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On a biological level, consumption of genetically modified foods means the potential for "pleiotropic and insertional effects," Dona explains on page 165. Pleiotropic refers to the possibility that a gene may have more than one affect on the food. The above-mentioned effects could result from an increase of "anti-nutrients"; and moreover human health could be impacted due to the use of "viral DNA," Dona continues (165). The pleiotropic affect could actually cause "…the silencing of genes, changes in their level of expression, or, potentially, the turning on of existing genes that were not previously being expressed" (Dona, 165). All of this potential interaction could biologically lead to "…the disruption of metabolism in unpredictable ways" and in the process lead to the emergence of "new toxic compounds" (Dona, 165).
Increasing the anti-nutrient level in food should not be acceptable to science or to regulators, Dona continues, because heat-stable anti-nutrients (like phytoestrogens,…
Daunert, Sylvia, Deo, Sapna, Morin, Xenia, and Roda, Aldo. (2008). The genetically modified foods debate: demystifying the controversy through analytical chemistry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 392(3), 327-331.
Dona, Artemis, and Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S. (2009). Health Risks of Genetically Modified
Foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 49(2), 164-175.
Food Chemistry. (2009). Environmental Effects. Retrieved June 17, 2012, from http://symposiummb.com/environmental-effects.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS
isks and Perceptions Analysis of Genetically Modified Foods
Genetically modified foods have the potential of solving many of the issues that are present in respect to feeding the world's population; especially as it grows to an estimate nine billion by the end of the century. The technologies can create crops that are able to resist certain insects and are more suitable to grow in less than ideal environmental conditions. However, on the other hand, there are some real and perceived risks that are associated with these technological developments. There seems to be a general perception of skepticism regarding the safety of gene technology and the fears of potential negative implications that these modifications could produce rest in the collective consciousness of the public. This brief synthesis will consider a few of the factors that are associated with the continued use and development of genetically modified foods.…
Cabuk, S., & Tanrikulu, C. (2014). The Role of Perceived Risk, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Innovativeness in Willingness-To-Buy Genetically Modified Foods. Cag University Journal of Social Sciences, 100-122.
DeFrancesco, L. (2013). How safe does transgenic food need to be? Nature Biotechnology, 794-802.
Keese, P. (2008). Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer. Environmental Biosafety Reference, 123-149.
Genetically Modified Foods
hat are Genetically Modified Foods?
Genetically modified foods (GMF) are created through a biotechnological process known as genetic modification (GM). Genetic modification -- also known as genetic engineering -- alters the genetic makeup of plants, according to the Human Genome Project (HGP). Actually what scientists are doing when they genetically modify a plant is to combine certain genes from different plant species to basically change the DNA in the resulting plant species.
The HGP paper reports that in 2006, some 252 million acres of "transgenic crops" had been planted in twenty-two countries by 10.3 million farmers. These crops (corn, soybeans, cotton, alfalfa, rice, sweet potatoes and canola) were planted in order to reportedly resist insect infestation. The sweet potatoes were modified in order to "…resist…a virus that could decimate most of the African harvest" (HGP). Fifty-three percent of those crops were planted in the United States; 17%…
Daboub, Anthony J., Shane, H. Martin, Ortiz, Dennis, and Blakemore, T. Mark. "The
Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods: A Corporate Ethical and Social
Responsibility Challenge." Journal of Legal, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues. 15.2 (2012):
One of the most interesting articles, "Genetic Engineering Risks," really described the issue with GMOs: the difference between genetically engineered organisms and their non-engineered counterparts is usually just one gene or a handful of genes and genetically engineered organisms have new genes that are put into their DNA using molecular technology; they would not have been able to do this with traditional breeding methods. "Because such a small fraction of genes is typically altered by genetic engineering, the possible risks or ecological effects of this new technology lie with the particular effects these novel genes have on physical and physiological characteristics (the phenotypes) of the newly transgenic carriers."
The fact that there is still genetically modified food happening is outrageous. I really think that it is one of the most important topics that the world faces today. So many studies have shown that genetically modified foods may cause negative health…
Protection and preservation of the environment through increased yields and reduced use of chemical pesticides and herbicides. This is because genetically modified foods grow at a faster rate and in bigger quantities which means less forest land is cleared for agriculture and the natural habitats and biodiversity is preserved. The crops are also made pest and disease resistant which means that less pesticides and herbicides are used which could pollute the environment and the underground and surface water. Drought resistant crops and seeds mean that there is less water that is needed in the growing of the crops thereby preserving the limited water supplies.
The genetically modified foods are more nutritious as they can be infused with important minerals and vitamins that are essential for preventing malnutrition. An example is the creation of the golden rice that contains beta-carotene which is converted to vitamin a in the human body. This…
Charles, Dan. Agriculture Department Probes Rice Flap. 6 Jan. 2007. 11 May. 2010.
Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. California: Routledge, 2004.
Fumento, Michael. Golden Rice -- a Golden Chance for the Underdeveloped World
Genetically Modified Foods - Economics
Genetically Modified Foods
Genetically modified (GM) foods are changing how people in developed countries eat. There are also many economic questions surrounding them. According to Anderson (1998), society is moving toward a genetically modified world. The food the world eats, from meat to grains, fruits, and vegetables, is all going to eventually become GM food. This food can be made to be resistant to all kinds of pests and predators, which can mean less waste (Anderson, 1998). That saves a lot of money for farmers and growers, but the health concerns of GM food should not be ignored (Anderson, 1998). This particular study will provide significant insight when it comes to the true economic cost of GM food as well as the considerable human cost that also has to be considered. Often, only the economics are addressed, or only the human cost (health and safety)…
Anderson, A. (ed). (1998). Living in a genetically modified world. New Scientist (special edition). Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/232267451_Genetically_modified_foods
Border, P. & Norton, M. (1998). Genetically modified foods - benefits and risks, regulation and public acceptance. London: Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1115027/
Murnaghan, I. (2012a). Economic impact of genetically modified foods. Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved from http://www.geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk/economic-impact-gm-foods.html
Murnaghan, I. (2012b). genetically modified foods and corporate power. Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved from http://www.geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk/gm-foods-corporate-pow.html
John Stuart Mill believed in the subjugation of individual interests for the sake of society as a whole, but only when necessary. Of course, determining when such subjugation is necessary is not at all simple, and this is the task in which Mill distinguished himself as a philosopher. In his treatise on moral philosophy, "Utilitarianism," Mill proposed the "greatest-happiness principle" a sort of pseudo-mathematical, economic equation to determine the desirability of a particular action. (Mill, 1863, p. 87). This principle holds that one must always act so as to produce the greatest aggregate happiness among all sentient beings, within reason.
Principles of Political Economy
Closely connected with Mill's Utilitarianism were his views on economics, especially political economy. In "Principles of Political Economy and Some of their Applications to Social Philosophy," Mill argued that producers should be able to operate without government interference, which, in modern terms, would associate him…
Mill, J.S. (1863). Utilitarianism. London: Parker, Son, and Bourn.
Mill, J.S. (1848). Principles of Political Economy and Some of their Applications to Social Philosophy. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown.
Losey, J.E. & Rayor, L.S. (1999). Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature 399:6733, p 214.
Ohio State University (2000) The Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms on Human Health. (Website). http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5058.html
Genetically modified (GM) foods have been a hot topic of conversation over the last decade. Environmental groups, public interest groups and governmental agencies have all voiced their opinions over the increasing development and use of genetically modified foods. Genetic engineering involves transferring genes from one species of living organism to another, to provide some sort of benefit. Although the genetic modifications are typically performed on crops, such as corn and soybeans, there has also been experimentation with livestock as well. Some see genetically modified foods as simply a technological advancement that will benefit society. Others see genetically modified foods as posing significant concerns to human health and the environment.
The industry plays a significant role in this concern, as much of these genetically modified foods are allowed to enter the food chain without full disclosure to consumers. Instead, the industry should be ensuring that consumers know exactly what…
Black, Richard. "GM 'golden rice' boosts vitamin a" BBC News. N.p., 28 Mar. 2005. Web. 4 Dec. 2010. .
"Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms --HGP Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. N.p., 5 Nov. 2008. Web. 4 Dec. 2010. .
Hanten, Rev Helen. "Concerns Regarding Genetically Modified Food." Minnesota Episcopal Environmental Stewardship Commission. N.p., 26 Oct. 2001. Web. 4 Dec. 2010. .
GMO Food Labeling
Genetically modified foods (genetically modified foods) have been an issue of controversy since their early development. genetically modified foods refer to organisms that are intended for human or animal consumption that have been modified artificially to enhance certain plant traits. Some of these traits include pesticide resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, cold tolerance, drought tolerance, salinity tolerance, improved nutrition, pharmaceuticals, and phytoremediation, which is the use of plants and animals to remove toxins from the environment. These traits promised to improve human lives and to help resolve some of the environmental issues that currently plague our society. The controversy surrounding genetically modified foods is not their use or their necessity in human society, it is fear over unintended circumstances that could have a negative affect on human lives. It will support the safety of genetically modified foods due to a lack of empirical evidence to the contrary.…
Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge. Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S. USDA
Economic Research Service. Web. Accessed
1 June 2011.
Gertsberg, Denice. Lawmakers Propose Labeling in Response to Supreme Court's Monsanto
GMO peaking Notes
Thank you all for your time today. Our team is here to discuss the nature of genetically modified and engineered foods in order to evaluate their role in food service and consumption today. We have several presenters here to discuss the various elements of the presentation, all of whom will walk you through different aspects of the current environment. I will be discussing the economic factors surrounding the increased use of genetically modified foods.
The high prevalence of genetically modified and engineered foods is a relatively recent phenomenon. As seen in this graph, prior to the late 1990s, there was much lower rates of genetically modified foods in the market. 1997 actually proved a crucial year, proving to be the beginning of a steady incline of the use of genetic engineering for use in the agricultural and food industries.
One of the first crops to see significant…
As suggested previously, North and South American nations have tapped into the genetically modified crops trends more so than anywhere else, with the exception of India.
This graph illustrates how the United States has been the leader in genetically modified crops for the longest period of time. Canada and Argentina have also been using this method for long periods as well, with strong numbers as far back as 1997. Brazil and India, two other leaders in growing genetically modified foods, jumped on to the band wagon much later. In fact, it wasn't until around 2003 that these nations really began devoting larger portions of their acreage to growing genetically modified crops.
Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetically modified foods (GMOs) are a broad group of plants, animals, and bacteria whose genetic material is artificially manipulated through genetic engineering. Although GMOs are endorsed as the best solution to malnutrition in developing countries, I posit that they should be banned due to the adverse effects they might have on both human health and the environment. According to Peel (2005), the health and environmental risks posed by GMOs include: their potential to be toxic to both animal and human consumers, including organisms that may not be targeted, such as butterflies; adverse effects from agricultural chemicals used to make GM crops herbicide resistant; the possibility that GM crops might transfer the altered generic to other conventional crops with implications for biodiversity; and the risk of all GMOs becoming an evasive species that cannot be controlled by their creators. Moreover, government oversight of their production, distribution and use…
Jonsen, A.R. (2005). Bioethics Beyond the Headlines: Who Lives? Who Dies? Who Decides? Oxford: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers
Peel, J. (2005). The Precautionary Principle in Practice: Environmental Decision-making and Scientific Uncertainty. Sydney: The Federation Press.
genetically modified foods, and discussed some of the arguments for and against genetically modified foods. The paper looks, in particular, at the decision by the U.S. To send GM grain, via the WFP of the UN, as part of their food aid to Africa. The paper concludes that the U.S. were not correct in their decision to send GM grain to Africa, were incorrect in forcing African nations to accept the GM grain, and indeed, acted unethically through their decision to act as they did.
The debate about genetically modified foods has been raging amongst academics, the media, and lay people for more than a decade now: whether they should be allowed, whether they should be sold, whether they are safe, whether they are an answer to the problem of starvation amongst developing nations. All of these questions, and many more, regularly raise their heads for debate, but the truth…
Bhattacharya, S. (2003). 'GM crops boost yields more in poor countries'. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993364Accessed 5th November 2003.
Concar, D. (2003). 'Key GM crop experiment lacks statistical power' http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993547Accessed 5th November 2003.
Dauenhauer, K. (2003). Health: Africans Challenge Bush Claim That GM Food Good For Them. Global Information Network June 20, 2003: 1.
Financial Times (2000). Why you can't tell genetically modified foods from the label. March 11th 2000: 5.
Genetically Modified Foods
With the emphasis lately on stem-cell research and cloning, consumer interest seems to have waned about genetically altered fruits and vegetables. Or has it? The answer to this question is of interest to a wide range of consumer businesses and organizations and & D. agricultural firms due to the socio-economic impact. According to a peer-reviewed article in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, "Who do consumers trust for information: the case for genetically modified foods?," by agriculture and economics professors at several U.S. universities, the United States Department of Agriculture and Monsanto company, determining the answer to this query not relatively easy. As the article states, "the introduction of new goods, however, creates a disequlibrium (Hausman, 1996), which in turn creates a demand by economic agents for objective information to assist in making decisions on adoption and use (Schultz, 1975). The consumer's challenge is to sort through…
Becker, G.S. (1996) Accounting for Tastes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Glaeser, E.L., et. al (2000). "Measuring Trust." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115:811-846.
Hausman, J. 1996. "Valuation of New Goods under Perfect and Imperfect Competition," in Bresnahan, T. And R.J. Gordon, Eds., The Economics of New Goods, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Huffman, W. (2004) et. al., "Who do consumers trust for information: the case of genetically modified foods." American Journal of Economics 86(5): 1222-1230.
Geneticly-Modified Crop Economics
Genetically-Modified Crop Economics
Economic Issues: Consider production, consumption, costs, variables of supply-demand, corporations, private enterprise, impact on the nation's economy (employment, displacement, outsourcing).
Are certain industries impacted more than others?
As it relates to genetically-modified foods and crops, there are several major industries involved. Obviously, the main industry involved would be agriculture. The genetically-modified crops are used for a variety of reasons. First, the modified crops can be used to discourage or stop certain insect infestations or disease infestations in the crops. Another reason for the modifications can be to get good yield as well as large units on the crops such as larger tomatoes, more wheat and so forth. ome agencies and people in general are very leery or even hostile towards genetically modified crops and they actively resist the free flow and sale of these goods and/or they want warnings to be posted on the…
Genetically modified or genetically modified foods have been calling global attention for both their benefits and risks. genetically modified foods have been described as foods manufactured from organisms whose genetic material or DNA is artificially modified (WHO 2014). The change is done by infusing a gene into the organisms from another or different organism. Most genetically modified foods are recently produced from plants. The prospects are to derive them from GM microorganisms or animals in the future. The purpose is to optimize yield while increasing resistance to plant disease and/or tolerance to the effects of herbicides. Other prospects include modifying the very nutrients contained in foods, controlling causes of allergy, or raising the efficiency of food production systems themselves. For protection, all these modified foods should be thoroughly and appropriately screened before launching into the market. Codex guidelines by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the WHO are used to…
CHGE. Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
Harvard School of Public Health, 2012. Retrieved on June 27, 2014 from http://www.chge.med.harvard.edu/topic/genetically-modified-foods
HGP. Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms. Human Genome Project Information:
City College of San Francisco, 2008. Retrieved on June 27, 2014 from http://www.fog.ccsf.edu/~cpogge/Bio41L/GMfoods.pdf
Genetically Modified Food
Genetic engineering is one of the breakthroughs in the agricultural sector introduced in the last four decades. Traditionally, agricultural production relied on natural methods such as crossbreeding to achieve the desired plant species. Such methods were associated with disadvantages such as its slow nature and inability to produce the desired plant traits in the desired period. However, the introduction of genetic modification led to the elimination of these barriers. Genetic engineering is faster as compared to the traditional crossbreeding as it involves the extraction of a gene from the desired plant species and introducing into a DNA of different plant. Among the perceived benefits associated with the genetic modified food crops, include having more yields as compared to the conventional food crops, its economic nature, safety for human consumption, and lack of evidence for its harm to the environment. Despite this, the issue of genetic…
Cockburn, A. (2002). Assuring the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods: the importance of a holistic, integrative approach. Journal of Biotechnology, 98(1), 79 -- 106.
Conner, A.J., Glare, T.R., & Nap, J.-P. (2003). The release of genetically modified food into the environment. The Plant Journal, 33(1), 19 -- 46
Finucane, M.L., & Holup, J.L. (2005). Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived risk of genetically modified food: an overview of the literature. Social Science & Medicine, 60(7), 1603 -- 1612
Fisher, G.M. (1992). Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds, The. Social Security
Then in May 2000, honey on sale in supermarkets was found to be contaminated with GM pollen from British crop trials. Two out of nine samples show contamination" (Chapman 2006:5). The results of an analysis by Fox (1999) confirmed this cross-contamination of pollen: "The pollen produced by these plants, carrying new genes, cannot be contained. As a result, genetic pollution of natural crop varieties and of wild plant relatives may occur. Unlike other forms of pollution, genetic pollution is uncontrollable, irreversible, and permanent, posing a major threat to biodiversity and to the bio-integrity of the entire life community" (Fox 1999:37). Despite the findings of these studies, in 2000, the National Research Council emphasized that based on its research, it was unable to identify "any evidence suggesting that foods on the market today are unsafe to eat as a result of genetic modification" (quoted in ooster 2001 at 58).
Barrett, Katherine. (2002, Winter). "Food Fights: Canadian Regulators Are under Pressure to Face the Uncertainties of Genetically Modified Food." Alternatives Journal 28(1): 28-29.
Brady, John T. And Pamela L. Brady. (2003). "Consumers and Genetically Modified Foods."
Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences 95(4): 12-13.
Chapman, James. 2006, December 2. "History of genetically modified food," Daily Mail.
These ideological views are bolstered by the numerous views propounded against GM products. Others see the GM products in a religious and philosophical light as a misguided attempt to control nature. "The central problem underlying all of this technology is not just its short-term benefits and long-term drawbacks, but the overall attempt to "control" living nature based on an erroneous mechanistic view. " (atalion, J.)
In conclusion, the above discussion reveals the potential offered by GM crops and foods with regard to developing countries. While on the one hand the benefits of GM technology seem overwhelmingly obvious, yet there are numerous counter arguments that must be taken into account. Many countries in Southern Africa for example have taken advantage of genetically modified foods, but there is still a strong mistrust in many areas. On the other hand, some very cogent and wary arguments are put forward by those opposed to…
Batalion, J. 50 Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Foods. April 36, 2005. http://www.cqs.com/50harm.htm
Dioxin found in German eggs, BBC, January 2005. Accessed April 35, 2005.
Genetically Modified Food Items Are Common, but Little Noticed
Wall Street Journal. (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y.: Mar 24, 2005. pg. D.4
The Arguments for and Against GMO's
Arguments in Favor of GMO's
Arguments against GMO's
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Arguments
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are controversial. There are many proponents that argue GMO's provide significant social and economic benefits, while those against the technology argue there are potential disadvantages, including risks to health and the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the issue of GMOs, looking first at what they are, and then considering the advantages and disadvantages associated with GMO use.
GMO's are organisms, including plants and animals where there has been an alteration to the organisms DNA which did not take place naturally (Elena et al., 2013). The creation of GMO's is usually referred to a biotechnology, but it may also be called recombinant DNA technology of gene technology (Elena et al., 2013). The process of creating GMO's involves the researchers identifying…
Anonymous, (2001), Proposal for a regulation of the European parliament and of the council concerning traceability and labeling of genetic modified organisms and amending directives 2001/18/EC.COM 182 Final Brussels, accessed at http;//europa.eu.int/comm./food/fs/biotech/biotech09_en.pdf
Anonymous, (1999),The use of cytochrome P450 genes to introduce herbicide tolerance in crops: a review, Pesticide Science, 55(9): 867- 874
Amofa, G., (2014), Recommendations From A Meeting On Health Implications Of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO), Ghana Medical Journal, 48(2) 117-119
Asante, Owusu R, (1999), GM Technology in the Forest Sector: A scoping study, accessed at http://www.mindfully.org / GE/Forest-GMTechnologyNov99.htm
United States and around the globe on the use of Genetically Engineered Food (GEF) indicate the rate at which people are very worried about GEF. According to Bereano (20011, pg. 279) we have different cultural and religion background which most occasions used to determine the kind of food we eat. There are a good number of people who are vegetarians who are required to know what they eat, whether it contains meat contents. Muslins and Hindus too do not eat pork or any kind of food which has pork has one of the ingredients. Most importantly, the opinion poll has showed that many consumers do not trust GEF and therefore they need to be labeled in the market to give consumers a choice whether to buy GEF or other food.
However, an attempt by the government to stop the labeling of genetically engineered food (GEF) is like taking away the…
Newton, Lisa, Elaine Englehardt, and Michael Pritchard, Taking Side; Clashing Views on Business Ethics and Society, 12th Ed., (McGraw-Hill, NY, 2012) ISBN 978-0-07-352735-2)
FSMA Preventative Controls Rule and GMO Labeling
During his campaign Donald Trump pledged to roll back regulations. Upon entering the White House, President Trump made good on that promise with the January 30, 2017, Executive Order (EO) entitled “Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs.” The EO directed federal agencies to abolish two regulations for every new regulation implemented (PMA, 2017). In terms of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), food safety advocates are concerned that producers may look forward to rolling back the current labeling law that requires produces to label products that contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as such on their Nutrition Facts Panel. This issue is important because the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) implemented new Nutrition Facts Panel requirements most recently in 2016 so that consumers could feel more confident about making purchases. The Vermont GMO mandatory labeling law went into effect in July of…
FDA. (2017). FSMA Final Rule for Preventive Controls for Human Food. Retrieved
FSMA. (2017). Frequently asked questions on FSMA. Retrieved from
McGeary, J. (2014). Progress in the continuing FSMA saga and GMOs heat up for
2014. Retrieved from https://www.westonaprice.org/progress-in-the-continuing-fsma-saga-and-gmos-heat-up-for-2014/
PMA. (2016). GMO labeling negotiations near final. Retrieved from
The Case Against Genetically Modified Foods
Being a farmer is probably one of the hardest professions in the world, largely because of the lack of control that farmers have over their results. They can work tirelessly and still have crops wiped out by inclement weather or insects and other pests. It’s a precarious way to make a living, and genetically modified foods (GMO) at first seemed like a solution to so many of the obstacles present when trying to grow a bountiful crop. For example, GMO crops that are resistant to insects/pests can be achieved by adding a poisonous bacterium to the crops that incorporate a natural insect repellant, yet still safe for human consumption. These means that farmers don’t have to rely so heavily on toxic chemicals to repel bugs and it means the soil has to undergo less manipulation and can maintain its integrity better. While these benefits…
Genetically Engineered Food
Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…
Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."
Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.
Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.
Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
Furthermore, these crops could exhaust soil to such a degree that no more crops could be developed there, and thus contribute to rather than alleviate the problem of world hunger.
Another problem cited by opponents is the danger to biodiversity that might be created by GMO's. Genetically modifying foods may have a negative impact on the environment by destroying biodiversity, according to this group. Proponents however argue that biodiversity is encouraged rather than destroyed by genetic engineering. Indeed, they place it in the same category with modifications that have been brought about in nature itself in order to adjust to different environments, or by human beings in the past.
Biological engineering is a very controversial issue, and it appears that it will remain so for a long time, even while the field grows and develops beyond attempts to stop it.
This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.
Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.
Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…
GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html
Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org
Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.
Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
The safety, or lack thereof, of genetically modified foods is subject to considerable debate in the public sphere. In order to render a reasonable opinion on the subject of feeding GMO foods to my children, I would want to defer to the best available science, and add a dash of reason. The first thing that would need to be established is the methodology by which one assesses the concept of safety. Clearly, there are no safety issues in the sense of GMO foods being poison (i.e. having immediate negative health effects). The question of GMO safety therefore is more a question of long-term impacts on human health.
A major study on the safety of genetically modified foods determined that, based on the traditional human food consumption patterns, there are no safety issues with the consumption of plant-based GMO foods (Konig et al, 2004). Further studies have examined the…
The United States has allowed the use of genetically modified (GMO) foods for human consumption. This has led people to fight for measures to decrease exposure to GMO foods in America. From food labeling to encouraging the purchase of foods that are non-GMO sourced, these measures have painted a stigma on GMO. Several reasons exist for the removal of GMO foods. One reason is that most genetically modified genes inserted into the seeds that yield fruits and vegetables are derived from foreign species like bacteria and viruses (). These bacteria and viruses can cause harm to the human body in the form of sterility, allergic reactions, and deceased livestock.
For example, one article noted that GMO corn may change the histological structure of living organisms if they consume it long-term. The animal they experimented on were two albino adult male rats. “Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes…
For example, if birds feed on seeds and a certain variety of insect, without the seeds, the birds may disappear, and the insects would then overpopulate the area.
In addition, the cost of GM crops is initially high to the farmer. These seeds cost much more to develop and test, and so, they are much more costly to the farmer. They might benefit Third World agriculture in many ways, but few Third World farmers could possibly afford the increased cost of these seeds, and so, they would not be available to a majority of the people that need them the most. Cost is an important factor in the continued growth of GM crops, and so, manufacturers must eventually address the cost of these seeds, and reduce the cost so that more people can afford to plant them.
While no study has found GM food to be harmful to humans, opponents…
Black, Richard. 2004, 'Study Finds Benefits in GM Crops.' BBC.com. [Online]. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4046427.stm .
Editors. 2005, 'Genetically Modified Foods.' World Health Organization. [Online]. Available at http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/ .
Goldstein, M.C., & Goldstein, M.A. 2002, Controversies in Food and Nutrition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Pickrell, John. 2004, 'GM Organisms: Instant Expert.' NewScientist.com. [Online]. Available at http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35 .
Genetically Modified Crops
Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.
The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.
Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide.…
Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.foodcomm.org.uk/biotech_summary.htm.
Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/7361/newsDate/06-Jul-2000/story.htm .
Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER
The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).
The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…
Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.
The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015
CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
For this reason, biological containment measures are being developed to control plants by inhibiting gene flow through pollen and/or seed (Eastham and Sweet). For example, outcrossing can be controlled by ensuring that the pollen of the GMO is sterile (Mills, 2006).
3) Explain interest in subject.
I believe GMO technology will greatly benefit society by increasing the availability and quality of food, but, at the same time, I acknowledge real biosafety concerns posed by outcrossing. For this reason, I am interested in molecular strategies for gene containment in GMO crops to ensure that they are responsibly deployed and that they are available for larger-scale commercial release than is currently possible.
Eastham, K. And Sweet, J. (2002, March). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): The significance of gene flow through pollen transfer. European Environment Agency (EEA) Environmental issue report No 28. http://www.mindfully.org/GE/GE4/Pollen-Transfer-Gene-FlowEEAMar02.htm
Genetically modified organism. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism
Mills, N. (2006). Genetically modified…
Eastham, K. And Sweet, J. (2002, March). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): The significance of gene flow through pollen transfer. European Environment Agency (EEA) Environmental issue report No 28. http://www.mindfully.org/ GE/GE4/Pollen-Transfer-Gene-FlowEEAMar02.htm
Genetically modified organism. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism
Mills, N. (2006). Genetically modified organisms. http://www.deh.gov.au/soe/2006/publications/emerging/gmo/index.html
As such, the question that those who oppose GMOs should be asking themselves is whether people should be left to starve to death basing on the fear of unknown long-term implications of GMOs or not.
Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.
Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.
Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.
Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.
Nottingham, Stephen. Eat your genes: how genetically modified food is entering our diet. 2nd updated ed. London: Zed Books Ltd., 2003
George Kennedy "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified…
Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.
Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.
Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.
Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…
What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at' http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html
Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html
Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at: http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
Genetically Modified Crops -- America says 'Yes' while the European Union and the Sudan says 'No!
Recently, the famine-stricken nation of the Sudan turned away an entire load of crops and seeds that could have filled the bellies of many of its hungry citizens. hy did it do so? as it madness? No, it was because of the fact that the products in question contained genetically modified crops. "Eat GM or Starve," said the United States, according to an association designed to prevent the introduction of GM crops into the international as well as the national food supply. (OCO, 2004) Proponents of these crops, however, pointed out that the genetic modifications were to make the crops more disease resistant and hardier to the harsh climates of the Sudan.
Genetically modified crops remain one of the most controversial agricultural issues today. Despite fears regarding the safety of these so-called franken-foods,…
Conference on Coexistence -- COC. (2004) Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.foeeurope.org/GMOs/conference/home.htm
U.S. bullying impoverished Sudan." (March 19, 2004) Organic Consumers Organization (OCO). Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/sudan031904.cfm
Genetically Modified Foods
' There has been a great deal of controversy over genetically modified foods (GMOs). First, many individuals and organizations oppose the concept of altering the genetics of foods for any reason. And secondly, there is a hot debate as to whether or not food manufacturers should publish / label their packages as containing GMOs. This paper covers the controversies and provides several angles to the debates.
The way in which companies modify food genetically is through " ... the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup" of the seeds to be changed materially (Schneider, et al., 2014). There are two ways GMOs can be produced through "recombination": either by moving genes from one organism to another organism; or by making changes in genes within an organism "that are already present" (Schneider, p. 1). The changes that occur after being genetically engineered result in…
Jalonick, M.C. (2014). Debate over genetically modified foods continues amid confusion.
PBS News Hour. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from http://www.pbs.org .
Kopicki, A. (2013). Strong Support for Labeling Modified Foods. The New York Times.
Retrieved September 16, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Peter Andree entitled "GM Food egulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food egulation in Canada." Andree reports on a trade dispute of an ongoing nature over genetically modified organisms occurring between the European Union and the United States and Canada reporting that a "more precautionary approach" has been witnessed recently in regulating GMOs. Andree examines the regulatory approaches toward GMOs.
According to Andree (2006), the regulatory approach in Canada has been influenced greatly by the model in the United States and there have been more than sixty genetically modified foods that Canada has approved upon the basis of "limited sets of compositional and nutritional data" demonstrating the "substantial equivalence to products already on the market." (Andree, 2006, p.377-8) Andree states that there are major differences in the data requirements for GM regulation between that of the European Union and the United States and Canada. The EC regulations…
Andree, P. (2006) GM Food Regulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food Regulation in Canada. Science and Public Policy, volume 33, number 5, June 2006, pages 377 -- 389, Beech Tree Publishing, 10 Watford Close, Guildford, Surrey GU1 2EP, England.
For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)
In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)
Exclusion of People from the Experiment
If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…
Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol3_g/Bhuiya_2012_G60-65.pdf>.
Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from http://www.csid.unt.edu/files/What's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf
Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from http://cf.ac.uk/jomec/resources/GMREPFIN.pdf
Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from http://www.tufts.edu/~skrimsky/PDF/GMOethics.PDF
There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City
Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Report_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Company Strategy: Whole Foods
On the surface, Whole Foods has a unique, almost counterintuitive philosophy. ather than stressing value and volume in terms of food sales, it instead offers more expensive organic and specialty goods. However, its niche marketing strategy has proven to be extremely lucrative. Whole Foods is an interesting case study as a company in the manner in which it has simultaneously capitalized upon popular trends in food without trying to be 'all things to all people.' In 2013, the company had same-store sales growth of 7.5%. It has rapidly expanded: "the company's growth strategy is to seek new locations for its stores in highly populated, often urban, areas. Each store averages around 38,000 square feet, and about 30% of the company's stores were acquired, meaning that they were other health-food stores that were bought out and re-branded as Whole Foods" (Frankel 2013).
Whole Foods' vision and mission…
Brown, Joshua. (2013). What Whole Foods learned from the recession. The Reformed Broker.
Dennis, Brady. (2013). Whole Foods executive explains strategy behind labeling genetically modified foods. St. Louis Dispatch. Retrieved:
Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.
Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…
Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf
"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms
Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.
United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online:
How Fast Food Restaurants are Reacting to the Shift to More Organic Foods:
To remain competitive, fast food restaurants have had to turn to
innovative products, often redeveloping their product lines, to meet the
changing demands of consumers for organic foods specifically, and healthier
foods in general. The demand for organic foods has been the mechanism for
industry evolution. As noted, McDonalds phased out their supersize menu
items, in response to society's growing health concerns. In addition,
they've begun to offer more healthy menu choices, such as low-fat items and
fresh salads, to their customers, as well as promoting healthy lifestyles
in their marketing campaigns. In the New England area, McDonald's even
replaced their coffee with Newman's Own Organic blend, in an attempt to
take further advantage of more organically-discriminating tastes of
consumers. This move has been well-received in the region. In
addition, new fast food restaurants are being introduced…
Abelson, J., "An Overarching Goal: Innovation," Boston Globe (September 24,
2006): E2 (database online); available from ProQuest, ProQuest ID:
Brunning, R. "Organic Fast-Food Restaurant to Open in Boulder," Knight
Ridder Tribune (October 12, 2006): 1 (database online); available from
ProQuest, ProQuest ID: 1157712541.
"Fast Food in the United States." Market Line (August 2005) Database
online. Available from Datamonitor.
sustainability foods eaten humans impact environment. hich foods highest impact environment? hich foods smallest? hy? How, individuals, make decisions-based data? Should information shape public policy? If, ?.
There is presently much controversy regarding sustainability and the diverse strategies people could use with the purpose of getting actively involved in helping the environment. The modern society has seven billion individuals and it is important for the authorities to be able to provide for the needs of these people. A great deal of crops and livestock are raised around the world and dominate most rural landscapes. However, the masses know very little regarding how these resources damage the environment as a result of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and methane gas.
Traditional agriculture has developed into industrial agriculture as society started to express more and more interest in experiencing progress when considering food production. Scientists have started to introduce additives as a means…
Koch, Bernhard A., and Askeland, Bjarte, "Damage Caused by Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Survey of Redress Options for Harm to Persons, Property, Or the Environment," (Walter de Gruyter, 14.10.2010)
"the issues," Retrieved October 15, 2012, from the Sustainable Table Website: http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/
A report by Elliot (2009) also refers to other positive aspects of organically grown food. "…research found higher level of antioxidants -- which help the body to combat cancer and cardiovascular disease -- in organic foods" (Elliot, 2009).
In the final analysis it seems from the literature that there is overwhelming evidence to link pesticides in food with serious health issues and problems in children. This is especially critical with regard to very young children who may suffer from cancer and developmental problems as a result of exposure to food that has been contaminated by chemical pesticides. This leads to the recommendation that more should be done by the health authorities to ensure that young children in particular are not exposed to food that may be detrimental to their health.
Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many
Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326
Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many
Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326
Cancer Patients found to have Higher Pesticide Residues in Body. Retrieved from http://www.chem-tox.com/cancerchildren/#residues
Elliott, V. (2009) Organic food 'no better for health than factory-farmed food' says report.
Whole Foods Market
Significant key points
Key financial indicators
Graph of sales growth from year 2002 until 2011.
SWOT and TWOS analysis
TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix
Pros and Cons
Evaluation and control
The Whole Foods Market is a progressive and focused corporation with presence in three developed markets including U.S., United Kingdom, and Canada. The company has achieved growth since its inception. The increasing market share of the company has enabled it to expand in international markets. The company envisions becoming global leader in organic and natural foods market. The competitors in the sector are large stores, supermarkets, and retail outlets with increased presence. The product range of these companies includes a number of related products along with the natural and organic foods.
The company requires maintaining its double digit growth strategy and aims to expand in global market. However the cost of natural and…
Form 10-K. United States Securities and Exchange Commission, (2011). Form 10-k annual report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the securities exchange act of 1934. Retrieved from Whole Foods Market website: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company Info/PDFs/2011_10K.pdf
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2012). Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. USA: South-Western Pub.
Lederer, M., Schott, P., Huber, S., & Kurz, M. (2013). Strategic Business Process Analysis: A Procedure Model to Align Business Strategy with Business Process Analysis Methods. In S-BPM ONE-Running Processes (pp. 247-263). New York: Springer.
Ngai, E. (2009). RFID in operations and supply chain management: research and applications, edited by T. Blecker and GQ Huang.
Intrapreneurial Opportunity Within 3 Squares Restaurant
Identification of the Opportunity
Squares Restaurant has identified various opportunities it intends to pursue. The most interesting opportunity is the company's strong interest in things like organic eating, healthy diets, and the ability to combat food deserts. The area in which the establishment is located lacks quality food options. Therefore, the company has an opportunity to market healthy, organic food options that can improve the quality of lives. As the baby boomers enter the seniors' age and as the society develops a strong interest in the quality of life, the company can approach this opportunity from various angles to succeed and differentiate from other eateries.
An Assessment of the Opportunity
Today, organic food is one of the growing trends. The consumer demand for organic food has been on the rise in the last five years, which means 3 Squares Restaurant may reap, from such…
A farmer in each year can produce enough food to feed a hundred people, according to Pollan (2001), but this productivity comes with a heavy price: "The modern industrial farmer cannot grow that much food without large quantities of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, and fuel. This expensive set of 'inputs,' as they are called, saddles the farmer with debt, jeopardizes his health, erodes his soil and ruins its fertility, pollutes the groundwater, and compromises the safety of the food we eat" (Pollan, 2001, p. 190). These accrued costs accumulated through generations may lead to catastrophic consequences such as global warming and scarcity of edible food and drinkable water.
The drive to industrial efficiency blinded us to several hidden costs of food production. Orr (1994) identifies six of the costs that, if we intend to maintain sustainable growth, need to be curbed. The first obvious cost of industrial food production is…
McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002) From cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. New York: North Point Press.
Orr, D.W. (1994) Earth in mind: on education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Pollan, M. (2001) The Botany of desire: a plant's eye view of the world. New York: Random House.
As far as society is concerned, the effects of high obesity rates would include: an increase in health care costs, less productivity and increasing disability rates. This is significant, because the information provides a way of seeing the total impact that obesity is having on the individual and society. Where, the overall long-term costs for the individual will mean the possibility of being exposed to a number of different conditions simultaneously. At the same time, society will have to bear the economic impact that obesity rates will have on the economy, as it will lead to higher costs and less productivity. (Vissche 2010 pp. 355 -- 375)
Describe the Way in which the Issue is being Reported
The issue is being reported as a major health crisis that will have long-term implications on the country. During these reports, the high statistics and the total amounts of obesity are usually highlighted.…
F as in Fat, 2007, American Trails, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,
Doane, S, Battling Obesity in America, 2010, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,
Himba, T, 5 Causes of Obesity, 2010, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,
Visscher, T, 2010, 'The Public Health Impact of Obesity', Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 22, pp. 355 -375.
Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on iosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.
VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods
The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness…
Finucane, Melissa L. (2002) Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002, 61.
Genetically modified Organisms: Consumers, Food Safety and the Environment. Vol 2 of the FAO ethics services. Organization of the United Nations. Food & Agriculture Organization 2001.
Hossain, Ferdaus, and Onyango, Benjamin (2004) Products Attributes and Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Foods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 28, No.2. June 2004.
Li, Quan; Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; and Wahl, Thomas I. (2002) Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in Beijing, China. Journal of Agrobiotechnology Management and Economics. Vol. 5. No.4, Article 3.
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…
Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2
McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.
Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000)
GMO producers also feel that this would give consumers the impression that GMOs are unhealthy or unsafe and that non-GMO crops are preferred (aab & Grobe, 2003).
Valid scientific evidence is lacking as to whether GMOs are healthy or unhealthy in the long run. However, support is building for the position that regardless of the outcome, consumers have the right to know and to make an informed decision. Producers in the U.S. have placed pressure on Europe to withdraw their requirements for the labeling of GMO foods, as they claim that this attitude towards GMO foods will influence decisions in the U.S. (aab & Grobe, 2003). However, so far, these challenges have been met with resistance and labeling practices continue to spread.
On a national level, the battle still rages, but on an international level, the scales seem to tip towards the pro-labeling side and the right of the consumer…
NG, J. (2008). UK experts urge RP consumers to push for GMO labeling. Checkbiotech. October 17, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://greenbio.checkbiotech.org/news/uk_experts_urge_rp_consumers_push_gmo_labeling
Raab, C. & Grobe, D. (2003). Labeling Genetically Engineered Food: The Consumer's Right to Know? AgBioForum. 6 (4): 155-161. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://www.agbioforum.missouri.edu/v6n4/v6n4a02-raab.pdf
Whitman, D. (2000). Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful. Retrieved March 24, 2009 at
genetically modified (GM) foods in the last half of the 20th century created a whirlwind of controversy in the developed. Critics argue that genetically modified foods are unnatural and unsafe, while supporters note that genetically modified foods can improve crop yields, increase nutrient content, and improve food safety. Over the past decades, the production and distribution of genetically modified foods in North America and Europe has long been discussed, and governmental controls have been implemented. In contrast, many African countries have not had the opportunity to develop GM food policies. hen the U.S. offered genetically modified foods as part of an aid package to African countries in the past years, the act renewed the controversy around genetically modified foods.
This paper will focus on the debate surrounding the use of genetically modified foods as food aid to African countries. First, a brief background to the GM food industry, and GM…
Batalion, Nathan. 50 Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Foods. 05 November 2003. http://www.cqs.com/50harm.htm
Bhattacharya, Shaoni. New Scientist Online News 14:06-25 June 03. 05 November 2003. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993874
Brissenden, Michael. U.S.-EU war over genetically modified food intensifies. The World Today - Wednesday, 25 June, 2003 12:45:00. Transcript. 05 November 2003. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2003/s888140.htm
Coghan, Andy. New Scientist Online News 19:00-29 January 03. 05 November 2003. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993317
Science is a neutral human pursuit. It is only the application of science that raises potential ethical questions. Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle perfectly exposes the ways science can be manipulated by the hands of its sponsors. Money determines the nature of research, its methodologies, its findings, and its applications. Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma raises similar ethical questions and concerns, focused not on the military but on the food industry. Arguably, the food industry poses far more complicated ethical issues than the military-industrial complex. The military can be viewed as an ethically incorrect institution, as even when it presumably protects the lives of Americans it does so necessarily at the expense of the lives of others. National security is not built on a universal human rights vision, but on a xenophobic model that presumes national superiority and reinforces an "us vs. them" mentality that is at the root…
DuBridge, Lee. "The Social Control of Science."
Ferrie, Helke. "Evidence grows of harmful effects of GMOs on human health." CCPA Monitor. Oct 2011.
Martinelli, Lucia, Karbarz, Malgorzata and Siipi, Helena. "Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food." Croat Med J. 2013;54:91-6.
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma.
genetically modified or altered (GM) crops. Specifically, it will discuss information on GM crops, the risks, the benefits, and how GM crops differ from traditional plant breeding. Genetically modified crops are not new, they have been in existence for many years, but they are extremely controversial - in part because some people do not comprehend their makeup, and in part because they are innovative, and there are still many questions that need to be answered about their affect on people, the environment, and overall health. Basically, GM crops are crops that have been genetically altered through science. Essentially, their DNA, or specific genes, are transferred between one plant and another to create different qualities, such as hardiness, etc. Some people call this "genetic engineering." It takes the best qualities of one plant and mates them with another to create a new sub-species or even species (Editors). These plants are generally…
Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/
Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/
Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." NewScientist.com. 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005. http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35
Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops and Agricultural Hysteria on the Left
One of the most telling images in the modern media of recent date, regarding the issue of genetically modified foodstuffs was the sight of silos of genetically modified seed being sent back from an African nation experiencing a profound crisis of famine. Despite the fact that such seeds would have helped the immediate problem, fears were too great that the nation would be rendered dependant upon subsidized food from the first world, and more to the point, become test subjects for a questionable new technology. However, amongst the strident cries in Europe and Africa against genetically modified produce, which have driven some individuals to engage in 'eco-terrorist' practices of sabotage, the American consumer has become comfortable, one might state, in a kind of blissful ignorance over the debate. American genetically modified crops are not even required to be labeled…
Bigman, David. Editor. (2002). Globalization and the Developing Countries. Oxford University Press.
DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The Environment, Natural Resources and Modern Technology, Ames: Iowa State Press.
DeGregori, Thomas R. (2003).
Origins of the Organic Agriculture Debate. Ames: Iowa State Press.
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.
Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…
Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong: http://www.livestrong.com/article/213053-pros-cons-of-gmo-foods/
FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO: http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo8.htm
WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/are-biotech-foods-safe-to-eat
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.
Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.
This informative article demonstrates…
Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.
Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.
This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]
Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…
1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004
2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,
Vol 182 Issue
3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,