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Some of the grains weather to a pale green colour. In thin section, quartz is the major grain type (~50%) with some microcline (~5%) and some rock fragments (~1%) all in a fine matrix which consists of quartz and/or feldspar, mica and some calcite cement. The majority of the grains have a red-brown altered rim. The rock fragments are possibly reworked sediments" (p. 13).
Analysis by Farrell indicates that this formation is primarily comprised of quartz-rich sandstones, mudstones and siltstones. This authority adds that, "The sandstone should more accurately be called a greywacke and it is the most common rocktype. The formation has a total thickness of about 1096m including the thickness of the two microgranodiorite bodies which intrude it. At the base of the formation (L754 610 and surrounds) there is a body of conglomerate which is part of the Gowlaun member defined by Laird and McKerrow (1970).…
Archer, J.B. 1984, December. Clastic intrusions in deep-sea fan deposits of the Rosroe
Formation, Lower Ordovician, Western Ireland. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 54(4),
Archer, J.B. 2007. Llanvirn stratigraphy of the Galway-Mayo border area, western Ireland.
" These geologic formations formed from large chunks of ice that broke away from the glacier as it retreated. Much like an iceberg, but on the land, these chunks of ice eventually melted and formed small lakes in the indentation formed on the ground where they lay. The largest of the kettle lakes is Lake Ronkonkoma, which formed some 17,000 years ago. ("Formation of Lake Ronkonkoma.")
The most drastic effects on the geology of Long Island came after the last Ice Age and the ocean levels rose. The large amount of melt-water flowed into Long Island Sound, and the shores of Long Island became inundated with water. Also, "the action of the waves and currents aided by the wind have eroded and reshaped the soft glacial sediments to form numerous sandy shoreline features." ("Geology of Long Island") This has caused the formation of a number of islands including Fire Island,…
"Formation of Lake Ronkonkoma." Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
"Geologic History of Long Island Sound" Long Island Sound Resource Center - Home.
Web. 11 Dec. 2011. http://www.lisrc.uconn.edu/lisrc/index.asp
The valley floor itself can experience a variety of topographical changes. As was discussed, the Napa River and other streams deposit clays, shales, and a variety of other river sediments in the valley lowlands, while a historical narrowing of the river has resulted in large concentrations of sedimentary rocks. The Napa River also can flood from late fall to early spring, depositing river sediments far past its typical banks (Larson).
The elevation of the valley also changes as one travels south to north. At the southernmost point of Napa Valley, the elevation is essentially at sea level, but it rises to 362 feet at the northern end, near Calistoga (Larson). The valley also narrows as one moves north, from a width of five miles in Napa to just one mile in Calistoga, where the Mayacamas, Mt. St. Helena and the Vacas close in around it (Larson). The topographical changes across…
Branson, Anne. "Map." Napa Real Estate Web site. No date. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.annebranson.com/images/napa_map.gif
Climate of the Napa Valley." Napa Now. No date. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.napanow.com/climate.html
Geological resources." Watershed Information Center & Conservancy of Napa County. 2005. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.napawatersheds.org/Content/10247/Geological_Resources.html#2
Howell, David G. "The terroir of the Napa Valley ava." The Geological Society of America Web site. 2003. 5 Dec. 2007 http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003AM/finalprogram/abstract_60313.htm
Describe the paths of water through the hydrologic cycle. Explain the processes and the energy gains and losses involved in the changes of water between its three states. Operationally, we are often most concerned with what water does when it reaches the solid earth, both on the surface and in the sub-surface. Explain the relationship between the saturated zone, the water table, a groundwater well and the cone of depression, all within the sub-surface.
In the hydrologic cycle, more commonly known as the water cycle, water moves around the world through a series of reservoirs. ater is always moving through the cycle because of evaporation, condensation and precipitation, surface and underground flow and through various other means (Egger 2003).
ater, as with most things, can change states from solid (ice) to liquid (water) to gas (steam). In changing states, the amount of energy in the water particles changes as…
Campbell, N.A. (1996). Biology. Benjamin Cummings: Menlo Park, CA. 4th.
Cartmill, M. & Smith, F. (2009). The Human Lineage. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.
Certini, G. & Scalenghe, R. (2007). Soil forming factors. The Encyclopedia of Earth. Boston University: Boston, MA.
Committee on Challenges and Opportunities in Earth Surface Processes (2010). Landscapes on the Edge: New Horizons for Research on Earth's Surface. National Research Council. National Academic: Washington, DC.
STRATIGRAPHY PRACTICAL 2 (Term Week 11)
Match the layers based on the changes in gamma readings
Kezza -1: 75m Fine rounded sands with minor silts
220-327m Quartzofelspathic sands
550-1000m Intermixed fine sands and silts
Kezza -- 2 50-150m Smectite-rich greenish marine clays with minor sands
150-300m Angular medium quartzofelspathic sands
350-600m Medium semi-rounded to angular sands
600-800m (terminal depth) Igneous basement
Kezza -- 3 0-100m Coarse poorly sorted sands; Fine sands and silts
100-400m Smectite and illite shale with some silts and thin fine sand beds
400m 530m Medium moderatel sorted sands with significant feldspar grains
530m 660m Coal; Medium sands
660-1000 Coal; Medium sands, Reefal carbonates; (terminal depth) Igneous basement
Kezza -- 4 0-200m Medium-coarse fluvio-deltaic sands
200-360m Fine sands with minor silt/clay interbeds
360-660m Marine shale with minor sand and silt interbeds
66-800m Medium singular sands
800-950m Coal; Quartzofelspathic sands
950-1246m Coal; Medium semi-round sands; (terminal…
Smith went deep into debt and as creditors chased him, he was unable to enjoy any of the fruits of his labor. Forced to sell off his fossil collection, Smith eventually retreated into Northern England and lived as a pariah. Before he did, he also entered into an unwise marriage with a mentally disturbed woman. Smith was also imprisoned for his debt.
Throughout much of his life, Smith received little personal recognition for his work, even from the national Geological Society. The Geological Society, far from honoring Smith, thrust him out of their elitist circle. Toward the end of Smith's life, he was finally offered back some of the recognition he deserved. In 1865, the Geological Society paid long overdue honors to illiam Smith: years after he was dead. Centuries after his death, geologists pay homage to illiam Smith as the "father of modern geology." Smith's maps shifted public perception…
Winchester, Simon. The Map that Changed the World. New York: Harper Collins, 2001.
I am implementing a Phase 1 Investigation to determine the fundamental geology and geophysics of the planet in question. I will describe the critical features and characteristic ranges of the planet. I will also try to ascertain the feasibility of life and the history of this planet. To be successful on our mission, my team and I must study the whole of the planets with an emphasis on comparison and contrast. I plan to use Earth as the basis of our investigation proposal because I know Earth best and also because it is a planet of extremes. It has a crust that is very active as well as an atmosphere filled with water.
Earth is a terrestrial planet and as such has gone through differentiation, cratering, flooding by lava and water, and also has undergone surface evolutions. Differentiation is the separation of planetary material by density. I know Earth…
Water is an important resource of earth and an inevitable requirement of life. There is no life without water; regardless it is human life, animal life or plant life. Water is mandatory for all kinds of life and it is no exaggeration to mention that if life ends, no activity is required on the face of earth. So it is a valid statement that water is life.
The fundamental concepts of economics emphasize on the scarcity of resources and their efficient usage. It is because; there are unlimited consumers of a limited resource. It may be argued that natural resources are unlimited, however, the way human being manages them for maximum benefits becomes a constraint in their capacity. For example, the natural resources of water may be present but to ensure their accessibility to the areas located far from these resources is a burning question. The authorities and responsible…
Scientus. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.scientus.org/Wegener-Continental-Drift.html
US Department of Energy. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol_production.html
A Geologically Based, Imaginative Film
oday's environmentalists often tell the public about the harmful effects of our actions. Yet, despite warnings of too many carbon emissions from vehicles and deforestation woes, our society does not seem to understand just how harmful our actions can be. However, if we do not take action to alleviate these worrisome actions some way, these warnings will turn into reality, and we might not only harm, but kill the planet's most precious life. [1: Gore, Albert. Our Choice. oronto: Random House, 2009. Print. ]
he movie discussed below will therefore provide a context for the harms of our society, albeit an imaginary one. he film, titled Rebirth, will show how humanity has destroyed the Earth's environment to such an extent that humans have been forced to utilize existing means to escape current, deplorable situations on Earth. Unlike the Pixar film, Wall-E, which…
The humans must, again, learn how to either domesticate the dinosaurs, but most likely humans will choose to utilize various chemicals to perhaps feed the dinosaurs by placing the beneficial chemicals in water, or can choose to make dinosaurs artificially repulsed by the tastes of human and modern day animal meat, so that they can ensure that dinosaurs will not eat them.
Another fact to consider would be weather related issues. During the cretaceous period, many things were different. For example, the global temperature was about seven degrees higher than global surface temperatures today. Furthermore, there were virtually no ice sheets and subtropical plants and animals lived far towards the poles we know today. In terms of temperature fluctuations, this period knew period of warmth, so human will most likely not see any winter weather. However, extreme warmth can cause stress on marine life, which can also affect the kinds of foods that humans will be able to find. [7: "The Mid-Cretaceous Period." UW Atmospheric Sciences. Web. 07 May 2011. . ] [8: Hamilton, Jason. "Cretaceous Period." ScienceViews.com. Web. 07 May 2011. . ]
Humans would have to consider the kind of food that they would be able to find to survive. This could be alleviated by bringing some supplies so that humans can adapt from modern to ancient times, however these supplies will not last forever. These are all issues that must be examined scientifically so that we can determine whether humans will actually be able to survive in any dinosaur-based environment. At this moment, due to the fact that humans have never actually been able to have been found as having survived during dinosaur times, it will have to be quite unrealistic to place them in this context. However, science could find a way to either alter environment or place humans in a sort of bubble, in order to help them survive in a pristine Earth.
You are watching Friends on TV and Ross, a paleontologist, mentions he found a dinosaur bone that was trapped in lava 120 million years ago. Your little sister asks you how Ross knows that the dinosaur bone is 120 million years old. Answer her question using the information you learned about isotopic dating in this course.
Isotopic dating uses radioactive material to date rocks. It generally compares the presence of a radioactive isotope with the presence of its decay products. Then, using the known decay rates, this process can lead to a determination of the absolute age of the rocks being. There are different types of isotopic dating, including radiocarbon dating, potassium-argon dating, and uranium-lead dating. Therefore, Ross can compare the level of radioactive isotopes and decay products in the bone or lava to determine that it is 120 million years old.
While on a field trip to the…
The Sunken City Geology
The Sunken City, as we know it today, came to be when a huge portion of Point Fermin, San Pedro, collapsed into the ocean, as a consequence of a massive landslide. This event, which occurred in 1929, left in its wake a trail of destruction. In essence, there are many kinds of landslides experienced in Southern California. These are identified by the U.S. Geological Survey (2017) as “shallow, rapid debris flows triggered by heavy rainfall, rock falls from steep slopes as a result of earthquakes, and sower moving slumps and earth flows on slopes that can fail under many different conditions.” It was the latter that was to blame in the case of the Sunken City.
In addition to being geologically complex, the area south of California has also been known to be tectonically active (the U.S. Geological Survey (2017). According to the Survey,…
Bramlett, J. (2011). Photos: San Pedro is Falling into the Ocean. Retrieved from http://laist.com/2011/11/22/san_pedro_is_falling_into_the_ocean.php#photo-1
Brennan, C. (2015). The Return of the Sunken City: Underwater Community of Exclusive LA Homes that Sunk into the Ocean 80 Years ago Set to Reopen to Curious Explorers. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3079007/Sunken-City-abandoned-Los-Angeles-community-exclusive-coastal-bungalows-slid-ocean-foot-foot-reopen-public-post-apocalyptic-site-teenage-party-spot-decades-long-closure.html
Compaction & Soil Testing Services – CSTS. (2017). Geotechnical Inspections. Retrieved from http://www.comsoiltest.com.au/services/geotechnical-engineering/geotechnical-inspections/
Das, B.M. & Sobhan, K. (2016). Principles of Geotechnical Engineering (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Hyndman, D. & Hyndman, D. (2016). Natural Hazards and Disasters (2nd ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Littlejohn, D. (2015). Sunken City in San Pedro would be Open to the Public during the Day under New Proposal. Retrieved from http://www.dailybreeze.com/2015/05/11/sunken-city-in-san-pedro-would-be-open-to-the-public-during-the-day-under-new-proposal/
Mutton, K. (2009). Sunken Realms: A Complete Catalog of Underwater Ruins. Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press.
Scholl, S. (2009). Beaches and Parks in Southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Geology: Critique of the Story Of Stuff
Geology: Critique of Story of Stuff
Annie Leonard's video documentary on the "materials economy" and the consumption-disposal mentality paints a picture of a world of: unsustainable resource usage, environmental degradation, and human health concerns. Throughout the video, Ms. Leonard cites a myriad of examples to support her claims however; many of these claims which are purported as fact are either blatantly incorrect or a clever misleading of the truth. Her statement that "government's job is to watch out for us and take care of us" (The Story of Stuff) is one such example. Debates have been waged for centuries on the proper role of government, and such an all encompassing statement on government's size and scope can hardly be construed as a definitive fact. That said an analysis of the video's veracity is better conducted in the context of the scientific "facts" which…
Global Forest Watch. (2000). United States: An Overview. Retrieved December 10, 2010
Hawken, P. Lovins, A. & Lovins, L. (1999). Natural Capitalism. Little Brown and Company, pp. 4. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from http://www.amazon.com/Natural-Capitalism-Creating-Industrial-Revolution/dp/0316353000#reader_0316353000
The Story of Stuff Project. The Story of Stuff Video. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from http://www.storyofstuff.com/
A recent study though, suggests that over five thousand years ago, the Arctic had considerably less sea ice in the summertime than today, but it was not apparent whether the Arctic was totally free of sea ice in the summertime throughout that time.
8) What is the difference between the seasonal patterns of Arctic Ice in comparison to Antarctic Ice?
The model of Antarctic maximum sea ice is generally symmetric around the pole, shaping a circle around Antarctica. On the other hand, the Arctic is asymmetric, with a lot more ice in some longitudes than in others.
9) What is the explanation for these variations?
These variations take place because of the way the currents and winds move. In the Antarctic there are not disruptions in the currents and winds around the continent from the west to the east. This works as an obstacle to the warmer air and water…
National Snow and Ice Data Center. (2008). Retrieved from http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/faq.html
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…
Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/mappingbook.pdf
Choi, CQ (2012) Jupiter's Moon's Ocean May Be Too Acidic for Life. Space. Retrieved from: http://www.space.com/14757-europa-moon-ocean-acidic.html
Jovian Planets vs. Terrestrial Planets (2012) Buzzle. Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jovian-planets-vs.-terrestrial-planets.html
" (New York Daily Times, 1854)
The liquor law plays a role in the aforementioned news story of the day. Socio-economic issues were tied in directly to socio-political and socio-economic issues as was the case not only in Maine but throughout the new union as well. Socio-political and socio-economic links were abundant in the south and were critical to the start of the bitter Civil War battles. Just after this period, the commencement of the Civil War in 1861 to its end in 1865. The period just after the culmination of the Civil War is known as the period of econstruction, which defines the era of post war rebuilding and strengthening of socio-economic, socio-political, and socio-cultural ties.
Maine's exposure to these periods after 1857 was not as prolific as were in many areas of the union and the confederacy. In fact, there were no Civil War battles fought on Maine…
Fisher, Jim. "MAINE; the Northern Wilderness Corridor: [ALL Edition]." Telegram & Gazette: F.1. ABI/INFORM Complete. Jun 20, 1993. Web. 30 May 2011 .
"Politics in Maine." New York Daily Times (1851-1857): 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2007). Jun 28, 1854. Web. 30 May 2011 .
"The Drouth in Maine." New York Daily Times (1851-1857): 4. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2007). Nov 21, 1854. Web. 30 May 2011 .
http://www.hwlongfellow.org / http://www.mainehistory.info/history.html
Geology of a egion for Potential Useable Aquifers, Characteristics to Consider
Aquifers are geological features that are found in several areas with equitable characteristics and geological capabilities. Formation of aquifers is thought to have taken place a long time ago, though some of them must have formed recently. The movement of debris and underground water amounts to the formation of different geological features that have a significant impact on human activities in the future. For instance, aquifers can act as sources of clean water when they are identified for use. Formation of aquifers requires certain specifications. This means that aquifers cannot be found at any place (Lutgen & Tarbuck, 2011).
A number of geological features can act as guiding measures when looking for aquifers. First, it is necessary to look for regions that have a lot of gravel. Gravel refers to tiny crystalline rocks that are formed due to sedimentation…
Lutgen, F.K., & Tarbuck, E.J. (2011). Foundations of earth science (6th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Geology Means to Me chose to take a close look at slope formations on the hills that my house resides upon. In doing so, I wanted to emphasize my observation of the variables that existed on the hillside that potentially could end up resulting in a hazard or disaster to my home. The reason I am choosing this method of analysis is to see if I can make my observations serve a practical goal, specifically, the safety of my home.
A first began to think of all the things that could go wrong on a hillside. I thought of a few hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, slope collapse, and even fire as the main natural hazards that could affect the safety of my home. I took a walk down the street, crossed through a broken gate, and walked onto public property. I was now at the head of a large…
discovered solar system and how it works. Using this solar system as an example the writer develops a basis for a believable solar system in another area and describes its functions and actions.
The discovery of the new solar system is very exciting and the world is eager to explore its fundamentals and its possible future use. The world is going to organize a team of scientists that will explore the new solar system using carefully modulated steps with which to discover its workings and elements.
Phase one is going to be an attempt to discover its atmospheric elements. Much like this solar system has atmospheres that contribute to the ability for life to exist on earth, and possibly other planets it is suspected there are similar atmospheres in the newly discovered solar system. We are going to determine what the planets' atmospheres are comprised of and whether or not…
Reference Date: 12:00 UT 1 Jan 2000 (JD 2451545.0)
Julian centuries from reference date
Goddard Space Flight Center O4 Model
Dipole field strength: 4.28 gauss-Rj3
esides these two cavern systems, there is another system of caves located in Mexico known as the Cave of Crystals which lies far beneath the Chihuahuan Desert and currently produces large amounts of lead and silver. This cavern system is also made up of limestone; however, the crystals found in this system are unlike any found in the world, for they were formed by the action of super-heated magma which allowed some of the crystals to grow to enormous sizes, some being almost thirty-seven feet long (Palmer, 251). Unfortunately, like other cavern systems located outside of the U.S., on-going efforts are currently being made to preserve this system and others from individuals who only wish to profit from the selling of crystals on the black market.
In conclusion, it should be noted that there are other cavern systems scattered around the world, especially in Europe, which are not limestone-based; rather,…
"Carlsbad Caverns National Park." 2007. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from http://www.carlsbad.caverns.national-park.com/info.htm#geo .
"Crystal Cave, Put-in-Bay, Ohio." 2009. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from http://www.mineraltown.com/Reports/celestite/giant_celestite_crystals.php?idiom a=2.
Gilbreath, Alice. Nature's Underground Palaces: Caves and Caverns. New York: David
McKay Company, 2000.
K-5 Geology Lesson
COLLABORRATIVE FIFTH-GRADE GEOLOGY LESSON
The objectives should be separated into those that relate to the course material and those that relate to the collaborative component. Regardless of the instructor's choice of methodology, students should understand that both aspects are equally important. To maximize student appreciation that working together efficiently and learning about geology are equal components of the practical lesson, the instructor should devote appropriate class discussion time to each element separately during the introductory lesson.
The substantive material should constitute roughly the first third of the lesson, including a discussion of the varied roles of geologists and the many useful applications of geology in the sciences, industry and technology. Ideally, the in-class discussion about geologists provides a transition to the second third of the lesson and the importance of collaborating with co-workers, in general, and particularly in the sciences. The final third of the…
In fact, the entire damage was caused by the tsunami itself along with other factors like the geology and geography of the region. The damage that the tsunami caused to mainland India, a seismically quiescent region, was concentrated mainly on the eastern coastline but some damage due to diffraction also occurred on the southernmost tip of the western coastline. A factor which played a major role in the scale of devastation that occurred in this region is the bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is quite shallow with an average depth of 2600 meters. The shallowness can be attributed to the huge amount of sediment that the Ganges iver deposits in it. (Strand; Masek, 40)
After the earthquake, the bay was sealed off by the deep Sunda Trench and the tsunami waves were reflected back towards the Indian Ocean striking the eastern Indian coastline within two…
Bernard, Eddie N; Robinson, Allan R. The Sea Tsunamis.
Harvard University Press. 2009.
Bilham, R; Engdahl, E. R; Feldl, N; Satyabala, S.P. Partial and Complete Rupture of the Indo-Andaman plate boundary 1847-2004. University of Colorado, Boulder.
Seism. Res. Lett. 2005.
The effects of liquids are not a factor in regional metamorphism as fluids cannot circulate due to the effects of pressure upon the rocks, which seal in the circulation of moisture. egional metamorphism occurs in areas of heavy tectonic activity, near the places where the earth's plates rub up against one another. "egional metamorphism can be subdivided into different pressure-temperature conditions based on observed sequences of mineral assemblages. It may include an extreme condition, where partial melting occurs" (Jessey & Tarman 2010). egional metamorphism is commonly found in mountain regions (hence the name regional metamorphism), consisting of foliated rocks developed under medium to high temperatures. "The accompanying pressures vary from low to high. Geothermal gradients, which are likewise moderate to high, produce Buchan and Barrovian Facies series. Because the pressures of Buchan and Barrovian Facies series are commonly higher than are those of Contact Facies Series, they may contain different…
Contact metamorphism. (2010). Pomona College. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
Jessey, Dave. Metamorphism. (2010). Geology 101. Pomona College. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century," Mortenson (2003) offers an apology for and defense of the Christian creation story. The author's primary defense of the iblical creation story is that there are "social, moral, and spiritual implications" of believing in science. The strengths of the article include the fact that it is mildly entertaining, appeals to a specific audience, and provides some insight into the history of science and ideas in the nineteenth century. The weaknesses of the article include erroneous claims and false assumptions. Therefore, the weaknesses of the article outweigh its strengths.
rief Overview and Main Points
"The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century" is a brief article that primarily outlines the evolution of scientific thought regarding the origin of the Earth. Mortenson (2003) refers to Enlightenment-era scientists and their theories of how the…
Because Mortenson's (2003) article is written for a Christian audience, it is effective in that it supports the Christian worldview. Readers cannot demand more of Mortenson, because the author has never attempted to offer any substantive or logical argument. The article achieves the goal of enabling Christians to deny science, in part by saying that science has been associated with social decay and moral decline. Mortenson (2003) truly believes in the Biblical creation story as being a fact, which is his prerogative.
Mortenson, T. (2003). The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century. Retrieved online: https://answersingenesis.org/age-of-the-earth/origin-of-old-earth-geology-and-ramifications-for-21st-century/
MacDougall may point out these facts but whilst doing so he refrains from the typical alarmism that often accompanies these tracts. It is unlikely that Earth will be (as per many of the alarmists) transformed into another melting Venus, and the oceans can still absorb much of the CO2 that we are creating, although MacDougall does admit that we are destroying hordes of the marine population at the same time. He also says that our ability to release carbon emission into the atmosphere will decrease with time since our known oil deposits are rapidly dwindling.
Earth has already experienced one interglacial warming period; the extra carbon in the atmosphere aggravates the situation. Earth too is impeded form reflecting the sun's energy back into space due to the constant melting of the polar ice caps and other glaciers, thus the warming is accelerated and intensified.
The last 20,000 years have been…
MacDougall, D. (2011) Why Geology Matters University of California Press, USA
The physical geology of the earth consists of a Core (inner and outer), the mantle, the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The lithosphere is the crust and upper mantle of the earth that is the hard and rigid layer in which humans live. This portion of the earth reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through erosion and weathering, resulting in the soil forming process (Johnson, 2006). These layers of the earth are constantly in motion, giving us the Plate Tectonics, or Continental Drift, theory. Briefly, the theory states that the continents move across the molten plate of the earth -- drifting over time based on the rotation of the earth. The early evidence for this, of course, was that the eastern part of South America and Western Part of Africa fit together quite well. However, studies after 1958 show that there are three major reasons why the "drift"…
Frankel, H. (2012). The Continental Drift Controversy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, R. (2006). Plate Tectonics -- Great Ideas in Science. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Company.
United States Geological Society. (2009). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved from:
components to the principle of uniformitarianism: the first is that the principles that can be applied to the Universe nowadays have always been applicable in the same manner. The second implies that these principles occur and are applicable everywhere in the Universe. With this in mind, if occasional catastrophic events such as the ones described have occurred in the past on Earth, they could occur again, in a similar manner, today or in the future. So, if the dinosaurs became extinct following a meteorite impact, another such impact could hit the Earth in a similar manner, leading to another large scale extinction.
Geologic processes include diverse ways in which the Earth's surface is modeled. These include soil erosion or desertification. If an area has been significantly eroded, this could lead to devastating floods. At the same time, other geologic processes can lead to tsunamis. As a consequence, it is obvious…
Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.
The taconite iron ore extraction process
The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…
Broman, A (2011)'Silent Majority' Backs Penokee Mine: Gogebic Taconite President
Cannon, W.F., (1973)The Penokean orogeny in northern Michigan, in Young, G.M., ed., Huronian stratigraphy and sedimentation: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper
Clements, B and Sack, C (2008)Introduction to Mining in the Penokees
Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies
Terry Mortenson's "The origins of old-earth geology…" is quite an interesting read. The author covers a fair amount of both scientific and religious history in a relatively short amount of text. He writes with a certain scholarly flair, and is discussing pivotal information about the history of the earth and how that has been interpreted by men of different religious convictions. Typically, articles that address these two concepts diametrically oppose them. To Mortenson's credit he actually bridges these two concepts, and elucidates little known history in the process.
Mortenson's work largely details the history of the time-honored debate between what he terms "old-world geologists" and "scriptural geologists" (Mortenson, 2003) regarding an accounting of the earth's history and point of origination. The several men who encompass the former group tended to believe that the earth is much older than the age ascribed to it in the…
Mortenson, T. (2003). The origins of old-earth geology and its ramifications for life in the 21st century. www.answersingenesis.org. Retrieved from http://www.answersingenesis.org /articles/tj/v18/n1/old-earth-geology
As these waters froze, they trapped soil, rocks, and debris within them, and it is this trapped debris that scours the landscape and creates the very recognizable signs of glacial activity on the geology. Eventually, as the glaciers melted, they deposited this debris throughout the state in areas called "terminal moraines." The authors continue, "Large morainal deposits are found south of the Finger Lakes area, and extend in places to the Pennsylvania line" (Amos et. al, 1968). This indicates the activity and influence of glaciers throughout the area, as morainal deposits can be found throughout the state if you know where to look. Another sign of this glacial activity is deep depressions in the landscape. Today, many of these deep depressions are lakes and streambeds that were formed as the glaciers carved their way throughout the state.
Geologists have determined that ice ages like this one that helped form New…
Amos, Fred C., James S. Wishhart, Charles F. Wray, Robert M. Eaton and David E. Jensen. 1968. Getting acquainted with the geological story of the Rochester and Genesee Valley areas. Rochester Academy of Science.
Explaining variations in Ice Age onsets. 2000. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), June, 9.
Gunn, Angus M. 2001. The Impact of geology on the United States: A reference guide to benefits and hazards. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Structural Geology and Plate Tectonics
This concerns the changes in the formation of the earth crust and mantle from the smallest to the largest, such as a series of mountains (UWYO, 2011). Conducting a study of these changes requires a conduct of fieldwork in coordination with other scientific disciplines, such as geophysics, geochemistry and petrology. The University of Wyoming has conducted such fieldwork on the different active and ancient areas of crustl and mantle changes. This fieldwork continues at present on topics, including continental and oceanic extensional tectonics, aboriginal arc-continental collisions, fault systems, crustal studies, fold and fault features and direct dating of these changes (UWYO).
These studies looked into the Archean depths in Wyoming province, the Rocky Mountain, the Alps, the Colorado River, the Carribean and the San Andres fault (UWYO, 2011). Researchers have swam and dug into thousands of meters into the ocean in order to look and…
Noble, M.A. (2015). Processes that shape the surface of the earth. Vol. 11 Earth System History
and Natural Variability: Encyclopedia of Life Support System. Retrieved on July 17, 2015
UWYO (2011). Structural geology and tectonics. Department of Geology and Geophysics:
Paleozoic time period. Two internet sources, author.
The Paleozoic -- Geological History
Six major continents were present by the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, as the supercontinent had started to break apart during the latest Proterozoic period. Each of these continents can be separated into two principal constituents: a craton and one or several mobile belts. In contrast to the geological history of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic periods, there is lesser information concerning the Paleozoic era because the development of Pangaea led to the destruction of magnetic anomaly patterns that would normally be preserved in ocean crust. Experts thus focused on other concepts in trying to find out more regarding the period's geological history, such as how plants and animals were distributed and other structural relationships.
In addition to the six major continents present during the beginning of the Paleozoic, there were also a series of other microcontinents. Even with…
Fielding, Cristopher R., Frank, Tracy D., and Isbell, John L., "The late Paleozoic ice age revisited," EOS, TRANSACTIONS AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, VOL. 87, NO. 8,-PAGE 87, 2006 doi:10.1029/2006EO080005.
Wicander, Reed, and Monroe, James. S., "Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time," (Cengage Learning, 25.05.2012)
"The Carboniferous Period," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the University of California website: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/carboniferous/carboniferous.php
ising From the Plains
John Mcphee, a writer of creative nonfiction books, started writing about the earth in 1985. He described the structure and movement of the earth's crust and mantle based on geology. He focused on the theory called plate tectonics which describes the earth's crust as several plates that bump with each other while gliding over the mantle. That theory was accepted only in the latter part of 1960's (decades after this idea was put forward for consideration), based upon geologic beliefs (Quammen, 1998). ising from the Plains is a good book in itself but can be seen as a sequel to his two earlier books namely In Suspect Terrainand Basin and ange. The book revolves around the ocky Mountains' geology and an adjacent terrain in Wyoming, both of which are near Interstate 80. The life story of David Love, a ocky Mountain geologist, and his household was…
Hannibal, J. (n.d.). Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from Library Journals LLC: https://www.buffalolib.org/vufind/Record/428564/Reviews
Long-Term Landscape Evolution of the Colorado Front Range and its Foreland. (2016). Retrieved from Colorado University Papers: http://cires1.colorado.edu/science/groups/tucker/documents/info_for_prospective_students_nov10.pdf
Maher, S. (2014). Deep Map Country. University of Nebraska Press.
McPhee, J. (1986). Rising from the Plains. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
These waterfalls provide a contrast to Blue Mountain and other mountains. As mountains rise, waterfalls fall. Another question that this project is focused on is the different ways in which waterfalls and mountains are valued differently as well as how they are valued the same in other situations.
This is how the government of Ontario describes and honors the Niagara Escarpment:
Designated a UNESCO World Biosphere eserve in 1990, the Niagara Escarpment is an internationally recognized landform and is the cornerstone of Ontario's Greenbelt. A landscape of rich biodiversity, home to hundreds of Ontario's Species at isk, vital watersheds, agricultural areas and 450-million year old geological history, the Niagara Escarpment is a treasure to protect for future generations of Ontarians. (Niagara Escarpment)
Perhaps it is that waterfalls can be seasonal while mountains remain all year round. But for a mountain that is defined by snow as opposed to just by…
Blue Mountain Skiing, http://www.bluemountain.ca/
Campbell, C.E. (2005). Shaped by the West Wind: Nature and history in Georgian Bay. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Harris, R.C. (Ed.) (1987). Historical Atlas of Canada, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1800. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Niagara Escarpment, http://www.escarpment.org/home/index.php
Natural overburden includes silty clay, silty peat, and silty sand (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2). Overburden is generally thin, averaging 3 meters in most areas, but can go up to 9 meters at times (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2). Native soils primarily reside in areas of low topography.
This topography allows for constant movement and shifting of overburden. Rainy seasons create excessive water flows, which travel down slopes to the low-lying areas and into the waterways. These areas of low topography are of particular concern, as they tend to accumulate deposits of contaminants.
Groundwater and surface water in the area are altered by man-made structures placed by the mining company. ater travels through the area by means of the overburden and the bedrock. In the area of the main mine, water flows primarily through bedrock (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2).Groundwater flows in a generally southeasterly direction. ater flows towards the major waterways such as the Moira…
British Columbia Ministry of Environment. Arsenic in Groundwater. February 2007. www.env.gov.bc.ca/wsd/plan_protect_sustain/groundwater/library/ground_fact_sheets/pdfs/as (020715)_fin3.pdf
CH2MHill. Deloro Mine Site Cleanup. Mine Area Rehabilitation Alternatives. Final Report. Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 2003. http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/techdocs/4915e.pdf .
McAndrew, B. Ministry kept town in dark over arsenic, group says. Tuesday 11 June 1999 the Toronto Star, http://www.e-b-i.net/ebi/Deloro/articles/del990611.html
US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Arsenic in Drinking Water. 2006. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic/index.html
Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).
The transport network in any region is highly…
Cutter, S.L., et al. (Eds) (2003). Geographical dimensions of terrorism. London: Routledge.
DeMers, M.N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Wiley.
Greene, R.w. (2002). Confronting catastrophe: A GIS handbook. Redlands: ESRI Press.
Jha, M.M. & Singh, R.B. (Eds.) (2008). Land Use-Reflection on Spatial Informatics, Agriculture and Development. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
Also he seems sincere in his presentation and his beliefs.
Article eaknesses: Mortenson's attempt to discredit the many years of authentic science is flawed; it is obvious he is attempting to build a case against evolution and insert his narrow Christian viewpoint, but it doesn't work very well. His assertion that evolution has "…come under considerable fire in the past four decades" and that there is "strong scientific evidence against evolution" is absurd. The only groups that attack the science from Darwin's discoveries -- and the plethora of empirical scientific fossil-based, geologic discoveries subsequent to Darwin's work -- are evangelical Christian groups, religious fundamentalists who want creationism published in high school textbooks next to evolution data, and others that accept creationism as fact.
Another assertion in this article that is patently ridiculous and bizarre is the notion that if Genesis is "rejected as literal accurate history" in a matter of…
Mortenson, Terry. (2003). The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from http://www.answersingenesis.org .
"Water is starting to become an issue" in Harper County, Kansas, where groundwater reserves are running dry (Vaidyanathan and Gilmer, 2012). Low rates of precipitation, coupled with diversion of groundwater to the oil industry, are threatening to diminish available water used for farming and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of groundwater in Harper County, Kansas and the flow rate of pumps in order to prepare for the future.
Harper County is in south-central Kansas, and abuts Oklahoma. The county "lies partly in the Wellington Lowland minor division of the Arkansas iver Lowland section of the Central Lowland province and partly in the ed Hills minor division of the Dissected High Plains section of the Great Plains province," (Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960). More recent geological surveys divide Harper County into six main areas: the Upland area, the Bluff Creek area (with Pleistocene deposits), the…
Barlow, Paul M. And Leake, Stanley A. 2012. Streamflow Depletion by Wells -- Understanding and Managing the Effects of Groundwater Pumping on Streamflow. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved online:
An article in the Saturday Evening Post relates the story of a scientific party in a whaling boat on the Bering Sea in the early 20th Century "witnessed an awesome sight when, with mighty roars, fire and smoke and exploded lava shot out of the water, casting ashes and pumice all over" (Hubbard, p. 10). and, Hubbard adds, "Not infrequently huge gas bubbles hurtle upward from the ocean bottom to burst with a roar and allow the separated waters to crash back into place, sending huge geysers into the air."
Conclusion: There is much to be learned about the formation, age, and tectonic truths of ancient seafloor ridges like Bowers and Shirshov, but in this writer's opinion, the evidence points to those ridges having been formed by volcanic activity (hotspots and spreading) but at this time they are likely subduction zones.
Hubbard, Bernard R. "The Disappearing Island." The…
Hubbard, Bernard R. "The Disappearing Island." The Saturday Evening Post. December 17, 1932. pp. 10-11, 50-52.
New Geology. "Shock Dynamics: Alaska." Retrieved May 4, 2008, at http://www.newgeology.us/presentation14.html .
Scholl, David W. "Viewing the Tectonic Evolution of the Kamchatka-Aleutian (KAT)
Connection With an Alaska Crustal Extrusion Perspective." In Volcanism and Subduction:
Both, ironically, are forms of pressure that also cause heat and changes. Water for instance, is so abundant on earth that it drives much of weathering and erosion. Precipitation, acidic soil water and groundwater dissolve mineral and rocks; serpentinization from heated seawater causes destruction of volcanic rock or changes in other seabed rocks; and the presence of water and carbon dioxide change rock as well. This is the manner in which the carbon and water cycle continually interact to change rock.
Plate tectonics, on the other hand, show that there are large scale motions within the earth that move, converge, and drive materials from deep inside the earth towards the surface and vice versa. Zones within the 8 or 9 major plates (subduction zones) form slabs of crust that become embedded and then if pressured enough with heat and more pressure, contribute to the evolution of rock. In addition, one…
All About Plate Tectonics. (2010). Enchanted Learning. Cited in:
Rocks and the Rock Cycle. (2011). Windows to the Universe. Cited in:
Heinrich events are one of the most discussed and debated phenomena related to global climate change. For each theory proposed related to the cause or effect of a Heinrich event, there is a theory contrary to the concept. Theories relating to the binging and purging of ice sheets, cyclic changes in atmospheric conditions, and the thermohaline circulation disruption of the North Atlantic Ocean all play a part in the discussion of Heinrich events. While the debate of the causes of Heinrich events is still ongoing, the effects of the events are well documented, and are clearly substantial in relation to changes in the global climate.
This paper discusses the history of Heinrich events, and will discuss current theories of their origin. Additionally, this paper will outline the scientific method for discovering more information of Heinrich events, and their relationship to the Bond Cycle, Milankovitch Cycles, and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations. Finally,…
Bond, G., H. Heinrich, W.S. Broecker, L. Labeyrie, J. McManus, J. Andrews, S. Huon,
R. Jantschik, S. Clasen, C. Simet, K. Tedesco, M. Klas, G. Bonani and S. Ivy. (1992).
Evidence for massive discharges of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period. Nature, 360, 245-249.
Bergeron, L. (1997, Jan. 4). Wobbling world brings iceberg surges. New Scientist, 153(2063), 14.
Article weaknesses: On page two the authors write, "hat else can we say about the Ethiopian and Kenya Rifts? Quite a lot actually." This is very sophomoric narrative for scientists to be putting forth. Using a cliche like that tends to lessen the value of the science. It takes the authors quite a long time to get to one of the most interesting points of the article. That is, the rifting is important in terms of understanding human evolution. It seems like that fact could have been placed at or near the front of the article. There are many "hominid fossil finds" in the rift, which means that the evolution of humans can be traced by scientists because the evolution of the rift itself is giving clues to human evolution.
The weakness here is because the authors waited until the last page to present something about humans that is far…
Wood, James, and Guth, Alex. (2007). East Africa's Great Rift Valley: A Complex Rift System
Geology.com. Retrieved July 14, 2012, from http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml .
Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism
Today, modern scientists understand that the Earth is billions of years old, they have a basic understanding of how the Earth was formed and how it developed over the eons that it has existed. However, this was not always the case and until the late 1800's, most scientists had no idea of the age of the Earth or how it had changed over time. But in the late 1700's a Scottish scientist named James Hutton carefully observed the world around him and came to the conclusion that the sedimentation observed in bedrock must take place at a very slow rate of speed and must be made up of "materials furnished from the ruins of former continents." ("James Hutton") This idea has been called "Uniformitarianism" and for its development, Hutton has been awarded the title of the "Founder of Modern Geology."
Hutton's ideas were in sharp contrast to…
"James Hutton: The Founder of Modern Geology." Earth: Inside and Out. 2000,
American Museum of Natural History New Press. Retrieved from www.amnh.org/education/resources/rfl/web/essaybooks/earth/p_hutton.html
Lutgen, F/K., Tarbuck, E.J. (2011). Foundations of Earth Science (6th ed.) Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
junior high school level easy understand reviewing journal article "East Africa's
Man has continually wondered about his original development -- how continents were formed and how humanity evolved. Studying a system of rifts that occurred in Africa can possibly give insight into this process. This theme is discussed in Wood and Guth's article, "East Africa's great rift valley: a complex rift system." The authors explain a number of different things about rifting such as what it is and how it occurs, and then relate it to the development of mankind and the formation of continents which are currently on or beneath the surface of the planet.
BIEF OVEVIEW AND MAIN POINTS
This article is structured fairly well, although it is not necessarily structured logically. Still, there are several headings that one can simply glance at to get an overview of the main points of the article. The article begins with…
Wood, J., Guth, A. (No date). East africa's great rift valley: a complex rift system. www.geology.com Retrieved from http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml
"Historical Notes - Vancouver's Voyage." 7-14 December 1929. Mount ainier Nature Notes. .
"Mount ainier Volcanic Hazards eponse Plan." July 2009. .
Parchman, F. "The Super Flood." 19 October 2005. Seattle Weekly. .
Service, U.S. Forest. "Eruption: May 18, 1980." January 2010. Mount Saint Helen's National Volcanic Monument. .
Signani, L. "The Height of Accuracy." 19 July 2000. Point of Beginning. .
U.S. Geodynamics Committee and the National esearch Council. Mount ainier: Active Cascade Volcano. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1994.
University, Dept. Of Geological Sciences - San Diego State. "Stratovolcanoes." January 2004. How Volcanoes Work. .
Watson, J. "Principal Types of Volcanoes." 6 Feburary 1997. United States Geological Survey. .
Wood and Kienle, eds. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
"World Top 50 Mountains By Prominance." January 2009. Peakbagger.com. .
Zimbelman, ye and Landis. "Fumeroles in Ice Caves on the Summit of Mount ainier." Journal…
"Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan." August 2006. Pierce County Washington. .
Driedger, C. "Glacier Flow - Mount Rainier." January 1993. U.S. Geological Survey. .
Drieger and Scott. "Mount Rainier - Living Safeluy With a Volcano in the Backyard." 2008. Cascades Volcano Observatory - USGS. .
Duncan and Burns. The National Parks: America's Best Idea. New York: Knopf, 2009.
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.
Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).
Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.
London: Icon Books Ltd.
Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer
There are several groups involved in fighting the Yucca Mountain site, including local grassroots organizations in Nevada and larger organizations around the country. Many Native American tribes do not support the site, as it is located on their ancient tribal lands. The Nevada Piutes are one group who is organized in opposition to the site, as are several other western Native American tribes. A larger organization is the Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, a group who opposes the site for a number of reasons, including transportation safety issues, the geology of the site, and the fact that other sites were not seriously considered.
What are the future prospects of Yucca Mountain? That is still not clear. Congress OK'd the dumpsite in 2002, but since then, many things have changed politically in Washington and around the country. Many groups and citizens are protesting the dump, mainly due to safety and transportation…
Editors. "Earthquakes in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain." State of Nevada. 1996. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.state.nv.us/nucwaste/yucca/seismo01.htm
Editors. "Yucca Mountain Repository." U.S. Department of Energy. 2007. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov/ym_repository/index.shtml
Fraud Allegations Roil Yucca Mountain Project." Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2005: 20+.
Rosenheck, Dan. "Digging a Deeper and Deeper Hole." New Statesman 29 Sept. 2003: xxii+.
There he exhibited 125 of his large Pacific coast views and had more than a thousand images accessible for view through stereoscopes. During these years, he traveled further afield in search of new subjects: he sailed to the barren Farallon Islands, twenty-six miles off the California coast; he photographed the geysers of Sonoma County; he traveled to Mount Shasta in the northern part of the state; and he documented the massive hydraulic gold mining operations in the Sierra Nevada foothills (Watkins' Life and Works, 2010).
Watkins received support in his travels from his friend Collis Huntington, a principal in the Central Pacific ailroad, who offered him a flatcar to carry his van filled with photographic materials. By 1869 the Central Pacific line had pressed through the Sierra Nevada Mountains, allowing Watkins to take photographs of the wilderness landscapes that could now be seen by railroad travelers. Throughout the final years…
Friedel, Megan K. (2010). Carleton Emmons Watkins (1829-1916). Retrieved July 31, 2010,
from The Oregon Encyclopedia Web site:
Hill, Eric. (2004). Carleton E. Watkins. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from Web site:
"Analytical data on fluid inclusions are needed to understand the chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of economic mineral deposits. These data are also critical in understanding modern mineral-deposit models, which promote cost-effective mineral exploration vital to our healthy industrial economy" (Analysis of fossil fuels, 2008). Because fluid inclusion research can provide scientists with details about the past and can help provide helpful information about the present-day, and perhaps the future, it is an important area of geological study.
Air bubbles, amber, and dinosaurs. (2008). etrieved March 14, 2009 from USGS.gov. Web site: http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/gips/na/amber.html#amber
Analysis of fossil fluids and gases from tiny time capsules. (2008). etrieved March 13, 2009 from USGS.gov. Web site: http://minerals.cr.USGS.gov/gips/na/fluid.html#fluid
Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble. (2009). etrieved March 15, 2009 from Institute of Geosciences, University of Leoben, Austria. Web site: http://institute.unileoben.ac.at/mineralogie/Fluid_Inc_Lab/Flinc_Lab.html#what
Carey, P. And Parnell, J. (2004). Fluid inclusion analysis. etrieved March 15,…
Air bubbles, amber, and dinosaurs. (2008). Retrieved March 14, 2009 from USGS.gov. Web site: http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/gips/na/amber.html#amber
Analysis of fossil fluids and gases from tiny time capsules. (2008). Retrieved March 13, 2009 from USGS.gov. Web site: http://minerals.cr.USGS.gov/gips/na/fluid.html#fluid
Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble. (2009). Retrieved March 15, 2009 from Institute of Geosciences, University of Leoben, Austria. Web site: http://institute.unileoben.ac.at/mineralogie/Fluid_Inc_Lab/Flinc_Lab.html#what
Carey, P. And Parnell, J. (2004). Fluid inclusion analysis. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from Geotrack International Pty Ltd. Web site: http://www.geotrack.com.au/fluidinclusion.htm
Scientists at times fail to recognize that their assumptions and hypotheses can be incorrect. Proving conclusively that another probability exists than the one that has been accepted for decades, Marsh's work has repercussions not only for his own discipline, but also for other areas of study that pertains to ancient history.
further understanding of the earth's crust, its formation and its evolution can shed valuable light on the working of fault lines and earthquakes as they manifest themselves today. In terms of modern society, this can further prove very important in saving lives by more accurately predicting major earthquakes. With new developments, the study of the earth's crust can also help to identify areas of possible instability when building new homes or places of business.
In terms of the wider scientific community, discoveries such as those mentioned in the article forms a valuable basis for interdisciplinary study. In this way,…
Articles such as the one mentioned here is encouraging in terms of both science and life on earth. It provides valuable information for future study and can very well contribute to solving the ecological problems created by technology. Whether directly or indirectly, this discovery may very well mean the future survival of the inhabitants of earth. At least in the short-term, studies of the earth's crust can mean saving lives that would otherwise be lost to earthquakes that are either unexpected or of unexpected strength and intensity. I believe that scientists will continue to shape our reality and create a brighter and more viable future not only for human beings, but also for all life on earth.
Johns Hopkins University. "Magma P.I.' Unearths Clues to How Earth's Crust Was Sculpted." ScienceDaily 14 December 2007. 26 January 2008 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071203135731.htm .
As the mantle heats and cools unevenly, areas of differing density slowly move through the mantle. As they do, these areas of density variance have effects on surface features on the crust. For instance, there is a denser mass in the mantle shaped like a mushroom thousands of miles across and rising 900 miles from the Earth's core. The gentle rise of this mass has had the immediate effect of producing the African superswell, proof that motion in the mantle can have vertical as well as horizontal effects on the crust (Gurnis 40).
The lessons learned from the African superswell have been applied with great success in other parts of the world -- such as North American and Australia. The result has been a new understanding of the inner dynamics of the Earth. The motions of the mantle account for complex uplift situations throughout the world, and a deeper understanding…
Gurnis, Michael. "Sculpting the Earth from Inside Out." Scientific American 284.3 (Mar. 2001): 40-47.
Cross-correlation allows us to determine whether adjoining traces are sufficiently similar to calculate accurate picks. Traces are first converted to number arrays and neighboring traces are compared according to gated sections. The addition of sample-by-sample multiplication generates a single number plotted at the gate center. The same process is repeated for successive gates. The cumulative process allows the generation of a cross-correlation. Time shift is determined by the largest positive value, which also corresponds to the numerical similarity of any two traces.
That process is followed by determining the maximum advisable price. That figure is generated by the total hydrocarbon value minus their total development cost multiplied by the probability of success. A first well (Well a) must be drilled to determine the presence of hydrocarbons. If Well a yields hydrocarbons, a second well (Well B) is drilled to determine the downdip limits of the reservoir and provides both volumetric…
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.
Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.
Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…
Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation
Demonstrate effective communication skills
• I have expanded my vocabulary to include standard practical and theoretical business concepts and I have increased my proficiency with digital technology communications media. I have learned how to coordinate my vocabulary, language, and persuasion efforts to specific audiences depending on whether they are laypeople, professionals, colleagues, or strangers. This skill is extremely important within the military, in particular, because communications that are standard among service members are often incomprehensible to civilians and because civilian communications may be too imprecise to convey the minimum necessary information and distinctions typically communicated best through highly specialized terminology.
• I have improved my ability to use email and other forms of technology to communicate in a professional manner. That also includes a greater understanding of the manner in which different communications media typically require the communicator to consider how various communications efforts might…
Aquifers and Mass Wasting
Factors considered when identifying potential aquifers
Depth to water table: Water table refers to that depth below the earth's surface below which there is permanent availability of water. Potential aquifers are mostly located in the region where the water table is relatively closer to the surface of the earth.
Presence of highly permeable soils: Permeability of the soil influences the ability of rainwater or rather surface water to infiltrate into the lower layers of the earth. A region whose soil is permeable is most likely to have critical aquifers. On the other hand, a region with impermeable soil limits water into infiltration to form aquifers.
Presence of flat terrain: Terrain refers to the degree at which the land slopes. Surfaces with flat terrain discourage surface run-off and instead enhances water infiltration into the lower layers of the earth. As a result, the aquifer formed is critical…
Bocanegra, E.M., et al. (2005). Groundwater and Human Development. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis
Petersen, J.F., et al. (2011). Physical Geography. London: Cengage Learning
Robins, N.S. (1998). Groundwater Pollution, Aquifer Recharge, and Vulnerability. London: Geological Society
Stewart, J.M., et al. (2007). Physical Geology: Exploring the Earth. London: Cengage Learning
Metamorphic, Igneous, And Sedimentary Rocks and Their Application to Planets in the Solar System
The objective of this study is to examine metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks and their application to planets in the solar system.
There are reported to be three primary classes of rocks, which are classified according to their origination. The three rock types are metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when bodies of magma cool. As time passes and the rocks undergo process due to various weather cycles the igneous rocks erode and the particles and chemicals, which settle into beds, become compressed or cemented forming into what are known as sedimentary rocks. In the event igneous rocks are buried and then undergo a high state of heating and compression they form into what are known as metamorphic rocks. Eventually, the rocks undergo heat and compression and then melt with the molten rock…
Basic Rock Types (2012) Zooinverse. Geology Basics. Retrieved from: http://www.moonzoo.org/Geology_Basics
Major Rock Types (2012) Rocks & Other Mineral Sources. Retrieved from: http://www.galleries.com/rocks/default.htm
Nelson, SA (2012) Earth Structure, Materials, Systems, and Cycles. Tulane University. Retrieved from: http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/Natural_Disasters/struct%26materials.htm
These mountains surrounding the area have had an influence on much of the Great Valley's climate.
Particular to the valley is grassland which, in fact, has earned a name for itself and an advocate in this sense. Great Valley Grasslands State Park thrives on preserving whatever grassland is left in the region of San Joaquin Valley. The Valley allows for the nourishment of such wild flower as lupines, California Poppies, and Purple Owl Clover. Mountain runoff created wetlands habitats throughout the years, leading to the formation of marshes. Although they are not common anymore, they supplied the right environment for such trees as the Black illow, which is a water loving tree. Riparian oodland is also to be found in the Great Valley, as it is common to the Mojave Desert, however, their existence within the regions of the latter has been burdened by the tamarisk.
Spreading across the coast…
Schoenherr, a.A. (1995). A Natural History of California. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Foundation Comparison: Burj Khalifa vs. Taipei 101
This report aims at assessing the foundation of the world's tallest and second tallest skyscrapers; the Burj Khalifa Tower in Dubai and Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan. Currently, Burj Khalifa is the world's tallest building taking over the title from Taipei 101 topping out at a height of 828 metres. Khalifa is built on silty sand and sandstones while Taipei 101, with a height of 509 metres stands on two tectonic faults with silty sand and clay soils. Both Burj Khalifa and Taipei 101 are built on deep type foundations but with almost-similar soil conditions. Due to the weak and collapse-prone soils these building are built on, various site investigation techniques were initiated prior to the construction to determine each site's soil conditions and build foundation likely to hold the structures firmly. In this regard, this report highlights the rationale behind these foundations…
Baker, W.F., & Pawlikowski, J.J. (2009). The Design and Construction of the World's Tallest Building: Pushing Technology to New Heights. Structural Engineer, 12-19.
Bianchi, S., & Critchlow, A. (2010, January 4). World's Tallest Skyscraper Opens in Dubai. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from www.wsj.com: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703580904574638111667658806.html
Binder, G. (2008). Taipei 101. Mulgrave, Australia: The Images Publishing Group Pty Ltd.
Bunce, G., & Poulos, H.G. (2008). Foundation Design for the Burj Dubai -- The World's Tallest Building. 6th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, (pp. 1-16). Arlington, Vancouver.
role of potassium argon dating within the field of archaeology. How it works and what methods are used to glean the date from archaeological artefacts and remains.
Potassium argon and the archaeologist
The majority of the world's archaeological sites are now so ancient that there is no actual way of giving them a complete and secure chronological date that radio-carbon dating can provide. However, here are many techniques for dating within the field of archaeology, one of these methods is the K-Ar (Potassium-Argon) method which has been a vast success within the field of geology (the study of earth).
It is possible to date rocks with a low potassium content such as basalts in this way. Sadly the dates are not always secure due to the behaviour of the geochemicals of the parent and daughter elements as they are likely to being disturbed by geological events such as weathering or…
Gamble, C (1994) The Peopling of Europe: Oxford Illustrated Pre-History of Europe Cunliffe, B (ed) Oxford University Press. Oxford Fagan, B. (1998) People of the Earth Longman. New York
McKie (2000) Ape Man BBC Worldwide; London
Stringer, C and Gamble C (1993) In search of the Neanderthals Thames and Hudson: London
Fagan, B. (1998)
Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), German meteorologist, Arctic explorer and a brilliant interdisciplinary scientist, is best known as for his theory of "continental displacement" (that became famous, later, as the theory of continental drift). Since the technological means for proving the theory had not yet been developed and the idea was a radical departure from the scientific thinking of the time, Wegener's theory was widely rejected during his lifetime. After gradual accumulation of evidence in support of the idea, the theory finally gained acceptance in the early sixties. This paper gives a brief biography of Alfred Wegener, his theory of continental drift and other contributions to the world of science.
Early Life & Education
Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin. His father was a minister and ran an orphanage. Even as a young boy Wegener was interested in walking, skating and hiking that he put to use…
Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bowege.html
Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html
Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at http://pubs.usgs.gov /publications/text/wegener.html
Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003