Gerontology Essays (Examples)

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Treating Geriatrics With Despondency Issues

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71764547

Mr. P is suffering cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, 4+ pitting edema, labored breathing, and an inability to stick to a restricted diet or manage his polypharmacy. He is 76-years-old and in a state of declining health. The medical bills are mounting (and indeed have become overwhelming for Mrs. P who has never had to deal with the couple's financial affairs, as they were always taken care of by Mr. P). The couple is depressed/despondent: Mr. P over his inability to understand why God allows him to linger in this condition rather than just take him immediately, Mrs. P over her inability to have a moment of rest outside the home, where she tends to her husband. Life is difficult for the two. This paper will consider the condition of Mr. P, how it affects Mrs. P, and how the situation can be approached so as to provide a high degree of care.

There are two concerns in this situation: first, there is Mr. P whose health is not good and who needs assistance; second, there is Mrs. P who is feeling overwhelmed by the new territory in which she finds herself (bills and treatment of her husband). The medical side…… [Read More]


Barry, C. B. (2000). Teaching the older patient in the home: Assessment and adaptation. Home Healthcare Nurse, 18(6): 374.

Connor, S. (2009). Hospice and Palliative Care. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL: CRC

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Simulation of Growing Old

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80702095

Gerontology Experiment

Simulation #1 -- Degenerative Arthritis and Macular Degeneration

In this simulation, I placed Band-aids around the middle joints of my fingers and I wore an athletic wrist support on one hand that severely limited my wrist motion. The Band-aids were tight enough to make it almost impossible to bend my fingers except with considerable discomfort. I also placed a smudge of Vaseline in the center of the lenses of clear protective construction goggles to simulate the loss of center vision associated with age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this set up was to simulate the types of arthritic symptoms in my hands and wrist that elderly people deal with routinely. The plan was to go about my day at home and encounter some of the problems associated with aging.

Immediately, I encountered difficulty doing my normal morning chores. Brushing my teeth took much longer, made a mess of the sink, and I could tell that the brushing was considerably less effective than usual because I could not direct the right amount of pressure where I wanted to. After breakfast, I attempted to floss my teeth and actually had to give up because there was just no way to…… [Read More]

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Elder Abuse and Neglect the

Words: 1542 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12528826

"… [Read More]


Cooney, C., & Mortimer, a. (1995). Elder Abuse and Dementia - a Pilot Study . International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 41, 276-283.

Dong, X., Simon, M., de Leon, C.M., Fulmer, T., Beck, T., Hebert, L., et al. (2009). Elder Self-neglect and Abuse and Mortality Risk in a Community-Dwelling Population . Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(5), 517-526.

Dong, X. (2005). Medical Implications of Elder Abuse and Neglect. Clinics in geriatric medicine, 21, 293-313.

Dyer, C., Pavlik, V., Murphy, K., & Hyman, D. (2000). The High Prevalence of Depression and Dementia in Elder Abuse and Neglect. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(2), 205-208.
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Successful Aging What Do You

Words: 3063 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99893583

If anything, such a person may have regrets over having wasted too much of life on impersonal achievements and selfish pursuits.

6. Do you agree that in later life men become more nurturing and women more assertive? What do you think are the findings that could support or challenge that observation?

The observation that men tend to become more nurturing, less competitive, less aggressive, and "gentler" in later life and that women tend to become less emotional and more confident or assertive would seem to be substantially true. That is largely attributable to hormonal changes; specifically, aging males tend to produce much less testosterone and post-menopausal females secrete less estrogen in their later years (Pinker, 2002). Naturally, those hormonal changes would be expected to result in various behavioral changes in areas where human behavior (and gender-specific behavior in particular) are products of the secondary sex hormones (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Pinker, 2002).

Findings capable of supporting those observations in relation to males would include anecdotal information from families as well as from aging male subjects themselves. Empirical data consistent with support for that hypothesis in its application to males includes declining arrest rates, aggression-related driving violations, and both verbal arguments…… [Read More]


Bearon LB. "Successful Aging: What does the 'good life' look like?" Concepts in Gerontology Vol. 1, No. 3, (Summer 1996).

Birren JE. And Schaie KW. (2006). Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. Burlington,

MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Vitamin D Supplementation Increases Voluntary Physical Activity

Words: 1572 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50924869

Vitamin D Supplementation increases Voluntary Physical Activity Levels in Nursing Home Patients

Over the course of a semester does vitamin D3 supplementation, and the resultant increase in muscle strength and bone density, lead to increased physical activity in nursing home residents in the absence of added encouragement?

The elderly often suffer from low serum levels of vitamin D, reduced muscle strength, and decreased bone density (reviewed in: Hamilton, 2010). Muscle biopsies have revealed that the muscle fibers most affected in the elderly are type II, the 'fast twitch' fibers. When a person begins to fall they instinctively attempt to prevent or break their fall and this reaction depends heavily on fast twitch muscle fibers. The elderly therefore suffer from an increased risk of falling down and bone fractures. Although conclusive evidence has yet to be found that low serum levels of vitamin D cause this condition, there is a large body of evidence that diet supplementation with vitamin D and calcium can increase muscle strength and bone density, thereby reducing the number of falls and fractures. Dietary supplementation with vitamin D could therefore substantially improve the quality of life of the elderly.

The sources of vitamin D are diet and…… [Read More]


Hamilton, B. (2010). Vitamin D and human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 182-190.

Williamson, J.D., Espeland, M., Kritchevsky, S.B., Newman, A.B., King, A.C., Pahor, M., et al. (2009). Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: Results of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot study. Journal of Gerontology, 64A, 688-694.

Semba, R.D., Houston, D.K., Ferrucci, L., Cappola, A.R., Sun, K., Guralnik, J.M., et al. (2009). Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling women. Nutrition Research, 29, 525-530.

European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (2010). QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Retrieved from
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Grumpier Old Men This Movie

Words: 2869 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22009818

Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance you could be missing out on L. Trytophan - an important amino acid that plays a vital role in the production of brain chemicals." If one's diet is lacking it, the safest way to get this supplement is in the form of 5-HTP - a natural compound that the body produces from L-Trytophan. 5-HTP is believed to help the body produce serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, sleep and other brain-related functions. (Pearce, 1999)

In aging people who seem to have no appetite, there actually may be a sensory dysfunction, which keeps that person from enjoying food and other things that are sensed through taste and smell. Susan S. Schiffman, Ph.D. pointed out that in the elderly these senses are not entirely gone, but the thresholds for them are higher. The New England Journal of Medicine published a study that examined how much an elderly person would need to taste sweeteners, socium salts, acids and bitter compounds. The older members of the study needed more of the substance to pass their taste…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Dementia.

Davis, Alison. "Stress -- it might be even worse than you think," a Summary of the Conference "Biology of Stress" co-sponsored by the OBSSR and NIGMS, April 12, 2006.

Huang, Cindy S., et al. "Common Molecular Pathways Mediate Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Excitation and Slow Synaptic Inhibition." Cell (Journal), Volume 123, Issue 1, 7 October 2005, Pages 105-118.

Pearce, Gillian. Depression Antidotes Newsletter. Thu, 15 Jul 1999-18:35:21 -0400.
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Senior Citizens as a Vulnerable

Words: 3316 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48786719

While it is true that in many countries like Canada there has been a reduction in vulnerabilities such as poverty among the elderly, it is equally true that;

some 3.3 million seniors still live below the poverty line Good housing and proper medical care are often out of reach for the poor elderly -- or so expensive that little money is left over for other needs. Hundreds of thousands of elders go hungry every month. (Callahan, 1999, p. 74)

Poverty is however also a strong indicator of elderly vulnerability in Canada; where the lack of resources is also linked to safety and security issues. Many elderly people live alone and they become more vulnerable to abuse and attack if they so not have enough funds to afford adequate home security. As one Canadian resource notes; "Examples include safety devices that would reduce their chances of a fall or an alarm system that would protect against break-ins" (Enhancing Safety and Security for Canadian Seniors: Chapter 2: Vulnerability in Later Life).

Allied with this view is the perception that senior citizens who do not have the necessary finances are unable to take part in educational and health and fitness programs, which may…… [Read More]


Abuse of the elderly. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at

Ageism: Canadian Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at

Barer M. And Hertzman C. (1972) on Being Old and Sick: The Burden of Health Care for the Elderly in Canada and the United States. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 17(4), pp.763-782.

Brownell P., Welty a., Brennan M. Elder Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at
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Job Opportunities for Health Care Managers in 2020

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48805443

Job Opportunities for Health Care Managers in 2020

The health care industry is in the United States is on the poise of burgeoning more than it ever has before. There are several factors that directly contribute to this situation that span diverse areas of economics, demographics, technology and behavior and personal lifestyle choices. Virtually all of these facets of contemporary health care result in the fact that people are living longer now than they ever have before. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010), "As the large baby-boom population ages and people remain active later in life, the health care industry as a whole will see an increase in the demand for medical services." Much of that demand will be in gerontology, as the previous allusion to the baby-boomer generation indicates. There are several advances in technology that are also contributing to people maintaining their health longer than usual. Additionally, governmental intervention, primarily in the form of the Affordable Care Act, has enacted legislation that will also increase numbers of people obtaining health care. The result is that the best job opportunities for health care managers in 2020 will be those involved with the geriatric population in a…… [Read More]


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Medical and health services managers.

Retrieved from 

Coombs, B. (2013). Aging baby boomers may find long-term care elusive. Retrieved from

Wake, M. (2010). Nurses and the Affordable Care Act. American Journal of Nursing. 110 (9): 11.
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Interview Was to Learn the Life of

Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49739324

interview was to learn the life of Mr. Mike Robinson, my 65-year-old retired neighbor from the town next to me, in Sudbury. I selected this person because it will allow me to understand some of the core issues related to aging. My interactions with Mike Robinson before this interview were cordial and I believed that his example might shed light on some of the theories of aging we are covering in class. I believe that he is a good example of how aging theories can be applied to help people, because Mr. Robinson is aging in a way that is healthy due to his strong social support system and positive attitude on life.

Within this report, I intend to learn about his life conditions as well suggest and inform ways to improve the person's life. After interviewing Mr. Robinson on two different occasions, I gained some knowledge on how he perceives the aging process and the impact on the quality of his life. My interview subject has healthy ties to his family and community, although he is currently retired. He is a member of the Baby Boomer generation, which is the growing segment of individuals who are entering their golden…… [Read More]


Dowd, J.J. (1975). Aging as exchange. Journal of Gerontology 30(5): 584-594

Havighurst, R.J. (1961). Successful aging. The Gerontologist 1(1961): 8-13.

The Health Authority (2010).

Miller, S.M. & Barrow, G.M (2010). Aging, the Individual, and Society. Cengage.
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Reason I Selected the University of Alabama

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16597639

reason I selected the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing for graduate studies in nursing is because I ultimately seek to become a leader in the field of nursing, and there are several facets of this institution that legitimize its "vision to sustain nursing leadership worldwide." In particular, I was attracted to the synthesis of different disciplines and areas of erudition that the UAB School of Nursing emphasizes as part of its graduate education in this field, which include various aspects of management, economics, information technology, marketing and consultation to equip graduates with the necessary skills to perform as leaders within this profession.

It is increasingly necessary for nurses in advanced positions to utilize evidence-based practices as part of their means to fulfilling their responsibilities. The UAB School of Nursing, with its research center providing funded opportunities to counter some of the most pressing health care issues in contemporary times (such as gerontology, Aids care and issues in minority health) has shown a dedicated effort to incorporating such practices to the education of its graduate students. M.S.N. program goals are specifically designed to provide both theoretical and evidence-based methodologies to students, which is invaluable in issuing 21st century…… [Read More]


Egenes, K.J. (2012). The nursing shortage in the U.S.: a historical perspective. Chart. 110(4), 18-22.

Harper, D.C. (No date). About our school. Retrieved from 

Marelli, T.M. (2013). The good, the bad and the ugly in the changing healthcare landscape: the role of nurse practitioners in meeting increasing demand for primary care (the good), CMS and contractor oversight of home health agencies (the bad), and the sad demise of the Medicaid hospice benefit in Louisiana (the ugly). Home Health Care Nurse. 31(3), 121-123.

UAB Nursing. (2013). Nurse practitioner family primary care. Retrieved from
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Socioeconomic Effects on Aging and

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44033938

(Whitaker, 2007)

Dermura, S. (n.d.). The Interrelationship among Achievement Patterns of Activities of Daily Living. Journal of Psychological Anthropology, 167 -- 175.

The article the Interrelationship among Achievement Patterns of Activities of Daily Living, examines the responsiveness rates of those who are disabled and living in a nursing home. To determine this, the author sampled 706 dependent elderly patients. The results were that respondents performed well in activities using the lower parts of their body. This information can be used with corresponding information to examine how the body changes, once someone is forced into an institutionalized situation. At which point, it can be corroborated with the other pieces of information to see the true effects of aging. (Deruma, n.d.)

Mudege, N. (2007). Survival Strategies of Older Men and Women. Journal of Aging Studies, 23, 245 -- 257.

The article, Survival Strategies of Older Men and Women, highlights the different strategies used by older men and women in Nairobi, Kenya. Where, the author found that women are more dependent upon a domestic / family type of structure for support, once they become older. The males tend to rely on a combination of the public and domestic support systems. However, this will…… [Read More]

The article, Health and Functional Status of Elderly Patients Living in Nursing Homes, looks for common factors that could help contribute to conditions that would increase the chances of some form of dependency, on various assisted living programs when person become older. This was accomplished by looking at 506 elderly men and women living in nursing homes throughout Turin, Italy. What the study found was those who were most commonly from the lower to middle classes within society and are less educated, were most likely to suffer from at least one of these conditions. This information is useful, because it could be used to highlight why particular social / economic classes would most likely to require increased amounts of care when they become older. The source provides information that can be used to help construct the various issues that the elderly must wrestle with. (Molashi, 1995)

Jennett, a. (2003). The Socio Economic Impact of Teleheatlh. University of Alberta.

The article, the Socio Economic Impact of Teleheatlh, examined the overall economic benefit that a variety of community or government-based health service programs provides to the elderly and their families (such as Social Security of Medicare). This was accomplished through examining 306 different pieces of literature. At which point, the author was able to identify a number of different ways that these programs benefit senior citizens along with their families to include: higher quality care, easy access to a variety of health care services and greater social support. This source
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Non-Pharmacological Pain Relief With Childbirth Dealing With

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16953236

Non-Pharmacological Pain Relief With Childbirth

Dealing with aging dementia patients can be a challenge in and of itself. However, when healthcare providers need to include regulating pain as well, the challenge becomes even greater. Pain management with cognitively impaired patients is a constant problem within geriatric care in modern healthcare facilities (Zwakhalen et al. 2006). The reduced self capacity to report pain in its true degrees then makes pain management a challenge for physicians and healthcare providers (Husebo et al. 2007). Thus, research aims to explore effective measures for observing and reporting pain management within aging dementia patients.

Horgas et al. (2009) is an in-depth examination of the various factors that can be used to report pain within these specific groups of patients. The journal is from the American Geriatrics Society, and thus is clearly peer-reviewed. It is a thorough examination into how dementia patients report their own pain, as well as how their pain can be observed within actual practice. The data was then coded according to the American Hospital Formulary Service System (Horgas et al. 2009). This clearly shows that the research supports evidence-based practices for it uses real observations from patients actually being in the field today…… [Read More]


Horgas, Ann L.; Elliott, Amanda F.; & Marsiske, Michael. (2009). Pain assessment in persons with dementia: Relationship between self-report and behavioral observation. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(2009), 126-132.

Husebo, Bettina Sandgathe; Strand, Liv Inger; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Husebo, Stein Borge; Snow, Andrea Lynn; & Ljunggren, Anne Elisabeth. (2007). Mobilization-Observation-Behavior-Intensity-Dementia Pain Scale (MOBID): Development and validation of a nurse-administered pain assessment tool for use in dementia. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 34(1), 67-83.

Zwakhalen, Sandra M.G.; Hamers, Jan P.H.; Abu-Saad, Huda; & Berger, Martijn P.F. (2006). Pain in elderly people with severe dementia: A systematic review of behavioral pain assessment tools. BMC Geriatrics, 6(3). Web.
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Old the Very Late Old

Words: 1780 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60410136

, 2012). When considering housing for this group it is important to make sure that you do not isolate someone sharing their spiritual or religious beliefs. A social worker who does not keep up with the understanding of the individuals with whom they work could be inadvertently setting up a disaster for such an elderly individual. It is always important to discover, praise, and attend to new developments and changes regarding all aspects of the clients with which the social worker involved.… [Read More]


Christensen, H. (2001). What cognitive changes can be expected with normal ageing?

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 768 -- 775.

Escobar-Bravo, M.A., Puga-Gonzalez, D., & Martin-Baranera, M. (2012). Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Spain. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 109-116.

Hodge, D.R., Horvath, V.E., Larkin, H., & Curl, a.L. (2012). Older adults' spiritual needs in health care settings: A qualitative meta-synthesis. Research on Aging, 34(2), 131-155.
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Program Budget and Cost Analysis

Words: 4858 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97749747

Program Budget and Cost Analysis

Line-Item Budget for an in-Service Dementia Care Training Program

Florida now requires all direct-care staff working with dementia patients to receive specialized training. The curricula offered must be vetted by the Training Academy of the University of South Florida's Policy Exchange Center on Aging, otherwise assisted living facilities, nursing homes, adult day care, and hospices will be unable to accept patients with dementia into their facilities. In order to meet these statutory requirements and improve patient care, an in-service training program in dementia care will be instituted for a hospice facility located in Florida.

The Hospice House in Cape Coral, Florida maintains 36 beds for patients with terminal illnesses. On average, a little over 60% of the residents suffer from dementia at any one time, which is consistent with national trends (Williams, Hyer, Kelly, Leger-Krall, and Tappen, 2005, p. 98). The number of patients tends to average around 29 and staffing levels currently provide at least one nurse per two patients 24 hours per day, although the goal of one nurse per 1.5 patients is actively being pursued (IAHPC, 2009). The nursing staff consists of an even mix of RNs, LPNs, and CNAs. The medical…… [Read More]


CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services). (n.d.). Hospice Center. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2012 from

Goyder, Judith, Orrell, Martin, Wenborn, Jennifer, and Spector, Aimee. (2012). Staff training using STAR: A pilot study in UK care homes. International Psychogeriatrics, published online ahead of print, p. 1-10. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2012 from

Hobday, John, V., Savik, Kay, Smith, Stan, and Gaugier, Joseph E. (2010). Feasibility of internet training for care staff of residents with dementia: The CARES® Program. Journal of Gerontology Nursing, 36, 13-21.

Hyer, Kathryn, Molinari, Victor, Kaplan, Mary, and Jones, Sharmalee. (2010). Credentialing dementia training: The Florida experience. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 864-873.
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Right to Die Legal and Ethical Issues Concerning the Withdrawal Withholding of Treatment

Words: 2116 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90932592

Right to Die

For the last few decades, the issue of a person's right to choose the time and method of his or her own death has been one of passionate debate in the United States, with emotions running high on both sides of the controversy as the meanings of liberty and freedom of choice, the morality of taking one's own life, the ethics of people involved in such actions, and the laws related to this issue take center stage in the arguments.

Since civilization began, suicide has existed in one form or another, with varying degrees of acceptance, such as the ancient Greeks who held tribunals for elderly people who requested to die, and if approved, were given hemlock and during the first century B.C. actually held annual banquets where the elderly were allowed to attend and drink poison if they felt they had lived long enough.

Moreover, "traditional Oriental society viewed suicide as a dignified way of dealing with overwhelming problems, and Indian society believed in life after death and encouraged wives to kill themselves when their husbands died." However, St. Augustine condemned suicide because "it prevents repentance, it breaks the sixth commandment - thou shalt not kill,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. 12-03-2003).

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. 12-03-2003)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. 12-03-2003).
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Active and Passive Euthanasia in

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47727719


A major factor underlying whether active or passive euthanasia is legal is whether the doctor intends to kill the patient or not (Lewis, 2009, p. 126). Rachels hits on the intent piece in one of his constructed examples, "Rather, the other factors - the murderer's motive of personal gain, for example, contrasted with the doctor's humanitarian motivation -account for different reactions to the different cases." The Colombian Constitutional Court actually ruled doctors are negligent if they ignore a terminally ill, competent patient's request for active euthanasia, a position which actually moves closer to Rachels' side of the debate (Michlowski, 2009, p. 192). The Canadian Medical Association's inquiry into Belgian euthanasia included asking about the doctors' "explicit intention of hastening the end of life or of enabling the patient to end his or her own life" (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. 896). This intent underlies the principle of "double effect," if palliative treatment that carries the known likely or expected side effect of hastening death, does not constitute the intent to end the patient's life, and this is a widely recognized and accepted practice (Michlowski, 2009, p. 185). Where the doctor cannot prove the intent was not to hasten death,…… [Read More]

Nor do professional associations provide a clear consensus to anyone outside their membership, because they often contradict each other. Many of them disagree with the AMA position Rachels frames his argument in terms of. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) asserts "Most would choose to live if they had full confidence that the care system would serve them well," and so justifies continued prohibition of voluntary assisted suicide and monetary compensation for the practice thereof, using most of the criteria discussed in my research. On the other hand, the American Psychological Association's assertion that the cognition behind the terminally ill patient's decision to die differs from the logic employed by the clinically depressed in deciding to commit suicide is echoed by the American Public Health Association, the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, and the American College of Legal Medicine, who justify their recommendation against the negative associations between suicide and what they describe as "the principles of personal autonomy and free will" on grounds of material difference long recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court (Tucker & Steele, 2007, p. 325).

A fourth commonality that runs through the discussion but with much less prominence is a qualification that a patient's decision can be overridden if euthanasia has significant effects on people other than the patient, although those effects are even more rarely, if ever, defined. The Columbian courts qualified their acceptance of personal autonomy as sovereign under the constitution with the competency requirement but also where the exercise of that autonomy carried only " private nonpublic effects" (Michlowski, 2009, p. 192). The petitioner who brought the Columbian complaint claimed in part that non-voluntary euthanasia ("mercy-killing" to the 1973 AMA) left the doctor free to "end the lives of those who are regarded as an obstacle, a nuisance, or whose health raises high costs" (Michlowski, 2009, p. 186), but the court took it upon itself to generalize this even farther. This 'externality' effect rarely appears in such abstract terms, but runs throughout the research and opinion on the ethics of euthanasia in various guises.

The newer AMA policy statement claims euthanasia "would pose serious societal risks," without elaborating specifically what those may be (1996). Numerous patients have included consideration of their family's emotional pain caused by prolonged terminal illness as a factor leading them to choose euthanasia (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. 897); but fewer overtly discuss the callous topic of monetary expense as a factor in that decision. Tucker and Steele mention that voluntary euthanasia consumers may consider the cost to their estate, but only in passing (2007, p. 322). Campbell (2005, p. 45) claims family concern is justified under some Buddhist and Hindu perspectives if the choice to take life is made out of compassion for
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Daniel Levinson's 1920 Theory the

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51379660

3. Early adulthood (17-45): characterized by greatest energy and abundance and likewise by greatest contradiction and stress. This is the era of drive, ambition, obligations, and attempts to succeed in all areas of life. Whilst potentially fulfilling, it can also provide enormous bouts of stress.

4. Midlife Transition (40-45): Levinson (in sync with Jung, Erickson, and Ortega) sees this era as constituting a sharp break between early adulthood and middle adulthood manifested by greater focus on others as opposed to self and by a more humane and reflective temperament and perspective.

5. Middle adulthood (40-65): Our biological capacities are somewhat weakened. Our focus transfers from ourselves to others, and we feel a responsibility for the future generation.

6. Late Adult transition (60 +) is a synthesis and linkage of both middle and late adulthood

Levinson defines "life structure" as consisting of the individual's relationship to significant others and/or to significant creatures or objects in his life (some, for instance, might develop their attention around animals, scenery or art preferring those to people). Similarly, too, Levinson observed an orderly progression consistent with life's stages. The sequence, he noted, was dialectical in that it consisted of alternating structure building with structure-changing (transitional)…… [Read More]

Finally, Levinson suggests that it is imperative to make key choices, form a structure around these choices, and to pursue values and goals. One's key choices are imperative to forming one's destiny.


Levinson, D. (1986). A conception of adult development, American Psychologist, 41, 1, 3-13
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Dysphagia in the Elderly the

Words: 2606 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26467054

" (Stone, 2006) Treatment is stated by Stone (2006) to be "diagnosis dependent and may be medical or surgical." Practical modifications include simple steps such as crushing of pills or opening of capsules to ease and facilitate swallowing.

The work of Leibovitz, et al. (2007) entitled: 'Dehydration Among Long-Term Care Elderly Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia" states that long-term care (LTC) residents in the nursing home "especially the orally fed with dysphagia are prone to dehydration. The clinical consequences of dehydration are critical. The validity of the common laboratory parameters of hydration status is far from being absolute, especially so in the elderly." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) it is related however that "combinations of these indices are more reliable." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) the study reported by Leibovitz et al. is one that assessed hydration status among elderly LTC residents with oropharyngeal dysphagia and in which a total of 28 orally fed patients with grade-2 feeding difficulties on the functional outcome swallowing scale (FOSS) and 67 naso-gastric tube (NGT)-fed LTC residents entered the study." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) That utilized as indices of hydration status include: "the common laboratory, serum and urinary tests." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) Results are stated to…… [Read More]


Spieker, Michael R. (2000) Evaluating Dysphagia. American Family Physician 14 Jun 2000. Online available at

Marik, Paul E. And Kaplan, Danielle (2003) Aspiration Pneumonia and Dysphagia in the Elderly. Chest. July 2003. Vol. 1224, No. 1. Online available at

Bautmans, I., et al. (2008) Dysphagia in elderly nursing home residents with severe cognitive impairment can be attenuated by cervical spine mobilization. J. Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):755-60. PubMed Online available at

Stone, Rebecca S. (2006) Dysphagia in the Elderly. Inpatient Times. October 2006. Online available at
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Reactive Oxygen Species and Free

Words: 2327 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54025818

The explanation was that a restricted diet would not give enough material for the electron transport chain in the mitochondria to function fully. With fewer electrons to pass, there were also fewer oxygen free radicals produced. Aging, thus, slows down (Nelson).

Proponents of the free radical theory, however, believe that dietary antioxidants are not directly beneficial, as they do not reach mitochondrial DNA (Nelson 2000). The site remains vulnerable and susceptible to attack. However, supplemental antioxidants can indirectly increase lifespan by protecting other cell parts, like cellular proteins and membranes, from injury by free radicals. They still serve a valuable purpose in slowing aging down. The application of the free radicals theory has not reached perfection. Genetic change in achieving increased life span remains controversial and difficult to perform. Dietary restriction is un-attractive to most people and dietary antioxidants do not directly increase life span as they do not access mtDNA. But increased knowledge and understanding of the production, action and role of free radicals will help in the search for more effective, practical and attractive approaches to repairing the radical damage created by mtDNA (Nelson).

Chronic or unmanageable fatigue is another link between mitochondrial malfunction and aging. It is…… [Read More]


Diamond, J., et al. (2002). Free Radical Damage: a Possible Mechanism of Laryngeal Aging. 4 pages. Ear, Nose and Throat Journal: Medquest Communications, LLC

Held, G. (2002). Research into the Aging Process: a Survey. 11 pages. North American Actuarial Journal: Society of Actuaries

Hood, E. (2003). Towards a New Understanding of Aging. 7 pages. Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

King, a. (2004). Mitochondria-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Mediates Blue Light-Induced Death of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. 9 pages. Photochemistry and Photobiology: American Society of Photobiology
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Alzheimer's Disease The Onset as

Words: 3283 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31971086

What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions

There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports which revealed about the symptoms, treatments and/or prevention approaches that can be done for the disease. but, it cannot be denied that there are also a number of different disorders and illnesses which are closely related or are significantly similar to the qualities and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. This is…… [Read More]

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.

Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002

Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
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Psychological Effects of Aging on African Americans

Words: 1513 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18138890

Psychological effects of aging on African-Americans

The field of study on the aging process has gained significance in the United States of America in the recent past. The reason for this is that there is a rapid increase in the number of citizens of the United States of America who are above the age of sixty five and the quickest growing age segment is those who are above the age of eighty five years. The population of these two age groups in the United States of America is estimated to be about thirty four million. These figures are expected to rise in a significant manner as the highest fertility period between 1946 and 1964 in the form of the Baby Boomers grow older. It has been estimated that by the year of 2030 the number of citizens of the United States of America over the age of sixty five will be the same as the number of children in the country. This graying of the United States of America will have its effects on the full population and with that the issue of aging is only going to become more and more significant. (Chapter 1: The Growth of Social Gerontology)…… [Read More]


Booth, Evangeline. "Chapter 13: The Resiliency of Older Ethnic Minorities" Retrieved from Accessed on March 20, 2005

"Chapter 1: The Growth of Social Gerontology" Retrieved from Accessed on March 20, 2005

Plowden, Keith O. (1999) "Health Behavior of African-American Men" Retrieved from Accessed on March 20, 2005

Scharlach, Andrew E; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Kramer, Josea. B. "Curriculum Module on Aging and Ethnicity: African-American Elderly." Retrieved from Accessed on March 20, 2005
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Sisco Volland and Gorin 2005 Discuss the

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81582149

Sisco, Volland, and Gorin (2005) discuss the challenge the United States is likely to face in the near future because of the aging population increase alongside the shrinkage of social workers who are capable of caring for older people. Social workers, the authors argue, need to address this problem by learning from the experiences of a few organizations which have been active in this activity. They note that social workers need to carry out broad fund-raising activities, engage the government and the public, and promote educational and training programs to increase the number of social workers who can address the needs of the aging population in the future.

Sisco, Volland, and Gorin (2005) start the article by discussing A Blueprint for the New Millennium, prepared with the support of the Hartford Foundation and the Council on Social Work Education's Strengthening Aging and Gerontology Education for Social Work and aimed at "strengthening the impact of social work to improve the quality of life for older adults and their families" (p. 344). The study uses the term "demographic imperative" to refer to the combined effects of the aging population, longevity of life expectancy due to technological developments as well as high living…… [Read More]


Sisco, S., Volland, P., & Gorin, S. (November 01, 2005). Social Work Leadership and Aging: Meeting the Demographic Imperative. Health & Social Work, 30, 4, 344
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Anti-Aging Medicine Include Abstract References Scholarly This

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25837013

Anti-Aging Medicine? Include Abstract… [Read More]


Butler, R.N., Fossel, M., Harman, S.M., Heward, C.B., Olshansky, S.J., Perls, T.T., . . . Wright, W.E. (2002). Is There an Antiaging Medicine? Journal of Gerontology: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 57A (9), B333 -- B338.

Weindruch, R., & Walford, R.L. (1988). The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
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Sensation and Perception Specifically the Interaction Between Taste and Smell

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24472451

Taste and Smell

Age Related Changes in Perception of Flavor and Aroma

It has been posited that the perception of flavor and aroma are derived from the senses of chemical irritation, taste and smell (Rawson, 2003).

Together, these senses constitute what has been termed chemosensation, although these sensory systems are purportedly considerably variant in their physiology and anatomy. Nevertheless, they do have the ability to regenerate, and their noted susceptibility to aging and age associated diseases has been noted (Rawson, 2003). It has been reported that nearly one third of all older individuals report dissatisfaction with their sense of smell and taste, and the actual occurrence of sensory loss amongst the elderly is maintained to be even higher (Pelchat, 2001). Furthermore, it has been asserted that age related sensory loss affects both personal safety and quality of life (Rawson, 2003). Moreover, the impact of the loss on the elderly's physical well being and emotional well being should not be underestimated. If older persons are complaining about chemosensory function, it should be taken seriously both for the significance and prevalence to the older individual and as a possible indicator of neurological disorder (Rawson, 2003).

Article Overview

Researchers posit that there are…… [Read More]


Chodosh, S., et al. (1998). Efficacy and safety of a ten day course of 400 or 600

milligrams of grepafloxacin once daily for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: comparison with a ten day course of 500 milligrams of Ciprofloxacin twice daily. Antimicrobial Agents in Chemotherapy, 42(1), 114-120.

Mathey, M., et al. (2001). Flavor enhancement of food improves dietary intake and nutritional status of elderly nursing home residents. Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(4), 200-205.

McConnell, R., et al. (1975). Defects of taste and smell in patients with hypothyroidism.
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Secondary Aging Many People Think

Words: 1688 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51376675

Furthermore, as Baltes makes clear, there are some events that are generally going to impact people at various stages in their lives. For example, an East European Jew who survived World War II would probably have a historical influence that changed other age-expectations, which could impact other longevity factors. Time in a concentration camp, which would be normative for the Jewish cohort in that place and time period, would also likely impact the age of marriage, parenthood, and other culturally normative behaviors that might impact health and longevity in one's old age. While that might seem to be a dramatic example, the reality is that most generations are going to have cohorts impacted by at least one event of similar magnitude. For the practitioner working with geriatric clients, knowing the historical events that are most likely to have impacted the client and how those are likely to interact with the other two factors is important.

For many years, significant physical decline was seen as an inevitable part of the aging process. Frailty and illness were simply believed to be part of getting older. However, this is no longer considered the norm. Instead, while primary aging will impact all people to…… [Read More]


Anstey, K., Stankov, L., & Lord, S. (1993). Primary aging, secondary aging, and intelligence.

Psychology of Aging, 8(4), 562-70.

Bee, H.L., & Bjorklund, B. (2010). Journey of adulthood, 7th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall.
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Mechanism of Aging

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27707348

Mechanisms of Aging

Mechanism of Aging

Aging is a syndrome that occurs as a result of changes that are progressive, deleterious, universal and therefore, irreversible. This aging damage occurs to the cells, molecules that forms the cells, and to the entire organ. The aging process is most commonly associated with old age diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's disease among others; this is because such diseases are associated with degenerative effects experienced by the cells. Scientist have over the years substituted the word "aging" with "senescence" since aging means that when time elapses so does deterioration takes place which is false especially during the early developmental stage Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 21)

Various researches are being conducted to establish the mechanisms of aging, and as part of these research, experiments have been carried out on various living organism so as to shade more light on this concept. These organism include; humans, rodents, flies, worms and hydra. The criteria used to indicate senescence in these living organisms include;

The fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster ) and the nematode worms (Caenorhabditis elegans ) are the most common invertebrate species used in biological experiments since on reaching maturity both…… [Read More]

Works cited

Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.

Mackenzie, Danielle K., Luc F. Bussiere, and Matthew C. Tinsley. "Senescence of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster." Experimental Gerontology 46.11 (2011): 853-59. Print.

Nigam, Anjana. "Senescence (Ageing) @ 2011." Indian Journal of Dermatology 56.6 (2011): 615-21. Print.
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Hospitalization of Older People Hospitals

Words: 835 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38946284

.. we have goggles that mimic sight deficits. We use ear plugs, and ways to mimic the tactile changes elderly patients go through. We'll immobilize people, to show what it would be like if they had a stroke, and then ask them to do tasks. It makes them more sensitive to seniors' needs."

In Great Britain, nursing care follows a holistic approach to guiding the aging patient through the hospital stay and into 'step down', cottage hospitals, and community recovery centers. Through an empathetic and geriatric skill set, the geriatric nurse can thereby decrease her ultimate workload while maintaining a higher quality of life for the hospitalized patient.


Aging is no respecter of persons, countries, or races.

We all age. As a graying generation of millions of 'baby boomers' approach the golden years, medical care must shift much of its focus to the particular needs of this group.

Unlike the marketing and sales industries, targeting the aging is not a matter of newer or trendier services and products, but rather a system of pedantic knowledge and consistent research into the needs and quality of life requirements for the aging patient; a system each of us will be thankful for…… [Read More]


"1999-2008, a 10-year Action Plan for Services for Older Persons," (1998), Eastern Health Board.

Bernard, M. & Phillips, J. (2000), "The Challenge of Ageing in Tomorrow's Britain," Ageing and Society, vol. 20, pp.33-54.

Dickinson E. (1996). "Long-term care of older people," BMJ, vol 312, no. 7035, pp.862-863.

"Fact Files - Ageing in Ireland, National Council on Ageing and Older People," (1997).
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Nursing Home Quality in the

Words: 2026 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54988994

/nursing homes.

Clearly, since the focus of these articles are based on an institutional economics point-of-view of healthcare quality, a limitation of the study is that it does not take into consideration other variables that might influence the efficiency of nursing homes in providing quality healthcare. Among these unaccounted variables are the politics behind healthcare, specifically federal laws and policies related to the provision of healthcare. Apart from policies and laws, another variables unaccounted for in this study is a thorough look or analysis of the relational dynamics between patients and nurses, as well as other healthcare practitioners and professionals. This variable is vital in understanding the concept of quality healthcare because it provides an in-depth look at the 'experiential" dimension or perspective healthcare -- that is, healthcare quality as assessed by patients and healthcare professionals/practitioners.

In terms of socio-demographic characteristics, the literature collated regarding nursing home care does not specifically distinguish among differences in age, race, gender, geographic area, and other relevant information about patient profile.

However, looking into the primary perspective of the literature discussed above, the institutional economics dimension to quality healthcare, segmentation in terms of socio-demographic and even psychographic profiles of the consumers/patients can be determined…… [Read More]

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Senior Isolation Today Senior Citizens

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18674277

According to a recent study, the elderly are hospitalized more often due to alcohol-related problems than for heart attacks (Doup). Another study found some 70% of elderly adults' hospitalizations are related to alcohol, medication, or a mixture of both (Doup).

Many seniors live alone either due to divorce or the death of a spouse, and many more still are retired and have children out of state, and so do not drive as much or as far as before (Doup). This isolation leads many seniors to develop alcohol and drug problems late in life, at a time when they are most vulnerable to medical conditions (Doup). The elderly make up some 11% of the U.S. population, yet they take more than 35% of the drugs prescribed, such as blood pressure medication, sleep medication, and tranquilizers, all of which created a toxic cocktail when mixed with alcohol, causing everything from dizziness to death (Doup). One of the most significant physiologic consequences of alcohol use in seniors is the effect on the cardiovascular system, because anginal pain may be deadened and/or ignored, leading to myocardial infarction (Bosworth).

According to a study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, pet ownership decreases…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bosworth, Michael F. "Alcohol abuse in the elderly." American Family Physician.

April 1, 1989. Retrieved October 07, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Dooley, Pat. "For Best Nutrition, Elderly Should Socialize, Too."

The Virginian Pilot. July 5, 1996. Retrieved October 07, 2006 from HighBeam
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Caregivers Face When it Comes to Differentiating

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6449333

caregivers face when it comes to differentiating between dementia, delirium, and depression due to overlap of depression and delirium in older people. Some symptoms that accompany depression are also pronounced in dementia (Peacock, Hopton, Featherstone & Jill, 2012). These include withdrawal and sleepiness. This overlap creates some problem when it comes to differentiating the two.

Problem in this study and the purpose for which it was commissioned is clearly stated. A causal reading of the introduction will tell you what the entire study is all about and what issues it seeks to address. The first paragraph gives a clear definition of how delirium results and its prevalence in care homes and the fact that it is under-recognized by nurses. It also gives the relationship that exists between dementia and delirium, the confusion that exists between delirium and dementia, and how challenging it is to differentiate between depression, dementia, and delirium. All this informed the need for the study. Bearing in mind that nursing is all about caregiving this study is of significance to nursing practice since prevalence of dementia in care homes is so significant. This is critical in nursing practice bearing in mind that people with dementia are at…… [Read More]

References List

Featherstone, I., Hopton, A. & Siddiqi, N. (2010). An Intervention to Reduce Delirium in Care

Homes. Nursing Older People, 22(1), 16-21.

Mitchell, A. & Kakkadasam, V. (2011). Ability of Nurses to Identify Depression in Primary

Care, Secondary Care, and Nursing Homes -- A Meta-Analysis of Routine Clinical
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Articles Seem to Be Saying Same Thing

Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29870806

articles seem to be saying same thing or do they contradict each other? Is the tone similar in each article, meaning can you tell what the researchers feel about the subject? Do they support the same idea, did they hypothesize similar ideas?

The following are two research essays on the burden of caregivers. The similarities of both essays are that both demonstrate the huge responsibility and unmitigated onus that caregivers carry that consequent in causing them stress and hardship. Differences include the fact that one was carried out on a population in Italy, whilst the other was carried out on a sample in America.

It is striking, too, to note, that although both concluded that caregivers needed more support, the American study recommended ways that individuals could create this for themselves, whilst the Italians-based study placed the responsibility on the community and social work profession. The tone of the articles, too, differed in that the American-based study took a far more active stance to the problem advising caregivers to aggressively improve their situation. The whole serves as commentary on the way that science in general, and social work, in particular, is influenced by cultural nuances. The European study is far…… [Read More]


Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.

Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969, 2008
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Cellular Function and Aging Tumor Suppression Protein

Words: 2307 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72336870

Cellular Function and Aging

Tumor Suppression Protein 53 and Effects on Cellular Function and Aging

The concept of aging has many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that act as markers on an individual organism. Ignoring mortality associated with external environmental factors, very few organisms can be said to have cellular immortality with no decrease in cellular function or repeat division in normal diploid cells. Cellular senescence is a normal process that halts cellular division after a set of cycles of replication. Senescent cells can remain completely functional but lose the programmed process of replication. The normal pathway for senescent cells is either aging with metabolic pathways continuing for the cell or programmed cell death which is known as apoptosis that occurs when cellular function changes, a specific lifetime is reached for the cell or the cell is damaged. The multicellular cnidarians known as a Hydra has been shown to have a complete lack of senescence in cellular function with cells dividing frequently and continuously and being sloughed off at the tips of appendages and new stem cells continuously repopulating (Watanabe 2009). The hydra organism effectively shows no aging (Martinez 1998) and studies of the Hydra genome show that the organism has…… [Read More]


Cappisi, J. (2005) Senescent cells, tumor suppression and organisimal aging: good citizens, bad neighbors. Cell 120 1-10.

Coppe, J.P. Patil, C.K. Rodier, F. Sun, Y. Munoz, D.P. Goldstein, J. Nelson, P.S. Desprez, P. Campisi, J. (2008) Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor. PLOS Biology, 6-12, 2853-2868

Faragher, R.G. (2000) Cell senescence and human aging: where's the link? Biochemical Society Transactions 28 221-226.

Kirkwood, T.B. Austad, S.N. (2000) Why do we age? Nature 408. 233-238.
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Clinical Psychology the Field of Clinical Psychology

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19328472

Clinical Psychology

The field of clinical psychology emerged as a viable method through which the theoretical foundations of cognitive studies could be effectively applied within the clinical setting to prevent and treat psychological syndromes. Derived from the first clinical psychology work conducted by Lightner Witmer in the late 19th century, and expanding throughout the 20th century as diagnostic tools were refined and classification systems for mental disorders were standardized, modern clinical psychology has been adapted to fulfill a niche within a whole host of divergent fields, including criminal justice, the social sciences and gender relations. Clinical psychologists premise their work on the use of empirical analysis to accurately investigate matters of cognitive processing, psychological assessment and mental illness, with the administration of personality tests, neurological scans and clinical interviews the most frequently utilized diagnostic resources. As clinical psychology expanded the base of knowledge pertaining to the human brain's highly refined system of functionality, as well as the dysfunction which so commonly afflicts the elderly and mentally ill, the field expanded into other practical applications such as family therapy, child psychopathology and gerontology. One of the most effective examples of clinical psychology being integrated within another field of study has occurred…… [Read More]


Blackburn, R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct: Theory, research and practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Donohue, J., & Levitt, S. (2001). The impact of race on policing and arrests. Journal of Law and Economics, 44, 367-394. Retrieved from 

Fite, P.J., Wynn, P., & Pardini, D.A. (2009). Explaining discrepancies in arrest rates between

Black and White male juveniles. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 77(5), 916. Retrieved from>.
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Actual Mechanisms Behind the Changes Associated With Aging

Words: 1178 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77671652

Physiological Changes Associated With Aging

Aging is the complex and inevitable process of tissue and organ system degeneration. Though largely influenced by genetics, aging is also dependent upon a number of environmental factors including exercise, diet, childhood personality, and exposure to ionizing radiation, pollutants, or microorganisms. The physiological changes that occur as an individual's age advances can be grouped into three, with the first category encompassing changes in such homeostatic mechanisms as extracellular fluid volumes, blood, and temperature; the second encompassing changes related to decreasing organ mass; and the third, changes in the body's functional reserve systems. Promoting the health of an aging population is crucial not only because it ensures the well-being of ageing individuals, but also because it significantly reduces the burden imposed upon a country's medical system. It is with this in mind that this text collates knowledge and research to examine, in a deeper sense, the physiological changes associated with aging.


Bherer, Erickson and Liu-Ambrose (2013); Saber, 2013

Bherer et al. (2013) express that the physiological changes associated with aging are more pronounced among individuals aged above 85, although this basically depends upon one's lifestyle and genetic factors. Saber (2013) posits that these changes may…… [Read More]


Bherer, L., Erickson, K.I. & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A Review of the Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Cognitive and Brain Functions in Older Adults. Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from [HIDDEN]

Glassock, R.J. (2009). The GFR Decline with Aging: A Sign of Normal Senescence, Not Disease. Nephrology Times, 2(9), 6-8.

Heckman, G., Gray, L.C. & Hirdes, J. (2013). Addressing Healthcare Needs for Frail Seniors in Canada: the Role of InterRAI Instruments. Canadian Geriatrics Society Journal of CME, 3(3), 8-16.

Saber, A. (2013). Perioperative Care of Elderly Surgical Patients. American Medical Journal, 4(1), 63-77.
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Patient Visits

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2520737

older patients over the age of 80 due to complications in health such as dementia and depressive symptoms, do not go for additional follow-ups. Yes, the authors explain repeated in person visits help better identify risk factors. There is no obvious research question however they do highlight the use of a study to confirm the hypothesis of whether or not repeated in person follow-ups help with problems experienced as patient's age. "We hypothesized that the type of visit would be related to key demographic, lifestyle, health and function characteristics and that the oldest aged participants would have the poorest retention for in-person visits, particularly clinic visits" (Strotmeyer et al., 2010, p. 697). This is a directional hypothesis because the retention rates are directly associated with increase in age. It is a simple hypothesis because it directly states a cause and effect. The hypothesis was tested and it revealed in-home visits could help with retention of follow-ups for older patients.

There was an intervention in the study. "All annual contacts through 1999 (N=43,772) and for the 2005 -- 06 visit (N=1942)" (Strotmeyer et al., 2010, p. 696). It is a longitudinal epidemiologic study. The design of the research goal is appropriate…… [Read More]


Strotmeyer, E.S., Arnold, A.M., Boudreau, R.M., Ives, D.G., Cushman, M., Robbins, J.A., Newman, A.B. (2010). Long-Term Retention of Older Adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study: Implications for Studies of the Oldest Old. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 58(4), 696-701. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02770.x