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Interestingly, recent research indicates that some women may be creating their own class ceilings. For example, "female managers are more than three times as likely as their male counterparts to underrate their bosses' opinions of their job performance," ("Study: Women create 'their own glass ceiling'" 2009). Treanor (2007) found that "Women are jumping off the career ladder long before they hit the glass ceiling, raising serious questions about attempts to increase the number of female executives in company boardrooms."
In my experience, women do escape the rat race and may indeed underestimate their ability to achieve parity with men in the workplace, in politics, or in any other male-dominated arena. I have second-guessed myself, which is one of the reasons why I have also experienced barriers to promotion. Therefore, the research does corroborate the core reasons why the glass ceiling exists in the first place: women are taught to undervalue…
Clark, H. (2006). Are women happy under the glass ceiling? Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/2006/03/07/glass-ceiling-opportunities -- cx_hc_0308glass.html
Cotter, D.A., Hermsen, J.M., Ovadia, S., & Vanneman, R. (2001). The glass ceiling effect. Social Forces 80 (2). Retrieved: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2675593
Tesch, B.J., Wood, H.M., Helwig, a.L., & Nattinger, a.B. (1995). Promotion of women physicians in academic medicine. JAMA. 273:1022-1025.
Treanor, J. (2007). "Women quit before hitting glass ceiling." Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved online: http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2007/mar/08/business.workingparents
She looked at the job and her growth has been due to her successes in dealing with the job. These skills according to her are more important than her gender. A similar type of a message comes from Susan Arnold, President global personal beauty care at proctor & Gamble. According to her, she has shattered some glass ceilings on the way, but has been treated fairly throughout her career. She was always giving excellent results and this had meant giving the largest profits from any division in North America in ten years, and she was supported by the CEO who was her first boss. She is working in the company for 20 years. (Open to Women? Are we living in a meritocracy or a machotocracy?)
Let us now see how the biggest employer, the government views the entire issue. The government has been telling all business organizations to implement policies…
Are There Cracks In The Ceiling? Employment Standards Administration Office of Federal
Contract Compliance Programs Glass Ceiling Report. Retrieved at http://www.dol.gov/esa/media/reports/ofccp/newgc.htm . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Companies must take lead from state on breaking glass ceiling. 7 November, 1993.
Retrieved at http://www.joanlloyd.com/articles/open.asp?art=513.htm. Accessed 4 September, 2005
"If you're not taking risks and dealing with fallout, perhaps you're demonstrating that you won't like the intensity [at the senior management level]."
Other qualities also may also hinder women's ability to advance their careers. For example, women managers are rated as more nurturing, emotionally expressive and sensitive than male managers. "Women are less dominant, less competitive and more willing to ask for help," says Dr. Hagberg (Patterson, 2005). "That's why they're better team players."
These qualities result in high ratings from subordinates when women are at the middle management level, but by being too protective of their work groups, their bosses may see them as "rescuers and mothers," rather than as potential senior-level executives.
Fortunately, ambitious women executives do not have to reinvent themselves to advance. They just have to fine-tune existing skills, according to experts. "The team- and consensus-building skills women have are the skills required for managing,"…
Adaire, Carol. (1994). Cracking the Glass Ceiling. Dissertation, Inc.
Patterson, Valerie. (2005). Breaking the Glass Ceiling: What's Holding Women Back? Career Journal.
The researchers found the case of job stability and lateral mobility in case of the Asian-Americans are quite pertinent in the sphere of glass ceiling. Irrespective of the fact that loss of brain is rarely attributed to glass ceiling issues the prevailing cases sometime cannot be overlooked. A survey conducted during 1987 revealed that about 308 Asian-American employees in varied sectors in San Francisco attributed the monetary incentive and career progression as prime cause for job changes. However, about 75% of the Chinese-Americans revealed their reason for job changes to be the obstacles of corporate values, management inflexibility etc. (Woo, 2000)
Several strategies have been delineated for the minorities to break the Glass Ceiling in the corporate America. It is advised first to generate an adaptable strategic plan for achieving the accomplishment. A plan is to be chalked out and followed meticulously to attain the career goals. The success stories…
Begley, Michelle M. (2005) "Corporate America's Glass Ceiling." Business West,
Retrieved 20 February, 2010 from http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/laws-government-regulations-employment/1102318-1.html
Morsella, Racey de. (2006) "Getting to the Top: Strategies for Breaking through the Glass Ceiling." Retrieved 20 February, 2010 from http://www.multiculturaladvantage.com/leader/workplace-leadership/Getting-to-the-Top-Strategies-for-Breaking-Through-the-Glass-Ceiling.asp
Redwood, Rene. (1996) "The Glass Ceiling: The Findings and Recommendations of the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission" Motion Magazine, Retrieved 20 February, 2010 from http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/glass.html
Glass Ceiling -- Does it Still Exist?
In 1964 the federal government of the United States passed a Civil ights Act that forbade discrimination -- that is using double standards -- in the workplace. The idea was for all job applicants and all candidates for promotion within companies to be treated equally. The concept was excellent -- the implementation has left much to be desired. The question of whether or not the "glass ceiling" that invisible but definite barrier to the upper echelons of corporate America still exists for women and, people of color, is almost childish. The number of studies that have been done in the intervening forty years, that clearly show the continued existence of barriers to not only equal opportunity, but to equal pay for equal work, runs into the thousands. It is often said that there are none so blind as those who will not see,…
Chaffins, Stephanie, Forbes, Mary, Fuqua, Harold, Cangemi, Joseph; "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be?" Online at Questia.com
Fagenson, Ellen, Jackson, Janice, "The Staus of Women Managers in the United States." Questia.com.
Kambayashi, Takehiko, "Women Work Way Up in Japan; Entrepenurial Spirit helps Lift Ailing Economy" reprinted from the Washington Times Questia.com
Wooten, Lynn Perry, "What Makes Women-Friendly Public Accounting Firms Tick? The Diffusion of Human Resource Management Knowledge Through Institutional and Resource Pressures."
There are a few changes that are likely to occur in the workforce, given a 60% participation rate for women. First, that number is likely to climb. The financial demands of modern life are such that fewer families are able to survive on a single breadwinner, even if they wanted to. But few actually want to in this day and age. One of the issues that will be addressed increasingly is the issue of the wage gap, which stems in large part from the way that different careers are paid, with fields dominated by women paying less on average. These fields, however, are in demand, and pay will have to start to reflect that in order to draw more people -- and more women -- into the workforce. Neumark and Postlewaite (1998) noted that poor pay was one of the reasons why women stay out of the workforce…
Caplan, B. (2003) Stigler-Becker vs. Briggs-Myers: Why preference-based explanations are scientifically meaningful and empirically important. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 50 (2003) 391-405.
Cotter, D., Hermsen, J., Ovadia, S. & Vanneman, R. (2001). The glass ceiling effect. Social Forces. Vol. 80 (2) 655-681.
Michael, J. (2003). Using the Briggs-Myers indicator as a tool for leadership development? Apply with caution. Journal of Leadersihip and Organizational Studies Vol. 10 (1) 68-81.
Neumark, D. & Postlewaite, A. (1998). Relative income concerns and the rise in married women's employment. Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 70 (1998) 157-183.
Those conditions are understood. Both academia and the market are in agreement that the CMO does matter in a number of different situations. Therefore, the question of whether or not a female CMO affects firm performance is very much a valid one.
The first research question is: hat academic background contributes most to a woman's ascension to CMO or VP of Marketing? This question is basic, and can be answered with secondary research alone. The biographies of executives are often made public, and a comparison can easily be done between female CMOs and their male counterparts.
The second research question is: hat are the critical success factors for young women who aspire to be CMOs and VPs of Marketing? This question is important. The literature review highlights some of the conditions under which the CMO has more of an effect on the firm's performance. For females to overcome the glass…
Adler, R. (no date). Women in the executive suite correlate to high profits. European Project on Equal Pay. Retrieved June 13, 2012 from http://www.w2t.se/se/filer/adler_web.pdf
Akaah, I. (1989). Differences in research ethics judgments between male and female marketing professionals. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 8 (5) 375-381.
Bass, B. & Avolio, B. (1994). Shatter the glass ceiling: Women may make better managers. Human Resource Management. Vol. 33 (4) 549-560.
Boyd, D., Chandy, R. & Cunha, M. (2010). When do chief marketing officers affect firm value? Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. 47 (6) 1162-1176.
Miller & Lemons (1998) had identified other problems, one of which was, in fact, exclusion from the old boy networks. They noted the fact that women also often are in a pioneering role as problematical." And they had a very sympathetic viewpoint of the 'differences' in family responsibilities obliquely identified by the GAO report: "Also, after spending a long day at work, most of these women still have to go home and contend with family responsibilities such as "maintaining a household, raising children...." (Miller & Lemons, 1998).
The size of the Baby Boom generation may also be a factor, according to research into workplace depression.
Preceding that, however, is the first encounter with the glass ceiling. "Because the boomers make up such a large cohort of workers, many have experience a plateauing early in their career" (Johnson & Indvik, 1997). In addition, they noted that the recent increase in corporate…
Arai, Marguerite, Maryanne Wanca-Thibault, and Pamela Shockley-Zalabak. "Communication Theory and Training Approaches for Multiculturally Diverse Organizations: Have Academics and Practitioners Missed the Connection?" Public Personnel Management 30.4 (2001): 445. Questia. 14 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Duncan K. (1996) Gender differences in the effect of education on the slope of experience-earnings profiles: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1988. www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=glass+ceiling+%20publication:%5b%22The%20American%20Journal%20of%20Economics%20and%20Sociology%22%5dThe American Journal of Economics and Sociology: www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=glass+ceiling+%20pubdate:%5b19960928;19961004%5dOctober 1, 1996. etrieved 18 February, 2007, from www.highbream.com. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008547670
Gazso, a. (2004). Women's Inequality in the Workplace as Framed in News Discourse: efracting from Gender Ideology. The Canadian eview of Sociology and Anthropology, 41(4), 449+. etrieved February 19, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008547670
Goyder, J., Guppy, N., & Thompson, M. (2003). The Allocation of Male and Female Occupational Prestige in an Ontario Urban Area: A Quarter-Century eplication. The Canadian eview of Sociology and Anthropology, 40(4), 417+. etrieved February 19, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002093162
Hopcroft . (1996) the authority attainment of women: competitive sector effects. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology.
April 1, 1996. etrieved 18 February, 2007, from www.highbream.com
Lopez, N. Free Markets, Free Choices II: Smashing…
http://www.questia.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Psychology - Developmental
The term glass ceiling is most frequently applied in business circumstances in which women feel, either correctly or not, that men are deeply established in the upper ranks of power, and women, try as they might, find it almost impossible to break through. While the phrase glass ceiling is figurative, a lot of women who find themselves bumping their heads on it find it very real indeed. It is most frequently used to describe the sexist attitude a lot of women run into at the workplace. In a discussion of climbing the corporate ladder, the word ceiling implies that there is a limit to how far someone can go up. Along with this implied barrier is the idea that it is glass, meaning that, while it is very real, it is transparent and not noticeable to the observer (What is the Glass Ceiling, 2012).
Bjorklund, B.R. (2010). The Journey of Adulthood, Seventh Edition. Prentice Hall.
Glass ceiling. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Glass_ceiling
What is the Glass Ceiling? (2012). Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-glass-ceiling.htm
Yung, K. (2012). Does glass ceiling still exist? Retrieved from http://www.vancouversun.com/business/Does+glass+ceiling+still+exist/6294780/story.html
Discrimination and Affirmative Action (Glass Ceiling)
The paper will look at how women have for years been faced with artificial barriers as they try to advance into senior management positions. It will critically assess how efforts to include them equally into company leadership has hampered their economic gains and how there is still a long way to go before realization of their efforts. The argument that will prevail in this case is how this discrimination largely known as 'glass ceiling' has affected not only women competitiveness but largely affected the competitiveness of businesses, companies and even governments the world over.
The glass ceiling, is it a fact or just an illusion? Glass ceiling is a word that is used to describe barriers that exists for women, when it comes to getting promoted into the upper echelons of a company. Indeed it purely exists and it affects largely the women and…
Adair, Carole K. (1994). Cracking the Glass Ceiling: Factors Influencing Woman's Attainment of Senior Executive Positions, Colorado: *****
Ann, Morrison M. (1994). Breaking The Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach The Top Of America's Largest Corporations? London, Paperback
Jerlando F.L. Jackson AE Elizabeth M. O'Callaghan, (2008) What Do We Know About Glass Ceiling Effects?
Kalpana Pai, Sameer Vaidya, (2009) "Glass ceiling: role of women in the corporate world," Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness, Vol. 19, Texas, USA. Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Women Happy Under the Glass Ceiling?
Source (publication name or UL): http://www.forbes.com/2006/03/07/glass-ceiling-opportunities -- cx_hc_0308glass.html
Publication Date: 2006.
Subject / Main Ideas / Concepts of article: The main subject of the article is the "glass ceiling," which is a term that pertains to women rising to leadership positions in organizations. The term refers to an invisible ceiling that keeps women from rising to the very top levels of management in many organizations. The articles talks about a study that shows that 70% of women and 57% of men believe the glass ceiling exists, and that it exists in other countries around the world, as well as in the United States. The study also showed that both sexes felt they were paid fairly (even though women make less than men do), and that American women were happy with their levels of success.
Another point was that women in America tend…
Clark, Hannah. "Are Women Happy Under The Glass Ceiling?" Forbes.com. 2006. 22 Sept. 2009.
Stewart uses the conclusions the consulting and training firm aha! that led such audits, starting with the impressive figure of $6.7million, the cost of sexual harassment suits for a company that had around 27,000 employees. Using reports statistics, conclusive studies led both on women and men employees regarding gender bias, Stewart identifies the place where they generate problems and how much it costs the companies.
The recruiters and managers who are conducting an interview for an upper management position are the starting point in perpetuating a gender bias they brought from home. However, even if women are hired in position where they will cooperate and compete with male workers, they are still facing discriminatory opportunities in training and development methods, despite equal or superior evaluations of their skills and competencies. Third, women themselves may be their own enemy in advancing in a carrier due…
Spending on healthcare in general, but at the governmental and personal level, should be of concern. First, the overall number of dollars being spent is rather high. Second, the amount of money being spent far outstrips the rest of the world. Third, the rate of increase of healthcare spending from year to year is quite substantial. The question as to whether this is justifiable is a mixed answer. It is a "yes" in terms of what healthcare realities exist in the United States. However, it is a "no" when assessing and coming to grips with what is causing those healthcare realities to exist.
One example would be the prevalence of people with high blood sugar and diabetes-related symptoms. While some people inherit type I diabetes (or perhaps even type II diabetes) from a parent, a great majority of those with diabetes have the disorder due to bad eating habits and/or…
Crossman, A. (2015). An Overview of Conflict Theory. About.com Education. Retrieved 12 September 2015, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociological-
FMF. (2015). Empowering Women in Business - The Glass Ceiling - Feminist Majority
Foundation. Feminist.org. Retrieved 12 September 2015, from http://www.feminist.org/research/business/ewb_glass.html
Ursula Burns, Chief Executive Officer at Xerox
Although many authorities agree that the glass ceiling is still in place, it is clear that it has at least been shattered somewhat with many women leading Fortune 500 companies today. Leading the charge has been Ursula Burns, chairman and chief executive officer at Xerox Corporation since July 2009, making her the first African-American woman to lead an S&P 100 corporation. This paper reviews the relevant literature to provide Burns' background, an analysis of her leadership style and philosophy and how they align with the corporate culture at Xerox, an examination of Burns' personal and organizational values and an evaluation concerning how Burns' values most likely influence ethical behavior at this company. Finally, an analysis of Burns' three greatest strengths and weaknesses is followed by a discussion concerning the quality that most contributes to this leader's success and an assessment concerning how communication…
Alleyne, S. (2010, February). Unduplicated success: Named CEO of Xerox, Ursula M. Burns is making history as the first African-American woman to run one of the world's largest corporations. Black Enterprise, 40(7), 88-92.
Brimhall, C.L., Greif, T. & Buchsbaum, T. (2013, February). Teaching authentic adaptive leadership and organizational strategies using a case study. International Journal of Strategic Management, 13(1), 97-101.
Bryant, A. (2010, February 20). Xerox's new chief tries to redefine its culture. The New York
Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/21/business/21xerox.html ?
2016 was the first time this country has had a female presidential candidate because society is very much still ordered by what men do. For instance, the Access Hollywood of Donald Trump’s candid remarks about women and groping them and trying to sleep with them were made by Trump knowing full well he had a microphone on. He was engaging in locker room talk in a braggadocios manner because he knew he was the most powerful person in the room. Yet, when he was in the presence of his female costar and the cameras were on him, he was on his best behavior, knowing that when you are in the spotlight you have to behave a certain way that is acceptable to the public. For a woman who wants to lead, there is less of a sense of leeway in society: she is not allowed to have these private moments…
Glass Ceilings & Glass Escalators
Glass Ceilings and Glass Escalators
The article by David J. Maume Jr. examines the effect of race and gender composition on promotions to managerial positions. The author has reviewed the existing research on the topic which strongly indicates that that race and gender plays a major part in the levels of pay and pace of promotions-- with the White male in the advantaged group and the Black male and female and the White female firmly placed in the disadvantaged group. These studies have mostly examined the effect of race and gender on pay rather than promotions and rely on cross-sectional as opposed to longitudinal samples that limit their value as far as the drawing of conclusions about promotions is concerned. In order to remove the gaps in the existing research, the author has presented the results of his own research using data from the PSID…
One of the major points of Maume's research is its contradiction of the findings of an influential sociologist (William Wilson, 1980, 1989) that had suggested a decreasing significance of race in the career rewards for Blacks who entered the U.S. labor market after the passage of the Civil Rights legislation. The findings highlight the deep roots of male chauvinism and racial prejudice against the Blacks that stubbornly persist in the American society despite a number of liberation movements in the last century.
Higher pay is, however, a valid indicator of mobility into managerial positions
PSID (Panel Study of Income Study) is a representative, longitudinal survey that originated in 1968 and collects information on all members of 5000 American families.
As the light changes during the course of a day, the colors change as well; reds and yellows get more brilliant at noon, blues become brilliant as the light fades in the afternoon. All the while, the pictures tell important stories or symbolize truths. Light radiating through glass adds life, beauty, is transcendent, and spiritual connections become apparent.
The above rather elaborate description is cited at length in order to provide insight into the way that stained glass windows and ornamentation can evoke a spiritual and 'transcendent' quality that is particularly in keeping with a religious context such as a church. As referred to in the previous section, the use of stained glass is also strongly related to the Christian symbolism of light. As Web ( 2007) states, "A light philosophy ("God is light") was expressed, and it was thought that light reflected on earth is the closest we can…
Canterbury Cathedral, England [article online] ( accessed 8 December, 2009); available from http://www.sacredsites.com/europe/england/canterbury_cathedral.html
Corbin Henry, Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.
Gorman Pete J., The Birth of an Art Form [article online] accessed 8 December, 1995; available from http://ezinearticles.com/?Stained-Glass-The-Birth-of-an-Art-Form&id=2768442 ;Internet' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Where women do obtain jobs that are gendered as male, they have to act 'like men' to succeed in them" (p. 508).
From a metaphorical perspective, the research showed that the term "glass ceiling" is used to describe the institutionalized practices that serve to prevent women as a group from gaining access to the senior management levels in the public and private sector. From a feminist perspective, the research also showed that not only is the glass ceiling very real, it remains firmly in place in many segments of society in the West in general and in Australia in particular. While the reasons cited for these disparities in treatment varied, the overriding theme that emerged from the research was that the glass ceiling was installed by males in patriarchal societies who regard their lofty positions as sacrosanct and inviolable by women and use whatever data may be at hand…
Coyne, Beulah S., Edward J. Coyne and Monica Lee. 2004. Human Resources, Care Giving, Career Progression, and Gender: A Gender Neutral Glass Ceiling. New York: Routledge.
Greig, Alastair, Frank Lewins and Kevin White. 2003. Inequality in Australia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Masser, Barbara M. And Dominic Abrams. 2004. "Reinforcing the Glass Ceiling: The Consequences of Hostile Sexism for Female Managerial Candidates." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 51: 609.
Mcallister, Ian, Steve Dowrick and Riaz Hassan. 2003. The Cambridge Handbook of the Social Sciences in Australia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
The question is, how does one decide which path is more beneficial?
John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism in the Philosophy of J.S. Mill, raised similar concerns when he stated:
"…any, even unintentional, deviation from truth does that much toward weakening the truth-worthiness of human assertion, which is not only the principal of all present social well-being but the insufficiency of which does more than any one thing that can be named to keep back civilization, virtue, everything on which human happiness on the largest scale depends" (p. 349).
Considering that human happiness is a subjective commodity that varies for every individual in its "truth," then whether or not one perceives the mommy track trend to be in line with utilitarian principles ultimately depends on one's personal definition of the greater good. From the utilitarian perspective (i.e. Mill), the wishes of the individual must be forsaken for the long-term "big picture."…
Mill, John Stuart ed. By M. Cohen, Utilitarianism in the Philosophy of J.S. Mill, New York: The Modern Library, 1961. Print.
Morgan-Steiner, Leslie. "Going Places on the Mommy Track" the Washington Post. Web. 29 April 2010.
Palmer, Kimberly. "The New Mommy Track." U.S. News and World Reports (26 August, 2007). Web. 26 April, 2010.
Shaw, William H. Business Ethics. Wadsworth Publishing, 2007. Print.
The glass ceiling that women bump up against in many workplaces and cannot move past exists because of fear, and partly because of misunderstanding. Many men fear or are hostile to competition by women in the workforce, and others simply do not feel women are qualified to manage or oversee a company. Yes, the glass ceiling exists, and statistics prove it.
Tannen notes that it is common for women not to receive all the credit they deserve for projects and for their positions in general. Some women never are promoted, while others make it to a certain level of management and no further. For example, Tannen notes, "A woman who headed a major division of her company, and who did work comparable to that of six men who headed the other six divisions, had the title 'director" while the men were vice-presidents" (Tannen 134). There seems little reason for disparities…
Tannen, Deborah. Talking from 9 to 5: Women and Men at Work. New York, Harper Paperbacks, 1995.
Judy, Richard W. And Carol D'Aminco. Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, in: Hudson Institute, 1997.
Discrimination and Affirmative Action
The current study investigates gender discrimination and the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Women report through survey questions on how they view gender discrimination against women today, their level of commitment to an organization, and their level of agreement on how satisfied they are in their jobs. The purpose of this study is discussing certain issues that pertain particularly to women, because majority of women's find barriers when moving towards the top.
According to the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission, the definition of glass ceiling refers to "the artificial barriers present in the workplace to the advancement of women and minorities." egardless of achievements, the glass ceiling is an "unseen" barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the top of the corporate ladder. The glass ceiling still persists in today's society even though the equity gap between men and women in managerial…
Connerley M.L. & P.B. Pedersen (2005), Leadership in a diverse and multicultural environment: developing awareness, knowledge, and skills, Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage. Pp. 101-115
Edgar F. & Geare A. (2004), "Employee demographics in human resource management research," Research and practice in human research management, 12(1), 61-91.
Faderman, Lillian, 2005, Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present. London: The Women's Press, pp. 167-168
Finnis, John, (2004), "Law, Morality, and 'Sexual Orientation'" Notre Dame Law Review 69: 1049-1076.
There has been a lot of progress when it comes to gender diversity. However, a lot of work remains to be done. Indeed, there is a cacophony of issues that keep cropping up including talk about the glass escalator vs. the glass ceiling, the myth that women are on equal status with men to this very day, the historical role of gender and diversity over the course of the history of the United States, the very different definitions of sex and gender and so forth. The recent Supreme Court of the United States decision that ensconced gay marriage as being an equal right that people in the LGBT community should enjoy as a civil right was a milestone moment. While this is an encouraging event and people in the workplace should not allow sexual behavior or gender/sexual identity to become an issue, there is still a lot of ignorance and…
" (Meg hitman: Powerful, fearless and annoying) She is also considering standing for the governorship of California in 2010.
However, in addition to her astounding range of business and corporate achievements, an interesting aspect that emerges from a study of her life and working methods is that she is not a distant and aloof 'master of the universe'. Rather, her entrepreneurial vision and her ability to understand and respond to people are derived largely from a concern and interest in interaction and communication with others. Her personality and family life also suggests a warm and interesting individual. It is possibly these human qualities and her ability to connect with the needs of the customer that are the qualities that have made her one of the most successful business figures in the world today.
Business Biographies: Meg hitman. November 10, 2008. http://www.answers.com/topic/meg-whitman
Clark a. eBay boss quits to give…
Business Biographies: Meg Whitman. November 10, 2008. http://www.answers.com/topic/meg-whitman
Clark a. eBay boss quits to give auction site 'fresh pair of eyes' November 10, 2008. http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/jan/25/ebay.business
Glass Ceiling: definition. Retrieved August 25, 2008, at http://careerplanning.about.com/library/glossary/bldef-glassceiling.htm
Madden, Russell. SHATTERING the GLASS CEILING. 2000. November 10, 2008. http://home.earthlink.net/~rdmadden/webdocs/Shattering_the_Glass_Ceili.html
Gender Wage Gap
There are many different types of bias within the working environment. At times, one had to be a white-male to be a manger in many organizations. The wage-gender gap, or the discrepancies between equally qualified men and women, has diminished in many career paths, but still exists. The "glass ceiling" clearly remains a powerful force within the workplace. Qualified women are blocked from upper-level managerial positions, but their absence at the very top skews the curve when they are clustered in the middle. It seems that it takes about 30% penetration of women managers to begin to more rapidly move the distribution effect, suggesting that now; women remain concentrated in workplace settings with lower wages -- in almost every industry (Cohen and Huffman, 2007, 699).
Ernst and Young, a major accounting firm, realizes that it is in their best interest to find new and innovative ways to…
Accounting for Good People: Talent Management. (July 21, 2007). Galegroup. Retrieved from: http://www.galegroup.com .
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Work and Organization. 1(1): 2-22.
Hymowitz, C. (June 14, 2007). Coaching Men on Mentoring Women is Ernst and Young
Define BFOQ and list to which characteristics it applies
The bonafide occupational qualification BFOQ is a valid defense against allegations of discrimination where there is a need to hire persons with certain qualifications and traits. Some examples are requirements that engine drivers must not be color blind, could be legal. The general criteria are that without falling to the exceptions selective employment can be given to suit the nature of work. Though the general requirement of the work may help the employer use the BFQQ to avoid certain employees, there is a general system of laws that have to be carefully studied. (Weiss, 2004)
Human resources can be a protected class of people and the civil rights laws actually help the hiring of employees without trampling their rights. The equal employment Opportunities Commission EEOC and the U.S. Supreme Court have in a number of decisions laid down rules regarding…
Bernardin, John H. (2007) "Human Resource Management"
Enotes. (2006) "Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson" Gale Cengage. Retrieved 31 March, 2013
Deliberate discrimination may be to blame -- in part. But companies can also make it easier for women to balance the challenges of work and family life in a more effective fashion, given that these responsibilities often fall disproportionately on female shoulders. Providing day care for women, allowing more flexible work schedules for employees, as well as diversity and sensitivity training are all necessary. Encouraging female mentorship programs to undercut the influence of the still strong 'all boys network' of promotion is another critical move to shatter the ceiling.
Equal Pay and Compensation Discrimination." 1(Oct 2007).
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved 13 Dec 2007. http://www.eeoc.gov/types/epa.html
Kennedy, John. (10 Jul 1964). "Remarks upon Signing the Equal Pay Act."
The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 13 Dec 2007. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=9267
Equal Pay and Compensation Discrimination." 1(Oct 2007).
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved 13 Dec 2007. http://www.eeoc.gov/types/epa.html
Kennedy, John. (10 Jul 1964). "Remarks upon Signing the Equal Pay Act."
The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 13 Dec 2007. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=9267
omen have been able to infiltrate career paths which, until recently had been impossible for them. Females have been able to get more college degrees than ever before which have increased their training and their job opportunities. Despite the significant progress that women have made, it is still very much a man's world as illustrated by Christine illiams in a series of interviews where she studied males have started taking jobs in positions traditionally held by women, including nursing, librarians, social work, and teaching in the elementary school setting.
In all occupations, there is a definitive advantage to being male. This is seen in both traditionally male occupations as well as the jobs which used to be female territory but have now become open to both genders. Males almost always make more money and have a great deal more power than females who work in the same occupation.…
Williams, Christine L. "Still a Man's World: Men Who Do 'Women's Work.'" Social Structure,
Institutions, and Everday Life,1995. 304-12.Print.
Gender Bias in the Workplace
Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture of power and the roles of gender in a prevalent culture reverberate meaningful patrimonial control, with the maneuvering of a female gender an appurtenant element of its objective. Women working in a professional environment have to prove their importance within the acrimonious periphery created by men. Despite the changes, which have been brought in by many laws and movements, women today still do not enjoy a working environment where they would be given a status equal to that of a man.
In order to promote equal opportunities for both men and women in a working environment, the United States passed an act called Equal Employment Opportunity Act during the year 1972. This Act aims at eliminating illegal discrimination in a…
EEOC. 35 Years Of Ensuring The Promise Of Opportunity. Available on the address http://www.eeoc.gov/35th/history/index.html . Accessed on 22 Jul. 2003.
U.S Department Of Labor. Title IX, Education Amendments Of 1972. Available on the address
Byars-Winston, A., Estrada, Y., Howard, C., Davis, D., & Zalapa, J. (2010). Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(2), doi:10.1037/a0018608
• This article explores how both social cognitive and ethnic variables can play a part in determining the academic goals of people and groups that are "under-represented" within the academic sphere. The groups centered on this study include Africa-Americans, Latinos, Southeast Asians and Native Americans. There were 223 people in the study and the study itself was centered on what is known as the social cognitive theory, as proposed and discussed by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994. There was a significant relationship found between outcome expectations, interests and goals. Self-efficacy and efficacy-mediated relationships were also in play. One area that is touched upon with fervor in this study is…
At the same time, occupational segregation still exists in management positions. Part of the problem is that men are able to devote much more time to their career advancement vs. women who have to also consider raising a family and bulk of the responsibilities of that family. At the same time, however there are now many more women who have created role reversal than ever before, becoming the breadwinners within their nuclear family. The glass ceiling primarily exists because there is still exclusivity in the hiring process. Since the job of management hiring is typically sourced to executive search companies, many times such search teams do not include women because of the extra concerns associated with them. As a result, the only method by which many women in management have taken is to remain loyal within their corporate environment until they can climb the corporate ladder. This strategy grants women…
RACE, GENDER AND WORK: A Multicultural
Economic History of Women in the U.S. By Teresa Amott and Julie Matthaci.
Understanding Cultures Influence on Behavior by Richard Breslin
Does Having a New Black President
Make it Easier for Minorities to Advance to Leadership Roles in Business?
"Excuse me, sir. I'm looking for the Color Line. ould you know where I can find it?" (Miller)
The United States has made great strides in regard to minority relations by electing its first black president. By today's standard, minority entails many different things such as classifying by nationality, race, religious preference, physical disability, gender or sexual preference. Throughout history, there have been many great leaders who came from their respective minority groups. For example, few people are aware of the fact that the Roman Empire had black emperors and even less know that one of them, Septimius Severus, through his legislative changes to military pay scales and community control laws, may not only have been the greatest black emperor, he may actually have been the most influential Roman emperor…
Works Cited, cont.
Rawls, John (1955). "Two Concepts of Rules." The Philosophical Review. Vol. 64, pp. 3-13.
Smith, Virginia Whatley. (1995). "Minorstreaming: Resolving Problems of the Color Line in the 21st." Black Issues In Higher Education 15 June.
Toronto Star. (2009). "Good News On Diversity." Toronto Star (Canada). Section: Editorial, pg. A26, 03190781, November 17, 2009.
U.S. Small Business Administration. (1999). "Minorities In Business." Retrieved on November 20, 2009 from http://www.sba.gov/ADVO/stats/min.pdf .
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…
"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. ( http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html )
Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com )
Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. ( http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937
"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
Gender equality establishes the concept and attitude of unbiased and impartial allocation of corporate resources and prospects involving men and women. It establishes equality for men and women in terms of opportunity in social circles. But the corporate world is based on certain gender norms and stereotypes of role provisions. Hence these roles have made certain divisive identities (Sharma, & Sharma, 2012). The social norms of women being the housewife and caretaker of the family have infected eastern and western civilization. Corporations have been hiring women for mid-level and lower level positions, but they are blocked from top level positions (Ntermanakis, as cited by Mihail 2006).
According to Schein, Mueller, Lituchy and Liu (1996), women are afflicted with the typical think-manager-think male norm. In Nichols (1994) opinion, the popular opinion is that women aren't cut out for the tough decisions and roles of management position; hence they are kept out…
Lyman, L.L., Ashby, D.E., & Tripses, J.S. (2005). Leaders who dare: Pushing the boundaries. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Merchant, K., (2012). How Men and Women Differ: Gender differences in Communication Styles, Influence Tactics and Leadership Styles. Retrieved 29 September 2014 from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1521&context=cmc_theses
Michailidis, M.P., Morphitou, R.N., & Theophylatou, I.I. (2012). Women at work equality vs. inequality: barriers for advancing in the workplace. International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 23(20), 4231-4245. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.665071
Ryan, M.K., & Haslam, S.A. (2007). The glass cliff: Exploring the dynamics surrounding the appointment of women to precarious leadership positions. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 549-572.
Yet women with similar or comparable education and experience or achievement still earn less than men in work organizations. A missing link or the absent ingredient, between performance and a just payoff, was identified as women's own ability to comfortably and consistently draw the attention they deserve to the contributions they made or gave. Findings of a study conducted on 322 male and female executives showed that women were less comfortable in promoting themselves than men. Many of them still believed that self-promotion by women was still unacceptable and that hard work alone would not put them in the same level as men. Women were also found to be "over-preparers" who wanted their work to be technically correct but who did not bring this sense of accuracy and care to the attention or notice of influential individuals in the organization. Goodson found that even women who understood the importance of…
1. Auster, Ellen R. professional Women's Mid-career Satisfaction. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research, June 2001
2. Hultin, Mia. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: an Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination. Administrative Science Quarterly: Connell University Johnson Graduate School
3. Lemons. Mary A. Contextual and Cognitive Determinants of Procedural Justice: Perceptions in Promotion Barriers for Women. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation
4. Moya, Miguel. Close Relationships, Gender and Career Salience. Sex Roles: a Journal of Reserch: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2000
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…
Due to skills and abilities
4. Based on what you know and believe, would you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Racism in America is no longer a problem for Chinese-Americans.
Racism in America is no longer a problem for women and minorities
Is Nursing Women's Work?
With all of this talk about diversity, the global economy, and focus on a nondiscriminatory policy in the mass media, in the new millennium we would like to convince ourselves that we have shed many of the stereotypes that once defined our culture (Chung, 2011). It is true that in many professions we have raised or nearly destroyed the glass ceiling that once existed for women. Everyone knows what the glass ceiling is and knows that it only applies to women, right? This may be true in many professions, but in the field of nursing, one can argue that the glass ceiling exists for men and that male nurses struggle to break free of the stereotypes that limit the types and levels of work that they can do. It comes as no surprise to the casual observer that the nursing profession is dominated by…
American Assembly for Male Nursing (AAMN). (2011).Welcome to AAMN. Retrieved from http://aamn.org / .
Bynum, W., Hardy, A., & Jacyna, S. et al., (1995) The Western Medical Tradition. Vol 2.
Chung, V. (2011). Men in Nursing. Minority Nurse. Retrieved from http://www.minoritynurse.com/men-nursing/men-nursing
Ehrenreich, B. & English, D. (n.d.). Witches, Midwives, and Nurses. Originally published in the Feminist Press, CUNY. Retrieved from http://tmh.floonet.net/articles/witches.html
Partner benefit is a subject matter that is highly taken into consideration by employees when seeking jobs and signing contracts. The subject matter of partner benefits is particularly of great significance to employees when being hired as also at the time of signing contracts. In contemporary times, benefits to partner has become an important aspect not only for success to a company but also for equality. This paper will seek to analyze two companies in the Fortune 500 list which are Wal-Mart and Procter & Gamble with regards to the manner in which they provide partner benefits.
How do the requirements for coverage for domestic partners, such as length of the relationship compare with requirements for benefits of married couples?
These two fortune 500 companies provide benefits to partner and make sure that there is equality and impartiality in the distribution of benefits to their employees and partners. For Wal-Mart…
Bell, M. (2012). Diversity in Organizations. Ohio: South-Western Cengage.
May, L. (2013). Local companies: Offering domestic partner benefits is good business. Frost Brown Todd Attorneys. Retrieved from: http://www.frostbrowntodd.com/newsroom-229.html
Sammer, J., Miller, S. (2013). The Future of Domestic Partner Benefits. Society for Human Resource Management.
Smith, P., Caputi, P., & Crittenden, N. (2012). A maze of metaphors around glass ceilings. Gender in Management: an international journal, 27(7), 436-448.
young, one may keep a diary, recording events, thoughts, and feelings. The diary creates a record that can be used to look back on a past time, and provide details that document events that can be used to aid recall. This is especially useful were details may not be remembered, and one will want to create a reminder of the events and/or feelings, and may help us understand more about ourselves. In some cases a diary may also be used to demonstrate where one was on a particular day or time, and can also be used to plan ahead, managing time.
ecord keeping in business has a number of similarities. From an accounting perspective the records that are kept will record the financial transactions. They are recorded not only because it would be impossible for all the transactions to be remembered and recalled in full, but to create a formal…
American medical Association, (AMA), (2014), Frequently Asked Questions about HIPAA, accessed at http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/solutions-managing-your-practice/coding-billing-insurance/hipaahealth-insurance-portability-accountability-act/frequently-asked-questions.page ?
Barreto, M., Ryan, M.K., & Schmitt, M.T., (2009), The glass ceiling in the 21st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Catalyst (2012). Women in U.S. management, accessed at http://www.catalyst.org/publication/206/women-in-us-management
Drexler, Alejandro; Fischer, Greg; Schoar, Antoinette, (2014), Keeping It Simple: Financial Literacy and Rules of Thumb, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 6(2), 1-31
Black, J.S., & Porter, L.W. (1991). Managerial Behaviors and Job Performance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(1), 99+. etrieved March 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000126798
Business Case for Diversity. etrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html
Clarke, .D. (2005, September). Workplace Bias Abounds: New Study Confirms the American Workplace Has Much Farther to Go to Achieve True Diversity. Black Enterprise, 36, 38. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011221717
Hicks, D.A. (2003). eligion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, Leadership. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110647891
Madden, ussell SHATTEING THE GLASS CEILING. etrieved March 29,
2009, from http://home.earthlink.net/~rdmadden/webdocs/Shattering_the_Glass_Ceili.html
Mor Barak, M.E. (2000). The Inclusive Workplace: An Ecosystems Approach to Diversity Management. Social Work, 45(4), 339. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001074518
Stretch, J.J. (2006). Managing Diversity: Toward a…
Black, J.S., & Porter, L.W. (1991). Managerial Behaviors and Job Performance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(1), 99+. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
gender-based wage disparities still reflect serious issues of concern (Hirsch 2008). Major disparities remain for women. A 2008 article captured a good deal of interest with its simple declaration that "Across-the-board figures from February this year indicate that full-time female employees earned an average $1,004 a week compared to fulltime male average weekly earnings of $1,190" (The Lamp). Others too have sought to use drama as a way of heightening the reality of some of the disparities. Noting that for those who earn upwards of $1,000,000 annually the ratio of men to women is 13:1 is as profound a comment as is the fact that income equality doesn't even begin to appear until one looks at earnings of about $25,000 and $30,000 (Lips, 2003, pp. 87).
Baron and Cobb-Clark (2009, pp. 229) express concern that, as they put it, "Forty years after the 1969 Equal Pay Case there continues to…
Baron, JD & Cobb-Clark, WA (2009). 'Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis.' The Economic Record, vol. 86, no. 273. pp. 227-246.
Bertrand, M. (2010). 'New perspectives on gender.' Handbook of Labour Economics. Vol. 4b. DOI 10.1016/S0169-7218(11)02415-4. 1545-1592.
Cobb-Clark, D. And Tan, M. (2010). 'Noncognitive skills, Occupational attainment, and relative wages.' HILDA. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.
Coelli, M. (2011). Occupation differences and the gender wage gap in Australia: a detailed re-assessment. HILDA. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.
Gender Attitudes in Business Students
An Analysis of Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes Relative to Gender and Professions
Significance and Conclusion
There is a body of evidence that suggests many disparities in the representation of gender in certain segments of the academic and business professions. For example, previous research has indicated that women, on average, are less likely to attend business school than males and are also less likely to hold high-ranking positions in organizations. Although there are many factors that are involved in such trends, and many societies have made significant progress towards minimizing the gender gaps, there is still much to be understood about the challenges that women face into entering into certain professions. This research will consider whether there is differences inherent in the genders that could help explain the outcomes that have been observed in various professions. The proposal outlines a research plan that will investigate differences…
Brandt, T., & Laiho, M. (2013). Gender and personality in transformational leadership context: An examination of leader and subordinate perspectives. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 44-66.
Copen, C. (2008). TRANSMISSION AND TRANSITIONS: YOUNG ADULTS' BELIEFS, VALUES AND LIFE COURSE TRANSITIONS IN FAMILIAL CONTEXT. University of Southern California, 1-47.
Kennedy, J., & Kray, L. (2014). Who Is Willing to Sacrifice Ethical Values for Money and Social Status?: Gender Differences in Reactions to Ethical Comprimises. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 52-59.
Mumford, M., Helton, W., Decker, B., Connelly, M., & Van Doorn, J. (2003). Values and Beliefs Related to Ethical Decisions. Teaching Business Ethics, 139-170.
Jamieson explains that the phrase Catch-22, serves as another synonym for double bind. Paula Caplan, a psychologist, notes, "Mothers are caught in a perfect Catch-22. They are supposed to be concerned with emotions and closeness in relationships, but because autonomy has been designated by the white male middle class in North America as the pinnacle of emotional health,"
Mothers in the workplace, however, who do what comes natural to them are sometimes treated as they are immature or even sick.
The gender of the leader does matter to perceivers who filter judgments to the demands of cultural expectations. "Applause from the same sensitive and collaborative leadership is more likely to go to a man than a woman."
In addition, women, particularly leaders frequently experience greater scrutiny for errors, even small ones they make, and are more likely to be criticized than men in leadership positions.
Viewpoints Regarding Genders
Booker, Stacie Kress. 1 May 2006. Perking up: progressive businesses try to offer a range of benefits and policies that help retain employees and make them more productive. Florida Trend. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-145982865.html .
Case Studies. 2008. Colorado State University. 21 Feb. 2008. http://writing.colostate.edu/index.cfm .
Charting the U.S. Labor Market in 2006. 28 Sept. 2007. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Bureau of Labor Statistics United States Department of Labor. Section 6: Families. 23 Feb. 2009. http://www.bls.gov/ LaborForceStatistics fromthe CurrentPopulation Survey>.
Chin, Jean Lau, Bernice E. Lott, Joy K. Rice, and Janis Sanchez-Hucles. 2007. Women and Leadership: Transforming Visions and Diverse Voices Blackwell Publishing. 21 Feb. 2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZyhRWzTm_RwC .
New York: State and City
Suffice to say, the French adage "plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose" remains true today as it was during the time of Jacob Riis in the late 1800s. This is particularly relevant when looking the conditions of women in the workplace that could only be described as dire and dismal. Although between that period and at present, there have been major changes and improvements in women's working lives, there are still similarities though. Hence, the more things change the more they remain the same and Riis' writing is testimony to this since he was able to present how society was then and how society is now especially in the treatment of women in the workplace. Reading through the whole chapter, one can feel unnerved and question how come in a society and nation that values freedom, equality and merit allowed for such miserable…
Riis, Jacob. 'Chapter XX: The Working Girls of New York.' How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York. 1890. 15 Jun. 2011. .
Minority Woman as School Principals and Leadership Challenges Faced by Minority Principals
When compared with corporate America, both the public and private American school systems may have more blatant glass ceiling settings because there are very obvious resistance movements towards gender and minority integration into administrative roles such as principals especially for positions in better schools or systems. The numbers do not lie -- consider the fact that women have traditionally comprised the majority of both the public and private school teaching forces yet, the majority of school administrators for these systems continue to be white males. This report therefore aims to discuss the roles of minority women as school principals, the inherent leadership and administrative challenges they may face as minority principals and what may or may not work for them and why.
Although this report happened to use some examples from the California school system to demonstrate some…
Feistritzer, C.E. (1988). Profile of teachers in the U.S.-1990. Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Information.
Shakeshaft, C. (1989). Women in educational administration (updated edition). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sutherland, Billie. (1995). "Recovering illiterates ... 'reconnecting with life' (functional illiteracy)" San Diego Business Journal.
Unknown. (1999). "As California overhauls schools, America watches for lessons" The Christian Science Monitor.
Diversity is a fact of American and International business and is a broader, more complex issue than one might initially believe. A universally vital element of global commerce, Diversity has spawned an abundance of theorists, journals and specialists, some of whom are encountered in this composition. Addressing the remarkable breadth and complexity of Diversity, this essay reviews: the nature of Diversity; legally protected classes within the United States; aspects of Diversity that fall outside the scope of U.S. legal protections; the benefits of Diversity for employers; the differences/challenges presented by Diversity for employers; general business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity; and suggested specific business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity. Though this work cannot exhaustively address all aspects of Diversity, it is meant to give a good overview of modern businesses' Diversity issues and possible solutions.
Nature of Diversity:
"Diversity" involves legally protected classes of people but also involves other classes of…
Akbari, H. (2008). Education business professionals for year 2010 and beyond: Six critical management themes and skills to emphasize. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 7(7), 57-62.
Comperatore, E., & Nerone, F. (2008). Coping with different generations in the workplace. Journal of Business & Economic Research, 6(6), 15-30.
Domina, C.S. (2011). Our strength is in our Diversity: Fact or fancy? Journal of Diversity Management, 6(1), 1-9.
Figiel, V.L., & Kummel Sasser, M.A. (2010). Factors contributing to employee decisions to ignore Diversity policies. Journal of Diversity Management, 5(4), 11-17.
Pay equality has for the longest time been one of the most hotly debated topics in the corporate world. When the Equal Pay bill became law in 1963, women were averagely earning just 58.9% of what men were averagely being paid, according to the congressional committee that tabled the bill. In 2011, this percentage had increased to about 77% of what men were averagely being paid for full-time work. These statistics show that there is a somewhat entrenched mentality of paying women lower wages for a job that men would be paid higher for, despite the fact that many firms are claiming to have put in place measures to bring about gender equality in their workplaces (Dontigney, n.d.). This paper examines the issue underlying the equal pay between men and women.
Some human resource managers have argued that the difference in pay between women and men…
Andrews, K. (2015, July 14). Why the gender pay gap is a myth. Retrieved from The Spectator: http://blogs.new.spectator.co.uk/2015/07/the-gender-pay-gap-is-a-myth/
Babcock, L., & Laschever, S. (2003). Women don't ask Negotiation and the gender divide. Princeton: Princeton University.
Blau, F., & Kahn, L. (2007). The Gender Pay Gap. Academy of Management Perspectives, 7-23.
Bluestone, B., Murphy, W. M., Stevenson, M (1973). Low wages and the working poor. Policy papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 22. Ann Arbor: Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations.
Women in the Workforce
Training Plan: Breaking the Glass Ceiling at Intuit
Intuit revolutionized the accounting industry with innovative applications that assist with financial analysis and tax preparation. Since 1983 Intuit has been a proud leader providing our most famous products: Quicken and TurboTax to a wide variety of customers from individuals to small businesses and corporations. We have prided ourselves on providing an excellent workplace that sparks creativity and builds long-term relationships. Our atmosphere is one of continual learning and growth.
However, this focus on growth always means that there is room for improvement. The following examines a new training plan to help take advantage of one area that could be improved. Intuit attracts young movers and shakers. However, women have recently complained that their needs are being ignored. The following will examine a plan to include women in the Intuit mix in a way that allows them truly…
Intuit Inc., (2008, August 13). Intuit Unveils Small Business Connected Strategy. Intuit.
Retrieved from http://about.Intuit.com/about_Intuit/press_room/press_release/2008/0813.jsp li, M., Metz, I., & Kulik, C. (2007, December 4-7) Workforce gender diversity: Is it a source of competitive advantage? Paper presented at the 21st ANZAM conference, Sydney,
Australia Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/40898/1/40898.pdf
Griffiths, M. & Moore, K. (2010). 'Disappearing Women': A Study of Women Who Left the UK
CEOs, however, would most likely argue that they are invaluable to their companies, and are adequately compensated for the work they do. hile the authors of this article conclude that they are not attempting to persuade readers to one position or the other, they do suggest that they are attempting to allow readers to understand the double-sided argument of CEO pay. In accomplishing this goal, they have done well. Both employees who are frustrated at the lifestyle that their CEOs are able to live while they struggle to get by and CEOs who are making hundreds of dollars an hour would be able to understand the rational for each side in this argument. By presenting the argument in this non-biased formula, the authors invite discussion on the topic, a discussion that most likely would not have happened if this type of presentation has been achieved. In allowing for an open…
Athiyaman, Adee, and Parkan, Celik. (June 2008). A Functionalist Framework for Identifying Business Clusters: Applications in Far North Queensland. Australian Journal of Management, 201-218.
Brookfield, Jonathan. (2008). Firm Clustering and Specialization. Small Business Economics. 30(4), p. 405-422.
Edmans, Alex and Gabaix, Xavier, Is CEO Pay Really Inefficient? A Survey of New Optimal Contracting Theories (September 8, 2008). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1280390Jones,Del . (2008).
Female CEOs make more gains in 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from USA Today. Web Site: http://www.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/2008-01-02-women-ceos_N.htm
Sally is a proficient and experienced Human Resource Management (HRM) leader at ABC Bank. In the contemporary, Sally feels overwhelmed owing to the recent acquisition of the Local Bank by ABC Bank. There are various key aspects that present a HRM challenge for Sally. To begin with, the workforce at the new branch comprises of 40% of older workers that possess knowledge and wisdom. However, there is a need to instigate new technologies to provide additional consumer convenience and therefore a decision as to be made whether the current set of workers should be laid off and new personnel hired. Two other problems encompass a pending lawsuit on sexual harassment and discrimination as well as lack of diversity and ethics training programs. There is also ambiguity regarding the core values of the bank. Most of all Sally is worried regarding the building of a strategic plan for the branch. The…
When the perceived role and the expected role are incongruent, conflict can occur both between the leader and his followers, and within himself. This can result in a slowdown in production, a lowering of morale and resistance to changes that the leader may be trying to implement (obbins & Judge, 2007).
According to Shafritz & Ott (2005) an organization is essentially a tool that people use to coordinate their actions as a means of achieving their goals. Often, the attainment of these goals requires some form of negotiation. Negotiating conflict is the area of leadership communication that can be the most problematic because if matters are not handled correctly, the conflicts can escalate until they are no longer under control. Leaders who are not attentive to their employees' needs and desires are not very likely to have a happy and productive workforce (Shafritz & Ott, 2005). Thus communication is ultimately…
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectation. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B.M., and Avolio, B.J. (1994). Shatter the glass ceiling: Women may make better managers. Human Resource Management, 33, 549-560.
Billsberry, J., (2009). Discovering leadership, Basingstoke, Palgrave OU Press.
Bisel, R.S., Ford, D.J., & Keyton, J. (2007). Unobtrusive control in a leadership organization: Integrating control and resistance. Western Journal of Communication, 71, 136 -- 158.
Global Awareness and Cultural and Racial Diversity
The need to successfully promote global awareness and cultural and racial diversity took on a completely new meaning recently. "There are over six billion people on this planet we call Earth. Diversity is more than just a notion. The term diversity has been defined by Merriam-ebster online as meaning 'differing from one another or unlike. Composed of distinct or unlike elements or qualities', this word is also used to simply mean different." (Burns) By Barak Obama becoming the nation's first black president, we have forever changed the nation's future; but in a sense, this momentous election will also alter how we will forever look at our nations past history. For more than two hundred years, the United States of America was traditionally managed by older white guys and by them being in charge, the world's thinking was shaped. The expectations of every…
Works Cited, continued
Schniedewind, Nancy. "There Ain't No White People Here!": The Transforming Impact of Teachers' Racial Consciousness on Students and Schools. Equity & Excellence in Education. 2005, 38: 280 -- 289.
Their labor market position then becomes a matter of individual 'choice'....In Sweden, the definition of women's entitlements to welfare in family policies has changed dramatically since the early 1970s, away from the provision of benefits to them as mothers and toward benefits that they draw by virtue of their labor market status. Yet, paradoxically, the outcome of this shift has been the strengthening of policies that recognize women's needs as mothers. The framework of equal treatment on the basis of labor market participation supported by a full employment policy seems to have made possible the greater recognition of women's caring work in the family" (Lewis & Astrm 59).
In other words, Sweden is very permissive in granting paternal leave and day care to both parents, which benefits women, but men can also benefit from these policies, even though the greatest beneficiary of the policy may be women, as women have…
Baxter, Janeen & Erik Olin Wright. "The Glass Ceiling Hypothesis: A Comparative Study of the United States, Sweden, and Australia. Gender and Society. 14.2. (Apr., 2000):275-294.
Gustafsson, Gunnel. "Sustainable Pressure for 'Women-Friendliness' in Sweden." Political
Psychology. 19.1. (Mar., 1998): 43-61
Lewis, Jane & Gertrude Astrm. "Equality, Difference, and State Welfare: Labor Market and Family Policies in Sweden." 18.1. (Spring, 1992): 59-87.
" (Thomas, Hutcheson, Porterfield, and Pierannunzi, 1994)
Summary and Conclusion
It is clear that employee turnover is very costly to organizations and as noted in the introduction of this study employee turnover rates are as high as 23.4% in some industries, which demonstrates a very large financial cost to these organizations. As demonstrated by this report the costs associated with employee turnover are costs both of the direct and indirect nature. Costs for employee turnover on the average (average employee's salary, mid-size organization) are generally 150% of the employee's annual salary. Clearly, the organization with the least employee turnover is the organization that will realize the most profit and the most productivity. There are methods of avoiding employee turnover which have only been briefly touched upon within the scope of this present research but are methods that hold promise for the organization in the reduction of employee turnover and the…
Berger, L.A. And Berger, D.R. (2004) the talent management handbook: Creating Organizational excellence by Identifying, developing, and promoting your best people. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bliss, William G. (2007) Cost of Employee Turnover - the Advisor. Online available at http://www.isquare.com/turnover.cfm.
Thomas, R.; Hutcheson, J.; Porterfield, J.; and Pierannunzi, C. (1994) the Impact of Recruitment, Selection, Promotion and Compensation Policies and Practices on the Glass Ceiling. Key Workplace Documents - Federal Publication. 1994 Cornell University.
Latest BLS Employee Turnover Rates for Year Ending August 2006 (2006) Retention Management and Metrics. Nobscot Corporation. Online available at http://www.nobscot.com/survey/index.cfm .
Notwithstanding these positive trends, the glass ceiling is not broken (although it has been cracked a bit) and even telecommuting is used in different ways with male and female employees. For example, Arnow-ichman points out that, "While telecommuting was once heralded as an ideal solution for integrating work and family, studies suggest that employers have implemented the practice in two different ways with disparate effects on male and female employees" (2003, p. 346). These two different approaches used with telecommuting are as follows:
1. In one form, employers offer telecommuting as an option for high-level autonomous professionals (a class dominated by men);
2. In another form, employers impose telecommuting on lower-wage clerical workers (a class dominated by women), who are often independent contractors unentitled to other employment benefits.
The net impact of these two different approaches to this change in the workplace structure has been felt by men and women…
Arnow-Richman, R. (2003). Accommodation subverted: the future of work/family initiatives in a 'Me, Inc.' world. Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 12(2), 345-347.
Davey, J.D. (1999). The new social contract: America's journey from welfare state to police state. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Ginther, D.K. & Pollak, R.A. (2004). Family structure and children's educational outcomes:
Blended families, stylized facts, and descriptive regressions. Demography, 41(4), 671-
arriers Female Educators Experience With Regard to Promotion Positions in Management and Leadership
Gender-ased Employment iases in Educational Fields:
An Examination of the arriers Experienced by Female Educators with Regard to Promotion and Management Positions in Education
While the plight for gender-equitable workplace has long been thought to have a potential solve within the halls of academia, the disparate employment equation between men and women has long been under-observed. The feminist's battle cry for equality rallied the forces around professional gender streamlining, and in the face of affirmative action for races, the professional inequality across genders gained widespread attention in the second half of the last century. Much of the increased discourse was cemented by the Title IX legislation, passed in 1972 and cementing the importance of gender balance in academic fields.
Title IX most notably prohibited sexual discrimination in education for students, but its legal boundaries included educators and…
American Educational Research Association. 2005 Annual Meeting: Demography and Democracy in the Era of Accountability. Washington, D.C.: AERA, 2005.
American Educational Research Association. Complementary Methods for Research Education. Second Ed. Washington, D.C.: AERA, 2005.
American Educational Research Association. From Research Findings to Policy Advice: A Guide for AERA Members. Second Ed. Washington, D.C.: AERA, 2001.
Bailey and Campbell, S.M. And P.B. "Gender Equity: The Unexamined Basic of School Reform." Stanford Law and Policy Review. Volume 5. (Winter, 1992.) p. 73-86.
Women in Control
What some see as a male-dominated world, others see females in control, sometimes behind the scenes.
When it comes to selecting mates, it is women who are in ultimate control. And, they are quite selective. Of the many characteristics women look for in a man, good financial prospects, social status, ambition, size/strength, and dependability are only a few ("Women's Long-Term" 109). Although if a man has many of these characteristics he may be able to more likely attract a female of his liking, in the end, men are at the mercy of women, when it comes to relationships, love and procreation. This is a significant amount of control that women solely possess.
Dreher's study regarding the glass ceiling and how women have been positively impacted by the increase in the number of work-life human resource practices in the last two decades. When compared with figures from the…
Arslanian-Engoren, C. "Feminist Poststructuralism: A Methodological Paradigm for Examining Clinical Decision-Making." Journal of Advanced Nursing 37(6) Mar 2002: p. 512-517. Mar 2002: p. 512-517. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 17, 2006 http://web111.epnet.com/.
Dreher, G. "Breaking the Glass Ceiling." Human Relations. 56(5) May 2004: p. 541-562.
Kalabamu, F. "Changing Gender Contracts in Self-Help Housing Construction in Botswana." Habitat International Jun 2005: p. 245-268.
Keynan, H. "Somalia: The Great Escape." UNESCO Courier 48(9) Sept 1995: p. 26-27. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 17, 2006 http://web111.epnet.com/.
Dr. Hayden believes the reason for this change at the school level is due to greater recruitment efforts, financial and academic support, and more women role models to provide encouragement. Dr. Hayden sees a similar situation happening in the engineering field.
Dr. Lin, a male electrical engineer, on the other hand, somewhat ironically, seems to feel that women face a tougher challenge in engineering than Dr. Hayden stated. According to Dr. Lin, women can succeed as an electrical engineer if "they are determined." This is clearly a male-oriented view of how to succeed. According to typical male beliefs, success is an individual achievement. If you work hard you will succeed. If you do not succeed, it is because you did not work hard enough. However, Dr. Hayden emphasized in her response to the same question the role of peer mentors, academic support and other outside resources. This is typically a…
Baker, Wayne. Achieving Success Through Social Capital. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Dr. Hayden. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Dr. Lin. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Fuller, Georgina. "Recent Graduates Expect More from their Employers" Personnel
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…
components of the situation.
The few most important components of the case consist of:
Burns & McAllister's reputation as an equal opportunity employer
B&M's expanding business in other nations where culture doesn't support women in management
Company's compliance with cultural values and norms of other countries instead of applying equal opportunity employment policy universally
NOW's opposition that companies should not accept cultural norms of other nations but instead but allow women to prosper the same way everywhere
NOW believes this is the only way change can be introduced everywhere
Define exactly the problems and/or issues that are involved. (esearch)
We understand that BM is not talking about western countries when it says that some of the countries where it does business do not allow women at senior positions. We know they are talking about Asian countries especially countries like Japan and China which are still far behind western countries…
Korabik, K. (1993). Managerial Women in the People's Republic of China. International Studies of Management & Organization. Volume: 23. Issue: 4. P. 47+.
Summerfield, G. ( 1994). Effects of the Changing Employment Situation on Urban Chinese Women. Review of Social Economy. Volume: 52. Issue: 1. P. 40+.
Crosby, F. Stockdale, M. (2007) Sex discrimination in the workplace: multidisciplinary perspectives. Wiley-Blackwell.