable foods is that they are usually more expensive and thus make it difficult for…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Koch, Bernhard A., and Askeland, Bjarte, "Damage Caused by Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Survey of Redress Options for Harm to Persons, Property, Or the Environment," (Walter de Gruyter, 14.10.2010)

"the issues," Retrieved October 15, 2012, from the Sustainable Table Website:
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Pesticides the Consumption of Foods

Words: 1820 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56082730

A report by Elliot (2009) also refers to other positive aspects of organically grown food. "…research found higher level of antioxidants -- which help the body to combat cancer and cardiovascular disease -- in organic foods" (Elliot, 2009).

In the final analysis it seems from the literature that there is overwhelming evidence to link pesticides in food with serious health issues and problems in children. This is especially critical with regard to very young children who may suffer from cancer and developmental problems as a result of exposure to food that has been contaminated by chemical pesticides. This leads to the recommendation that more should be done by the health authorities to ensure that young children in particular are not exposed to food that may be detrimental to their health.… [Read More]


Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many

Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326

Cancer Patients found to have Higher Pesticide Residues in Body. Retrieved from 

Elliott, V. (2009) Organic food 'no better for health than factory-farmed food' says report.
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Case Strategic Audit on Whole Foods

Words: 2908 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94380930

Whole Foods Market

Significant key points

Key financial indicators

Graph of sales growth from year 2002 until 2011.





SWOT and TWOS analysis

TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix

Pros and Cons


Evaluation and control

The Whole Foods Market is a progressive and focused corporation with presence in three developed markets including U.S., United Kingdom, and Canada. The company has achieved growth since its inception. The increasing market share of the company has enabled it to expand in international markets. The company envisions becoming global leader in organic and natural foods market. The competitors in the sector are large stores, supermarkets, and retail outlets with increased presence. The product range of these companies includes a number of related products along with the natural and organic foods.

The company requires maintaining its double digit growth strategy and aims to expand in global market. However the cost of natural and organic products is relatively high. Perishable nature of the products is also a concern in attaining exceptional expansion. The products also require conformity with the applicable standards and government regulations. The business requires reducing cost and increasing its profitability through innovative technology and applicable solutions of supply chain management.

A…… [Read More]


Form 10-K. United States Securities and Exchange Commission, (2011). Form 10-k annual report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the securities exchange act of 1934. Retrieved from Whole Foods Market website: Info/PDFs/2011_10K.pdf

Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2012). Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. USA: South-Western Pub.

Lederer, M., Schott, P., Huber, S., & Kurz, M. (2013). Strategic Business Process Analysis: A Procedure Model to Align Business Strategy with Business Process Analysis Methods. In S-BPM ONE-Running Processes (pp. 247-263). New York: Springer.

Ngai, E. (2009). RFID in operations and supply chain management: research and applications, edited by T. Blecker and GQ Huang.
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Food Supply Technology Industrialization and

Words: 1142 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60182596

A farmer in each year can produce enough food to feed a hundred people, according to Pollan (2001), but this productivity comes with a heavy price: "The modern industrial farmer cannot grow that much food without large quantities of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, and fuel. This expensive set of 'inputs,' as they are called, saddles the farmer with debt, jeopardizes his health, erodes his soil and ruins its fertility, pollutes the groundwater, and compromises the safety of the food we eat" (Pollan, 2001, p. 190). These accrued costs accumulated through generations may lead to catastrophic consequences such as global warming and scarcity of edible food and drinkable water.

The drive to industrial efficiency blinded us to several hidden costs of food production. Orr (1994) identifies six of the costs that, if we intend to maintain sustainable growth, need to be curbed. The first obvious cost of industrial food production is the damage to the planet Earth. The average rates of soil erosion today vastly outnumber the rates at which soil is created. According to one study, the soil erosion costs the United States $44 billion each year (Orr, 1994, p. 173). Pesticides used in agricultural production cause environmental and health…… [Read More]


McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002) From cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. New York: North Point Press.

Orr, D.W. (1994) Earth in mind: on education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Pollan, M. (2001) The Botany of desire: a plant's eye view of the world. New York: Random House.
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Food and Policy Discuss the

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65934494

As far as society is concerned, the effects of high obesity rates would include: an increase in health care costs, less productivity and increasing disability rates. This is significant, because the information provides a way of seeing the total impact that obesity is having on the individual and society. Where, the overall long-term costs for the individual will mean the possibility of being exposed to a number of different conditions simultaneously. At the same time, society will have to bear the economic impact that obesity rates will have on the economy, as it will lead to higher costs and less productivity. (Vissche 2010 pp. 355 -- 375)

Describe the Way in which the Issue is being Reported

The issue is being reported as a major health crisis that will have long-term implications on the country. During these reports, the high statistics and the total amounts of obesity are usually highlighted. At which point, the focus will shift on the total effect that obesity will have on the different groups within the population. A good example of this can be seen with recent story by the CBS Evening News, which highlighted the overall scope of the problem in children and teenagers.…… [Read More]


F as in Fat, 2007, American Trails, viewed 4 Aug. 2010, < >

Doane, S, Battling Obesity in America, 2010, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,

Himba, T, 5 Causes of Obesity, 2010, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,

Visscher, T, 2010, 'The Public Health Impact of Obesity', Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 22, pp. 355 -375.
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Failure of Today's Generation in

Words: 2981 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14701194

Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on Biosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.

VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods

The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness of the socio-cultural differences in important "because collaborative efforts to dealt with food hazards presuppose some understanding of where, how and why the viewpoints of genetically modified (GM) food are discussed, with a special focus on the unique circumstances of populations in the U.S.A., Europe, and developing countries."

Finucane goes…… [Read More]


Finucane, Melissa L. (2002) Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002, 61.

Genetically modified Organisms: Consumers, Food Safety and the Environment. Vol 2 of the FAO ethics services. Organization of the United Nations. Food & Agriculture Organization 2001.

Hossain, Ferdaus, and Onyango, Benjamin (2004) Products Attributes and Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Foods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 28, No.2. June 2004.

Li, Quan; Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; and Wahl, Thomas I. (2002) Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in Beijing, China. Journal of Agrobiotechnology Management and Economics. Vol. 5. No.4, Article 3.
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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as maize, soya beans, peanuts, wheat, barley and a variety of fruit trees. The advantages of these genetically modified plants ensure that most of the people do not go hungry.

The genesis of GMP (Genetically Modified Plants) involves the selection of healthy and high yielding plants and processing them in specialized…… [Read More]


Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL:

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000)

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL:
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Gmos Should Labeling Be Required

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85457329

GMO producers also feel that this would give consumers the impression that GMOs are unhealthy or unsafe and that non-GMO crops are preferred (Raab & Grobe, 2003).

Valid scientific evidence is lacking as to whether GMOs are healthy or unhealthy in the long run. However, support is building for the position that regardless of the outcome, consumers have the right to know and to make an informed decision. Producers in the U.S. have placed pressure on Europe to withdraw their requirements for the labeling of GMO foods, as they claim that this attitude towards GMO foods will influence decisions in the U.S. (Raab & Grobe, 2003). However, so far, these challenges have been met with resistance and labeling practices continue to spread.

On a national level, the battle still rages, but on an international level, the scales seem to tip towards the pro-labeling side and the right of the consumer to make an informed decision regarding the foods that they eat. In the end, it is the consumer that will decide, regardless of what the scientific evidence eventually yields. This research supports the thesis that current regulatory practices concerning GMO crops are inadequate and that stricter labeling laws for GMOs…… [Read More]


NG, J. (2008). UK experts urge RP consumers to push for GMO labeling. Checkbiotech. October 17, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at

Raab, C. & Grobe, D. (2003). Labeling Genetically Engineered Food: The Consumer's Right to Know? AgBioForum. 6 (4): 155-161. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at

Whitman, D. (2000). Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful. Retrieved March 24, 2009 at

World Health Organization (WHO) (2009). 20 Questions on genetically modified foods. Retrieved March 24, 2009 at
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Sociology Politics

Words: 2317 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 574399

genetically modified (GM) foods in the last half of the 20th century created a whirlwind of controversy in the developed. Critics argue that genetically modified foods are unnatural and unsafe, while supporters note that genetically modified foods can improve crop yields, increase nutrient content, and improve food safety. Over the past decades, the production and distribution of genetically modified foods in North America and Europe has long been discussed, and governmental controls have been implemented. In contrast, many African countries have not had the opportunity to develop GM food policies. When the U.S. offered genetically modified foods as part of an aid package to African countries in the past years, the act renewed the controversy around genetically modified foods.

This paper will focus on the debate surrounding the use of genetically modified foods as food aid to African countries. First, a brief background to the GM food industry, and GM food Aid to African nations will be given. Second, general arguments supporting the use of genetically modified foods, and against the use of genetically modified foods will be given. Finally, the arguments for and against GM food will be applied to the debate on GM food aid.

Background to Genetically…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Batalion, Nathan. 50 Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Foods. 05 November 2003. 

Bhattacharya, Shaoni. New Scientist Online News 14:06-25 June 03. 05 November 2003.

Brissenden, Michael. U.S.-EU war over genetically modified food intensifies. The World Today - Wednesday, 25 June, 2003 12:45:00. Transcript. 05 November 2003.

Coghan, Andy. New Scientist Online News 19:00-29 January 03. 05 November 2003.
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Labeling Gmos the Use of

Words: 1119 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19723316

.several aspects of gene insertion may be more hazardous than traditional plant crossbreeding" (Roseboro 2011). The memo came to light during the 1990s when a suit was brought against the FDA, arguing that allowing GMOs to be released into the market unlabeled "violated the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which mandates that new food additives be established safe through testing prior to marketing" (Roseboro 2011). The suit was not successful.

However, even some food industry advocates believe that labeling GMOs might not necessarily be a negative step, given the fact that it has proven to be such a barrier between the U.S. And other nations, in terms of exporting American products. The EU is a large potential market, as is Latin America and other continents that do not allow GMOs to be sold. Labeling GMOs, it is hoped might make them more palatable to regulators. At present, current policies are "leading to potential disruption of trade flows in agriculture; these conflicts could compromise global food security at a time when growing population and food imbalances are seen as increasingly likely in the next century" (Runge & Jackson 2009). Even some developing nations are rejecting American products offered as aid…… [Read More]


AquaAdvantage Fish. (2011). Aqua Bounty. Retrieved October 18, 2011 at

Bittman, Mark. (2011). Why aren't genetically modified foods labeled? The New York Times.

Retrieved October 18, 2011 at

The future of food. (2004). Directed by Deborah Koons.
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Omnivore Science Is a Neutral Human Pursuit

Words: 1613 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70973406


Science is a neutral human pursuit. It is only the application of science that raises potential ethical questions. Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle perfectly exposes the ways science can be manipulated by the hands of its sponsors. Money determines the nature of research, its methodologies, its findings, and its applications. Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma raises similar ethical questions and concerns, focused not on the military but on the food industry. Arguably, the food industry poses far more complicated ethical issues than the military-industrial complex. The military can be viewed as an ethically incorrect institution, as even when it presumably protects the lives of Americans it does so necessarily at the expense of the lives of others. National security is not built on a universal human rights vision, but on a xenophobic model that presumes national superiority and reinforces an "us vs. them" mentality that is at the root of many human problems. Unlike war, food is a universal need. When food science is in the hands of the corporate oligarchy, Americans suffer distinct negative consequences on a personal and collective level. It can even be said that food industry science indirectly harms national security by creating generation after…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DuBridge, Lee. "The Social Control of Science."

Ferrie, Helke. "Evidence grows of harmful effects of GMOs on human health." CCPA Monitor. Oct 2011.

Martinelli, Lucia, Karbarz, Malgorzata and Siipi, Helena. "Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food." Croat Med J. 2013;54:91-6.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma.
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Gene Tinkering in Agriculture

Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81543511

genetically modified or altered (GM) crops. Specifically, it will discuss information on GM crops, the risks, the benefits, and how GM crops differ from traditional plant breeding. Genetically modified crops are not new, they have been in existence for many years, but they are extremely controversial - in part because some people do not comprehend their makeup, and in part because they are innovative, and there are still many questions that need to be answered about their affect on people, the environment, and overall health. Basically, GM crops are crops that have been genetically altered through science. Essentially, their DNA, or specific genes, are transferred between one plant and another to create different qualities, such as hardiness, etc. Some people call this "genetic engineering." It takes the best qualities of one plant and mates them with another to create a new sub-species or even species (Editors). These plants are generally easier to grow, produce more, or withstand elements or pests better. Just for the record, GM most often refers to crop plants, but it can really refer to any living organism, "such as pets that glow under UV light to bacteria which form HIV-blocking 'living condoms'" (Pickrell).

Are there real…… [Read More]


Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005.

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005.

Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005.

Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic makeup of such living organisms as animals, plants, or bacteria. Biotechnology refers to using living organisms or their components, such as enzymes, to make products that include wine, cheese, beer, and yogurt. Combining genes from different organisms is known as…… [Read More]


"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004

Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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Conflict Issues in Globalization

Words: 1937 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35894566

Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops and Agricultural Hysteria on the Left

One of the most telling images in the modern media of recent date, regarding the issue of genetically modified foodstuffs was the sight of silos of genetically modified seed being sent back from an African nation experiencing a profound crisis of famine. Despite the fact that such seeds would have helped the immediate problem, fears were too great that the nation would be rendered dependant upon subsidized food from the first world, and more to the point, become test subjects for a questionable new technology. However, amongst the strident cries in Europe and Africa against genetically modified produce, which have driven some individuals to engage in 'eco-terrorist' practices of sabotage, the American consumer has become comfortable, one might state, in a kind of blissful ignorance over the debate. American genetically modified crops are not even required to be labeled in our supermarkets, while Europeans are willing to risk imprisonment, and Africans hunger, to fend off the advancement of such products. But is "green" and organic, necessarily better. (DeGregori, 2002, 9-10)

Thomas DeGregori sees such hysteria as a form of Luddite technophobia. (DeGregori, 2002, 152). He also sees the African…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bigman, David. Editor. (2002). Globalization and the Developing Countries. Oxford University Press.

DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The Environment, Natural Resources and Modern Technology, Ames: Iowa State Press.

DeGregori, Thomas R. (2003).

Origins of the Organic Agriculture Debate. Ames: Iowa State Press.
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People Fear DNA Because Criminals

Words: 2851 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35999004

This can contribute directly to human health and development (AgBio). Borlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the BioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to resist weeds, insects and viruses, evolution will drive these pests to become stronger and more dangerous. She speaks for others in wanting a worldwide moratorium on genetic engineering in agriculture.

Recent studies show that U.S. farmers are using just as many toxic pesticides to grow genetically modified foods than the…… [Read More]


AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 

BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins.

N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132

D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
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Supplements There Are Many Reasons That Supplements

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53415536


There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.

Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.


All but one of the friends survey take some kind of multivitamin. One also takes Vitamin D & C. And another person takes calcium supplements. The results of this brief survey were not surprising as the respondents took popular supplements.


I found three advertisements…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong: 

FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO:

WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD:
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Decline of the American Diet

Words: 5127 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39593950

The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. When asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "We want to have healthy employees."

The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a public health hazard. Today, a ban on advertising unhealthy foods to children "would discourage eating habits that are not only hard to break, but potentially life-threatening," Schlosser insists.

Congress should create a single food safety agency that has sufficient authority to protect public health," the author continues. He offers that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our

World. Boston: Conari Press.

Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:

Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Organic vs Non-Organic Organic vs

Words: 1062 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79858433

From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.

Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003.

This informative article demonstrates a list of the top ten reasons why we should eat and grow organic foods, in a sustainable manner. 1.Organic foods meet stringent standards. 2. Organic food tastes great. 3. Organic production reduces health risks. 4. Organic farms respect water sources. 5. Organic farmers build soil. 6. Organic farmers work…… [Read More]

Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.

Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.

This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.