On a biological level, consumption of genetically modified foods means the potential for "pleiotropic and insertional effects," Dona explains on page 165. Pleiotropic refers to the possibility that a gene may have more than one affect on the food. The above-mentioned effects could result from an increase of "anti-nutrients"; and moreover human health could be impacted due to the use of "viral DNA," Dona continues (165). The pleiotropic affect could actually cause "…the silencing of genes, changes in their level of expression, or, potentially, the turning on of existing genes that were not previously being expressed" (Dona, 165). All of this potential interaction could biologically lead to "…the disruption of metabolism in unpredictable ways" and in the process lead to the emergence of "new toxic compounds" (Dona, 165).
Increasing the anti-nutrient level in food should not be acceptable to science or to regulators, Dona continues, because heat-stable anti-nutrients (like phytoestrogens,…… [Read More]
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS
isks and Perceptions Analysis of Genetically Modified Foods
Genetically modified foods have the potential of solving many of the issues that are present in respect to feeding the world's population; especially as it grows to an estimate nine billion by the end of the century. The technologies can create crops that are able to resist certain insects and are more suitable to grow in less than ideal environmental conditions. However, on the other hand, there are some real and perceived risks that are associated with these technological developments. There seems to be a general perception of skepticism regarding the safety of gene technology and the fears of potential negative implications that these modifications could produce rest in the collective consciousness of the public. This brief synthesis will consider a few of the factors that are associated with the continued use and development of genetically modified foods.…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Foods
hat are Genetically Modified Foods?
Genetically modified foods (GMF) are created through a biotechnological process known as genetic modification (GM). Genetic modification -- also known as genetic engineering -- alters the genetic makeup of plants, according to the Human Genome Project (HGP). Actually what scientists are doing when they genetically modify a plant is to combine certain genes from different plant species to basically change the DNA in the resulting plant species.
The HGP paper reports that in 2006, some 252 million acres of "transgenic crops" had been planted in twenty-two countries by 10.3 million farmers. These crops (corn, soybeans, cotton, alfalfa, rice, sweet potatoes and canola) were planted in order to reportedly resist insect infestation. The sweet potatoes were modified in order to "…resist…a virus that could decimate most of the African harvest" (HGP). Fifty-three percent of those crops were planted in the United States; 17%…… [Read More]
One of the most interesting articles, "Genetic Engineering Risks," really described the issue with GMOs: the difference between genetically engineered organisms and their non-engineered counterparts is usually just one gene or a handful of genes and genetically engineered organisms have new genes that are put into their DNA using molecular technology; they would not have been able to do this with traditional breeding methods. "Because such a small fraction of genes is typically altered by genetic engineering, the possible risks or ecological effects of this new technology lie with the particular effects these novel genes have on physical and physiological characteristics (the phenotypes) of the newly transgenic carriers."
The fact that there is still genetically modified food happening is outrageous. I really think that it is one of the most important topics that the world faces today. So many studies have shown that genetically modified foods may cause negative health…… [Read More]
Protection and preservation of the environment through increased yields and reduced use of chemical pesticides and herbicides. This is because genetically modified foods grow at a faster rate and in bigger quantities which means less forest land is cleared for agriculture and the natural habitats and biodiversity is preserved. The crops are also made pest and disease resistant which means that less pesticides and herbicides are used which could pollute the environment and the underground and surface water. Drought resistant crops and seeds mean that there is less water that is needed in the growing of the crops thereby preserving the limited water supplies.
The genetically modified foods are more nutritious as they can be infused with important minerals and vitamins that are essential for preventing malnutrition. An example is the creation of the golden rice that contains beta-carotene which is converted to vitamin a in the human body. This…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Foods - Economics
Genetically Modified Foods
Genetically modified (GM) foods are changing how people in developed countries eat. There are also many economic questions surrounding them. According to Anderson (1998), society is moving toward a genetically modified world. The food the world eats, from meat to grains, fruits, and vegetables, is all going to eventually become GM food. This food can be made to be resistant to all kinds of pests and predators, which can mean less waste (Anderson, 1998). That saves a lot of money for farmers and growers, but the health concerns of GM food should not be ignored (Anderson, 1998). This particular study will provide significant insight when it comes to the true economic cost of GM food as well as the considerable human cost that also has to be considered. Often, only the economics are addressed, or only the human cost (health and safety)…… [Read More]
John Stuart Mill believed in the subjugation of individual interests for the sake of society as a whole, but only when necessary. Of course, determining when such subjugation is necessary is not at all simple, and this is the task in which Mill distinguished himself as a philosopher. In his treatise on moral philosophy, "Utilitarianism," Mill proposed the "greatest-happiness principle" a sort of pseudo-mathematical, economic equation to determine the desirability of a particular action. (Mill, 1863, p. 87). This principle holds that one must always act so as to produce the greatest aggregate happiness among all sentient beings, within reason.
Principles of Political Economy
Closely connected with Mill's Utilitarianism were his views on economics, especially political economy. In "Principles of Political Economy and Some of their Applications to Social Philosophy," Mill argued that producers should be able to operate without government interference, which, in modern terms, would associate him…… [Read More]
Genetically modified (GM) foods have been a hot topic of conversation over the last decade. Environmental groups, public interest groups and governmental agencies have all voiced their opinions over the increasing development and use of genetically modified foods. Genetic engineering involves transferring genes from one species of living organism to another, to provide some sort of benefit. Although the genetic modifications are typically performed on crops, such as corn and soybeans, there has also been experimentation with livestock as well. Some see genetically modified foods as simply a technological advancement that will benefit society. Others see genetically modified foods as posing significant concerns to human health and the environment.
The industry plays a significant role in this concern, as much of these genetically modified foods are allowed to enter the food chain without full disclosure to consumers. Instead, the industry should be ensuring that consumers know exactly what…… [Read More]
GMO Food Labeling
Genetically modified foods (genetically modified foods) have been an issue of controversy since their early development. genetically modified foods refer to organisms that are intended for human or animal consumption that have been modified artificially to enhance certain plant traits. Some of these traits include pesticide resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, cold tolerance, drought tolerance, salinity tolerance, improved nutrition, pharmaceuticals, and phytoremediation, which is the use of plants and animals to remove toxins from the environment. These traits promised to improve human lives and to help resolve some of the environmental issues that currently plague our society. The controversy surrounding genetically modified foods is not their use or their necessity in human society, it is fear over unintended circumstances that could have a negative affect on human lives. It will support the safety of genetically modified foods due to a lack of empirical evidence to the contrary.…… [Read More]
GMO peaking Notes
Thank you all for your time today. Our team is here to discuss the nature of genetically modified and engineered foods in order to evaluate their role in food service and consumption today. We have several presenters here to discuss the various elements of the presentation, all of whom will walk you through different aspects of the current environment. I will be discussing the economic factors surrounding the increased use of genetically modified foods.
The high prevalence of genetically modified and engineered foods is a relatively recent phenomenon. As seen in this graph, prior to the late 1990s, there was much lower rates of genetically modified foods in the market. 1997 actually proved a crucial year, proving to be the beginning of a steady incline of the use of genetic engineering for use in the agricultural and food industries.
One of the first crops to see significant…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetically modified foods (GMOs) are a broad group of plants, animals, and bacteria whose genetic material is artificially manipulated through genetic engineering. Although GMOs are endorsed as the best solution to malnutrition in developing countries, I posit that they should be banned due to the adverse effects they might have on both human health and the environment. According to Peel (2005), the health and environmental risks posed by GMOs include: their potential to be toxic to both animal and human consumers, including organisms that may not be targeted, such as butterflies; adverse effects from agricultural chemicals used to make GM crops herbicide resistant; the possibility that GM crops might transfer the altered generic to other conventional crops with implications for biodiversity; and the risk of all GMOs becoming an evasive species that cannot be controlled by their creators. Moreover, government oversight of their production, distribution and use…… [Read More]
genetically modified foods, and discussed some of the arguments for and against genetically modified foods. The paper looks, in particular, at the decision by the U.S. To send GM grain, via the WFP of the UN, as part of their food aid to Africa. The paper concludes that the U.S. were not correct in their decision to send GM grain to Africa, were incorrect in forcing African nations to accept the GM grain, and indeed, acted unethically through their decision to act as they did.
The debate about genetically modified foods has been raging amongst academics, the media, and lay people for more than a decade now: whether they should be allowed, whether they should be sold, whether they are safe, whether they are an answer to the problem of starvation amongst developing nations. All of these questions, and many more, regularly raise their heads for debate, but the truth…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Foods
With the emphasis lately on stem-cell research and cloning, consumer interest seems to have waned about genetically altered fruits and vegetables. Or has it? The answer to this question is of interest to a wide range of consumer businesses and organizations and & D. agricultural firms due to the socio-economic impact. According to a peer-reviewed article in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, "Who do consumers trust for information: the case for genetically modified foods?," by agriculture and economics professors at several U.S. universities, the United States Department of Agriculture and Monsanto company, determining the answer to this query not relatively easy. As the article states, "the introduction of new goods, however, creates a disequlibrium (Hausman, 1996), which in turn creates a demand by economic agents for objective information to assist in making decisions on adoption and use (Schultz, 1975). The consumer's challenge is to sort through…… [Read More]
Geneticly-Modified Crop Economics
Genetically-Modified Crop Economics
Economic Issues: Consider production, consumption, costs, variables of supply-demand, corporations, private enterprise, impact on the nation's economy (employment, displacement, outsourcing).
Are certain industries impacted more than others?
As it relates to genetically-modified foods and crops, there are several major industries involved. Obviously, the main industry involved would be agriculture. The genetically-modified crops are used for a variety of reasons. First, the modified crops can be used to discourage or stop certain insect infestations or disease infestations in the crops. Another reason for the modifications can be to get good yield as well as large units on the crops such as larger tomatoes, more wheat and so forth. ome agencies and people in general are very leery or even hostile towards genetically modified crops and they actively resist the free flow and sale of these goods and/or they want warnings to be posted on the…… [Read More]
Genetically modified or genetically modified foods have been calling global attention for both their benefits and risks. genetically modified foods have been described as foods manufactured from organisms whose genetic material or DNA is artificially modified (WHO 2014). The change is done by infusing a gene into the organisms from another or different organism. Most genetically modified foods are recently produced from plants. The prospects are to derive them from GM microorganisms or animals in the future. The purpose is to optimize yield while increasing resistance to plant disease and/or tolerance to the effects of herbicides. Other prospects include modifying the very nutrients contained in foods, controlling causes of allergy, or raising the efficiency of food production systems themselves. For protection, all these modified foods should be thoroughly and appropriately screened before launching into the market. Codex guidelines by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the WHO are used to…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Food
Genetic engineering is one of the breakthroughs in the agricultural sector introduced in the last four decades. Traditionally, agricultural production relied on natural methods such as crossbreeding to achieve the desired plant species. Such methods were associated with disadvantages such as its slow nature and inability to produce the desired plant traits in the desired period. However, the introduction of genetic modification led to the elimination of these barriers. Genetic engineering is faster as compared to the traditional crossbreeding as it involves the extraction of a gene from the desired plant species and introducing into a DNA of different plant. Among the perceived benefits associated with the genetic modified food crops, include having more yields as compared to the conventional food crops, its economic nature, safety for human consumption, and lack of evidence for its harm to the environment. Despite this, the issue of genetic…… [Read More]
Then in May 2000, honey on sale in supermarkets was found to be contaminated with GM pollen from British crop trials. Two out of nine samples show contamination" (Chapman 2006:5). The results of an analysis by Fox (1999) confirmed this cross-contamination of pollen: "The pollen produced by these plants, carrying new genes, cannot be contained. As a result, genetic pollution of natural crop varieties and of wild plant relatives may occur. Unlike other forms of pollution, genetic pollution is uncontrollable, irreversible, and permanent, posing a major threat to biodiversity and to the bio-integrity of the entire life community" (Fox 1999:37). Despite the findings of these studies, in 2000, the National Research Council emphasized that based on its research, it was unable to identify "any evidence suggesting that foods on the market today are unsafe to eat as a result of genetic modification" (quoted in ooster 2001 at 58).
Moreover, Morse…… [Read More]
These ideological views are bolstered by the numerous views propounded against GM products. Others see the GM products in a religious and philosophical light as a misguided attempt to control nature. "The central problem underlying all of this technology is not just its short-term benefits and long-term drawbacks, but the overall attempt to "control" living nature based on an erroneous mechanistic view. " (atalion, J.)
In conclusion, the above discussion reveals the potential offered by GM crops and foods with regard to developing countries. While on the one hand the benefits of GM technology seem overwhelmingly obvious, yet there are numerous counter arguments that must be taken into account. Many countries in Southern Africa for example have taken advantage of genetically modified foods, but there is still a strong mistrust in many areas. On the other hand, some very cogent and wary arguments are put forward by those opposed to…… [Read More]
The Arguments for and Against GMO's
Arguments in Favor of GMO's
Arguments against GMO's
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Arguments
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are controversial. There are many proponents that argue GMO's provide significant social and economic benefits, while those against the technology argue there are potential disadvantages, including risks to health and the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the issue of GMOs, looking first at what they are, and then considering the advantages and disadvantages associated with GMO use.
GMO's are organisms, including plants and animals where there has been an alteration to the organisms DNA which did not take place naturally (Elena et al., 2013). The creation of GMO's is usually referred to a biotechnology, but it may also be called recombinant DNA technology of gene technology (Elena et al., 2013). The process of creating GMO's involves the researchers identifying…… [Read More]
United States and around the globe on the use of Genetically Engineered Food (GEF) indicate the rate at which people are very worried about GEF. According to Bereano (20011, pg. 279) we have different cultural and religion background which most occasions used to determine the kind of food we eat. There are a good number of people who are vegetarians who are required to know what they eat, whether it contains meat contents. Muslins and Hindus too do not eat pork or any kind of food which has pork has one of the ingredients. Most importantly, the opinion poll has showed that many consumers do not trust GEF and therefore they need to be labeled in the market to give consumers a choice whether to buy GEF or other food.
However, an attempt by the government to stop the labeling of genetically engineered food (GEF) is like taking away the…… [Read More]
FSMA Preventative Controls Rule and GMO Labeling
During his campaign Donald Trump pledged to roll back regulations. Upon entering the White House, President Trump made good on that promise with the January 30, 2017, Executive Order (EO) entitled “Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs.” The EO directed federal agencies to abolish two regulations for every new regulation implemented (PMA, 2017). In terms of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), food safety advocates are concerned that producers may look forward to rolling back the current labeling law that requires produces to label products that contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as such on their Nutrition Facts Panel. This issue is important because the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) implemented new Nutrition Facts Panel requirements most recently in 2016 so that consumers could feel more confident about making purchases. The Vermont GMO mandatory labeling law went into effect in July of…… [Read More]
The Case Against Genetically Modified Foods
Being a farmer is probably one of the hardest professions in the world, largely because of the lack of control that farmers have over their results. They can work tirelessly and still have crops wiped out by inclement weather or insects and other pests. It’s a precarious way to make a living, and genetically modified foods (GMO) at first seemed like a solution to so many of the obstacles present when trying to grow a bountiful crop. For example, GMO crops that are resistant to insects/pests can be achieved by adding a poisonous bacterium to the crops that incorporate a natural insect repellant, yet still safe for human consumption. These means that farmers don’t have to rely so heavily on toxic chemicals to repel bugs and it means the soil has to undergo less manipulation and can maintain its integrity better. While these benefits…… [Read More]
Genetically Engineered Food
Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…… [Read More]
Furthermore, these crops could exhaust soil to such a degree that no more crops could be developed there, and thus contribute to rather than alleviate the problem of world hunger.
Another problem cited by opponents is the danger to biodiversity that might be created by GMO's. Genetically modifying foods may have a negative impact on the environment by destroying biodiversity, according to this group. Proponents however argue that biodiversity is encouraged rather than destroyed by genetic engineering. Indeed, they place it in the same category with modifications that have been brought about in nature itself in order to adjust to different environments, or by human beings in the past.
Biological engineering is a very controversial issue, and it appears that it will remain so for a long time, even while the field grows and develops beyond attempts to stop it.… [Read More]
This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.
Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.
Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…… [Read More]
The safety, or lack thereof, of genetically modified foods is subject to considerable debate in the public sphere. In order to render a reasonable opinion on the subject of feeding GMO foods to my children, I would want to defer to the best available science, and add a dash of reason. The first thing that would need to be established is the methodology by which one assesses the concept of safety. Clearly, there are no safety issues in the sense of GMO foods being poison (i.e. having immediate negative health effects). The question of GMO safety therefore is more a question of long-term impacts on human health.
A major study on the safety of genetically modified foods determined that, based on the traditional human food consumption patterns, there are no safety issues with the consumption of plant-based GMO foods (Konig et al, 2004). Further studies have examined the…… [Read More]
The United States has allowed the use of genetically modified (GMO) foods for human consumption. This has led people to fight for measures to decrease exposure to GMO foods in America. From food labeling to encouraging the purchase of foods that are non-GMO sourced, these measures have painted a stigma on GMO. Several reasons exist for the removal of GMO foods. One reason is that most genetically modified genes inserted into the seeds that yield fruits and vegetables are derived from foreign species like bacteria and viruses (). These bacteria and viruses can cause harm to the human body in the form of sterility, allergic reactions, and deceased livestock.
For example, one article noted that GMO corn may change the histological structure of living organisms if they consume it long-term. The animal they experimented on were two albino adult male rats. “Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes…… [Read More]
For example, if birds feed on seeds and a certain variety of insect, without the seeds, the birds may disappear, and the insects would then overpopulate the area.
In addition, the cost of GM crops is initially high to the farmer. These seeds cost much more to develop and test, and so, they are much more costly to the farmer. They might benefit Third World agriculture in many ways, but few Third World farmers could possibly afford the increased cost of these seeds, and so, they would not be available to a majority of the people that need them the most. Cost is an important factor in the continued growth of GM crops, and so, manufacturers must eventually address the cost of these seeds, and reduce the cost so that more people can afford to plant them.
While no study has found GM food to be harmful to humans, opponents…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Crops
Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.
The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.
Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide.…… [Read More]
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER
The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).
The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…… [Read More]
For this reason, biological containment measures are being developed to control plants by inhibiting gene flow through pollen and/or seed (Eastham and Sweet). For example, outcrossing can be controlled by ensuring that the pollen of the GMO is sterile (Mills, 2006).
3) Explain interest in subject.
I believe GMO technology will greatly benefit society by increasing the availability and quality of food, but, at the same time, I acknowledge real biosafety concerns posed by outcrossing. For this reason, I am interested in molecular strategies for gene containment in GMO crops to ensure that they are responsibly deployed and that they are available for larger-scale commercial release than is currently possible.
Eastham, K. And Sweet, J. (2002, March). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): The significance of gene flow through pollen transfer. European Environment Agency (EEA) Environmental issue report No 28. http://www.mindfully.org/GE/GE4/Pollen-Transfer-Gene-FlowEEAMar02.htm
Genetically modified organism. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism
Mills, N. (2006). Genetically modified…… [Read More]
As such, the question that those who oppose GMOs should be asking themselves is whether people should be left to starve to death basing on the fear of unknown long-term implications of GMOs or not.
Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.
Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.
Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.
Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.
Nottingham, Stephen. Eat your genes: how genetically modified food is entering our diet. 2nd updated ed. London: Zed Books Ltd., 2003
George Kennedy "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified…… [Read More]
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Crops -- America says 'Yes' while the European Union and the Sudan says 'No!
Recently, the famine-stricken nation of the Sudan turned away an entire load of crops and seeds that could have filled the bellies of many of its hungry citizens. hy did it do so? as it madness? No, it was because of the fact that the products in question contained genetically modified crops. "Eat GM or Starve," said the United States, according to an association designed to prevent the introduction of GM crops into the international as well as the national food supply. (OCO, 2004) Proponents of these crops, however, pointed out that the genetic modifications were to make the crops more disease resistant and hardier to the harsh climates of the Sudan.
Genetically modified crops remain one of the most controversial agricultural issues today. Despite fears regarding the safety of these so-called franken-foods,…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Foods
' There has been a great deal of controversy over genetically modified foods (GMOs). First, many individuals and organizations oppose the concept of altering the genetics of foods for any reason. And secondly, there is a hot debate as to whether or not food manufacturers should publish / label their packages as containing GMOs. This paper covers the controversies and provides several angles to the debates.
The way in which companies modify food genetically is through " ... the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup" of the seeds to be changed materially (Schneider, et al., 2014). There are two ways GMOs can be produced through "recombination": either by moving genes from one organism to another organism; or by making changes in genes within an organism "that are already present" (Schneider, p. 1). The changes that occur after being genetically engineered result in…… [Read More]
Peter Andree entitled "GM Food egulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food egulation in Canada." Andree reports on a trade dispute of an ongoing nature over genetically modified organisms occurring between the European Union and the United States and Canada reporting that a "more precautionary approach" has been witnessed recently in regulating GMOs. Andree examines the regulatory approaches toward GMOs.
According to Andree (2006), the regulatory approach in Canada has been influenced greatly by the model in the United States and there have been more than sixty genetically modified foods that Canada has approved upon the basis of "limited sets of compositional and nutritional data" demonstrating the "substantial equivalence to products already on the market." (Andree, 2006, p.377-8) Andree states that there are major differences in the data requirements for GM regulation between that of the European Union and the United States and Canada. The EC regulations…… [Read More]
For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)
In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)
Exclusion of People from the Experiment
If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…… [Read More]
There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City
Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html
Williams,…… [Read More]
Company Strategy: Whole Foods
On the surface, Whole Foods has a unique, almost counterintuitive philosophy. ather than stressing value and volume in terms of food sales, it instead offers more expensive organic and specialty goods. However, its niche marketing strategy has proven to be extremely lucrative. Whole Foods is an interesting case study as a company in the manner in which it has simultaneously capitalized upon popular trends in food without trying to be 'all things to all people.' In 2013, the company had same-store sales growth of 7.5%. It has rapidly expanded: "the company's growth strategy is to seek new locations for its stores in highly populated, often urban, areas. Each store averages around 38,000 square feet, and about 30% of the company's stores were acquired, meaning that they were other health-food stores that were bought out and re-branded as Whole Foods" (Frankel 2013).
Whole Foods' vision and mission…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.
Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…… [Read More]
How Fast Food Restaurants are Reacting to the Shift to More Organic Foods:
To remain competitive, fast food restaurants have had to turn to
innovative products, often redeveloping their product lines, to meet the
changing demands of consumers for organic foods specifically, and healthier
foods in general. The demand for organic foods has been the mechanism for
industry evolution. As noted, McDonalds phased out their supersize menu
items, in response to society's growing health concerns. In addition,
they've begun to offer more healthy menu choices, such as low-fat items and
fresh salads, to their customers, as well as promoting healthy lifestyles
in their marketing campaigns. In the New England area, McDonald's even
replaced their coffee with Newman's Own Organic blend, in an attempt to
take further advantage of more organically-discriminating tastes of
consumers. This move has been well-received in the region. In
addition, new fast food restaurants are being introduced…… [Read More]
sustainability foods eaten humans impact environment. hich foods highest impact environment? hich foods smallest? hy? How, individuals, make decisions-based data? Should information shape public policy? If, ?.
There is presently much controversy regarding sustainability and the diverse strategies people could use with the purpose of getting actively involved in helping the environment. The modern society has seven billion individuals and it is important for the authorities to be able to provide for the needs of these people. A great deal of crops and livestock are raised around the world and dominate most rural landscapes. However, the masses know very little regarding how these resources damage the environment as a result of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and methane gas.
Traditional agriculture has developed into industrial agriculture as society started to express more and more interest in experiencing progress when considering food production. Scientists have started to introduce additives as a means…… [Read More]
A report by Elliot (2009) also refers to other positive aspects of organically grown food. "…research found higher level of antioxidants -- which help the body to combat cancer and cardiovascular disease -- in organic foods" (Elliot, 2009).
In the final analysis it seems from the literature that there is overwhelming evidence to link pesticides in food with serious health issues and problems in children. This is especially critical with regard to very young children who may suffer from cancer and developmental problems as a result of exposure to food that has been contaminated by chemical pesticides. This leads to the recommendation that more should be done by the health authorities to ensure that young children in particular are not exposed to food that may be detrimental to their health.
Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many
Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326
Cancer…… [Read More]
Whole Foods Market
Significant key points
Key financial indicators
Graph of sales growth from year 2002 until 2011.
SWOT and TWOS analysis
TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix
Pros and Cons
Evaluation and control
The Whole Foods Market is a progressive and focused corporation with presence in three developed markets including U.S., United Kingdom, and Canada. The company has achieved growth since its inception. The increasing market share of the company has enabled it to expand in international markets. The company envisions becoming global leader in organic and natural foods market. The competitors in the sector are large stores, supermarkets, and retail outlets with increased presence. The product range of these companies includes a number of related products along with the natural and organic foods.
The company requires maintaining its double digit growth strategy and aims to expand in global market. However the cost of natural and…… [Read More]
Intrapreneurial Opportunity Within 3 Squares Restaurant
Identification of the Opportunity
Squares Restaurant has identified various opportunities it intends to pursue. The most interesting opportunity is the company's strong interest in things like organic eating, healthy diets, and the ability to combat food deserts. The area in which the establishment is located lacks quality food options. Therefore, the company has an opportunity to market healthy, organic food options that can improve the quality of lives. As the baby boomers enter the seniors' age and as the society develops a strong interest in the quality of life, the company can approach this opportunity from various angles to succeed and differentiate from other eateries.
An Assessment of the Opportunity
Today, organic food is one of the growing trends. The consumer demand for organic food has been on the rise in the last five years, which means 3 Squares Restaurant may reap, from such…… [Read More]
A farmer in each year can produce enough food to feed a hundred people, according to Pollan (2001), but this productivity comes with a heavy price: "The modern industrial farmer cannot grow that much food without large quantities of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, and fuel. This expensive set of 'inputs,' as they are called, saddles the farmer with debt, jeopardizes his health, erodes his soil and ruins its fertility, pollutes the groundwater, and compromises the safety of the food we eat" (Pollan, 2001, p. 190). These accrued costs accumulated through generations may lead to catastrophic consequences such as global warming and scarcity of edible food and drinkable water.
The drive to industrial efficiency blinded us to several hidden costs of food production. Orr (1994) identifies six of the costs that, if we intend to maintain sustainable growth, need to be curbed. The first obvious cost of industrial food production is…… [Read More]
As far as society is concerned, the effects of high obesity rates would include: an increase in health care costs, less productivity and increasing disability rates. This is significant, because the information provides a way of seeing the total impact that obesity is having on the individual and society. Where, the overall long-term costs for the individual will mean the possibility of being exposed to a number of different conditions simultaneously. At the same time, society will have to bear the economic impact that obesity rates will have on the economy, as it will lead to higher costs and less productivity. (Vissche 2010 pp. 355 -- 375)
Describe the Way in which the Issue is being Reported
The issue is being reported as a major health crisis that will have long-term implications on the country. During these reports, the high statistics and the total amounts of obesity are usually highlighted.…… [Read More]
Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on iosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.
VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods
The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]
GMO producers also feel that this would give consumers the impression that GMOs are unhealthy or unsafe and that non-GMO crops are preferred (aab & Grobe, 2003).
Valid scientific evidence is lacking as to whether GMOs are healthy or unhealthy in the long run. However, support is building for the position that regardless of the outcome, consumers have the right to know and to make an informed decision. Producers in the U.S. have placed pressure on Europe to withdraw their requirements for the labeling of GMO foods, as they claim that this attitude towards GMO foods will influence decisions in the U.S. (aab & Grobe, 2003). However, so far, these challenges have been met with resistance and labeling practices continue to spread.
On a national level, the battle still rages, but on an international level, the scales seem to tip towards the pro-labeling side and the right of the consumer…… [Read More]
genetically modified (GM) foods in the last half of the 20th century created a whirlwind of controversy in the developed. Critics argue that genetically modified foods are unnatural and unsafe, while supporters note that genetically modified foods can improve crop yields, increase nutrient content, and improve food safety. Over the past decades, the production and distribution of genetically modified foods in North America and Europe has long been discussed, and governmental controls have been implemented. In contrast, many African countries have not had the opportunity to develop GM food policies. hen the U.S. offered genetically modified foods as part of an aid package to African countries in the past years, the act renewed the controversy around genetically modified foods.
This paper will focus on the debate surrounding the use of genetically modified foods as food aid to African countries. First, a brief background to the GM food industry, and GM…… [Read More]
Science is a neutral human pursuit. It is only the application of science that raises potential ethical questions. Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle perfectly exposes the ways science can be manipulated by the hands of its sponsors. Money determines the nature of research, its methodologies, its findings, and its applications. Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma raises similar ethical questions and concerns, focused not on the military but on the food industry. Arguably, the food industry poses far more complicated ethical issues than the military-industrial complex. The military can be viewed as an ethically incorrect institution, as even when it presumably protects the lives of Americans it does so necessarily at the expense of the lives of others. National security is not built on a universal human rights vision, but on a xenophobic model that presumes national superiority and reinforces an "us vs. them" mentality that is at the root…… [Read More]
genetically modified or altered (GM) crops. Specifically, it will discuss information on GM crops, the risks, the benefits, and how GM crops differ from traditional plant breeding. Genetically modified crops are not new, they have been in existence for many years, but they are extremely controversial - in part because some people do not comprehend their makeup, and in part because they are innovative, and there are still many questions that need to be answered about their affect on people, the environment, and overall health. Basically, GM crops are crops that have been genetically altered through science. Essentially, their DNA, or specific genes, are transferred between one plant and another to create different qualities, such as hardiness, etc. Some people call this "genetic engineering." It takes the best qualities of one plant and mates them with another to create a new sub-species or even species (Editors). These plants are generally…… [Read More]
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]
Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops and Agricultural Hysteria on the Left
One of the most telling images in the modern media of recent date, regarding the issue of genetically modified foodstuffs was the sight of silos of genetically modified seed being sent back from an African nation experiencing a profound crisis of famine. Despite the fact that such seeds would have helped the immediate problem, fears were too great that the nation would be rendered dependant upon subsidized food from the first world, and more to the point, become test subjects for a questionable new technology. However, amongst the strident cries in Europe and Africa against genetically modified produce, which have driven some individuals to engage in 'eco-terrorist' practices of sabotage, the American consumer has become comfortable, one might state, in a kind of blissful ignorance over the debate. American genetically modified crops are not even required to be labeled…… [Read More]
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…… [Read More]
There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.
Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…… [Read More]
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…… [Read More]
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.
Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.
This informative article demonstrates…… [Read More]
A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.
Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…… [Read More]