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Challenges Faced by Financial Managers in a Changing Economic Environment
Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76888305
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Executive Summary
The global economic environment has changed significantly in just the last 8 years. Central banks have become more assertive in the market places, inflation measured by CPI has risen, the dollar index has dropped, political rhetoric is highly inflammatory with a focus on tariffs, trade wars, currency wars, protectionism, nationalism, and interventionism all being heard more and more in recent months and years. For a finance manager all of these variables must be considered when focusing on how to plan for risk, how to guide the firm’s financial decisions, and how to protect cash flow. This paper identifies some of the main challenges that a financial manager will face in the light of changing economic conditions—namely, how rising interest rates, exchange rates and inflation rates will impact cash flow, and how the flow of information must be managed in order to balance strategic aims with economic uncertainties and…

Corsi, F. & Sornette, D., (2014). Follow the money: The monetary roots of bubbles and crashes. International Review of Financial Analysis, 32, 47-59.
Heller, R. (2017). Monetary mischief and the debt trap. Cato Journal, 37(2), 247-261
Ilie, L. (2015). Challenges for financial managers in a changing economic environment. Procedia Economics and Finance, 27, 726-730.
Oxelheim, L., Wihlborg, C., & Thorsheim, M. (2011). The CFO’s Information Challenge in Managing Macroeconomic Risk. In The Strategic CFO (pp. 189-208). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

the Impact of Globalization on Crime
Words: 1919 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17249885
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Effects of Globalization on CrimeGlobalization has different effects on developing and the developed countries in its distinct way. Since the developed countries already have an already established strong infrastructure, fortified economy, vigorous political mechanisms, and less difference among the poor and the rich regarding societal equality, globalization has still been debated regarding its effects on the entire country (Samimi & Jenatabadi, 2014). Since the poverty levels in developed and developing countries vary depending upon the type of effects globalization poses on a country, the crime rate also differs. This paper investigates the globalization impact on crime based on the statistics taken from authentic sources.Research has shown that globalization has greatly affected the economy of a country that has slowed inter-regional trade. When the trade is open between two countries, the per capita income of the developed countries rises above the average level, resulting in improved quality of life for those…


Martin, R., Tyler, P., Storper, M., Evenhuis, E. & Glasmeier, A. (2018). Globalization at a critical conjuncture? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy, and Society, 11(1), 3-16. 

McAfee. (n.a.). There’s nowhere to hide from the economics of cybercrime. 

Mehardchandani, D. (2020, December 18). Cybercrime expected to rise at an unprecedented rate in 2021. Security Boulevard. 

Morgan, S. (2020, November 13). Cybercrime to cost the world $10.5 trillion annually by 2025. Cybercrime Magazine.

Global Economies Each Region in the World
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 45203959
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Global Economies

Each region in the world has a different economic policy guided by various fundamentals and policies in place. Members of a region may dictate how the business in that particular region is conducted. Several factors therefore have to be considered by businesses and countries when they want to engage in business with one another. When doing business, a critical analysis of the host country in terms of the macroeconomic dynamics is of great importance to evaluate how they affect business and also taking into account the barriers, tariffs and regulations of trade that may affect the exportation of goods and services.

Certain regions have trade blocks that govern the rules of doing business; such regions enforce barriers to protect the economies of the member countries and to bar foreign investors and importers from providing goods and services to compete against their respective domestic products. Some countries have heavy…

For purposes of this paper, the focus is on Australia which has one of the best economies in the world. Australia is ranked thirteenth best economy with its per capita income being ranked as one of the best in the world. Its human development index is also one of the best compared to other major economies of the world with its national performance in areas such as the economic freedom, education, protection rights, health and quality of life in general still ranked high. It has one of the best organized governments with clear structures and a working constitution that governs and protects the citizens. Geographically it is one of the largest countries with six states namely; South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia (Ralph Kelly, 2012).

Australia generally is a wealthy nation with a population of about 22.2 million; its major cities are ranked as the most livable cities in the world. The Australian dollar (AUD) which is its main currency is stronger than the U.S. dollar (USD) and the exchange rate is 1 AUD equals to 1.03810 USD an indication of a good economy for foreign investment (XE, 2012). A stronger domestic currency is good for the importers but unproductive for the country's exports in the International markets as they become expensive and less competitive. The barometer predicts a decrease in the value against the USD by 2013 with a strong performance before the 2013 down drift. Different categories of business operators expect AUD/USD to go as high as $1.06 and weaken to $1.02 by 2013 onwards (Commonwealth Bank 2012).

Australia's annual economic growth for the last 15 years is 3.6%, the GDP growth rate estimates for 2011-2012 according to World Bank ranges from 3.2% to 3.8% which is a positive indicator. The International Monetary Fund report has also indicated that it is the world's best performing advanced economy, a status that is expected to prevail in the next two to three years. The year 2012 has had a growth rate of 3.1% therefore with all the fundamentals constant, a forecast of 3.3% increase is expected in 2013. The inflation (CPI) for Australia is 2.8% while the interest rate ranges between 3-6%.The interest rate forecast remains constant as sources reveal, the rate has been constant at 3.25% for the last three consecutive months being backed up by the domestic indicators. Inflation is also expected to remain

Global Cultural Analysis Nigeria
Words: 5263 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25995575
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Global Business Cultural Analysis


Nigerian History

Synopsis of Nigerian government

Nigerian monarchy to presidential system

The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government

Nigerian major commodities



The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria

Cultural dimensions


Power distance



Model of culture

Universalism or Particularize

How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?

The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world

How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?

The role of women in the workplace

Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)

Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria




Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…


Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host. 

Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)

Global Marketing According to Cleveland and Laroche
Words: 1567 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83417030
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Global Marketing

According to Cleveland and Laroche (2007), the global consumer is characterized as someone who fits in with global consumer culture. This is a culture that has certain characteristics that are static internationally, such that the global consumer can be subject to global marketing. The global consumer is understood in contrast to the local consumer. The local consumer bears strong characteristics of the local market, in their tastes and buying patterns. The global consumer trends more towards international norms. The global consumer is aware of and has some preference for international products and bears similarity to international buying patterns. In essence, the global consumer in Shanghai will have tastes and characteristics that relate more to other global consumers in Vancouver, London or Mumbai than to the people of the local Shanghai market.

Global consumers have emerged as the result of two key trends, identified in Czinkota and onkainen (2013).…


Andersson, S. & Servais, P. (2010). Combining industrial buyer and seller strategies for international supply and marketing management. European Business Review. Vol. 22 (1) 64-81.

Balabanis, G. & Diamatopoulos, A. (2004). Domestic country bias, country-of-origin effects and consumer ethnocentrism: A multidimensional unfolding approach. Academy of Marketing Science Journal. Vol. 32 (1) 80-95.

Cleveland, M. & Laroche, M. (2007). Acculturation to the global consumer culture: Scale development and research paradigm. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 60 (3) 249-259.

Czinkota, M. & Ronkainen, I. (2013). International Marketing. South-Western College Publishing.

Global Business Planning for Spain
Words: 3203 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91361095
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People and services are not easily moved among the various countries. Although securing work and permits in the United States for Mexican and Canadian immigrants, NAFTA has also caused considerable concern in terms of legislation.

This is particularly the case in Canadian lawmaking. Several disputes resulted from NAFTA trading activities in the country. Such disputes for example include gasoline additives and possible related health concerns and nerve damage (Weintraub, 2004). Canada was also engaged in a long dispute regarding a 27% duty on softwood imports to Canada. This lasted for years before it was finally resolved in 2006. Significantly however, the decision was not ratified by either Canada or the United States (Weintraub, 2004). According to the U.S. Court of International Trade, imposing the duty was contrary to the United States law.

Other problems include the fact that Canada has lost more than 10,000 companies to foreign takeovers since NAFTA…


CIA. (2010). CIA -- the World Factbook -- France. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from 

Dow Jones Sustainability Index. (n.d.). Retrieved January 10,2010 from

Glass, a. (n.d.) World Economy Vertical vs. Horizontal FDI. Department of Economics,

Texas a&M University. Retrieved February, 22, 2010, from

Global Financial Strategy
Words: 3324 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 83072330
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Global Financial Strategy

Critical assessment of the proposal to raise capital locally rather than in the UK

In the analysis of the proposal of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, it is essential to consider four critical aspects: costs, risks, benefits/advantages, and limitations/disadvantages. In the presentation of this critical assessment, the focus will be on the four factors or aspect in order to offer reliable analysis of the situation.


In the process of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, the organization must incur several costs. One of the essential costs is the professional cost. This refers to the amount of money or financial resources paid to the legal advisors, auditors, and reporting accountants in order to execute the process of raising the capital effectively and appropriately. Another important aspect of cost is the trading cost. These are direct costs including the brokerage commissions and financial…


Burnham, P 2010, 'Class, Capital and Crisis: A Return to Fundamentals', Political Studies Review, 8, 1, pp. 27-39,

Carvalhal, A, & Camara Leal, R 2013, 'The World Financial Crisis and the International Financing of Brazilian Companies', Brazilian Administration Review (BAR), 10, 1, pp. 18-39,

'Chad' 2013, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition, pp. 1-3,

Chana Kok, T, & Yap Voon, C 2011, 'Risk Factors of Commercial Banks in Malaysia', Journal Of Modern Accounting & Auditing, 7, 6, pp. 578-587,

Global Business International Trade Has
Words: 1719 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14738072
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Combined with the increasing prevalence of regional trading blocs, higher transportation costs may result in a move towards regional production rather than global. In other respects, however, Lonely Planet's business will remain essentially unchanged over the coming years.


The globalization of international trade has had a profound impact on Lonely Planet's operations. It has allowed the company to use offshore production centers that are capable of serving the global market. The monetary flows even at a relatively simple, one-product firm like LPP illustrate the degree to which economies around the world are intertwined. The company receives monetary inflows from dozens of nations, and disperses monetary flows to dozens more. Including small flows, the operations of Lonely Planet contribute to the economy of nearly every nation on earth.

The recent changes with respect to the global economy will continue to impact operations into the coming years, affecting the firm's ability…

Works Cited:

Das, Dilip K. (2003). Financial Flows and Global Integration. Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from

Steil, Benn. (2007). The end of National Currency. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from

Global Cultural Politics the Process
Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64656937
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This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.

The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…


Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. 

Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008.

Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.

Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 html

Global Political Economy the Global
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52228628
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However, this is hardly enough to address further issues across the world economy, including poverty.

Despite the fact that trade has become significantly facilitated by the regulating authorities, it is also true that most member countries are developed countries, while developing countries receive very little in terms of policies to facilitate their international relationships within the trading regime. This has been the paradigm since the inception of the global trade regime. Powerful member countries as it were tended to control the regime.

Currently, the United States is at the most powerful relational position within the trade regime. As such, the country's voting power within the MF and World Bank remains significant, as does the fact of its privilege in the financial regime. The regime is structured in such a way that developed countries enjoy privileges that poorer countries do not. Because it can take advantage of the international strength of…

In conclusion, the IMF and WTO do valuable work in the global trade regime. However, they tend to favor the most powerful and richest member countries rather than those who are in need of help to enter the trading arena. Poorer countries are all but ignored, and the poverty problem remains significant. A truly equal global trade regime would involve an equal platform upon which all countries can trade equally and for the benefit of all involved.


Ravenhill, John. Global Political Economy. Oxford University Press, 2008.

Economies Economic Growth in East
Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28201702
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"Both the U.S. side and the Mexican side replicate the political, economic, social, and cultural systems of their respective nation-states. At the same time, borderlanders have blended the structures, institutions, and life expressions of the two societies to create something novel and entirely theirs -- the ambiente fronterizo, or borderlands milieu. Today the area stands as a prime example of binational interdependence, providing striking evidence of the trend toward closer ties among the world's nations and societies" (Martinez, 1994)


Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209

Hackenberg, ., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3

Longley, ., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info

Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, Ast…


Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209

Hackenberg, R., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3

Longley, R., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info

Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, Ast accessed on March 28, 2008

Global Business Communication Global Communications
Words: 1787 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84014202
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Furthermore it has become critically necessary to be equipped technologically in handling today's increased IT demands for business communication.


Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at:

Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at!warming.html.

Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global usiness Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at

Global usiness Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International usiness Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-ased usiness Activities. Online available at

Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L. And Leidner, Dorothy E. (1998) Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams - JCMC 3 (4) June 1998. Online available at

Global Alliance Joins the Organization of the World Congress on Communication for Development (2006) Global Alliance 5 July 2006 Online available at

usiness Communications Applications on Any Network (2005) Avaya White Paper May 2005.

Avaya White Paper, "New Era of Intelligent…


Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at:

Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at!warming.html.

Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global Business Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at

Global Business Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International Business Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-Based Business Activities. Online available at

Global Community Globalization and the
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71270027
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Using this concept, further solutions to this problem can be solicited. By continuing to involve states, NGOs, and IGOs, a solution to this problem can be achieved eventually, but only through community response. Researchers can continue to work toward discovering scientific solutions, NGOs and IGOS can offer incentives for companies and individuals to adopt new greenhouse gas cutting policies, and governments can enforce these policies. The global nature of this problem, in addition to the global community response that fostered both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol exemplifies the importance of global community in dealing with this international issue.

A second global problem, the peak oil crisis, has established itself as a prime example of the need for global community and global community responses in this age of globalization. Since the use of fossil fuels for energy production first became mainstream, scientists and government officials knew…

Global Leaders as the 21st Century Unfolds
Words: 1427 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46172495
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Global Leaders

As the 21st century unfolds, we are told that the world is embracing globalism -- a key change in the economic, political and cultural movements that, broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together. This idea refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events and actions are tied together, regardless of the geographic location of a specific country (political unit). The idea of globalism has become popular in economic and cultural terms with the advent of a number of macro-trade agreements combined with the ease of communication brought about with the Internet and cellular communication.

Would we not logically think, then, that countries in the developing world would be doing their upmost to encourage global thinking? That these same countries would embrace the chance to forge a nation of entrepreneurs and move into a position of self-sustaining…


Committee For Economic Development. (2006). Education for Global Leadership: The

Importance of International Studies and Foreign Language Education for U.S. Economic

And National Security. CED. Retrieved from:

Graham, J.P. (2005). The Globalization of the Small Enterprise. Going Global. Retrieved from:

Global Financing and Exchange Rate
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98722314
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he globalization of poverty has indeed occurred during a period of rapid technological and scientific advance. While the latter has contributed to a vast increase in the potential capacity of the economic system to produce necessary goods and services, expanded levels of productivity have not translated into a corresponding reduction in levels of global poverty." (Chossudovsky, 1998)

he ability of corporations to easily pick up and move into cheaper labor havens throughout the hird World has actually led to more downsizing, corporate restructurings and the relocations of whole companies which has led to higher levels of unemployment and lower earnings throughout the urban communities and the rural farm. Unemployment was at one time localized in small segments but it has now become an international problem. "We live in a world so rich that global income is more than $31 trillion a year. In this world, the average person in some…

The objective of fighting poverty and improving the overall living standards of those individuals in the Third World and the newly emerging nations has become huge undertaking. One would think that the world would be getting richer based on the advances in technology and the many new economic opportunities in the global economy. "The global decline in living standards is not the result of a scarcity of productive resources as in preceding historical periods. The globalization of poverty has indeed occurred during a period of rapid technological and scientific advance. While the latter has contributed to a vast increase in the potential capacity of the economic system to produce necessary goods and services, expanded levels of productivity have not translated into a corresponding reduction in levels of global poverty." (Chossudovsky, 1998)

The ability of corporations to easily pick up and move into cheaper labor havens throughout the Third World has actually led to more downsizing, corporate restructurings and the relocations of whole companies which has led to higher levels of unemployment and lower earnings throughout the urban communities and the rural farm. Unemployment was at one time localized in small segments but it has now become an international problem. "We live in a world so rich that global income is more than $31 trillion a year. In this world, the average person in some countries earns more than $40,000 a year. But in this same world, 2.8 billion people -- more than half the people in developing countries -- live on less than $700 a year. Of these, 1.2 billion earn less than $1 a day." (Chossudovsky, 1998)

The World Bank is not a bank in the true sense of what the average person would consider a bank. The World Bank has more or less become a specialized poverty focused social and financial assistance program or agency. The World Bank falls under the jurisdiction of the United Nations and is one of their more specialized agencies. The World Bank consists of one hundred eighty four nations currently who are jointly responsible for the oversight of the institution and

Global Economics
Words: 1588 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96489477
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Global Economics

The September, 2003 supplement to the Economist, Running on One Engine contains a survey of the worlds economy, and outlines how the economic engine in America is similar to the single engine operation in a large commercial airliner. Connections are not made by the writers that an airliner operating on one engine can stay in the air for a limited amount of time, but cannot be expected to fly without problems, nor can it be expected to continue its course as if it were running on all of its multiple engines. The economists carry the metaphor to the country, and the global economy. The single engine is taxed beyond its design capacity. The overworked engine could fail, and thereby leave the airliner no other option but to plummet ground ward. In the same way, the authors say that the American economy, should it stall, could bring the entire…

Understanding this aspect is one of the keys to understanding the principle behind Flying on one Engine. The authors take great pains to describe the precarious position which the U.S. has created by becoming the sole leader in the global economy. Beginning in the 1980's the U.S. economy made larger gains as a global supplier of goods and services than did our major industrialized partners, Japan, China and Germany. According to the supplement, the momentum gained by the U.S. during the 1980's lead to increasing acceleration during the 1990's. Since 1995, domestic demand for goods and services has risen 3.7%, which is twice the rate of the rest of the modern or rich world.

The survey goes on to evaluate the economic policies of Reagan, and how these tax reductionist policies under the Bush administration are continuing to create the increased demand in the U.S., thus fueling U.S. contribution to the global economic pie. In comparison to Germany, China, and Japan, the U.S. has captured more of the global markets, and since the high amount of demand in the U.S. is also creating an import - export imbalance which is not in our favor, the authors suggest that a U.S. slow down could negatively affect the entire globe.

What the Economist supplement does not address is that the taxation policy under Reagan and both Bush's has been the source of the economic growth in the U.S. Across the globe, our major trading partners do not share our policy of reducing taxes to stimulate growth. Germany, Japan, and China all have created an interdependent relationship between business and government.

Global Politics and Economy Late 20th and
Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32286190
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Global Politics and Economy:

Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries

The world politics and economy of the late twentieth century were highlighted by the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the promise of a 'new world order' and the rise of 'globalization.' These developments were accompanied by a worldwide trend of increasing democracy, trade liberalization and booming economies. The start of the twenty-first century, on the other hand, has seen the emergence of the so-called 'clash of civilizations' and the long drawn out 'fight against terrorism' with the inevitable slump in global economies. In this essay we shall briefly discuss the major trends of the global politics and economy in this tumultuous period of world history.

Collapse of Communism

The 'Cold ar' period involving intense political and economic rivalry between the two superpowers, the U.S.A. And the Soviet Union, lasted from the end of orld ar…

Works Cited

Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.

Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002

World History

Global E-Business Marketing the Advent
Words: 3832 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93266466
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" The final force of collaboration, which Freidman (2006) calls "informing"-which are search engines like Yahoo, Google, MSN, etc., which has facilitated "Internetizer technologies" to work together with limitless information all by itself (Freidman, 2006).

Therefore, the initial three flatteners formed the novel stage for cooperation, and the subsequent six have been the novel shapes of cooperation that flattened the world. The last flattener is referred to as "the steroids," and these have been regarded as "wireless-access" along with "voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP)." The steroids have accelerated these novel kinds of cooperation, which has allowed "Internetizer technologies" to execute anyone of them, from anyplace in the world, using any tool (Freidman, 2006).

Triple Convergence

The first convergence took place when all ten flatteners united around the beginning of the new millennium. This formed a worldwide, Internet-enabled in performing ground that permitted manifold kinds of cooperation on R&D and work, regardless of not…


Barca, F. And Becht, M. (2001). The Control of Corporate Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chun, R. (2001) 'The strategic management of corporate reputation, aligning image and identity, PhD dissertation, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester.

Freidman, Thomas L. (2006), the World is Flat, (Newly Abridged and Revised), Penguin Books, Camberwell Victoria.

Global E-Business Marketing

Global Strategies
Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8522760
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Global Strategies

Global Management Strategies

Involvement in the global economy is inherently risky but also carries a number of distinct opportunities for those who venture thusly. According to our research, as highlighted in the text by Dess & Lumpkin (2002), there are four distinct management strategies for entering into the international trade. Accordingly, these are identified as exporting; licensing and franchising; strategic alliances and joint ventures, and; wholly owned subsidiaries.


Exporting is perhaps the most common avenue for engaging in the global trade. Many domestic companies rely on target populations in foreign countries in order to meet core sales expectations. And as the article by Delaney (2010) notes, many of these companies will use intermediary export companies or agencies in order to reach broad customer bases. Indeed, this is the most notable advantage of the approach, which enables a company to bring its products to a decidedly wider base…

Works Cited:

Delaney, L. (2010). Indirect Exporting: Advantages and Disadvantages to Indirect Exporting. About Import and Export.

Dess, A. & Lumpkin, L. (2002). Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages, 1st edition. McGraw-Hill.

Joint Ventures. (2013). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Entering A Joint Venture.

Global Strategic Management
Words: 1284 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37901063
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Global Strategic Management


Siemens has a number of key strengths that have allowed them to become one of the largest industrial conglomerates in the world. The first key strength is their focus on innovation. Siemens has always been driven be engineering, and their ability to produce not only better products but to continuously improve those products is one of the reasons for their continued success. The company has utilized innovation to spur significant organic growth in recent years (Siemens, 2008).

To support their engineering competency, Siemens has developed an extensive in-house training program (2008 Annual Report). This helps the firm to develop the talent it needs to remain at the fore of the innovation curve. The company trains workers through a formal facility in Bavaria, where the company is headquartered. Training, however, has long been a fundamental strength of Siemens because it helps to attract talent as well as…

Works Cited:

2008 Siemens Annual Report. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from

Siemens website. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from

Some financial information from Reuters. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from 

Schafer, Daniel. (2009). Siemens Cuts Outlook Despite Second-Quarter Boost. Financial Times. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from

Global Mergers and Acquisitions the
Words: 1906 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12243507
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Standing at the pivotal point of a changing world economy offers companies and business organizations new opportunities, but they must heed the lessons learned thus far, and make wise and pragmatic business decisions. These business choices are responsible for bringing about a stable world economy. Kemal Davis (2005) at the Financial Times and International Finance Corporation, summed it up this way:

"Given the scale of the challenge we face, there has never been a more critical time for the private sector, together with government, society and others to work together to build a better globalization for all (online)."

Building a globally-integrated world is a bold goal, but not unattainable. Business must take the lead and create for itself an environment of consumer trust, product quality and safety, and become more socially diverse and politically smart. Business must demonstrate its integrity, and concern for their markets by creating international trade…

Works Cited

Davis, Kemal, (2005). Newsroom, United Nations Development Programme, found online at corporation-conference-20051109.en?src=print, retrieved February 2, 2010.

Elliott, Peter and Devine, Tim, (2009). Technology and Digital Business, FT.Com,

Financial Times, found online at , retrieved February 1, 2010.

Grein, Andreas F. And Gould, Stephen J., (2007). Voluntary Codes of Ethical Conduct:

Economy The Most Integral Aspect
Words: 1621 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33780461
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6. What factors contribute to globalization? The principle factor that contributes to globalization is economics. Transnational companies (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 485), for instance, have a vested interest in identifying -- and exploiting -- the most economically viable markets in which to conduct business so that they can maximize profits and reduce costs. However, there are also other factors that readily contribute to globalization, such as the exchange of global data in the form of communication. With people able to easily disseminate and receive information in virtually any part of the world -- such expedience naturally results in a reduction of national and even global barriers that were previously existent. The main forms of communication include the World Wide Web and the telecommunications (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 480).

There are also important political and economic changes that have influenced the spread of globalization. Capitalism's emergence as the dominant…


Allen, J. (1998). "Birth control and the Catholic Church." Undergraduate Review.11 (1): 7. Retrieved from: 

Babcock, H.M. (2008). "The National Environmental Policy Act in the urban environment: oxymoron or a useful tool to combat the destruction of neighborhoods and urban sprawl?." Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works. Retrieved from 

Giddens, a., Dunier, M., Appelbaum, R.P., Carr, D. (2012). "Essentials of sociology." New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Lee, E., Vivarelli, M. (2006). "The social impact of globalization in the developing countries." Iza. Retrieved from

Global Warming The Reality of
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" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.


Political Issues

The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…

Works Cited

Alberts S. Obama boosts hopes of climate deal. 24 November, 2009.

Balaam David N. And Veseth M. Introduction to International Political Economy.

London: Prentice Hall, 1995

Global Labor Movement According to
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In regards to the on-going projects hosted by the UFE (United for a Fair Economy), two current campaigns include preserving the U.S. Federal Estate Tax and global economic justice. With the Federal Estate Tax, the UFE sees this as crucial to defending a progressive taxation system and wishes to "continue the fight to keep a reformed estate tax" ("UFE Programs and Projects," 2007, Internet) in order to assist Americans who live mostly in the middle classes as compared to the wealthy who would greatly benefit from the elimination of the estate tax. As to global economic justice, the UFE sees this as mandatory in order to help low-wage workers in all parts of the world and considers this as part of the acial Wealth Divide program which addresses the racial disparities of wealth. Clearly, these projects, if successfully implemented, will greatly assist low-wage and dispossessed workers and laborers by providing…


UFE Programs and Projects." (2007). UFE: United for a Fair Economy. Internet. Retrieved January 25, 2009 at

UNI Global Union." (2005). Internet. Retrieved January 25, 2009 at  26?OpenDocument.

Economy Doing The State of the Global
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Economy Doing?

The state of the global economy has been an issue at the forefront of discussion and debate for the last several years. In his 2011 State of the Union Address, President Barack Obama urged bipartisan cooperation for the continued economic revival of the nation, which drives the economic recovery of the world. The President promised increased spending on education, technology, transportation and research, all of which should strengthen the economy by making the U.S. A stronger competitor in the global marketplace. He also promised to slash spending and reduce the deficit, although the specifics of these cuts were not detailed in his speech (Benac, Kuhnhenn, Werner & Superville, 2011). Various economic indicators support the claim of the President, and economists that the economy has improved since its devastating crash in 2008. Yet, full recovery may still be years away.

Tanneeru (2009) noted that was debate about when and…


Benac, N., Kuhnhenn, J., Werner, E., & Superville, D. (2011). State of the union 2011: It's the economy again. Huffington Post 1/25/11. Retrieved from 

Brown, G.W., & Lundblad, C. (2009). The U.S. economic crisis: Root causes and the road to Recovery. Journal of Accountancy 208 (4), 42-49.

Credit-card gotchas. (2010). Consumer Reports 75 (11), 13-16.

Dampier, M. (2011). Japan's economic recovery will be swift. The Independent Online March

Economy by Bill Mckibben Mainly
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solation on a wider scale occurs as a result of large industries. Most Western citizens are dependent upon large industrial companies for their food, power, and almost all other necessities and desires. This is ultimately unsustainable, not only for the world in general, but also for the individuals involved. Because of the focus on mass consumption as promoted by the media, the human tendency is to want whatever the media promotes. This leads to unsustainable lifestyles, which contributes to further problems like debt and the like. Rather than the happiness and fulfillment promised by the many products on offer, misery increases.

As such, hyper-individuality and unsustainable mass-consumerism appear to be at the basis of the emotional and lifestyle problems people tend to experience today. McKibben offers some interesting alternatives. Although the communally-based lifestyle he suggests appears somewhat extreme at first glance, do believe that a compromise needs to be made…

In general, McKibben makes some very good points, particularly in terms of the isolating effect of mass consumerism and the increasing wealth of a few, while the rest of the world languishes. In terms of the future, certainly implementing even some of the ideas described in the chapter will go a long way towards improving the prospects for future generations.


McKibben, Bill (2007). Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and the Durable Future. Times Books. (Chapter 4).

Global Awareness and Cultural and Racial Diversity
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Global Awareness and Cultural and Racial Diversity

The need to successfully promote global awareness and cultural and racial diversity took on a completely new meaning recently. "There are over six billion people on this planet we call Earth. Diversity is more than just a notion. The term diversity has been defined by Merriam-ebster online as meaning 'differing from one another or unlike. Composed of distinct or unlike elements or qualities', this word is also used to simply mean different." (Burns) By Barak Obama becoming the nation's first black president, we have forever changed the nation's future; but in a sense, this momentous election will also alter how we will forever look at our nations past history. For more than two hundred years, the United States of America was traditionally managed by older white guys and by them being in charge, the world's thinking was shaped. The expectations of every…

Works Cited, continued

Schniedewind, Nancy. "There Ain't No White People Here!": The Transforming Impact of Teachers' Racial Consciousness on Students and Schools. Equity & Excellence in Education. 2005, 38: 280 -- 289.

Global Communications as Business and
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While the above refers to some essential aspects of company growth, there are many other areas that could be improved. The following is a summary of some of the areas that could be enhanced and adjusted to increase viability and consumer perception of the company.

Financial streamlining in the business and service area is an important aspect that has been recognized by Dell and which is in need of improvement.

Customer Service. As has been noted in many studies customer services are an area that has been singled out as not being up to standard in Dell. As one article states; "Consumer eports rates Dell's customer service below that of every other company it examined, a group that includes Apple, Sony, Gateway and Hewlett-Packard" (Smith a. And Godinez V. 2007). There are already plans by the company to launch a major customer initiative. According to reports, Dell will, "...spend…

References www.soxfirst.comAccounting problems: the tip of the iceberg. Retrieved August 2, 2007, at

Atlas Copo facts in Brief 06. Retrieved August 3, 2007, at 

Dell's Outsourcing of Call Centers to India. Retrieved August 3, 2007, at

Heldman B. (2005) Dell beefs up workforce in India. Retrieved August 3, 2007, at 

India's Outsourcing Problems. Retrieved August 3, 2007, at

Global Finance Issues
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Multinational Corporation (MNC) and Ethical Standards

Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have usually faced several challenges with regards to developing standards that deal with issues associated with corporate social responsibility. These corporations are forced to embrace more specific ethical codes in their corporate strategy because of the materialization and growth of a global economy. In the recent past, multinational corporations have started rethinking strategies that may be regarded unethical based on international standards (Manakkalathil & udolf, 1995). As a result, some people have argued that the corporations should lessen their ethical standards to compete globally. In contrast, others have stated that a multinational corporation to should retain its ethical standards to develop more credibility throughout the world.

Proponents of this statement argue that an MNC should lessen its ethical standards because it may encounter some business laws that are not permitted in some countries. For instance, a company operating in the United…


Manakkalathil, J. & Rudolf, E. (1995). Corporate Social Responsibility in a Globalizing Market.

SAM Advanced Management Journal, 60(1).

Roache, S. (2013, October). Brazil -- Selected Issues. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from

Global Human Development
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UNDP Report Study

Human Development Report 2011:

A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations

Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…

From the data presented above, it is clear to see that, indeed, the studies mentioned in this paper correlate with the status of the countries at present and that Estonia and India seem to be faring a lot better than the DRC and Mexico. For example, it is clear that the DRC has gone down considerably in all four areas. Mexico, however, is a different story. It seems that it has gone up in all facets, which is does not correlates with research on Mexico that shows fluctuation in progress. It is a pity that the 2010 report does not yet have all the facts on Mexico, because they could, again, fluctuate due to the drug wars. The statistics for Mexico might look so great, despite the problems the country faces, due to Mexico's proximity to the U.S. And the help it receives from this country. Lastly, it is evident, especially from the GDP growth, that both India and Estonia have been growing steadily, as has Mexico, which is great news. Though this is in stark contrast to the DRC, which is at a pitiable $291 in GDP for 2010, according to the UNDP data in the table above.

This paper has presented a multitude of facts to examine what makes a country progress, while others stagnate. With the help of a comprehensive literature review and UNDP reports, the essay has concluded the two of the examined countries, Estonia and India, are faring better economically and political (and thus from health and education perspectives) than the DRC and Mexico. This has been due to the fact, as read in the literature review, that the first two countries have either international support in terms of trade and/or manpower and organization. The latter two, as seen above, are either torn apart by violence, or have a history of ineffectual political organization, and thus cannot fully prosper financially. Furthermore, their literacy rates, survival rates and GDP are substantially lower. In order to rise, Mexico and the DRC, and the latter especially, must find a way to put violence aside, so that the country may join in the progress of the modern world.

Though this research seems comprehensive, it has only analyzed other studies and the UNDP reports. Thus, a shortcoming is the inability of the researcher to be on the ground, or at least speak to experts on the issue, both inside the specific country and outside of it to obtain opinions on whether the poorer countries of the world can ever reach the kind of development that they should. Thus, the study presented here must be continued so that we may find future patters for development and help countries such as the DRC and Mexico advance in the world economy.

Global Financing and Exchange Rate Mechanisms
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IMF and World Bank in global financing and exchange rate fluctuations

he International Monetary Fund plays a crucial role in the world's economy, especially in global financing and exchange rate fluctuations. However, its influence ranges well beyond those disciplines.

he main responsibility of the International Monetary Fund is to provide loans to nations experiencing balance of payments difficulties. he International Monetary Fund's involvement allows these countries to stabilize their currencies, rebuild their international reserves, continue to import much needed goods, and generally set the stage for strong economic growth.

A country can only ask for International Monetary Fund assistance when it has a serious balance of payments deficit, as in, more money goes out than comes in, and it cannot get financing to meet its international obligations.

he general understanding is similar to the United States Bankruptcy Code, which is, no one benefits from insolvency, neither the debtor nor the…

The Bank gets about 10% of its funds from taxpayers, in the form of direct contributions from member governments.

The IFC operates partly with funds contributed directly by its member countries but mainly with funds borrowed from the IBRD. The IFC is the fastest growing part of Bank operations, with IFC investments having grown to $2.1 billion last year. Among the transnational corporations represented on the IFC Business Advisory Council are the Bank of Tokyo, Credit Lyonnaise, Treuhandanstalt, SG Warburg.

Economy of China According to
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Exports are also down significantly, yet despite these changes, the Chinese economy appears to be "independent and strong enough to not only cope with the global economic crisis but also to establish itself" as a major world economic powerhouse ("China Economy," 2009, Internet).

One of China's greatest economic strengths is based on foreign direct investment, for the World Bank estimates that around $80 billion U.S. dollars are invested in China on a yearly basis. However, one of its most important weaknesses is the existence of corruption at the local level, a situation which the Chinese government has attempted to eliminate through a slow and long-drawn out process. Nonetheless, economists predict that China, "via a sustained rate of growth will enable it to surpass the U.S." To become the world's largest and most powerful economy sometime in the early years of the 21st century ("China Economy," 2009, Internet).

As to unemployment…


"China Economy." (2009). EconomyWatch. Internet. Accessed June 23, 2009 from .

Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World

Order. New York: Touchstone Books (Simon & Schuster).

Global Business and Ethics
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ethical issue of outsourcing, or sending jobs overseas, and its affects on the world economy and cultures. Outsourcing has become a very common practice in the 21st century. Outsourcing is quite simply the practice of sending jobs to remote call centers and other locations in foreign countries, while eliminating jobs in the United States. The ethical issues surrounding outsourcing and the resulting globalization are complex, and pose risks and consequences for the companies who choose to outsource.

Globalization has created the ability for employers to hire and train workers around the globe, often at extremely reduced salaries and benefit levels, thus saving the employer thousands and even millions of dollars. The practice is so widespread that many financial institutions routinely send data to overseas locations, income taxes are prepared in India and sent to customers remotely, and medical records are interpreted by workers clear across the globe. The ethics and…


Breslin, D.A. (1999). On the ethics of outsourcing. Retrieved 1 Oct. 2009 from the Defense Acquisition University Web site: . 24-27.

Kline, J.M. (2005). Ethics for international business: Decision making in a global political economy. London: Routledge.

Shamis, G.S., Green, M.C., Sorensen, S.M., & Kyle, D.L. (2005). Outsourcing, offshoring, nearshoring: What to do? Journal of Accountancy, 199(6), 57+.

Strategies to Promote the Survival of Traditional Economies
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Global Economy vs. Traditional Economy

An economy can be described as closed or open. A closed economy is one where all the earnings and income flows are locally generated. This does not involve the issue of importation or expectation. On the contrary, an open economy is one that encompasses trade with other countries and the local traders. In the recent past, international companies have invaded the local markets and are bringing serious economic concerns to many nations. States are interested in stabilizing their economies and safeguarding them from the invasion of the international companies. This has been the center of discussion for most government leaders and has contributed to the political process of nations.

Effect of multinationals

Multinationals have proved to be more effective and efficient as well as providing better quality products than most local companies. For instance, McDonald's is currently one of the most sought after company by…

Global Business
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Global Business

When businesses go international, they have to operate in a more competitive, uncertain, and risky business environment. The forces present in the Global environment bring a number of challenges for the businesses; making it more difficult for them to maintain their market share, enhance profitability, and keep the customers satisfied (Cherunilam, 2007). To compete successfully and ensure a sustainable future in the international markets, business organizations have to analyze these forces carefully and strategize accordingly. Globalization has also impacted the way countries use to recognize themselves as internationally competitive and advanced than other countries (Tellis, Stremersch, & Yin, 2003).

This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the positive and negative impacts of Globalization and the efforts which nations and business organizations make in order to become internationally competitive and keep up pace with the Globalization. The paper starts with a brief description of different environmental forces that are…


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Cherunilam, F. (2007). International business: text and cases. India: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Dconti, (2012). Effects of Globalization on Italy. Retrieved on May 3rd, 2012, from

Economy -Srm Today's Business Environment
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The successful firms have the war chest, and often this was acquired through strong long-term planning. Thus, successful firms have the ability to build upon that success during economic downturns, which sets them up to be in an even stronger position when the next downturn strikes.

orks Cited:

Becton, B., & Schraeder, M. (2009, January). Strategic Human Resources Management. Journal for Quality & Participation, 31(4), 11-18. Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C., all, T., et al. (2008, September). THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE AND OPERATIONAL Management PRACTICES ON COMPANY PRODUCTIVITY: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY. Personnel Psychology, 61(3), 467-501. Retrieved May 5, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00120.x

KEPES, S., DELERY, J., & GUPTA, N. (2008, August). STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE Management: A SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE. Academy of Management Proceedings, Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Business Source Premier database.

D'Aurizio, P. (2008, November). Southwest Airlines:…

Works Cited:

Becton, B., & Schraeder, M. (2009, January). Strategic Human Resources Management. Journal for Quality & Participation, 31(4), 11-18. Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C., Wall, T., et al. (2008, September). THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE AND OPERATIONAL Management PRACTICES ON COMPANY PRODUCTIVITY: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY. Personnel Psychology, 61(3), 467-501. Retrieved May 5, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00120.x

KEPES, S., DELERY, J., & GUPTA, N. (2008, August). STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE Management: A SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE. Academy of Management Proceedings, Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Business Source Premier database.

D'Aurizio, P. (2008, November). Southwest Airlines: Lessons in Loyalty. Nursing Economic$, pp. 389,392. Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.