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Penokee Range in Wisconsin We
Words: 4206 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86159333
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Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.

The taconite iron ore extraction process

The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…


Broman, A (2011)'Silent Majority' Backs Penokee Mine: Gogebic Taconite President 

Cannon, W.F., (1973)The Penokean orogeny in northern Michigan, in Young, G.M., ed., Huronian stratigraphy and sedimentation: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper

Clements, B and Sack, C (2008)Introduction to Mining in the Penokees

Old Earth
Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 52341150
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Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies

Terry Mortenson's "The origins of old-earth geology…" is quite an interesting read. The author covers a fair amount of both scientific and religious history in a relatively short amount of text. He writes with a certain scholarly flair, and is discussing pivotal information about the history of the earth and how that has been interpreted by men of different religious convictions. Typically, articles that address these two concepts diametrically oppose them. To Mortenson's credit he actually bridges these two concepts, and elucidates little known history in the process.

Mortenson's work largely details the history of the time-honored debate between what he terms "old-world geologists" and "scriptural geologists" (Mortenson, 2003) regarding an accounting of the earth's history and point of origination. The several men who encompass the former group tended to believe that the earth is much older than the age ascribed to it in the…


Mortenson, T. (2003). The origins of old-earth geology and its ramifications for life in the 21st century. Retrieved from /articles/tj/v18/n1/old-earth-geology

Glaciers in the Development in
Words: 743 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24244757
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As these waters froze, they trapped soil, rocks, and debris within them, and it is this trapped debris that scours the landscape and creates the very recognizable signs of glacial activity on the geology. Eventually, as the glaciers melted, they deposited this debris throughout the state in areas called "terminal moraines." The authors continue, "Large morainal deposits are found south of the Finger Lakes area, and extend in places to the Pennsylvania line" (Amos et. al, 1968). This indicates the activity and influence of glaciers throughout the area, as morainal deposits can be found throughout the state if you know where to look. Another sign of this glacial activity is deep depressions in the landscape. Today, many of these deep depressions are lakes and streambeds that were formed as the glaciers carved their way throughout the state.

Geologists have determined that ice ages like this one that helped form New…


Amos, Fred C., James S. Wishhart, Charles F. Wray, Robert M. Eaton and David E. Jensen. 1968. Getting acquainted with the geological story of the Rochester and Genesee Valley areas. Rochester Academy of Science.

Explaining variations in Ice Age onsets. 2000. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), June, 9.

Gunn, Angus M. 2001. The Impact of geology on the United States: A reference guide to benefits and hazards. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Learning More About What Processes Change the Surface of the Earth
Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72161887
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Structural Geology and Plate Tectonics

This concerns the changes in the formation of the earth crust and mantle from the smallest to the largest, such as a series of mountains (UWYO, 2011). Conducting a study of these changes requires a conduct of fieldwork in coordination with other scientific disciplines, such as geophysics, geochemistry and petrology. The University of Wyoming has conducted such fieldwork on the different active and ancient areas of crustl and mantle changes. This fieldwork continues at present on topics, including continental and oceanic extensional tectonics, aboriginal arc-continental collisions, fault systems, crustal studies, fold and fault features and direct dating of these changes (UWYO).

These studies looked into the Archean depths in Wyoming province, the Rocky Mountain, the Alps, the Colorado River, the Carribean and the San Andres fault (UWYO, 2011). Researchers have swam and dug into thousands of meters into the ocean in order to look and…


Noble, M.A. (2015). Processes that shape the surface of the earth. Vol. 11 Earth System History

and Natural Variability: Encyclopedia of Life Support System. Retrieved on July 17, 2015


UWYO (2011). Structural geology and tectonics. Department of Geology and Geophysics:

Paleozoic Time Period Two Internet Sources Author
Words: 747 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72796887
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Paleozoic time period. Two internet sources, author.

The Paleozoic -- Geological History

Six major continents were present by the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, as the supercontinent had started to break apart during the latest Proterozoic period. Each of these continents can be separated into two principal constituents: a craton and one or several mobile belts. In contrast to the geological history of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic periods, there is lesser information concerning the Paleozoic era because the development of Pangaea led to the destruction of magnetic anomaly patterns that would normally be preserved in ocean crust. Experts thus focused on other concepts in trying to find out more regarding the period's geological history, such as how plants and animals were distributed and other structural relationships.

In addition to the six major continents present during the beginning of the Paleozoic, there were also a series of other microcontinents. Even with…

Works cited:

Fielding, Cristopher R., Frank, Tracy D., and Isbell, John L., "The late Paleozoic ice age revisited," EOS, TRANSACTIONS AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, VOL. 87, NO. 8,-PAGE 87, 2006 doi:10.1029/2006EO080005.

Wicander, Reed, and Monroe, James. S., "Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time," (Cengage Learning, 25.05.2012)

"The Carboniferous Period," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the University of California website:

Rising from the Plains
Words: 1815 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 56336464
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ising From the Plains

John Mcphee, a writer of creative nonfiction books, started writing about the earth in 1985. He described the structure and movement of the earth's crust and mantle based on geology. He focused on the theory called plate tectonics which describes the earth's crust as several plates that bump with each other while gliding over the mantle. That theory was accepted only in the latter part of 1960's (decades after this idea was put forward for consideration), based upon geologic beliefs (Quammen, 1998). ising from the Plains is a good book in itself but can be seen as a sequel to his two earlier books namely In Suspect Terrainand Basin and ange. The book revolves around the ocky Mountains' geology and an adjacent terrain in Wyoming, both of which are near Interstate 80. The life story of David Love, a ocky Mountain geologist, and his household was…


Hannibal, J. (n.d.). Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from Library Journals LLC:

Long-Term Landscape Evolution of the Colorado Front Range and its Foreland. (2016). Retrieved from Colorado University Papers: 

Maher, S. (2014). Deep Map Country. University of Nebraska Press.

McPhee, J. (1986). Rising from the Plains. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Blue Mountain Big White on
Words: 1979 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11912502
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These waterfalls provide a contrast to Blue Mountain and other mountains. As mountains rise, waterfalls fall. Another question that this project is focused on is the different ways in which waterfalls and mountains are valued differently as well as how they are valued the same in other situations.

This is how the government of Ontario describes and honors the Niagara Escarpment:

Designated a UNESCO World Biosphere eserve in 1990, the Niagara Escarpment is an internationally recognized landform and is the cornerstone of Ontario's Greenbelt. A landscape of rich biodiversity, home to hundreds of Ontario's Species at isk, vital watersheds, agricultural areas and 450-million year old geological history, the Niagara Escarpment is a treasure to protect for future generations of Ontarians. (Niagara Escarpment)

Perhaps it is that waterfalls can be seasonal while mountains remain all year round. But for a mountain that is defined by snow as opposed to just by…


Blue Mountain Skiing, 

Campbell, C.E. (2005). Shaped by the West Wind: Nature and history in Georgian Bay. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Harris, R.C. (Ed.) (1987). Historical Atlas of Canada, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1800. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Niagara Escarpment,

Deloro Mine Remediation Evaluation of
Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 59594372
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Natural overburden includes silty clay, silty peat, and silty sand (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2). Overburden is generally thin, averaging 3 meters in most areas, but can go up to 9 meters at times (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2). Native soils primarily reside in areas of low topography.

This topography allows for constant movement and shifting of overburden. Rainy seasons create excessive water flows, which travel down slopes to the low-lying areas and into the waterways. These areas of low topography are of particular concern, as they tend to accumulate deposits of contaminants.

Groundwater and surface water in the area are altered by man-made structures placed by the mining company. ater travels through the area by means of the overburden and the bedrock. In the area of the main mine, water flows primarily through bedrock (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2).Groundwater flows in a generally southeasterly direction. ater flows towards the major waterways such as the Moira…

Works Cited

British Columbia Ministry of Environment. Arsenic in Groundwater. February 2007. (020715)_fin3.pdf

CH2MHill. Deloro Mine Site Cleanup. Mine Area Rehabilitation Alternatives. Final Report. Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 2003. .

McAndrew, B. Ministry kept town in dark over arsenic, group says. Tuesday 11 June 1999 the Toronto Star,

US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Arsenic in Drinking Water. 2006.

Role of Geoinformatics in 21st
Words: 2707 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83456614
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Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).

The transport network in any region is highly…


Cutter, S.L., et al. (Eds) (2003). Geographical dimensions of terrorism. London: Routledge.

DeMers, M.N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Wiley.

Greene, R.w. (2002). Confronting catastrophe: A GIS handbook. Redlands: ESRI Press.

Jha, M.M. & Singh, R.B. (Eds.) (2008). Land Use-Reflection on Spatial Informatics, Agriculture and Development. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.

18th and 19th Century Geologists
Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 90114032
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Also he seems sincere in his presentation and his beliefs.

Article eaknesses: Mortenson's attempt to discredit the many years of authentic science is flawed; it is obvious he is attempting to build a case against evolution and insert his narrow Christian viewpoint, but it doesn't work very well. His assertion that evolution has "…come under considerable fire in the past four decades" and that there is "strong scientific evidence against evolution" is absurd. The only groups that attack the science from Darwin's discoveries -- and the plethora of empirical scientific fossil-based, geologic discoveries subsequent to Darwin's work -- are evangelical Christian groups, religious fundamentalists who want creationism published in high school textbooks next to evolution data, and others that accept creationism as fact.

Another assertion in this article that is patently ridiculous and bizarre is the notion that if Genesis is "rejected as literal accurate history" in a matter of…

Works Cited

Mortenson, Terry. (2003). The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from .

Groundwater Water Is Starting to Become an
Words: 1205 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82993937
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"Water is starting to become an issue" in Harper County, Kansas, where groundwater reserves are running dry (Vaidyanathan and Gilmer, 2012). Low rates of precipitation, coupled with diversion of groundwater to the oil industry, are threatening to diminish available water used for farming and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of groundwater in Harper County, Kansas and the flow rate of pumps in order to prepare for the future.

Harper County is in south-central Kansas, and abuts Oklahoma. The county "lies partly in the Wellington Lowland minor division of the Arkansas iver Lowland section of the Central Lowland province and partly in the ed Hills minor division of the Dissected High Plains section of the Great Plains province," (Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960). More recent geological surveys divide Harper County into six main areas: the Upland area, the Bluff Creek area (with Pleistocene deposits), the…


Barlow, Paul M. And Leake, Stanley A. 2012. Streamflow Depletion by Wells -- Understanding and Managing the Effects of Groundwater Pumping on Streamflow. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved online:  

Bowers Ridge & Shirshov Rise
Words: 1762 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53558396
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An article in the Saturday Evening Post relates the story of a scientific party in a whaling boat on the Bering Sea in the early 20th Century "witnessed an awesome sight when, with mighty roars, fire and smoke and exploded lava shot out of the water, casting ashes and pumice all over" (Hubbard, p. 10). and, Hubbard adds, "Not infrequently huge gas bubbles hurtle upward from the ocean bottom to burst with a roar and allow the separated waters to crash back into place, sending huge geysers into the air."

Conclusion: There is much to be learned about the formation, age, and tectonic truths of ancient seafloor ridges like Bowers and Shirshov, but in this writer's opinion, the evidence points to those ridges having been formed by volcanic activity (hotspots and spreading) but at this time they are likely subduction zones.

orks Cited

Hubbard, Bernard R. "The Disappearing Island." The…

Works Cited

Hubbard, Bernard R. "The Disappearing Island." The Saturday Evening Post. December 17, 1932. pp. 10-11, 50-52.

New Geology. "Shock Dynamics: Alaska." Retrieved May 4, 2008, at .

Scholl, David W. "Viewing the Tectonic Evolution of the Kamchatka-Aleutian (KAT)

Connection With an Alaska Crustal Extrusion Perspective." In Volcanism and Subduction:

Rock Cycle Most Processes on
Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59431248
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Both, ironically, are forms of pressure that also cause heat and changes. Water for instance, is so abundant on earth that it drives much of weathering and erosion. Precipitation, acidic soil water and groundwater dissolve mineral and rocks; serpentinization from heated seawater causes destruction of volcanic rock or changes in other seabed rocks; and the presence of water and carbon dioxide change rock as well. This is the manner in which the carbon and water cycle continually interact to change rock.

Plate tectonics, on the other hand, show that there are large scale motions within the earth that move, converge, and drive materials from deep inside the earth towards the surface and vice versa. Zones within the 8 or 9 major plates (subduction zones) form slabs of crust that become embedded and then if pressured enough with heat and more pressure, contribute to the evolution of rock. In addition, one…


All About Plate Tectonics. (2010). Enchanted Learning. Cited in: 

Rocks and the Rock Cycle. (2011). Windows to the Universe. Cited in:

Heinrich Events and Their Impact on Climate
Words: 3846 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49264081
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Heinrich events are one of the most discussed and debated phenomena related to global climate change. For each theory proposed related to the cause or effect of a Heinrich event, there is a theory contrary to the concept. Theories relating to the binging and purging of ice sheets, cyclic changes in atmospheric conditions, and the thermohaline circulation disruption of the North Atlantic Ocean all play a part in the discussion of Heinrich events. While the debate of the causes of Heinrich events is still ongoing, the effects of the events are well documented, and are clearly substantial in relation to changes in the global climate.

This paper discusses the history of Heinrich events, and will discuss current theories of their origin. Additionally, this paper will outline the scientific method for discovering more information of Heinrich events, and their relationship to the Bond Cycle, Milankovitch Cycles, and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations. Finally,…


Bond, G., H. Heinrich, W.S. Broecker, L. Labeyrie, J. McManus, J. Andrews, S. Huon,

R. Jantschik, S. Clasen, C. Simet, K. Tedesco, M. Klas, G. Bonani and S. Ivy. (1992).

Evidence for massive discharges of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period. Nature, 360, 245-249.

Bergeron, L. (1997, Jan. 4). Wobbling world brings iceberg surges. New Scientist, 153(2063), 14.

East Africa's Great Rift Valley
Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 25203370
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Article weaknesses: On page two the authors write, "hat else can we say about the Ethiopian and Kenya Rifts? Quite a lot actually." This is very sophomoric narrative for scientists to be putting forth. Using a cliche like that tends to lessen the value of the science. It takes the authors quite a long time to get to one of the most interesting points of the article. That is, the rifting is important in terms of understanding human evolution. It seems like that fact could have been placed at or near the front of the article. There are many "hominid fossil finds" in the rift, which means that the evolution of humans can be traced by scientists because the evolution of the rift itself is giving clues to human evolution.

The weakness here is because the authors waited until the last page to present something about humans that is far…

Works Cited

Wood, James, and Guth, Alex. (2007). East Africa's Great Rift Valley: A Complex Rift System Retrieved July 14, 2012, from .

Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism Today Modern Scientists Understand
Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88393820
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Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism

Today, modern scientists understand that the Earth is billions of years old, they have a basic understanding of how the Earth was formed and how it developed over the eons that it has existed. However, this was not always the case and until the late 1800's, most scientists had no idea of the age of the Earth or how it had changed over time. But in the late 1700's a Scottish scientist named James Hutton carefully observed the world around him and came to the conclusion that the sedimentation observed in bedrock must take place at a very slow rate of speed and must be made up of "materials furnished from the ruins of former continents." ("James Hutton") This idea has been called "Uniformitarianism" and for its development, Hutton has been awarded the title of the "Founder of Modern Geology."

Hutton's ideas were in sharp contrast to…


"James Hutton: The Founder of Modern Geology." Earth: Inside and Out. 2000,

American Museum of Natural History New Press. Retrieved from

Lutgen, F/K., Tarbuck, E.J. (2011). Foundations of Earth Science (6th ed.) Upper

Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Junior High School Level Easy Understand Reviewing
Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79829886
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junior high school level easy understand reviewing journal article "East Africa's

Man has continually wondered about his original development -- how continents were formed and how humanity evolved. Studying a system of rifts that occurred in Africa can possibly give insight into this process. This theme is discussed in Wood and Guth's article, "East Africa's great rift valley: a complex rift system." The authors explain a number of different things about rifting such as what it is and how it occurs, and then relate it to the development of mankind and the formation of continents which are currently on or beneath the surface of the planet.


This article is structured fairly well, although it is not necessarily structured logically. Still, there are several headings that one can simply glance at to get an overview of the main points of the article. The article begins with…


Wood, J., Guth, A. (No date). East africa's great rift valley: a complex rift system. Retrieved from

Mount Rainier Washington Is One
Words: 1730 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44451390
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"Historical Notes - Vancouver's Voyage." 7-14 December 1929. Mount ainier Nature Notes. .

"Mount ainier Volcanic Hazards eponse Plan." July 2009. .

Parchman, F. "The Super Flood." 19 October 2005. Seattle Weekly. .

Service, U.S. Forest. "Eruption: May 18, 1980." January 2010. Mount Saint Helen's National Volcanic Monument. .

Signani, L. "The Height of Accuracy." 19 July 2000. Point of Beginning. .

U.S. Geodynamics Committee and the National esearch Council. Mount ainier: Active Cascade Volcano. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1994.

University, Dept. Of Geological Sciences - San Diego State. "Stratovolcanoes." January 2004. How Volcanoes Work. .

Watson, J. "Principal Types of Volcanoes." 6 Feburary 1997. United States Geological Survey. .

Wood and Kienle, eds. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

"World Top 50 Mountains By Prominance." January 2009. .

Zimbelman, ye and Landis. "Fumeroles in Ice Caves on the Summit of Mount ainier." Journal…


"Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan." August 2006. Pierce County Washington. .

Driedger, C. "Glacier Flow - Mount Rainier." January 1993. U.S. Geological Survey. .

Drieger and Scott. "Mount Rainier - Living Safeluy With a Volcano in the Backyard." 2008. Cascades Volcano Observatory - USGS. .

Duncan and Burns. The National Parks: America's Best Idea. New York: Knopf, 2009.

Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions
Words: 1059 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 59872704
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The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.

Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).

Question Four…


Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.

London: Icon Books Ltd.

Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer

Nuclear Waste Yucca Mountain Nuclear
Words: 2153 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13810735
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There are several groups involved in fighting the Yucca Mountain site, including local grassroots organizations in Nevada and larger organizations around the country. Many Native American tribes do not support the site, as it is located on their ancient tribal lands. The Nevada Piutes are one group who is organized in opposition to the site, as are several other western Native American tribes. A larger organization is the Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, a group who opposes the site for a number of reasons, including transportation safety issues, the geology of the site, and the fact that other sites were not seriously considered.

What are the future prospects of Yucca Mountain? That is still not clear. Congress OK'd the dumpsite in 2002, but since then, many things have changed politically in Washington and around the country. Many groups and citizens are protesting the dump, mainly due to safety and transportation…


Editors. "Earthquakes in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain." State of Nevada. 1996. 4 Dec. 2007. 

Editors. "Yucca Mountain Repository." U.S. Department of Energy. 2007. 4 Dec. 2007.

Fraud Allegations Roil Yucca Mountain Project." Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2005: 20+.

Rosenheck, Dan. "Digging a Deeper and Deeper Hole." New Statesman 29 Sept. 2003: xxii+.

Artists Carleton Emmons Watkins Carleton
Words: 1628 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51224287
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There he exhibited 125 of his large Pacific coast views and had more than a thousand images accessible for view through stereoscopes. During these years, he traveled further afield in search of new subjects: he sailed to the barren Farallon Islands, twenty-six miles off the California coast; he photographed the geysers of Sonoma County; he traveled to Mount Shasta in the northern part of the state; and he documented the massive hydraulic gold mining operations in the Sierra Nevada foothills (Watkins' Life and Works, 2010).

Watkins received support in his travels from his friend Collis Huntington, a principal in the Central Pacific ailroad, who offered him a flatcar to carry his van filled with photographic materials. By 1869 the Central Pacific line had pressed through the Sierra Nevada Mountains, allowing Watkins to take photographs of the wilderness landscapes that could now be seen by railroad travelers. Throughout the final years…


Friedel, Megan K. (2010). Carleton Emmons Watkins (1829-1916). Retrieved July 31, 2010,

from The Oregon Encyclopedia Web site: 

Hill, Eric. (2004). Carleton E. Watkins. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from Web site:

Fluid Inclusions Until the Early
Words: 1713 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 61225883
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"Analytical data on fluid inclusions are needed to understand the chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of economic mineral deposits. These data are also critical in understanding modern mineral-deposit models, which promote cost-effective mineral exploration vital to our healthy industrial economy" (Analysis of fossil fuels, 2008). Because fluid inclusion research can provide scientists with details about the past and can help provide helpful information about the present-day, and perhaps the future, it is an important area of geological study.


Air bubbles, amber, and dinosaurs. (2008). etrieved March 14, 2009 from Web site:

Analysis of fossil fluids and gases from tiny time capsules. (2008). etrieved March 13, 2009 from Web site:

Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble. (2009). etrieved March 15, 2009 from Institute of Geosciences, University of Leoben, Austria. Web site:

Carey, P. And Parnell, J. (2004). Fluid inclusion analysis. etrieved March 15,…


Air bubbles, amber, and dinosaurs. (2008). Retrieved March 14, 2009 from Web site: 

Analysis of fossil fluids and gases from tiny time capsules. (2008). Retrieved March 13, 2009 from Web site: 

Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble. (2009). Retrieved March 15, 2009 from Institute of Geosciences, University of Leoben, Austria. Web site:

Carey, P. And Parnell, J. (2004). Fluid inclusion analysis. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from Geotrack International Pty Ltd. Web site:

Johns Hopkins Geologist Bruce Marsh
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31434274
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Scientists at times fail to recognize that their assumptions and hypotheses can be incorrect. Proving conclusively that another probability exists than the one that has been accepted for decades, Marsh's work has repercussions not only for his own discipline, but also for other areas of study that pertains to ancient history.

further understanding of the earth's crust, its formation and its evolution can shed valuable light on the working of fault lines and earthquakes as they manifest themselves today. In terms of modern society, this can further prove very important in saving lives by more accurately predicting major earthquakes. With new developments, the study of the earth's crust can also help to identify areas of possible instability when building new homes or places of business.

In terms of the wider scientific community, discoveries such as those mentioned in the article forms a valuable basis for interdisciplinary study. In this way,…

Articles such as the one mentioned here is encouraging in terms of both science and life on earth. It provides valuable information for future study and can very well contribute to solving the ecological problems created by technology. Whether directly or indirectly, this discovery may very well mean the future survival of the inhabitants of earth. At least in the short-term, studies of the earth's crust can mean saving lives that would otherwise be lost to earthquakes that are either unexpected or of unexpected strength and intensity. I believe that scientists will continue to shape our reality and create a brighter and more viable future not only for human beings, but also for all life on earth.


Johns Hopkins University. "Magma P.I.' Unearths Clues to How Earth's Crust Was Sculpted." ScienceDaily 14 December 2007. 26 January 2008 .

Tectonics the Ups and Downs
Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67941561
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As the mantle heats and cools unevenly, areas of differing density slowly move through the mantle. As they do, these areas of density variance have effects on surface features on the crust. For instance, there is a denser mass in the mantle shaped like a mushroom thousands of miles across and rising 900 miles from the Earth's core. The gentle rise of this mass has had the immediate effect of producing the African superswell, proof that motion in the mantle can have vertical as well as horizontal effects on the crust (Gurnis 40).

The lessons learned from the African superswell have been applied with great success in other parts of the world -- such as North American and Australia. The result has been a new understanding of the inner dynamics of the Earth. The motions of the mantle account for complex uplift situations throughout the world, and a deeper understanding…

Works Cited

Gurnis, Michael. "Sculpting the Earth from Inside Out." Scientific American 284.3 (Mar. 2001): 40-47.

Geophysics Presentation Summary the Process
Words: 556 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46100668
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Cross-correlation allows us to determine whether adjoining traces are sufficiently similar to calculate accurate picks. Traces are first converted to number arrays and neighboring traces are compared according to gated sections. The addition of sample-by-sample multiplication generates a single number plotted at the gate center. The same process is repeated for successive gates. The cumulative process allows the generation of a cross-correlation. Time shift is determined by the largest positive value, which also corresponds to the numerical similarity of any two traces.

That process is followed by determining the maximum advisable price. That figure is generated by the total hydrocarbon value minus their total development cost multiplied by the probability of success. A first well (Well a) must be drilled to determine the presence of hydrocarbons. If Well a yields hydrocarbons, a second well (Well B) is drilled to determine the downdip limits of the reservoir and provides both volumetric…

Neural Network
Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7103440
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Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.

Landforms Barrier Island Beaches Generally Develop Where
Words: 2371 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49396003
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Barrier island beaches generally develop where:

a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore

During storms in winter:

a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches

b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands

c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed

Along the Midocean ridge

a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur

Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?

a Oregon

b California

c British Columbia and Alaska

d Texas and the Gulf Coast

e Hawaii

Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?

a Spreading

b Convergent

c Transform

d None of the…

Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation Demonstrate Effective
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 93333893
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Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation

Demonstrate effective communication skills

• I have expanded my vocabulary to include standard practical and theoretical business concepts and I have increased my proficiency with digital technology communications media. I have learned how to coordinate my vocabulary, language, and persuasion efforts to specific audiences depending on whether they are laypeople, professionals, colleagues, or strangers. This skill is extremely important within the military, in particular, because communications that are standard among service members are often incomprehensible to civilians and because civilian communications may be too imprecise to convey the minimum necessary information and distinctions typically communicated best through highly specialized terminology.

• I have improved my ability to use email and other forms of technology to communicate in a professional manner. That also includes a greater understanding of the manner in which different communications media typically require the communicator to consider how various communications efforts might…

Aquifers and Mass Wasting Factors Considered When
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66975437
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Aquifers and Mass Wasting

Factors considered when identifying potential aquifers

Depth to water table: Water table refers to that depth below the earth's surface below which there is permanent availability of water. Potential aquifers are mostly located in the region where the water table is relatively closer to the surface of the earth.

Presence of highly permeable soils: Permeability of the soil influences the ability of rainwater or rather surface water to infiltrate into the lower layers of the earth. A region whose soil is permeable is most likely to have critical aquifers. On the other hand, a region with impermeable soil limits water into infiltration to form aquifers.

Presence of flat terrain: Terrain refers to the degree at which the land slopes. Surfaces with flat terrain discourage surface run-off and instead enhances water infiltration into the lower layers of the earth. As a result, the aquifer formed is critical…


Bocanegra, E.M., et al. (2005). Groundwater and Human Development. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis

Petersen, J.F., et al. (2011). Physical Geography. London: Cengage Learning

Robins, N.S. (1998). Groundwater Pollution, Aquifer Recharge, and Vulnerability. London: Geological Society

Stewart, J.M., et al. (2007). Physical Geology: Exploring the Earth. London: Cengage Learning

Metamorphic Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks and Their
Words: 1239 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7055696
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Metamorphic, Igneous, And Sedimentary Rocks and Their Application to Planets in the Solar System

The objective of this study is to examine metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks and their application to planets in the solar system.

There are reported to be three primary classes of rocks, which are classified according to their origination. The three rock types are metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when bodies of magma cool. As time passes and the rocks undergo process due to various weather cycles the igneous rocks erode and the particles and chemicals, which settle into beds, become compressed or cemented forming into what are known as sedimentary rocks. In the event igneous rocks are buried and then undergo a high state of heating and compression they form into what are known as metamorphic rocks. Eventually, the rocks undergo heat and compression and then melt with the molten rock…


Basic Rock Types (2012) Zooinverse. Geology Basics. Retrieved from: 

Major Rock Types (2012) Rocks & Other Mineral Sources. Retrieved from: 

Nelson, SA (2012) Earth Structure, Materials, Systems, and Cycles. Tulane University. Retrieved from:

Topography Climate and Biogeography in
Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30233385
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These mountains surrounding the area have had an influence on much of the Great Valley's climate.

Particular to the valley is grassland which, in fact, has earned a name for itself and an advocate in this sense. Great Valley Grasslands State Park thrives on preserving whatever grassland is left in the region of San Joaquin Valley. The Valley allows for the nourishment of such wild flower as lupines, California Poppies, and Purple Owl Clover. Mountain runoff created wetlands habitats throughout the years, leading to the formation of marshes. Although they are not common anymore, they supplied the right environment for such trees as the Black illow, which is a water loving tree. Riparian oodland is also to be found in the Great Valley, as it is common to the Mojave Desert, however, their existence within the regions of the latter has been burdened by the tamarisk.

Spreading across the coast…

Works Cited

Schoenherr, a.A. (1995). A Natural History of California. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Foundation Comparison Burj Khalifa vs Taipei 101
Words: 1914 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90526133
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Foundation Comparison: Burj Khalifa vs. Taipei 101

This report aims at assessing the foundation of the world's tallest and second tallest skyscrapers; the Burj Khalifa Tower in Dubai and Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan. Currently, Burj Khalifa is the world's tallest building taking over the title from Taipei 101 topping out at a height of 828 metres. Khalifa is built on silty sand and sandstones while Taipei 101, with a height of 509 metres stands on two tectonic faults with silty sand and clay soils. Both Burj Khalifa and Taipei 101 are built on deep type foundations but with almost-similar soil conditions. Due to the weak and collapse-prone soils these building are built on, various site investigation techniques were initiated prior to the construction to determine each site's soil conditions and build foundation likely to hold the structures firmly. In this regard, this report highlights the rationale behind these foundations…


Baker, W.F., & Pawlikowski, J.J. (2009). The Design and Construction of the World's Tallest Building: Pushing Technology to New Heights. Structural Engineer, 12-19.

Bianchi, S., & Critchlow, A. (2010, January 4). World's Tallest Skyscraper Opens in Dubai. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from 

Binder, G. (2008). Taipei 101. Mulgrave, Australia: The Images Publishing Group Pty Ltd.

Bunce, G., & Poulos, H.G. (2008). Foundation Design for the Burj Dubai -- The World's Tallest Building. 6th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, (pp. 1-16). Arlington, Vancouver.

Role of Potassium Argon Dating Within the
Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56979068
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role of potassium argon dating within the field of archaeology. How it works and what methods are used to glean the date from archaeological artefacts and remains.

Potassium argon and the archaeologist

The majority of the world's archaeological sites are now so ancient that there is no actual way of giving them a complete and secure chronological date that radio-carbon dating can provide. However, here are many techniques for dating within the field of archaeology, one of these methods is the K-Ar (Potassium-Argon) method which has been a vast success within the field of geology (the study of earth).

It is possible to date rocks with a low potassium content such as basalts in this way. Sadly the dates are not always secure due to the behaviour of the geochemicals of the parent and daughter elements as they are likely to being disturbed by geological events such as weathering or…


Gamble, C (1994) The Peopling of Europe: Oxford Illustrated Pre-History of Europe Cunliffe, B (ed) Oxford University Press. Oxford Fagan, B. (1998) People of the Earth Longman. New York

McKie (2000) Ape Man BBC Worldwide; London

Stringer, C and Gamble C (1993) In search of the Neanderthals Thames and Hudson: London

Fagan, B. (1998)

Albert Lothar Wegener
Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6868740
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Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), German meteorologist, Arctic explorer and a brilliant interdisciplinary scientist, is best known as for his theory of "continental displacement" (that became famous, later, as the theory of continental drift). Since the technological means for proving the theory had not yet been developed and the idea was a radical departure from the scientific thinking of the time, Wegener's theory was widely rejected during his lifetime. After gradual accumulation of evidence in support of the idea, the theory finally gained acceptance in the early sixties. This paper gives a brief biography of Alfred Wegener, his theory of continental drift and other contributions to the world of science.

Early Life & Education

Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin. His father was a minister and ran an orphanage. Even as a young boy Wegener was interested in walking, skating and hiking that he put to use…


Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at 

Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at 

Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at /publications/text/wegener.html

Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003