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Key Player & Background
As the spokesperson for an interest group representing an economic think tank, I am issuing this policy statement to detail the implications for the U.S. economy of a sovereign default in the Eurozone. As eich notes, the financial crisis in Europe is threatening to spread to the United States. If there is a default in Greece, a panic could start in financial markets, spreading to other Eurozone peripheral debt. Such a scenario would endanger European banks, particularly those of France and Germany. While American banks have limited exposure to Greek debt, or indeed to the debt of other peripheral European countries, they are exposed heavily to French and German banks. Thus, American banks have substantial indirect exposure to the European crisis.
Key players in the United States government need qualified economic advice to help them guide their decision-making processes. Strong, sustainable economic growth requires…
Avi, B. (2011). Fighting fire with paper -- Foolish U.S. policy on China. Early Bird. 28 July 2011.
Bachman, G. (2011). Think again: American decline. Foreign Policy. January/February 2011.
Carney, J. (2011). The Greek dominoes: What happens if Greece defaults? CNBC. Retrieved October 29, 2013 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/43425042
Davies, H. (2013). JP Morgan's troubles reignite the debate on banks too big to fail. The Guardian. Retrieved October 29, 2013 from http://www.theguardian.com/business/economics-blog/2013/oct/21/jp-morgan-troubles-bank-too-big-fail
But merely ensuring access to pharmaceuticals for a particular disease is not enough. Access to appropriate preventative healthcare is essential, so, for example, individuals do not merely use antibiotic drugs for a short while, and then discontinue them because they are feeling better. Clinics can also provide birth control, given vaccinations and teach community residents how to practice more sanitary methods of food preparation to stem the spread of other infectious aliments. To improve access to preventative care will require major funding and a major international effort. However, everyone will benefit if these initiatives are taken -- a more economically and politically stable Africa will help the entire world's geopolitical stability, and will ensure that a more costly effort of military as opposed to humanitarian aid will not be necessary in the future. To stabilize Europe after World War II, America instituted the Marshall Plan, with the argument that a…
The third sets of factors that are driving international trade growth are the cultural ones that are the most criticized and discussed in the context of globalization. These factors include the rapid spread of westernized cultural values and purchasing habits vs. those that are native to a given region of the world. For example, the rapid rise in western culture within India and Muslim-led countries are a case in point. The cultural backlash of globalization continues to be significant and throughout the next twenty years, the successful integration of western-based companies into these 3rd world nations will be a key criteria in global economic growth. Just as the initial economic agreement set the foundation for economic growth, the reliance on culture frameworks including the Hofstede Five Cultural Dimensions Model will be essential for the successful integration of westernized companies into foreign markets where cultural norms, values and beliefs must be…
Gowa, J.. "Alliances, market power, and postwar trade: explaining the GATT/WTO" World Trade Review 9.3 (2010): 487-504.
Kim, M.. "Does the WTO promote trade? Further evidence. " The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development 19.3 (2010): 421.
Lee, J.. "Trade Integration and Business Cycle Comovement: Evidence from the U.S. " The International Trade Journal 24.4 (2010): 361.
Global Economy / Factors Affecting Global Economy
ight now the global economic outlook is relatively positive. According to figures projected by International Monetary Fund (IMF) the world GDP continues to decline, and even the modest growth figures previously projected have been minimized (IMF, 2012). In 2011, the global economy was expected to expand at a rate of 4% over the following year, but based on certain global and local factors those numbers have been reevaluated. The current guess is that year-end numbers will show only a 3 1/4% growth rate (IMF, 2012). This is due to the many obligations and economic tragedies that face the European Union, and the fact that emerging countries such as China and India are far below growth expectations. For one, this means that companies wishing to expand internationally have to realize the problems that they may encounter because of the decrease in individual wealth relative…
Barrett, R. (2011, April 30). Harley-Davidson is changing to adapt here and globally. Retrieved from http://www.jsonline.com/business/121029763.html
Fraser, C. (2012, September 11). Harley-Davidson: Born to rise. Retrieved from http://www.investingdaily.com/15643/harley-davidson-born-to-rise
Harley-Davidson. (2012). Company. Retrieved from http://www.harley- davidson.com/en_US/Content/Pages/Company/company.html?locale=en_US&b mLocale=en_US
International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2012). Global recovery stalls, downside risks intensify. World Economic Outlook. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/update/01/pdf/0112.pdf
global economy relate to food security and food bank use in Canada. There has been some exploration in the academic literature of the links between the changes in the global economy and food security. There have also been a couple of attempts to examine the linkages between the global issue of food security and the individual issue of food bank usage. This paper will examine this literature to examine whether or not there are linkages between the two.
There are a number of potential approaches that can be used to examine an issue such as this. Food security is a macro-level issue normally addressed on a societal or governmental level. As a net food exporter, Canada has no inherent food security issues. However, the urban environment does not produce much food, if any, and therefore the question of food security can be applied to cities. Cities inherently exist by producing…
Bickell, G., Nord, M., Price, C., Hamilton, W. & Cook, J. (2000). Guide to measuring household food security. USDA. Retrieved March 10, 2013 from http://www.fns.usda.gov/FSEC/FILES/FSGuide.pdf
Cordell, D., Drangert, J. & White, S. (2009). The story of phosphorous: Global food security and food for thought. Global Environmental Change. Retrieved March 10, 2013 from http://startinternational.org/library/archive/files/dcordell_etal_storyof-p_gec_4a1e09bb0e.pdf
Godfray, H., Beddington, J., Crute, I., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S. & Toulmin, C. (2010). Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science. Vol. 327 (12) 812-818.
Paez A, Mercado R. G, Farber S, et al. (2010). Relative accessibility deprivation indicators for urban settings: Definitions and application to food deserts in Montreal. Urban Studies, 47(7), 1425 -- 1432
The global economic condition needs to be a call to becoming competitive with aggressive intelligence, not a reason to give up. If anything, the more challenging the economic condition, the greater specialized knowledge and intelligence become to anyone attaining their career objectives. In good economic times the flexibility fo the job market is so elastic and agile it is relatively easy for anyone to get a job and launch a career. In the continual challenging economic times, it's the candidate who has the greatest depth, expertise, insight, intelligence and knowledge along with proven experience that gets the best career positions.
Knowledge And Trust Are The New Currencies
Watching the traffic on social networks, the social monitoring services that seek to create econometric models based on consumer preferences including those from The Economist, Edelman, The World Bank, and others all underscore a troubling fact. Mistrust and skepticism of organizations' motives is…
Dees, S., and A. Saint-guilhem. "The role of the United States in the global economy and its evolution over time. " Empirical Economics 41.3 (2011): 573.
Ho, S., R. Kauffman, and T. Liang. "Internet-based selling technology and e-commerce growth: a hybrid growth theory approach with cross-model inference. " Information Technology and Management 12.4 (2011): 409.
Quiggin, J.. "What Have We Learned from the Global Financial Crisis? " The Australian Economic Review 44.4 (2011): 355.
Eddy Ramirez. "All Eyes on the Competition: A new film says Chinese and Indian students have an edge. " U.S. News & World Report 25 Feb. 2008:
Second, corporations can also structure promotions that are more effective that also align with my interests. An example of this is the use of business intelligence on the part of iTunes to deliver only the new releases I am interested in, and the selective use of e-mail blasts on only the new cars I am interested in. A third advantage is the fact that when I walk into a hotel to register they know what my room preferences are, if I like my room next to the elevator or not, on a high floor or not, and what my satisfaction level was during my last stay. All of these factors lead to greater convenience and a better customer experience as well. The three problems include the lack of privacy when so much data is known about my preferences and my purchasing habits (Qiu, Li, Wu, 103, 104). The second major…
Since global warming is now a widely accepted scientific theory, many countries realize the need for a remedy to this problem. Global warming is unique, because it potentially affects all nations and all peoples, and in turn, all economies and political structures (Paterson, 1996). There exists an intense need to solve the problems associated with global warming, or, at least begin to mitigate the results of global warming in order for the global community to continue to function smoothly and relatively peacefully.
The problems associated with global warming were brought on by nearly every industrialized nation in the world. Therefore, every nation has a stake in the solution. hether or not these solutions are mutually beneficial is of great concern, since they affect everyone. Therefore, countries have begun to develop policies regarding the way they intend to handle this problem, and the changes they will make accordingly. Some countries have…
Cohen, Benjamin J. (2008) International Political Economy: An Intellectual History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Grieco, Jospeh M. And Ikenberry, John G. (2002) State Power and World Markets: The International Political Economy. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company.
Paterson, Matthew. (1996). Global Warming and Global Politics. New York, NY: Routledge.
Pierson, David and Tankersley, Jim. (2009). "China's climate pledge raises expectations for Copenhagen summit." LA Times, Nov. 27, 2009. Retrieved: December 9, 2009, http://www.latimes.com/news/nation-and-world/la-fg-china-climate28-2009nov28,0,7373512.story .
The different generational expectations among workers means that employers will have to tailor their compensation packages much more individually than in the past.
Implemented properly, the situation might present some opportunities both to employees and to employers. One way would be to let employees to choose what benefits they want. If their priority is health-care, then they might choose a benefits package that gives more coverage, if their priority is quick financial gain, then they might opt for bonuses or simply more pay. This allows the company to scale back on the total amount it spends on benefits, while allowing employees to keep whatever benefits they find most important for their situation (Reese et al., 135). Creating the systems to manage benefits and allow employees to choose among several options has already been shown to be both cost effective and easy to implement (Sturman and Milkovich, 110). Of course this…
Bennett, James T., and Bruce E. Kaufman. What do unions do? Transaction Publishers, 2007. Print.
Freeman, Richard B. "Labor Market Institutions Around the World." SSRN eLibrary (2007): n. pag. SSRN. Web. 8 Apr 2010.
Reese, M., L. Rowlings, and T. Sharpley. "Employee benefits of the future." Employee Benefit Plan Review 61.7 (2007): 21. Print.
Sturman, Michael C., and George T. Milkovich. "Validating Expert Systems: A Demonstration Using Personal Choice Expert, a Flexible Employee Benefit System*." Decision Sciences 26.1 (1995): 105-118. Wiley InterScience. Web.
trade relationship that exists between the world's two largest economies has faced trouble and frustration in the past decade. Japan and the United States have had a strong relationship since they became economic powers in the post world war II period. However, the past decade has not been friendly or cordial become the two economic powers because of a severely lopsided trade deficit. The growing power of Japanese manufacturing has helped push the trade deficit for the United States beyond tolerable levels, and no where else is this more apparent than in the automobile industry.
The current position for the Japanese-merican automobile conflict has been lopsided to say the least. The global automotive industry is on the verge of a transcendent transition. The Japanese automobile leader, Toyota, has gained massive new clients and fans with their vastly superior and economically more viable hybrid technology. s a result, it has become…
About JAMA. July 2006. 20 Nov. 2006 http://jama.org/about/industry13.htm
U.S. - Japan Trade Relations - Myth And Reality. July 2006. 20 Nov. 2006 http://www.jama.org/library/position111095.htm .
Hamberson, Josh. The U.S.-Japan Automobile Debacle. Boston: Lleyton Brothers,
1. Would it be a good move for CF Industries Holdings to list its stock on Chinese stock exchanges? What are the possible advantages and disadvantages of such a move? Based on your analysis, what would you recommend to financial managers of CF Industries Holdings?
Based on CF Industries Holdings’ business operations, it can be considered a good move for the company to list its stock on Chinese stock exchanges. Notably, the company is a global leader in the transformation of natural gas into nitrogen. In particular, the chemical procedures that the organization utilizes make certain that there is nitrogen necessitated to support life on earth and this encompasses having products that eradicate harmful discharges from industrial activities. The company’s operations is a good prospect for foreign investors in China, a nation that is presently faced with problems of plenty of emissions in its environment from industrial actions. Therefore, by…
CF Industries Holdings. (2017). Who We Are. Retrieved from: https://www.cfindustries.com/who-we-are
Ernst & Young. (2014). The benefits of listing on US exchanges. Retrieved from: http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY_-_The_benefits_of_listing_on_US_exchanges/$FILE/EY-The-benefits-of-listing-on-US-exchanges.pdf
Ibrahim, A., Youssef, M. (2013). The Rationale Behind Cross-Listing: Its Implications On Corporate Governance. Retrieved from: http://www.tamimi.com/en/magazine/law-update/section-5/september-3/the-rationale-behind-cross-listing-its-implications-on-corporate-governance.html
Investopedia. (2017). ADR Basics: What Is An ADR? Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/university/adr/adr1.asp
Sekine, E. (2008). Listings by foreign-invested companies on mainland Chinese stock exchanges once again in the limelight. Nomura Capital Market Review, 11(3), 8-23. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1289226
The global economic environment has changed significantly in just the last 8 years. Central banks have become more assertive in the market places, inflation measured by CPI has risen, the dollar index has dropped, political rhetoric is highly inflammatory with a focus on tariffs, trade wars, currency wars, protectionism, nationalism, and interventionism all being heard more and more in recent months and years. For a finance manager all of these variables must be considered when focusing on how to plan for risk, how to guide the firm’s financial decisions, and how to protect cash flow. This paper identifies some of the main challenges that a financial manager will face in the light of changing economic conditions—namely, how rising interest rates, exchange rates and inflation rates will impact cash flow, and how the flow of information must be managed in order to balance strategic aims with economic uncertainties and…
Corsi, F. & Sornette, D., (2014). Follow the money: The monetary roots of bubbles and crashes. International Review of Financial Analysis, 32, 47-59.
Heller, R. (2017). Monetary mischief and the debt trap. Cato Journal, 37(2), 247-261
Ilie, L. (2015). Challenges for financial managers in a changing economic environment. Procedia Economics and Finance, 27, 726-730.
Oxelheim, L., Wihlborg, C., & Thorsheim, M. (2011). The CFO’s Information Challenge in Managing Macroeconomic Risk. In The Strategic CFO (pp. 189-208). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Effects of Globalization on CrimeGlobalization has different effects on developing and the developed countries in its distinct way. Since the developed countries already have an already established strong infrastructure, fortified economy, vigorous political mechanisms, and less difference among the poor and the rich regarding societal equality, globalization has still been debated regarding its effects on the entire country (Samimi & Jenatabadi, 2014). Since the poverty levels in developed and developing countries vary depending upon the type of effects globalization poses on a country, the crime rate also differs. This paper investigates the globalization impact on crime based on the statistics taken from authentic sources.Research has shown that globalization has greatly affected the economy of a country that has slowed inter-regional trade. When the trade is open between two countries, the per capita income of the developed countries rises above the average level, resulting in improved quality of life for those…
Martin, R., Tyler, P., Storper, M., Evenhuis, E. & Glasmeier, A. (2018). Globalization at a critical conjuncture? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy, and Society, 11(1), 3-16. https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsy002
McAfee. (n.a.). There’s nowhere to hide from the economics of cybercrime. https://www.mcafee.com/enterprise/en-us/solutions/lp/economics-cybercrime.html
Mehardchandani, D. (2020, December 18). Cybercrime expected to rise at an unprecedented rate in 2021. Security Boulevard. https://securityboulevard.com/2020/12/cybercrime-expected-to-rise-at-an-unprecedented-rate-in-2021/
Morgan, S. (2020, November 13). Cybercrime to cost the world $10.5 trillion annually by 2025. Cybercrime Magazine. https://cybersecurityventures.com/hackerpocalypse-cybercrime-report-2016/
Each region in the world has a different economic policy guided by various fundamentals and policies in place. Members of a region may dictate how the business in that particular region is conducted. Several factors therefore have to be considered by businesses and countries when they want to engage in business with one another. When doing business, a critical analysis of the host country in terms of the macroeconomic dynamics is of great importance to evaluate how they affect business and also taking into account the barriers, tariffs and regulations of trade that may affect the exportation of goods and services.
Certain regions have trade blocks that govern the rules of doing business; such regions enforce barriers to protect the economies of the member countries and to bar foreign investors and importers from providing goods and services to compete against their respective domestic products. Some countries have heavy…
For purposes of this paper, the focus is on Australia which has one of the best economies in the world. Australia is ranked thirteenth best economy with its per capita income being ranked as one of the best in the world. Its human development index is also one of the best compared to other major economies of the world with its national performance in areas such as the economic freedom, education, protection rights, health and quality of life in general still ranked high. It has one of the best organized governments with clear structures and a working constitution that governs and protects the citizens. Geographically it is one of the largest countries with six states namely; South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia (Ralph Kelly, 2012).
Australia generally is a wealthy nation with a population of about 22.2 million; its major cities are ranked as the most livable cities in the world. The Australian dollar (AUD) which is its main currency is stronger than the U.S. dollar (USD) and the exchange rate is 1 AUD equals to 1.03810 USD an indication of a good economy for foreign investment (XE, 2012). A stronger domestic currency is good for the importers but unproductive for the country's exports in the International markets as they become expensive and less competitive. The barometer predicts a decrease in the value against the USD by 2013 with a strong performance before the 2013 down drift. Different categories of business operators expect AUD/USD to go as high as $1.06 and weaken to $1.02 by 2013 onwards (Commonwealth Bank 2012).
Australia's annual economic growth for the last 15 years is 3.6%, the GDP growth rate estimates for 2011-2012 according to World Bank ranges from 3.2% to 3.8% which is a positive indicator. The International Monetary Fund report has also indicated that it is the world's best performing advanced economy, a status that is expected to prevail in the next two to three years. The year 2012 has had a growth rate of 3.1% therefore with all the fundamentals constant, a forecast of 3.3% increase is expected in 2013. The inflation (CPI) for Australia is 2.8% while the interest rate ranges between 3-6%.The interest rate forecast remains constant as sources reveal, the rate has been constant at 3.25% for the last three consecutive months being backed up by the domestic indicators. Inflation is also expected to remain
Motivating Staff in a Global Economy
More and more organizational analysts are referring to the modern workforce as increasingly integrated and interconnected.
This has occurred in part because of globalization. More and more organizations are branching out, running in multiple countries and providing services to global customers. As the workforce changes and becomes more dynamic, people are increasingly reliant and interdependent within the scope of the workplace. Global integration is a trend that has wide-ranging economic, social and organizational implications.
Globalization has resulted in significant changes including an increasingly common practice of outsourcing job roles
Organizations are starting to look for ways to decrease the costs associated with doing business and increase productivity. One way to do this is to outsource job roles.
As more employees face the potential loss of their job because of outsourcing, more and more employers are realizing that motivating staff is becoming a more difficult…
Alessandra, Tony & Barrera, Rick. "Motivating to Excellence." Security Management,
36(11): 20, 1992.
Bush, Brandi J. "People: Attracting, retaining and motivating." The Public Manager,
30(2): 31, 2000.
A concentrated manufacturing strategy, however, will incur far higher distribution costs due to the very same factors that create a cost savings in a decentralizes strategy. There will also be a greater negative impact on the environment from the increased amount of shipping that will necessarily take place in order for the companies products to make their way into all regions of the global market. The increased profitability that is expected from this strategy will likely make it possible to overcome these barriers and even to offset carbon emissions through cap and trade, though, making it more ideal for the company. Tariffs and trade barriers are also likely to be relatively low for this product, as the microprocessors the company manufactures are utilizes in many different technologies necessary for the running of modern businesses -- preventing or limiting entry of microprocessors into individual regions or countries would have an inhibiting…
The implications of this vulnerability to volatile oil prices is simple; 'high crude prices must encourage European governments to make investments in energy sources other than oil' (Wielaard, 2005, p.1).
The negative economic impact of rising oil prices is typically more severe for developing countries than for OECD (Birol, 2004, p.2). This is currently the case as high oil prices 'are badly affecting many developing countries' (Schlein, 2005, p. 1). The U.N. Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) recently stated that 'the high cost of oil is placing a heavy burden on poorer nations that spend around five-percent of their gross domestic product on oil. This, compared with the two-to-four percent that wealthier nations pay' (Schlein, 2005, p.1).
There are several reasons why oil-importing developing countries struggle more over high oil prices than their developed counterparts. Energy dependency and intensity is greater in developing nations than developed ones; this is…
Birol, Fatih (2004). Analysis of the Impact of High Oil Prices on the Global Economy. Retrieved September 8, 2005. Web site: http://www.iea.org/textbase/work/2004/cambodia/bj_session1.3.pdf .
Economist, The (2005). Counting the Cost; Oil and the Global Economy. The Economist, 376
Ellson, Andrew (2005, Sept. 6). Oil Price 'A Shock to Global Economy'. Times Online.
Adam Smith's "The Invisible Hand" in today's Global economy
The Global Economy and the Impact of Adam Smith's
Theory of "The Invisible Hand"
Adam Smith's theory of "The Invisible Hand" is not new by far, but it may have more of an application today than it had in the past, based on the fact that today's economy has become so globally oriented. This new global economy presents new and different challenges than those that were seen before and therefore some may argue that the theory created by Smith is too old to have any real value for the modern world and modern America. However, there are others that see the intrinsic value of this particular theory, and it is these individuals that have an interest in taking Smith's theory and applying it to the global economy that is seen today. This will be discussed here and looked at specifically will…
Jerry Z. Muller. 1993. Adam Smith in his time and ours: designing the decent society. New York: Free Press.
Charles L. Griswold, Jr. 1999. Adam Smith and the virtues of enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Friedrich A. Hayek. 1948. Individualism and Economic Order. Chicago: Henry Regnery.
By not offering an artificial incentive to stay in business (the subsidy), product would not have been over-produced and wasted (perhaps an environmental impact), new and in-demand skills would have been acquired, real demands would have been met, and the price for those demands would have fallen (helping the consumer). Thus, by removing the artificial barrier to real and free trade (perhaps influenced by political pressure), economic well-being is ensured for all parties.
Now, consider labor, itself to be a similar commodity as the milk. Perhaps a certain software company employed 5000 employees to write code for a popular program. However, due to better education, increased drive, and longer work days in another country, the company could instead employ 1000 employees abroad (i.e. through "outsourcing"). Given the right political and legal conditions, the company could either allow fewer foreign employees to do the same work, or allow more employees to…
Cannan, Edwin. Ed. Smith, John. (1994). "The Wealth of Nations." Modern Library, New York.
Federal Reserve Board (2005). "Remarks by Alan Greenspan on Globalization." States News Service. Retrieved from Web site on July 2, 2005, from, http://www.knowledgeplex.org/news/78622.html
Grard, Larry. (2002). "Farmington, Maine, Dairy Farmers Hope Milk Dumping Will Lead to New Contract." Portland Press Herald. 11 Nov. Retrieved from WIU Library, http://web4.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/infomark/743/228/69930978w4/purl=rc1_ITOF_0_CJ120064363&dyn=3!xrn_2_0_CJ120064363?sw_aep=uphoenix
Joyce, Helen. (2001). "Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand." +Plus Magazine. March. Retrieved from Web site on July 3, 2005, from, http://plus.maths.org/issue14/features/smith/
Gender, Work and Global Economy: The Impact of Globalization on Human Trafficking
The process of globalization has facilitated an integrated world economy and although it has had numerous positive impacts, it continues to produce negative impacts as well. For instance, it has led to the increase of human trafficking at such an alarming rate that it is now considered the third most wide spread and fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world - after weapon and drug trafficking. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime UNDOC (2015) human trafficking is the recruitment, transfer, transportation, or receipt of people by improper means such as fraud, threat, coercion, abduction or use of force with the aim of exploiting them.
Kempadoo (2005) explains that the vice first caught the attention of the public at the start of the 21st century and it is now a lucrative business that has became…
Acker, Joan.(2004). Gender, Capitalism and Globalization. In critical sociology, Vol. (30)1, 1-27.
Burke, M.C. (2013). Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge
Kempadoo, Kamala. (2005). Introduction: from Moral Panic to Global Justice: Changing Perspective On Trafficking "In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights: Paradigm Publishers 193-204.
Kuokkanen, Rauna (2006). Globalization as Radicalized, Sexual Violence . International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(2): Taylor and Francis . P.299 -315.
Askov points out that many adults returning to the educational system after failing to meet its standards will not succeed in a system that is built upon the same ideals. Race, class, gender, and corresponding power structures also play into how educators approach adult learners. Adult education presents a host of challenges not present in elementary education, problems that refer to the very values upon which the society is formed. Research and theories in psychology and learning present multiple perspectives upon which educators and policy makers can build a more promising future for adult learners. Visions for the future include embedding metacognitive skills into adult learning programs. Adult learners need literacy skills, not so they can score well on standardized testing but so they can reach their highest potential as human beings. Grassroots movements may be the key to promoting adult literacy throughout the country, to making adult literacy and…
The global economy overall is mending from the 2008 crisis. Many key metrics over the past 5 years have improved materially relative to the crisis years. The S&P 500, for instance, after reaching its low in 2009 has recovered more than 150%. The financial markets are now more stable through the enactment of various legislation including Dodd-Frank and Basel III. Even unemployment has rebounded steadily as consumers are more confident of their future prospects. These trends bode very well for the furniture retailing industry which was devastated by the financial crisis. As such, I believe many companies within this sector are poised for a strong and sustained recovery. Of the many companies and competitors within the sector, Ethan Allen Interiors, Inc. is best positioned for sustainable long-term growth (Gray, 1977).
To begin, the company is fortunate enough to have a strong economic tailwind behind it. The housing sector, which…
1) Gray, Channing. "Haute and cool: Fine Furnishings show branches out in 10th year with a bigger spread of classic and cutting-edge pieces." The Providence Journal (1977)
2) Evens, P. And Wurster, T. "Strategy and the New Economics of Information," Harvard Business Review, Sept/Oct 1997.
3) Robert J. Gordon (1988), Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy, 2nd ed., Chapter 22.4, 'Modern theories of inflation'. McGraw-Hill.
high tech global economy, market researchers are facing all new challenges and this case provided an insight into one of the major dilemmas. This case focused on the fact that marketers have been trying to get in touch with our current teen population. The objective of the case was to help differentiate between basic and applied research methods and to evaluate how ethical marketing approaches are being used by research companies. These teens are more culturally diverse and as a group out number their predecessor groups such as the baby boomers. As noted, teens have become one of the fastest growing segments of the population and they are expected to continue to grow. But, to differentiate this group from any other, these teens live in a world of X-Box, high definition satellite TV, internet ready personal computers, palms, cell phones and ATM's full of cash. In other words, they may…
Global Economy and the Chemicals Industry
Growth of consumer pressures and changes in political situations and governmental policies are two factors in increased globalization that can impact the chemicals industry (Daniels et al., 2014, p. 7). The chemicals industry, like other sectors, is dependent upon both "economic growth overseas" and commodity prices that can impact "economic growth in the U.S." (Muir, 2016, p. 5). In addition, governmental policies and changes can impact the industry, as is seen in South America, where various "region's development policies that privilege industrialization as the route to economic growth" are currently being implemented, as in the Sinos Valley of Brazil (Schreiber et al., 2016, p. 58). This paper will describe how international challenges impact the chemicals industry and specifically discuss how consumer pressures and political situations/governmental policies are especially impactful on this sector.
International challenges that impact the chemicals industry are numerous: the threat of…
Daniels, J. et al. (2014). International Business. NY: Prentice Hall.
Muir, C. (2016). Industry Surveys: Chemicals. NY: S&P Capital IQ.
Schreiber, D. et al. (2016). Analysis of innovation and its environmental impacts on the chemical industry. BAR, Rio de Janeiro, 13(1): 56-75.
The firms seek to benefit from whatever a partner has to offer. This is different because size of the firms does not matter as long as each is willing to support the other in mutually beneficial manner. Unlike U.S. collaboration units where financial assistance plays a critical role, in Japan, it is the infrastructure that matters.
Unlike the U.S. conglomerates, which accent financial management, Keiretsu are oriented to cooperate in accord with whatever contribution a family member can make to help the other family member. Business units may be cooperating as suppliers of parts, lenders of capital, contributors of production know-how, or providers of access to markets. All these happen quietly. It takes a lot of digging to find out who is supplying what to whom. Even then, many of the arrangements cannot be uncovered. Most of the agreements will never be known. Keiretsu behavior epitomizes cooperation based on mutual…
Astley, W.G. 1984. Toward an appreciation of collective strategy. Academy of Management Review, 9: 526-535.
Jorde, T.M. And D.J. Teece. 1989. Competition and cooperation: striking the right balance. California Management Review, Spring: 25-37.
Ouchi, W.G. And M.K. Bolton. 1988. The logic of joint research and development. California Management Review, Spring: 9-33.
Parkhe, a. 1993. The structuring of strategic alliances: A game-theoretic and transaction-cost examination of interfirm cooperation. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 794-829. Porter, M.E. 1981. Competitive advantage, New York, NY: The Free Press.
Multilateral Environmnetal Agreements
Multilateral Environmental Agreements & Global Economy
This document addresses an important issue of inconsistency between World Trade Organization's measures and multilateral environmental agreements. The document presents an argument on how the inconsistency between the MEAs and WTO can be mitigated and how clear trade facilitating policies which give equal consideration to environmental protection measures can be promulgated and maintained globally.
The document mainly presents an argument regarding a strong need of development of an organization which can have a strong control over environmental issues and which can actually act as a unilateral platform for hundreds of MEAs can mitigate the harsh impacts of WTO's measures. For this purpose, a foundation of World Environmental Organization will be exactly what is needed (and North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) can actually act as its prototype). Furthermore, an elaboration of organizational structure and its functions is also…
They found that in addition, these activities helped offset job burnout and helped build team spirit.
These changes to meet the needs of Generation Xers have led to increased productivity and increased loyalty. When these are added to the ability to work with bleeding-edge technology and business critical projects, Generation Xers are sure to be happy. According to King (1997) these employees are used to multitasking as a way of life, for this reason, lots of opportunity needs to be provided to keep them content.
Leschinsky & Michael (2004) provided research on production employees in the Generation X demographic. Their research focused specifically on the wood product industry, yet their results, they felt, could be symbolic of production employees in other industries as well.
The results of their study were enlightening. They found that Generation Xers ranked good salary and steady employment in the top three of motivational forces. They…
Clement, J. (20 Aug 1999). Score one for the slackers. Long Island Business News, 46(34). Retrieved November 15, 2004, from Infotrac database.
King, J. (5 May 1997). All work, no play? Gen X-ers: no way. Computerworld, 31(18). Retrieved November 15, 2004, from Infotrac database.
Leschinsky, R.M. & Michael, J.H. (Jan 2004). Motivators and desired company values of wood products industry employees: Investigating generational differences. Forest Products Journal, 54(1). Retrieved November 15, 2004, from ProQuest database.
Matthew, a. (18 Jun 2004). Younger workers start saving sooner for retirement, financial advisors say. Knight Ridder Tribune News. Retrieved November 15, 2004, from Proquest database.
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
According to Cleveland and Laroche (2007), the global consumer is characterized as someone who fits in with global consumer culture. This is a culture that has certain characteristics that are static internationally, such that the global consumer can be subject to global marketing. The global consumer is understood in contrast to the local consumer. The local consumer bears strong characteristics of the local market, in their tastes and buying patterns. The global consumer trends more towards international norms. The global consumer is aware of and has some preference for international products and bears similarity to international buying patterns. In essence, the global consumer in Shanghai will have tastes and characteristics that relate more to other global consumers in Vancouver, London or Mumbai than to the people of the local Shanghai market.
Global consumers have emerged as the result of two key trends, identified in Czinkota and onkainen (2013).…
Andersson, S. & Servais, P. (2010). Combining industrial buyer and seller strategies for international supply and marketing management. European Business Review. Vol. 22 (1) 64-81.
Balabanis, G. & Diamatopoulos, A. (2004). Domestic country bias, country-of-origin effects and consumer ethnocentrism: A multidimensional unfolding approach. Academy of Marketing Science Journal. Vol. 32 (1) 80-95.
Cleveland, M. & Laroche, M. (2007). Acculturation to the global consumer culture: Scale development and research paradigm. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 60 (3) 249-259.
Czinkota, M. & Ronkainen, I. (2013). International Marketing. South-Western College Publishing.
People and services are not easily moved among the various countries. Although securing work and permits in the United States for Mexican and Canadian immigrants, NAFTA has also caused considerable concern in terms of legislation.
This is particularly the case in Canadian lawmaking. Several disputes resulted from NAFTA trading activities in the country. Such disputes for example include gasoline additives and possible related health concerns and nerve damage (Weintraub, 2004). Canada was also engaged in a long dispute regarding a 27% duty on softwood imports to Canada. This lasted for years before it was finally resolved in 2006. Significantly however, the decision was not ratified by either Canada or the United States (Weintraub, 2004). According to the U.S. Court of International Trade, imposing the duty was contrary to the United States law.
Other problems include the fact that Canada has lost more than 10,000 companies to foreign takeovers since NAFTA…
CIA. (2010). CIA -- the World Factbook -- France. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html
Dow Jones Sustainability Index. (n.d.). Retrieved January 10,2010 from http://www.sustainability-index.com/
Glass, a. (n.d.) World Economy Vertical vs. Horizontal FDI. Department of Economics,
Texas a&M University. Retrieved February, 22, 2010, from http://econweb.tamu.edu/aglass/VerticalVsHorizontalFDI.pdf
Global Financial Strategy
Critical assessment of the proposal to raise capital locally rather than in the UK
In the analysis of the proposal of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, it is essential to consider four critical aspects: costs, risks, benefits/advantages, and limitations/disadvantages. In the presentation of this critical assessment, the focus will be on the four factors or aspect in order to offer reliable analysis of the situation.
In the process of raising capital locally rather than in the UK, the organization must incur several costs. One of the essential costs is the professional cost. This refers to the amount of money or financial resources paid to the legal advisors, auditors, and reporting accountants in order to execute the process of raising the capital effectively and appropriately. Another important aspect of cost is the trading cost. These are direct costs including the brokerage commissions and financial…
Burnham, P 2010, 'Class, Capital and Crisis: A Return to Fundamentals', Political Studies Review, 8, 1, pp. 27-39,
Carvalhal, A, & Camara Leal, R 2013, 'The World Financial Crisis and the International Financing of Brazilian Companies', Brazilian Administration Review (BAR), 10, 1, pp. 18-39,
'Chad' 2013, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition, pp. 1-3,
Chana Kok, T, & Yap Voon, C 2011, 'Risk Factors of Commercial Banks in Malaysia', Journal Of Modern Accounting & Auditing, 7, 6, pp. 578-587,
Combined with the increasing prevalence of regional trading blocs, higher transportation costs may result in a move towards regional production rather than global. In other respects, however, Lonely Planet's business will remain essentially unchanged over the coming years.
The globalization of international trade has had a profound impact on Lonely Planet's operations. It has allowed the company to use offshore production centers that are capable of serving the global market. The monetary flows even at a relatively simple, one-product firm like LPP illustrate the degree to which economies around the world are intertwined. The company receives monetary inflows from dozens of nations, and disperses monetary flows to dozens more. Including small flows, the operations of Lonely Planet contribute to the economy of nearly every nation on earth.
The recent changes with respect to the global economy will continue to impact operations into the coming years, affecting the firm's ability…
Das, Dilip K. (2003). Financial Flows and Global Integration. Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization. Retrieved April 1, 2009 fromhttp://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/2004/wp13204.pdf
Steil, Benn. (2007). The end of National Currency. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/62614/benn-steil/the-end-of-national-currency
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
However, this is hardly enough to address further issues across the world economy, including poverty.
Despite the fact that trade has become significantly facilitated by the regulating authorities, it is also true that most member countries are developed countries, while developing countries receive very little in terms of policies to facilitate their international relationships within the trading regime. This has been the paradigm since the inception of the global trade regime. Powerful member countries as it were tended to control the regime.
Currently, the United States is at the most powerful relational position within the trade regime. As such, the country's voting power within the MF and World Bank remains significant, as does the fact of its privilege in the financial regime. The regime is structured in such a way that developed countries enjoy privileges that poorer countries do not. Because it can take advantage of the international strength of…
In conclusion, the IMF and WTO do valuable work in the global trade regime. However, they tend to favor the most powerful and richest member countries rather than those who are in need of help to enter the trading arena. Poorer countries are all but ignored, and the poverty problem remains significant. A truly equal global trade regime would involve an equal platform upon which all countries can trade equally and for the benefit of all involved.
Ravenhill, John. Global Political Economy. Oxford University Press, 2008.
"Both the U.S. side and the Mexican side replicate the political, economic, social, and cultural systems of their respective nation-states. At the same time, borderlanders have blended the structures, institutions, and life expressions of the two societies to create something novel and entirely theirs -- the ambiente fronterizo, or borderlands milieu. Today the area stands as a prime example of binational interdependence, providing striking evidence of the trend toward closer ties among the world's nations and societies" (Martinez, 1994)
Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209
Hackenberg, ., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3
Longley, ., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info
Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, http://www.humanities-interactive.org/borderstudies/text/essay.html. Ast…
Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209
Hackenberg, R., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3
Longley, R., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info
Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, http://www.humanities-interactive.org/borderstudies/text/essay.html. Ast accessed on March 28, 2008
Furthermore it has become critically necessary to be equipped technologically in handling today's increased IT demands for business communication.
Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at: www.globalmedia.com.
Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at http://www.refresher.com/!warming.html.
Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global usiness Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/greenwood.jsp?doi=10.1336/0275988155.
Global usiness Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International usiness Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-ased usiness Activities. Online available at http://www.nova.ne.jp/english/corporation/02jigyo/jigyou_business.html.
Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L. And Leidner, Dorothy E. (1998) Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams - JCMC 3 (4) June 1998. Online available at http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol3/issue4/jarvenpaa.html
Global Alliance Joins the Organization of the World Congress on Communication for Development (2006) Global Alliance 5 July 2006 Online available at http://www.globalpr.org/news/industry_news_direct.asp?v1=86
usiness Communications Applications on Any Network (2005) Avaya White Paper May 2005.
Avaya White Paper, "New Era of Intelligent…
Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at: www.globalmedia.com.
Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at http://www.refresher.com/!warming.html.
Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global Business Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/greenwood.jsp?doi=10.1336/0275988155.
Global Business Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International Business Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-Based Business Activities. Online available at http://www.nova.ne.jp/english/corporation/02jigyo/jigyou_business.html.
Using this concept, further solutions to this problem can be solicited. By continuing to involve states, NGOs, and IGOs, a solution to this problem can be achieved eventually, but only through community response. Researchers can continue to work toward discovering scientific solutions, NGOs and IGOS can offer incentives for companies and individuals to adopt new greenhouse gas cutting policies, and governments can enforce these policies. The global nature of this problem, in addition to the global community response that fostered both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol exemplifies the importance of global community in dealing with this international issue.
A second global problem, the peak oil crisis, has established itself as a prime example of the need for global community and global community responses in this age of globalization. Since the use of fossil fuels for energy production first became mainstream, scientists and government officials knew…
As the 21st century unfolds, we are told that the world is embracing globalism -- a key change in the economic, political and cultural movements that, broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together. This idea refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events and actions are tied together, regardless of the geographic location of a specific country (political unit). The idea of globalism has become popular in economic and cultural terms with the advent of a number of macro-trade agreements combined with the ease of communication brought about with the Internet and cellular communication.
Would we not logically think, then, that countries in the developing world would be doing their upmost to encourage global thinking? That these same countries would embrace the chance to forge a nation of entrepreneurs and move into a position of self-sustaining…
Committee For Economic Development. (2006). Education for Global Leadership: The
Importance of International Studies and Foreign Language Education for U.S. Economic
And National Security. CED. Retrieved from: http://www.ced.org/images/library/reports/education/report_foreignlanguages.pdf
Graham, J.P. (2005). The Globalization of the Small Enterprise. Going Global. Retrieved from:
he globalization of poverty has indeed occurred during a period of rapid technological and scientific advance. While the latter has contributed to a vast increase in the potential capacity of the economic system to produce necessary goods and services, expanded levels of productivity have not translated into a corresponding reduction in levels of global poverty." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
he ability of corporations to easily pick up and move into cheaper labor havens throughout the hird World has actually led to more downsizing, corporate restructurings and the relocations of whole companies which has led to higher levels of unemployment and lower earnings throughout the urban communities and the rural farm. Unemployment was at one time localized in small segments but it has now become an international problem. "We live in a world so rich that global income is more than $31 trillion a year. In this world, the average person in some…
The objective of fighting poverty and improving the overall living standards of those individuals in the Third World and the newly emerging nations has become huge undertaking. One would think that the world would be getting richer based on the advances in technology and the many new economic opportunities in the global economy. "The global decline in living standards is not the result of a scarcity of productive resources as in preceding historical periods. The globalization of poverty has indeed occurred during a period of rapid technological and scientific advance. While the latter has contributed to a vast increase in the potential capacity of the economic system to produce necessary goods and services, expanded levels of productivity have not translated into a corresponding reduction in levels of global poverty." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
The ability of corporations to easily pick up and move into cheaper labor havens throughout the Third World has actually led to more downsizing, corporate restructurings and the relocations of whole companies which has led to higher levels of unemployment and lower earnings throughout the urban communities and the rural farm. Unemployment was at one time localized in small segments but it has now become an international problem. "We live in a world so rich that global income is more than $31 trillion a year. In this world, the average person in some countries earns more than $40,000 a year. But in this same world, 2.8 billion people -- more than half the people in developing countries -- live on less than $700 a year. Of these, 1.2 billion earn less than $1 a day." (Chossudovsky, 1998)
The World Bank is not a bank in the true sense of what the average person would consider a bank. The World Bank has more or less become a specialized poverty focused social and financial assistance program or agency. The World Bank falls under the jurisdiction of the United Nations and is one of their more specialized agencies. The World Bank consists of one hundred eighty four nations currently who are jointly responsible for the oversight of the institution and
The September, 2003 supplement to the Economist, Running on One Engine contains a survey of the worlds economy, and outlines how the economic engine in America is similar to the single engine operation in a large commercial airliner. Connections are not made by the writers that an airliner operating on one engine can stay in the air for a limited amount of time, but cannot be expected to fly without problems, nor can it be expected to continue its course as if it were running on all of its multiple engines. The economists carry the metaphor to the country, and the global economy. The single engine is taxed beyond its design capacity. The overworked engine could fail, and thereby leave the airliner no other option but to plummet ground ward. In the same way, the authors say that the American economy, should it stall, could bring the entire…
Understanding this aspect is one of the keys to understanding the principle behind Flying on one Engine. The authors take great pains to describe the precarious position which the U.S. has created by becoming the sole leader in the global economy. Beginning in the 1980's the U.S. economy made larger gains as a global supplier of goods and services than did our major industrialized partners, Japan, China and Germany. According to the supplement, the momentum gained by the U.S. during the 1980's lead to increasing acceleration during the 1990's. Since 1995, domestic demand for goods and services has risen 3.7%, which is twice the rate of the rest of the modern or rich world.
The survey goes on to evaluate the economic policies of Reagan, and how these tax reductionist policies under the Bush administration are continuing to create the increased demand in the U.S., thus fueling U.S. contribution to the global economic pie. In comparison to Germany, China, and Japan, the U.S. has captured more of the global markets, and since the high amount of demand in the U.S. is also creating an import - export imbalance which is not in our favor, the authors suggest that a U.S. slow down could negatively affect the entire globe.
What the Economist supplement does not address is that the taxation policy under Reagan and both Bush's has been the source of the economic growth in the U.S. Across the globe, our major trading partners do not share our policy of reducing taxes to stimulate growth. Germany, Japan, and China all have created an interdependent relationship between business and government.
Global Politics and Economy:
Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries
The world politics and economy of the late twentieth century were highlighted by the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the promise of a 'new world order' and the rise of 'globalization.' These developments were accompanied by a worldwide trend of increasing democracy, trade liberalization and booming economies. The start of the twenty-first century, on the other hand, has seen the emergence of the so-called 'clash of civilizations' and the long drawn out 'fight against terrorism' with the inevitable slump in global economies. In this essay we shall briefly discuss the major trends of the global politics and economy in this tumultuous period of world history.
Collapse of Communism
The 'Cold ar' period involving intense political and economic rivalry between the two superpowers, the U.S.A. And the Soviet Union, lasted from the end of orld ar…
Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.
Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002
" The final force of collaboration, which Freidman (2006) calls "informing"-which are search engines like Yahoo, Google, MSN, etc., which has facilitated "Internetizer technologies" to work together with limitless information all by itself (Freidman, 2006).
Therefore, the initial three flatteners formed the novel stage for cooperation, and the subsequent six have been the novel shapes of cooperation that flattened the world. The last flattener is referred to as "the steroids," and these have been regarded as "wireless-access" along with "voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP)." The steroids have accelerated these novel kinds of cooperation, which has allowed "Internetizer technologies" to execute anyone of them, from anyplace in the world, using any tool (Freidman, 2006).
The first convergence took place when all ten flatteners united around the beginning of the new millennium. This formed a worldwide, Internet-enabled in performing ground that permitted manifold kinds of cooperation on R&D and work, regardless of not…
Barca, F. And Becht, M. (2001). The Control of Corporate Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chun, R. (2001) 'The strategic management of corporate reputation, aligning image and identity, PhD dissertation, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester.
Freidman, Thomas L. (2006), the World is Flat, (Newly Abridged and Revised), Penguin Books, Camberwell Victoria.
Global E-Business Marketing
Global Management Strategies
Involvement in the global economy is inherently risky but also carries a number of distinct opportunities for those who venture thusly. According to our research, as highlighted in the text by Dess & Lumpkin (2002), there are four distinct management strategies for entering into the international trade. Accordingly, these are identified as exporting; licensing and franchising; strategic alliances and joint ventures, and; wholly owned subsidiaries.
Exporting is perhaps the most common avenue for engaging in the global trade. Many domestic companies rely on target populations in foreign countries in order to meet core sales expectations. And as the article by Delaney (2010) notes, many of these companies will use intermediary export companies or agencies in order to reach broad customer bases. Indeed, this is the most notable advantage of the approach, which enables a company to bring its products to a decidedly wider base…
Delaney, L. (2010). Indirect Exporting: Advantages and Disadvantages to Indirect Exporting. About Import and Export.
Dess, A. & Lumpkin, L. (2002). Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages, 1st edition. McGraw-Hill.
Joint Ventures. (2013). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Entering A Joint Venture. Joint-venture.swimintheincomestream.com.
Global Strategic Management
Siemens has a number of key strengths that have allowed them to become one of the largest industrial conglomerates in the world. The first key strength is their focus on innovation. Siemens has always been driven be engineering, and their ability to produce not only better products but to continuously improve those products is one of the reasons for their continued success. The company has utilized innovation to spur significant organic growth in recent years (Siemens, 2008).
To support their engineering competency, Siemens has developed an extensive in-house training program (2008 Annual Report). This helps the firm to develop the talent it needs to remain at the fore of the innovation curve. The company trains workers through a formal facility in Bavaria, where the company is headquartered. Training, however, has long been a fundamental strength of Siemens because it helps to attract talent as well as…
2008 Siemens Annual Report. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from http://w1.siemens.com/annual/08/pool/downloads/pdf/en/pdf_e08_00_gb2008.pdf
Siemens website. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from http://w1.siemens.com/investor/en/index.htm
Some financial information from Reuters. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/incomeStatement?symbol=SI.N
Schafer, Daniel. (2009). Siemens Cuts Outlook Despite Second-Quarter Boost. Financial Times. Retrieved June 21, 2009 from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/cd667ff6-3487-11de-940a-00144feabdc0.html?nclick_check=1
Standing at the pivotal point of a changing world economy offers companies and business organizations new opportunities, but they must heed the lessons learned thus far, and make wise and pragmatic business decisions. These business choices are responsible for bringing about a stable world economy. Kemal Davis (2005) at the Financial Times and International Finance Corporation, summed it up this way:
"Given the scale of the challenge we face, there has never been a more critical time for the private sector, together with government, society and others to work together to build a better globalization for all (online)."
Building a globally-integrated world is a bold goal, but not unattainable. Business must take the lead and create for itself an environment of consumer trust, product quality and safety, and become more socially diverse and politically smart. Business must demonstrate its integrity, and concern for their markets by creating international trade…
Davis, Kemal, (2005). Newsroom, United Nations Development Programme, found online at http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/2005/november/statement-dervis corporation-conference-20051109.en?src=print, retrieved February 2, 2010.
Elliott, Peter and Devine, Tim, (2009). Technology and Digital Business, FT.Com,
Financial Times, found online at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/4f043b02-d06e-11de-af9c-00144feabdc0.html , retrieved February 1, 2010.
Grein, Andreas F. And Gould, Stephen J., (2007). Voluntary Codes of Ethical Conduct:
6. What factors contribute to globalization? The principle factor that contributes to globalization is economics. Transnational companies (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 485), for instance, have a vested interest in identifying -- and exploiting -- the most economically viable markets in which to conduct business so that they can maximize profits and reduce costs. However, there are also other factors that readily contribute to globalization, such as the exchange of global data in the form of communication. With people able to easily disseminate and receive information in virtually any part of the world -- such expedience naturally results in a reduction of national and even global barriers that were previously existent. The main forms of communication include the World Wide Web and the telecommunications (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 480).
There are also important political and economic changes that have influenced the spread of globalization. Capitalism's emergence as the dominant…
Allen, J. (1998). "Birth control and the Catholic Church." Undergraduate Review.11 (1): 7. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/rev/vol11/iss1/7
Babcock, H.M. (2008). "The National Environmental Policy Act in the urban environment: oxymoron or a useful tool to combat the destruction of neighborhoods and urban sprawl?." Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1952&context=facpub
Giddens, a., Dunier, M., Appelbaum, R.P., Carr, D. (2012). "Essentials of sociology." New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Lee, E., Vivarelli, M. (2006). "The social impact of globalization in the developing countries." Iza. Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp1925.pdf
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…
Alberts S. Obama boosts hopes of climate deal. 24 November, 2009.
Balaam David N. And Veseth M. Introduction to International Political Economy.
London: Prentice Hall, 1995
In regards to the on-going projects hosted by the UFE (United for a Fair Economy), two current campaigns include preserving the U.S. Federal Estate Tax and global economic justice. With the Federal Estate Tax, the UFE sees this as crucial to defending a progressive taxation system and wishes to "continue the fight to keep a reformed estate tax" ("UFE Programs and Projects," 2007, Internet) in order to assist Americans who live mostly in the middle classes as compared to the wealthy who would greatly benefit from the elimination of the estate tax. As to global economic justice, the UFE sees this as mandatory in order to help low-wage workers in all parts of the world and considers this as part of the acial Wealth Divide program which addresses the racial disparities of wealth. Clearly, these projects, if successfully implemented, will greatly assist low-wage and dispossessed workers and laborers by providing…
UFE Programs and Projects." (2007). UFE: United for a Fair Economy. Internet. Retrieved January 25, 2009 at http://www.faireconomy.org/about_ufe/programs_and_projects.
UNI Global Union." (2005). Internet. Retrieved January 25, 2009 at http://www.uniglobalunion.org/uniflashes.nsf/by%2BDate/832E3AA27FC18A17C1256FDC00392D 26?OpenDocument.
The state of the global economy has been an issue at the forefront of discussion and debate for the last several years. In his 2011 State of the Union Address, President Barack Obama urged bipartisan cooperation for the continued economic revival of the nation, which drives the economic recovery of the world. The President promised increased spending on education, technology, transportation and research, all of which should strengthen the economy by making the U.S. A stronger competitor in the global marketplace. He also promised to slash spending and reduce the deficit, although the specifics of these cuts were not detailed in his speech (Benac, Kuhnhenn, Werner & Superville, 2011). Various economic indicators support the claim of the President, and economists that the economy has improved since its devastating crash in 2008. Yet, full recovery may still be years away.
Tanneeru (2009) noted that was debate about when and…
Benac, N., Kuhnhenn, J., Werner, E., & Superville, D. (2011). State of the union 2011: It's the economy again. Huffington Post 1/25/11. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/25/state-of-the-union-2011-i_n_813612.html
Brown, G.W., & Lundblad, C. (2009). The U.S. economic crisis: Root causes and the road to Recovery. Journal of Accountancy 208 (4), 42-49.
Credit-card gotchas. (2010). Consumer Reports 75 (11), 13-16.
Dampier, M. (2011). Japan's economic recovery will be swift. The Independent Online March
solation on a wider scale occurs as a result of large industries. Most Western citizens are dependent upon large industrial companies for their food, power, and almost all other necessities and desires. This is ultimately unsustainable, not only for the world in general, but also for the individuals involved. Because of the focus on mass consumption as promoted by the media, the human tendency is to want whatever the media promotes. This leads to unsustainable lifestyles, which contributes to further problems like debt and the like. Rather than the happiness and fulfillment promised by the many products on offer, misery increases.
As such, hyper-individuality and unsustainable mass-consumerism appear to be at the basis of the emotional and lifestyle problems people tend to experience today. McKibben offers some interesting alternatives. Although the communally-based lifestyle he suggests appears somewhat extreme at first glance, do believe that a compromise needs to be made…
In general, McKibben makes some very good points, particularly in terms of the isolating effect of mass consumerism and the increasing wealth of a few, while the rest of the world languishes. In terms of the future, certainly implementing even some of the ideas described in the chapter will go a long way towards improving the prospects for future generations.
McKibben, Bill (2007). Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and the Durable Future. Times Books. (Chapter 4).
Global Awareness and Cultural and Racial Diversity
The need to successfully promote global awareness and cultural and racial diversity took on a completely new meaning recently. "There are over six billion people on this planet we call Earth. Diversity is more than just a notion. The term diversity has been defined by Merriam-ebster online as meaning 'differing from one another or unlike. Composed of distinct or unlike elements or qualities', this word is also used to simply mean different." (Burns) By Barak Obama becoming the nation's first black president, we have forever changed the nation's future; but in a sense, this momentous election will also alter how we will forever look at our nations past history. For more than two hundred years, the United States of America was traditionally managed by older white guys and by them being in charge, the world's thinking was shaped. The expectations of every…
Works Cited, continued
Schniedewind, Nancy. "There Ain't No White People Here!": The Transforming Impact of Teachers' Racial Consciousness on Students and Schools. Equity & Excellence in Education. 2005, 38: 280 -- 289.
While the above refers to some essential aspects of company growth, there are many other areas that could be improved. The following is a summary of some of the areas that could be enhanced and adjusted to increase viability and consumer perception of the company.
Financial streamlining in the business and service area is an important aspect that has been recognized by Dell and which is in need of improvement.
Customer Service. As has been noted in many studies customer services are an area that has been singled out as not being up to standard in Dell. As one article states; "Consumer eports rates Dell's customer service below that of every other company it examined, a group that includes Apple, Sony, Gateway and Hewlett-Packard" (Smith a. And Godinez V. 2007). There are already plans by the company to launch a major customer initiative. According to reports, Dell will, "...spend…
References www.soxfirst.comAccounting problems: the tip of the iceberg. Retrieved August 2, 2007, at http://www.soxfirst.com/50226711/dells_accounting_problems_the_tip_of_the_iceberg.php
Atlas Copo facts in Brief 06. Retrieved August 3, 2007, at http://www.atlascopcoexploration.com/pdf/Facts_in_Brief_2006.pdf
Dell's Outsourcing of Call Centers to India. Retrieved August 3, 2007, at http://webdrive.service.emory.edu/users/ahutton/index.html
Heldman B. (2005) Dell beefs up workforce in India. Retrieved August 3, 2007, at http://www.networkworld.com/newsletters/asp/2005/0509out1.html?fsrc=rss-outsourcing
India's Outsourcing Problems. Retrieved August 3, 2007, at http://www.metafilter.com/56898/Indias-Outsourcing-Problems
Multinational Corporation (MNC) and Ethical Standards
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have usually faced several challenges with regards to developing standards that deal with issues associated with corporate social responsibility. These corporations are forced to embrace more specific ethical codes in their corporate strategy because of the materialization and growth of a global economy. In the recent past, multinational corporations have started rethinking strategies that may be regarded unethical based on international standards (Manakkalathil & udolf, 1995). As a result, some people have argued that the corporations should lessen their ethical standards to compete globally. In contrast, others have stated that a multinational corporation to should retain its ethical standards to develop more credibility throughout the world.
Proponents of this statement argue that an MNC should lessen its ethical standards because it may encounter some business laws that are not permitted in some countries. For instance, a company operating in the United…
Manakkalathil, J. & Rudolf, E. (1995). Corporate Social Responsibility in a Globalizing Market.
SAM Advanced Management Journal, 60(1).
Roache, S. (2013, October). Brazil -- Selected Issues. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2013/cr13313.pdf
UNDP Report Study
Human Development Report 2011:
A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations
Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…
From the data presented above, it is clear to see that, indeed, the studies mentioned in this paper correlate with the status of the countries at present and that Estonia and India seem to be faring a lot better than the DRC and Mexico. For example, it is clear that the DRC has gone down considerably in all four areas. Mexico, however, is a different story. It seems that it has gone up in all facets, which is does not correlates with research on Mexico that shows fluctuation in progress. It is a pity that the 2010 report does not yet have all the facts on Mexico, because they could, again, fluctuate due to the drug wars. The statistics for Mexico might look so great, despite the problems the country faces, due to Mexico's proximity to the U.S. And the help it receives from this country. Lastly, it is evident, especially from the GDP growth, that both India and Estonia have been growing steadily, as has Mexico, which is great news. Though this is in stark contrast to the DRC, which is at a pitiable $291 in GDP for 2010, according to the UNDP data in the table above.
This paper has presented a multitude of facts to examine what makes a country progress, while others stagnate. With the help of a comprehensive literature review and UNDP reports, the essay has concluded the two of the examined countries, Estonia and India, are faring better economically and political (and thus from health and education perspectives) than the DRC and Mexico. This has been due to the fact, as read in the literature review, that the first two countries have either international support in terms of trade and/or manpower and organization. The latter two, as seen above, are either torn apart by violence, or have a history of ineffectual political organization, and thus cannot fully prosper financially. Furthermore, their literacy rates, survival rates and GDP are substantially lower. In order to rise, Mexico and the DRC, and the latter especially, must find a way to put violence aside, so that the country may join in the progress of the modern world.
Though this research seems comprehensive, it has only analyzed other studies and the UNDP reports. Thus, a shortcoming is the inability of the researcher to be on the ground, or at least speak to experts on the issue, both inside the specific country and outside of it to obtain opinions on whether the poorer countries of the world can ever reach the kind of development that they should. Thus, the study presented here must be continued so that we may find future patters for development and help countries such as the DRC and Mexico advance in the world economy.
IMF and World Bank in global financing and exchange rate fluctuations
he International Monetary Fund plays a crucial role in the world's economy, especially in global financing and exchange rate fluctuations. However, its influence ranges well beyond those disciplines.
he main responsibility of the International Monetary Fund is to provide loans to nations experiencing balance of payments difficulties. he International Monetary Fund's involvement allows these countries to stabilize their currencies, rebuild their international reserves, continue to import much needed goods, and generally set the stage for strong economic growth.
A country can only ask for International Monetary Fund assistance when it has a serious balance of payments deficit, as in, more money goes out than comes in, and it cannot get financing to meet its international obligations.
he general understanding is similar to the United States Bankruptcy Code, which is, no one benefits from insolvency, neither the debtor nor the…
The Bank gets about 10% of its funds from taxpayers, in the form of direct contributions from member governments.
The IFC operates partly with funds contributed directly by its member countries but mainly with funds borrowed from the IBRD. The IFC is the fastest growing part of Bank operations, with IFC investments having grown to $2.1 billion last year. Among the transnational corporations represented on the IFC Business Advisory Council are the Bank of Tokyo, Credit Lyonnaise, Treuhandanstalt, SG Warburg.
www.imf.org www.worldbank.org http://www.atu2.com/news/article.src?ID=294
Exports are also down significantly, yet despite these changes, the Chinese economy appears to be "independent and strong enough to not only cope with the global economic crisis but also to establish itself" as a major world economic powerhouse ("China Economy," 2009, Internet).
One of China's greatest economic strengths is based on foreign direct investment, for the World Bank estimates that around $80 billion U.S. dollars are invested in China on a yearly basis. However, one of its most important weaknesses is the existence of corruption at the local level, a situation which the Chinese government has attempted to eliminate through a slow and long-drawn out process. Nonetheless, economists predict that China, "via a sustained rate of growth will enable it to surpass the U.S." To become the world's largest and most powerful economy sometime in the early years of the 21st century ("China Economy," 2009, Internet).
As to unemployment…
"China Economy." (2009). EconomyWatch. Internet. Accessed June 23, 2009 from http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/china .
Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World
Order. New York: Touchstone Books (Simon & Schuster).
ethical issue of outsourcing, or sending jobs overseas, and its affects on the world economy and cultures. Outsourcing has become a very common practice in the 21st century. Outsourcing is quite simply the practice of sending jobs to remote call centers and other locations in foreign countries, while eliminating jobs in the United States. The ethical issues surrounding outsourcing and the resulting globalization are complex, and pose risks and consequences for the companies who choose to outsource.
Globalization has created the ability for employers to hire and train workers around the globe, often at extremely reduced salaries and benefit levels, thus saving the employer thousands and even millions of dollars. The practice is so widespread that many financial institutions routinely send data to overseas locations, income taxes are prepared in India and sent to customers remotely, and medical records are interpreted by workers clear across the globe. The ethics and…
Breslin, D.A. (1999). On the ethics of outsourcing. Retrieved 1 Oct. 2009 from the Defense Acquisition University Web site: http://www.dau.mil/pubs/pm/pmpdf99/breslind.pdf . 24-27.
Kline, J.M. (2005). Ethics for international business: Decision making in a global political economy. London: Routledge.
Shamis, G.S., Green, M.C., Sorensen, S.M., & Kyle, D.L. (2005). Outsourcing, offshoring, nearshoring: What to do? Journal of Accountancy, 199(6), 57+.
Global Economy vs. Traditional Economy
An economy can be described as closed or open. A closed economy is one where all the earnings and income flows are locally generated. This does not involve the issue of importation or expectation. On the contrary, an open economy is one that encompasses trade with other countries and the local traders. In the recent past, international companies have invaded the local markets and are bringing serious economic concerns to many nations. States are interested in stabilizing their economies and safeguarding them from the invasion of the international companies. This has been the center of discussion for most government leaders and has contributed to the political process of nations.
Effect of multinationals
Multinationals have proved to be more effective and efficient as well as providing better quality products than most local companies. For instance, McDonald's is currently one of the most sought after company by…
When businesses go international, they have to operate in a more competitive, uncertain, and risky business environment. The forces present in the Global environment bring a number of challenges for the businesses; making it more difficult for them to maintain their market share, enhance profitability, and keep the customers satisfied (Cherunilam, 2007). To compete successfully and ensure a sustainable future in the international markets, business organizations have to analyze these forces carefully and strategize accordingly. Globalization has also impacted the way countries use to recognize themselves as internationally competitive and advanced than other countries (Tellis, Stremersch, & Yin, 2003).
This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the positive and negative impacts of Globalization and the efforts which nations and business organizations make in order to become internationally competitive and keep up pace with the Globalization. The paper starts with a brief description of different environmental forces that are…
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Dconti, (2012). Effects of Globalization on Italy. Retrieved on May 3rd, 2012, from
The successful firms have the war chest, and often this was acquired through strong long-term planning. Thus, successful firms have the ability to build upon that success during economic downturns, which sets them up to be in an even stronger position when the next downturn strikes.
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Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C., all, T., et al. (2008, September). THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE AND OPERATIONAL Management PRACTICES ON COMPANY PRODUCTIVITY: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY. Personnel Psychology, 61(3), 467-501. Retrieved May 5, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00120.x
KEPES, S., DELERY, J., & GUPTA, N. (2008, August). STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE Management: A SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE. Academy of Management Proceedings, Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Business Source Premier database.
D'Aurizio, P. (2008, November). Southwest Airlines:…
Becton, B., & Schraeder, M. (2009, January). Strategic Human Resources Management. Journal for Quality & Participation, 31(4), 11-18. Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C., Wall, T., et al. (2008, September). THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE AND OPERATIONAL Management PRACTICES ON COMPANY PRODUCTIVITY: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY. Personnel Psychology, 61(3), 467-501. Retrieved May 5, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00120.x
KEPES, S., DELERY, J., & GUPTA, N. (2008, August). STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE Management: A SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE. Academy of Management Proceedings, Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Business Source Premier database.
D'Aurizio, P. (2008, November). Southwest Airlines: Lessons in Loyalty. Nursing Economic$, pp. 389,392. Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.