Global Health / Nursing Trends Wealthy Nations
In the era following World War II, industrialized nations, which were the most affluent nations in the world, invested more money into healthcare and social services than in the era prior to the war. This meant that many industries related to healthcare, including medical healthcare professionals, medical billing, support staff, and creative and building industries, experienced growth as well. The healthcare models in wealthy, postwar nations, did not all grow and develop in the same ways through the 1950s and 1960s. The spectrum of healthcare system types ranges from private market-based to state-owned and operated. Some countries, such as France and Japan, have healthcare systems that blend characteristics from both medical models. There are many historical and political factors beyond healthcare system arrangement, however, which are seriously impacting global health trends currently (Kovner and Knickman 2008).
The socioeconomic disparities between nations and their…… [Read More]
The analysis of the veterinary services will be carried out under the patronage of the OIE in cooperation with FAO and the concerned benefactors.
The H5N1 virus could alter or re-assort and become contagious from human to human producing a significant hygienic trouble at worldwide level. Thus, the very best means to prevent this advancement is to fight the virus at its pet source.
iv. Epidemiological impacts.
A local OIE/FAO wellness center can be hosted by the OIE egional epresentation as specified throughout the Beijing conference be urgently produced in Europe in order to especially support nations to manage avian influenza in really close cooperation with the EC.
Funds dedicated for avian influenza control in pets throughout the Beijing conference by benefactors consisting of the EC, can be assigned at worldwide, local and nationwide levels.
Non-European Union Member Countries of East Europe found on the borders of various other continents…… [Read More]
The world is an increasingly shrinking place. Globalization has interconnected countries through trade and technology (De Cock, Simone, Davison, Slutsker, 2010). Today's economic turmoil is a great example of how is essentially one big web: one country's economic downturn has a domino effect on others. Globalization has other consequences, such as the migration of people from areas of low economic development to those of growing economies. Also with the rise of powerful multinational corporations with global interests, they need a mobile international workforce. Essentially, the world is becoming one big community. In respect to global health this has certain implications. Events such as an epidemic in Ghana or an outbreak of tuberculosis in China are no longer isolated events. What happens in one corner in the world has the capability of being felt all over. If there is war and disease, this creates refugee populations that can unbalance…… [Read More]
Vast differences exist between developed and developing countries with regard to mortality, chronic diseases, and communicable diseases. Lack of adequate healthcare, poorer living conditions, and lack of health-related education all contribute to the poorer health experienced in developing countries. Factors such as population aging, the persistent spread of HIV / AIDS, and increased disease burden are also present in developing countries (Mathers, 2006). The following discussion presents the disparity in global health between poorer, developing countries and countries in the developed world.
One of the most prominent causes of death in developing countries with low incomes is mortality due to communicable diseases. Impoverished countries are more vulnerable to deaths from communicable diseases that are more successfully treated and prevented in wealthier, developed countries (Mathers et al., 2009). In particular, deaths among children under the age of five in developing countries, which account for seven out of 10 deaths…… [Read More]
improvements in health since 1960, there are still a quantity of challenges, which should have been easy to resolve. As a person, all through my career, I have personally chosen to focus on the opportunities and experiences produced within the area of global health differences. Nevertheless within this area, there is an abundant divide among global aspects of health issues, for instance the effect of inequality and poverty that are really bothering me. With that said, this paper will give a personal involvement with global health through my experience with the illness of my professor.
I was heartbroken when I learned of my professor illness. She was not just a respected professor but a good nurse. She was only 40 when her health was challenged. It started because she did not want to stay in an unhealthy work environment, she made the decision that she didn't want to continue to…… [Read More]
Health Care Reform Reflection
The 21st century has seen a great deal of effort and debate regarding the future of American health care as healthcare reform has been one of the most discussed and divided political issues in the most recent election cycle. The effort to pass comprehensive legislation to ensure a standard degree of coverage for all Americans has been in the works for over two decades. The passing of the health care reform assembled by the Obama administration has reignited the debate over the role and relationship between the state, the health care system, and the public. This is an opportune moment for healthcare industry workers to reflect upon these relationships and to interrogate their underlying philosophies and perspectives on the role of the health care industry at large.
Looking at health care from legal, ethical, and economic perspectives provides keen insight into the role of the individual…… [Read More]
She must be careful that her counseling does not fall in the line of coercion.
Fairness and equity in allocation of all healthcare services; social values are not part of the decision as to who receives care.
Lena's opinion of the situation is not relevant; Mr. X's individual rights take predominance, as does the quality of his care.
The primary goal of medicine, help -- or do no harm. What is the best healthcare decision for a person in their particular circumstances?
To do no harm Lena has a moral obligation to protect her sister from infection; knowing that she may be doing emotional harm; however, since HIV is incurable, the choice is moot.
Never harm intentionally and perform one's obligation to use any and all appropriate treatments to cure or prevent illness.
Lena's obligation is to prevent or cure illness; prevention is the key here. She…… [Read More]
Community Health Aides Model
Improving International Healthcare
"International Health-care system...hat to do to improve the U.S.'s health system"
Global health organizations have been studying ways to create efficacious care within and across the many national, ethnic, and cultural contexts. Several models have been shown to be particularly effective regardless of context. Using extant secondary research, this report will provide the fundamental framework for a model that is agile, comprehensive, and eminently adoptable.
Five contexts in which the model was implemented are briefly discussed: Alaska, Iran, Jamaica, and Rwanda. These implementation settings have the following attributes in common: Sparse populations, cultural and ethnic influences that differ from the physicians and administrators of the healthcare programs, and the need for regular follow up care and consultation. The information provided does not focus on any particular disease or disorder, but rather describes a system for addressing the needs of communities in rural or…… [Read More]
Blog: Place Within Populations
Blog -- Place Within Populations
How individual and community social behaviors and responses to the physical environment alter, disrupt, impair and/or damage the ability of human physiology to fight infectious diseases. The following concepts will be explored: drug resistant microorganisms, herd immunity, and re-emergence of vaccine preventable diseases, genetic susceptibility of some populations.
The idea that individual and social responses to the environment can impact human health, particularly with regard to the ability to fight off infectious disease is not new. As far back as the 1800s when John Snow connected an epidemic of cholera to sewage in the Broad Street pump, epidemiologists (as they are now known) have been making connections between behavior, environment, and disease. Some variables influence public health through policy rather than through medical practice. The public health system has labeled phenomena such as these social determinants of health (SDH). The World…… [Read More]
Policy, Politics, and Global Health
The public policy issue selected is childhood obesity. I selected this issue because childhood obesity has a considerable longstanding impact on the health of the public as well as the cost of health care. This is becoming a more significant issue in the public realm because childhood obesity emanates from the main reason that these children grow up into obese adults who might end up suffering a great deal of health problems. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2015), childhood obesity has more than doubled and increased fourfold in adolescents in the past three decades. Statistics indicate that by 2012, more than 33% of the children and adolescents in the United States were obese or overweight. This implies that there is a need for policy intervention addressing this health hazard.
esearch studies undertaken have indicated that childhood obesity is a relevant…… [Read More]
Combating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in South Africa
Although Swaziland has the highest incidence rate for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 27.7%, South Africa suffers from the largest number of people living with HIV in the world (6.8 million) (The global HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2016) out of a total population of around 53.5 million (South Africa population, 2016). In fact, during the time required to read this introduction, someone died of HIV in South Africa. Unfortunately, South Africa is certainly not unique in experiencing these high rates of infection and many sub-Saharan African nations are likewise seriously affected by the disease (The global HIV/AID epidemic, 2016). South Africa, though, is also suffering from a number of social problems that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic. In response to these alarming trends, the international community, including the United States, has allocated an enormous amount of resources to help stop the…… [Read More]
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…… [Read More]
Debt relief and other means to alleviate financial burdens is but one method of helping the humanitarian crises and epidemics worldwide.
The chieber et al. (2007) study is not an empirical study but rather one that provides a meta-analysis of already existing data. They draw from a number of difference sources including renowned economists and political philosophers to provide a number of possible solutions that can be embraced and tailored for different situations. Because each region of the globe exhibits unique health care problems and unique cultural and financial concerns, such a broad and multi-disciplinary perspective is necessary. Moreover, the authors are unbiased and straightforward in their analysis of global healthcare needs. They simply point out the practicalities of improving global health: framing it in ways that might genuinely…… [Read More]
As a result, the Govt. has been eager to encourage self-medication, where probable, in an endeavor to save money and time as optimizing convenience for the consumer. (the UK OTC Pharmaceuticals Market: UK pharmaceutical market report)
E) Is there any one burning issue related to health care in this country that is undergoing extensive debate? What do you know about it?
Although Britain NHS has been a model for the rest of the world to emulate, however over the years, a persistent concern with cost constraints and market-defined efficiencies since the bygone twenty years has radically battered the core principles of universal healthcare in UK. The discouragement of proceeds of central taxation as the funding base has been coupled with Govt. passing the costs and dangers to patients and their families. The internal market launched by the Thatcher Govt. In 1980s showed the most prominent features of these modifications, however,…… [Read More]
Healthcare management (Strategic operations plan)
Several studies, including Kelly arnes, show that healthcare generally moves from "costly settings" such as hospitals into cheaper and more flexible options, such as retail clinics and mobile health
What this actually shows as a future trend is that the global recession has played an important role in defining the customer profile. Clients are no longer interested solely in the best available services, but in low-cost services. For this, they look at flexible options and, in the same context of flexibility, they look more and more towards customization. Customization includes customized treatments and customized location (home, hospital, clinics, mobile)
At the same time, the demand for innovation remains key. The Harvard usiness Review points to the demand for innovation in emerging markets, such as China and India, but this is also true, to a different degree, for the U.S. market
. Innovation can take different…… [Read More]
Here second question that is raised for the author is that till now and for the future, many healthcare architectures have been designed that increase the availability of the patient records, not only on the national but on an international scale as well. The author in the study has only focused on the national or local availability of the patient records.
Content of the article is strong and there are a number of important facts given in the article in relation to the importance of healthcare indexing systems. The healthcare indexing systems being used in U.S., UK and Australia have been mentioned as an example. The two models of the indexing architecture given by the author in the beginning have been linked by the author with the examples. The loopholes that can be noticed in these cases are the absence of any privacy and security concerns that may be an…… [Read More]
Health Care Policy Change
• Current nursing issues related to globalization of healthcare
The term ‘globalization’ has been used in the description of increasing social and economic interdependence among and between countries (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). The shifting disease and health patterns have been linked to globalization. Global health means the health issues that are not geographically contained and that no one country can handle them alone (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). As an answer to the global issues of health and globalization itself nurses have had to practice their profession in the context of emerging and new transnational situations (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). For this reason nurses have to proactively respond to the dynamic global changes and comprehend the consequences of globalization on health.
In this era of healthcare globalization, it is necessary to underscore the positive changes in biotechnology and communication (Da Silva, 2008). Globalization, however, seems to have…… [Read More]
Health and Community
Nola Pender states that the most important challenge in modern nursing is the understanding of global health issues. It is not enough to merely be aware of international disease patterns but to utilize western technologies to both inform and help bring about change to these epidemic situations. Several diseases have transcended the original locale to become worldwide issues. Most prevalent of these is the epidemic of HIV which has infected people all over the world. The orld Health Organization (HO) has officially labeled the virus as a "pandemic," meaning that there is no place in the populated world that is not in some way impacted by HIV. The HIV and Aids epidemics are not new information. People have been suffering and dying with this disease for more than twenty years now. However, knowledge of the illness does not mean that people should give up and stop providing…… [Read More]
The heated nature of the current political debate in the United States upon the subject of healthcare is testimony to the idea that far less than economic numbers, cultural wars govern how healthcare is perceived and administrated. All nations face the problem of cost containment of an increasingly expensive healthcare system. People are living longer, and the nations of the developed world have populations with a far higher median age than in the past. Medical technology is also more expensive. Thus, some form of 'rationing' (as politically unpalatable as the world may be) is required, either based upon need, or based upon who can pay. The United States stresses that individuals can 'choose' to have healthcare or not, and implicit in this assumption is that individuals who can 'merit' better jobs that provide healthcare are making one choice, while Americans who work several jobs that do not offer healthcare --…… [Read More]
Policy, Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector
Why the Public Policy Issue Was Chosen?
According to the report released by National Priorities and Goals -- aligning efforts meant to transform America's Health care (NQF, 2009; Partnership, 2008). NPP (National Priorities Partnership) came up with 6 priorities. If the priorities are addressed, it could improve the quality of health care delivered to the U.S. citizens. NPP consists of 48 major U.S. health care organizations, which work with NQF (National Quality Forum). It identifies and advances priorities geared at improving health care in the future (NQF, 2009). NPP has identified palliative care as one of the six priorities that can help improve patient-based utilization outcome. This article provides the background to help identify steps to assist match the medical treatment of the patient and family objectives. It concerns itself with access to quality hospice services and palliative care (Meier, 2011). This…… [Read More]
As the 21st century unfolds, we are told that the world is embracing globalism -- a key change in the economic, political and cultural movements that, broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together. This idea refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events and actions are tied together, regardless of the geographic location of a specific country (political unit). The idea of globalism has become popular in economic and cultural terms with the advent of a number of macro-trade agreements combined with the ease of communication brought about with the Internet and cellular communication.
Would we not logically think, then, that countries in the developing world would be doing their upmost to encourage global thinking? That these same countries would embrace the chance to forge a nation of entrepreneurs and move into a position of self-sustaining…… [Read More]
Does Socio-economic Status Impact lives of People with HIV and AIDS?
Individuals with a lower socio-economic status are more prone to contracting HIV and AIDS virus. This measure also determines how individual status, relates to proper medical care. Lack of socioeconomic strength associated to the practice of risky sexual behaviors results to HIV contraction. Men engage in sexual intercourse with many partners without using a condom (Will 2000). Women at this lower level engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Homeless people are more vulnerable to infection, women in such situations are prone to rape and, men are most likely drug users. Individuals with low socioeconomic resources are prone to injury, which makes the susceptible to the effects of the virus that affects the central nervous system (Earnshaw, Valerie and Stephenie 2009).
Does HIV Infection Affect the Socio Sconomic Status of Infected Persons?
HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the productivity…… [Read More]
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…… [Read More]
Health Care and Health for All:
In what the World Health Organization termed as Health for All, the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978 expressed the need for health workers, urgent government action, and the world community to safeguard and support health for all. In order to achieve health for all people across the globe, the Conference made various declarations including health being an essential human right and a significant world-wide social goal. One of the critical aspects towards the achievement of this Health for All initiative is primary healthcare.
Declarations on Primary Health Care:
As an essential health care service, primary health care can be made universally accessible to people and families through the full participation of the community and at a cost that the community can afford ("Declaration of Alma-Ata," n.d.). Primary health care acts as the initial level of contact of people, families, and communities…… [Read More]
Human Resources planning and strategy will be 'key' in enabling the organization to deal with pandemic situations. This leads to another primary challenge that the health care industry faces which is the shortage of nursing staff in today's health care organizations and institutions. Nursing staff in the healthcare industry re under great stresses on staffing due to an inadequate supply of individuals pursuing their nursing degree with an."..unprecedented demand for nursing services" however, colleges and universities as well as health care institutions have failed to develop effective workforce supply. The work of leich and Hewlett (2004) entitled: "Dissipating the Perfect Storm - Responses from Nursing and the Health Care Industry to Protect the Public's Health" published by the Journal of Issues in Nursing states: "In spite of the progress in nurse recruitment, the prognosis for balancing supply with demand is still precarious, at best. Sadly, AACN (2003a) reports that more…… [Read More]
Message for Target Population: Health Education and Diet
The message for my target population—adults at a behavioral health clinic—is the following statement: It is important to maintain a healthy diet, low in sugar—especially high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), as the latter has been linked with the onset of heart disease, liver disease, obesity and diabetes (Bocarsely, Powell, Avena & Hoebel, 2010; Malik et al., 2010; Stanhope et al., 2015). This means, primarily, adults should take efforts to eliminate soft drinks and soda pop from their diets—as these are among the primary beverages high in HFCS.
The four domains of health literacy are: (1) Fundamental literacy, (2) Scientific literacy, (3) Civic literacy, (4) Cultural literacy (Zarcadoolas, Pleasant & Greer, 2005). In order for the health education message described above to have an effect on the target population, the target population has to possess knowledge in the four domains of health…… [Read More]
health is affected by behaviors, economics, and social structure.
Health is affected by behaviors in that if good habits are formed from the latter, the former is then influenced positively. However, if practices like smoking and excess alcohol consumption, the former is impacted negatively. Williams and Torrens (2010) has noted that intake of alcohol "beyond a moderate level is associated with numerous physiological complications including cirrhosis of the liver, various cancers, intestinal disorders, and brain function deterioration…Alcohol abuse results in illness and injury to others, including-but certainly not limited to-vehicular accidents, workplace injuries, poor fetal outcomes associated with fetal alcohol syndrome, and spousal and child abuse." The dietary behaviors people make in their lives has an effect in their lives, for example it may cause "enhanced morbidity and mortality…elevated consumption of fat, sodium, and sugar, leading to an epidemic of obesity and associated problems" (Williams and Torrens, 2010). Health is…… [Read More]
Health Care Change
The change process is influenced by myriad philosophical, ethical, regulatory, and reflective interactions, particularly for entities involved in the health care industry. egulatory interactions establish mandates that organizations must adhere to, which require changes in procedures. Similarly, ethical interactions can affect the change process by establishing precedents based on the outcomes of previous ethical decisions, which provide the basis for additional behavior in similar ethical situations. eflective interactions affect the change process by enabling parties to ruminate about previous successes and failures, and to change their organizations to maximize the former and minimize the latter. Philosophical interactions influence the change process by allowing health care practitioners to exchange varying viewpoints and perspectives on matters that can provide the impetus for departmental or organizational change.
The impact of networking and collaboration with inter-professional groups seeking to resolve global health care problems can be profound, even nationally (Office, 2016).…… [Read More]
Since 1986, the World Health Organization has promoted a Healthy Communities/Healthy Cities initiative, also known as the Alliance for Healthy Cities, with hundreds of participating municipalities across the world (Hancock, 1993; World Health Organization, 2018). The purpose of the Alliance for Healthy Cities is to encourage local governments to incorporate health promotion into all areas of public practice, economic policy, and urban development (World Health Organization, 2018). Goals of the Healthy Communities/ Healthy Cities approach include reducing public health risks including obesity, and promoting healthy lifestyles, public safety, and health equity. The success of Healthy Cities programs and policies directly depends on the empowerment of nurses at all levels of practice, including community-based nurses. Because each community presents different needs, goals, and challenges, nurses in each community can collaborate with partners and stakeholders to promote and reach realistic public health goals.
Healthy Communities: Relevance to the Nursing Profession
The…… [Read More]
Global Health Care and Culture
Traditional Health Care Concepts
Modern Health Care in China and its Affordability
The public health system in China has been able to make progress in many aspects owing to the economic growth of the country. Problems like child mortality and life expectancy have shown considerable improvements over the last 20 years in conjunction with the rising economy. With significantly more hospital beds in the country compared to about 10 years ago, China has made all efforts to embrace the modern medical system and formulated policies to make modern health care affordable to every Chinese citizen (Mehlhorn, Wu & Ye, n.d.).
However give the above context, it is still a fact that Chinese system of health care is still governed and guided by the cultural values and traditions of ancient Chinese health care. This is in conformation to the ways the Chinese value their centuries old…… [Read More]
Healthcare in the United States and India
The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…… [Read More]
Global Health- Do People Have a ight to Health Care?
People's health is a matter of daily concern. egardless of one's gender, race, age, ethnic background and socio-economic status, human health must be treated as the most essential and basic asset (Cohen, 2013). Often, ill health can keep people from going to work, school or from participating in family and community responsibilities. This means that when talking about a person's well-being, we are often referring to health.
The right to healthcare is a basic component of the human rights. People are entitled to the right to enjoyment of the highest achievable standard of mental and physical health. Globally, this right was originally articulated in the World Health Organization (WHO), Constitution of 1946, which defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Further, the preamble stipulates that "the…… [Read More]
Second, poor health in the individual probably detracts from his or her capacity to contribute to society more directly than the harm to productive society represented by the cost of the individual's healthcare.
Furthermore, the vast majority of American healthcare dollars are spent on individuals in their later years, after their productive lives are already over, rather than on working-age people. Finally, while reducing healthcare costs is necessary for the optimal health of the American economy, it probably relates more directly to private economic matters rather than to consuming national resources that could otherwise be dedicated to technological development in a general sense.
Response to Statement #3: As suggested in Response #2, optimum public health is not necessarily a prerequisite for global competitiveness unless by "health" one means healthy enough to reach productive adulthood. On the other hand, the American population is undoubtedly on the verge of an obesity crisis,…… [Read More]
The Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN) has been a longtime advocate a Good Samaritan Entity Liability Protection for all public and private healthcare agencies as well as a Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act (UEVHPA) which would allow out-of-state medical professionals to cross state lines in declared emergencies (EVAN, 2010, UNC). However, these laws tend only to provide for coverage at the immediate scene of the emergency, rather than for the type of sustained medical care demanded during major disasters.
On a gut level, it is hard to imagine me, personally, refusing to provide aid to individuals in dire need, regardless of what the law said. However, for organizations that must make immediate decisions about getting involved in helping victims of a disaster, being legally liable could have serious repercussions for the entity's future, especially if it may be called upon to give aid to large numbers of people for…… [Read More]
In doing so, organizations:
advance the idea of public assurance that the organization is concerned for patient safety and the quality of care present a safe and capable work environment that adds to worker satisfaction negotiate in regards to sources of payment for care in regards to data on the quality of care pay attention to patients and their families, value their rights, and connect them in the care process as partners produce a culture that is open to learning from the timely reporting of unfavorable events and safety concerns set up joint leadership that sets precedence's for and unremitting leadership for quality and patient safety at all points (Introduction, n.d.).
In 2012 Joint Commission made quite a few changes to the 2012 accreditation decision rules. These rules present the consistent structure that the Joint Commission uses to deliver an accreditation decision limiting unpredictability or prejudice. The first thing that…… [Read More]
Information technology and computers have also begun to affect, in ways that are both bad and good, family life, community life, education, freedom, human relationships, democracy, and many other issues. By looking into the broadest sense of the word it can be seen that cyber ethics should actually be understood as a branch of applied ethics, and ethics should be something that is believed in by all that provide medical information, whether via the Internet or in some other way, since providing false or fraudulent information could be damaging and potentially deadly for many people.
This particular branch of ethics analyzes and studies information technology and what type of ethical and social impacts it has. Within recent years this new field has led to countless courses, workshops, articles, journals, and many other ways of expression. With the World Wide Web becoming so popular when it comes to health care information,…… [Read More]
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…… [Read More]
However, much of this can be explained by the emergence of the spread of HIV / AIDS as well as the breakup of the Soviet Union and there diminishing health care quality after the Soviet countries split up and formed many smaller nations. Many countries were also able to make massive improvements in health care in small periods of time. One country in the 1940s was able to improve their average life expectancy by two years after every single year had passed. Much of this vast improvement was due to the eradication of malaria. However, over the course of global development the trend remained fairly constant over time.
Another interesting point that was made by the lecturer was that he pointed out that despite the fact that income has not grown equally in many nations, many countries have had developed their well-being on par regardless of the advances in gross…… [Read More]
In their move from a completely government-paid and -- operated healthcare system to a fees-based approach, the Chinese have greatly improved the efficiency, availability, and efficacy of their healthcare system (Wan & Wan 2010). This suggests that a combination of perspectives, rather than the market or single-payer perspectives that form so many healthcare systems, is most effective.
There are also, of course, healthcare systems that have developed in the same period as those mentioned above, but with far more negative results. The South African healthcare system, though effective in combating certain specific conditions, has many of the same failings as the United States' system, only on to a far more apparent degree. A lack of organization and responsiveness, exacerbated by an attempt to exert highly politicized and highly centralized control over healthcare provision, has plagued South African efforts to combat AIDS and many other problems the country -- and the…… [Read More]
The experiences of seniors within the healthcare delivery system will alter how all Americans view healthcare. The healthcare delivery systems and overall organizational structure in the United States has been slow to adjust but that rest of the world is currently in flux that will migrate into our system. Technological advances in communication have made telehealth and telemedicine vialbel solutions to our outdated healthcare industry orgainzational structre. While these types of advances are only in their infancy, "...there seemed to be broad acceptance that telehealth and telemedicine had provided positive benefits to the worlds healthcare delivery system." (Telehealth Applications) Our technoloically challenged seniors have actually discovered the trend within the healthcare system and telehealth and telemedicine seems to be an advance that will find worldwide support so we as a nation will be reqquired to jump on the bandwagon.
In conclusion, this article review focused on new Healthcare Delivery Systems…… [Read More]
6% of GDP in 2002; in America, they were 14.6%, or almost double Britain's expenditure" (Klein 2005). However, this frugality means that bypass surgery, dialysis, and medications in general are much more rarely prescribed in the U.S. than in the UK. hile there is frequent criticism that the U.S. is overmedicated as a society, the opposite is likely true in the UK. In other words, is unlikely that people are so much healthier in England vs. The U.S. To justify certain statistical disparities in care: the rate for coronary bypass surgery in the UK is 20% less than it is in the U.S.
To address the problems of under-medication, recently there has been a proposal to allow drug companies in the UK with "innovative" medicines to bypass the current screening process for cost-effectiveness, as a way of expanding care. The companies could sell the drugs to the NHS at a…… [Read More]
Two elements that are extremely useful in the examination of health care. In this regard therefore, quality is also differentiated along SES. Persons who are higher on the socioeconomic ladder experience better "desired health outcomes."
The access to quality health care also has cultural and SES elements to it. Dressler & Bindon (2000) identify cultural consonance as a factor in determining blood pressure in African-American communities. The implications of this work are that cultural elements play a big role in health care quality and access. Whites tend to have greater access to better health care than minority groups. This access is in terms of the proximity of quality physicians, medical services, and facilities.
The ethical implications of the differential access to health care are troubling (Kulczycki, 2007). This is primarily because a health care discussion is a life and death discussion. Quality health care is the right of every citizen,…… [Read More]
It means they have an equal opportunity to receive contraception, prenatal counseling and services, post-natal services for mother and child, preventative healthcare services, vaccinations, and dentistry services, from earliest childhood and through their lives into their elderly years when they require more medical services to remain healthy and active. To the extent everyone in a given community or society has the same relative access to healthcare services and to the extent those services received are of comparable quality, healthcare access could be described as being equitable. On the other hand, to the extent everyone in a given community or society does not have the same relative access to healthcare services and to the extent those services received are not of comparable quality, healthcare access could be describes as being inequitable (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009).
Healthcare Equity in the Contemporary United States
Unfortunately healthcare access in the U.S. is not equitable…… [Read More]
Healthcare Legal Issues
Discuss the impact Federalism has on the regulation of health care delivery; how do the different sources of law as they related to the federal and state governments matter, if at all?
In general, federal regulation of health care delivery would be much more appropriate and efficient than state or local law, at least in so far as major aspects of health care delivery are concerned. That is because state laws vary considerably; that makes it impossible to establish a consistent or uniform standard of health care delivery across state lines. Certainly, there are aspects of health care that are appropriate to regulate at the state or even the local level, but there are others that would be much better to regulate on a national or federal level.
One of the best examples of an aspect of health care delivery that should be regulated federally are elements…… [Read More]
Health Care Professions: Issues and Questions
I believe that health care is indeed a right for all people. Just as personal and public safety is a right that we all believe in, ascribe to, and pay to uphold, so we should also protect the right to be healthy. It is the nation's job to help create an existence for its citizens that is free from disease and other forms of harm. The government does this in other concrete ways for its people, such as by providing definitive means of protection through a police force and through legislation to protect public and personal safety. Thus the health and wellness safety of its people needs to be treated as equally important. Those who oppose a pervasive and comprehensive healthcare system for all (and with it, the taxes that come to all in order to afford such a system) often argue that sick…… [Read More]
"Studies of the relationship between managed care penetration in the health care market and expenditures for Medicare fee-for-service enrollees have demonstrated the existence of these types of spill over effects" (Bundorf et al., 2004).
Managed care organizations generate these types of spillover effects by increasing competition in the health care market, altering the arrangement of the health care delivery system, and altering physician practice patterns. Studies have found that higher levels of managed care infiltration are linked with lower rates of hospital cost inflation and lower physician fees are consistent with competitive effects. "Other studies demonstrate the impact of managed care on delivery system structure including hospital capacity, hospital admission patterns, the size and composition of the physician workforce and the adoption and use of medical equipment and technologies. More recent evidence has linked market-level managed care activity to the process, but not the outcomes of care" (Bundorf et al.,…… [Read More]
Meanwhile, without any competition, such as n the form of a public healthcare insurance system, the private healthcare insurance industry also continually increases premium fees virtually at will (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). Furthermore, by refusing policies to high-risk patients, private health insurers essentially "cherry pick" the lowest risk patients while leaving the most expensive medical services to be furnished at the public's expense by public funds available to provide healthcare for low-income individuals (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). That is why, at the very least. The future of American healthcare insurance must include a public option (Kennedy, 2006).
The Issue of Government Healthcare Insurance Lobbying
The principal way that the private healthcare insurance industry maintains its control over American healthcare is through political lobbying of government representatives (Kennedy, 2006). In fact, there are approximately six healthcare industry lobbyists in Washington for every publicly elected representative. Throughout the 2009 negotiations in Washington…… [Read More]
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study still remains as one of the most outrageous examples of disregard of basic ethical principles of conduct not to mention violation of standards for ethical research. The suspicion and fear produced by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study are still evident today. Community workers often report mistrust of public health institutions within the African-American community. ecently Alpha Thomas of the Dallas Urban League testified before the National Commission on AIDS saying that many African-American people do not trust hospitals or any of the other community health care service providers because of that Tuskegee Experiment (esearch Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 2010).
In 1990, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which is one of the country's major civil rights organizations, conducted a survey among 1056 African-American Church members in five cities. They found that 34% of the respondents believed that AIDS was an artificial virus, 35% believed that AIDS…… [Read More]
Health Care -- Philosophy of Graduate Nursing Education
In many senses, the nurse practitioner (NP) takes the profession of nursing to the next level. While the treatment of illness important, the NP also has broader focus of total well-being, including wellness, rights, education and preventative medicine for the patient, his/her family, and local, state, national and global communities. Consequently, in addition to treating the physical ailments of a patient, the modern NP must be clinically and intellectually excellent, an eternal student and teacher who fulfill numerous roles in nearly every health care situation.
A crucial aspect of nursing is the caregiver's relationship with the patient. Patient education is an important aspect of nursing and when carried over to the NP role, patient education greatly improves treatment because the patient has a greater understanding of the reasons for treatment and is likelier to effectively participate in treatment. A NP is a…… [Read More]
The respondents also believed that premiums should be adjusted based on an organizations willingness to introduce and enforce health and safety standards.
5. Safety representatives-these representatives serve the purpose of serving notices or organizations when breaches in safety and health standards take place.
6. Occupational Health and Rehabilitation -- a significant percentage or respondents believe that there needs to be greater access to occupational health services for employees. The respondents also believed that there should be a "new focus on the provision of rehabilitation services for injured and sick workers."
7. Financial Incentives-finally the respondents believed that employees needed financial incentives to encourage cooperation as it pertains to health and safety standards.
The HSE used all of the information gathered to create new strategies for dealing with Health and Safety issues in the workplace. One of the primary trends that developed was that of enforcement. In an effort to have…… [Read More]
For example, prior to 2007, there were approximately 1 million confirmed cases of hospital-acquired ("nosocomial") infections in American hospitals and other healthcare institutions (clinics, nursing homes, etc.), resulting in the premature and preventable deaths of nearly 100,000 patients who would otherwise have survived the illnesses or surgeries for which they originally received treatment in those institutions (eid, 2009).
Approaches to educing Healthcare Costs
Because the problem of treating those nosocomial infections alone was the source of an estimated $1 - $2 billion, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) terminated reimbursement for several kinds of urinary tract infections in healthcare institutions in 2007, to force healthcare providers to take the necessary steps to prevent those infections (eid, 2007). Another important component to fighting healthcare costs are the oversight mechanisms, such as the Health and Human Services Inspector General's Audit Services and Medicare's recently enacted ecovery Audit Contractor (AC) program. In…… [Read More]
Healthcare Administration: Healthcare Law, Cultural Diversity, And Principles of Accounting
Cities, Suburbs, And ural Areas
ural areas are geographic areas located away from suburbs and cities, often characterized by a small population and abundant natural resources. Currently, in the U.S., rural residents make up 16% of the entire population - as compared to 17% in 1910. This implies that poor job opportunities and lack of skills that are evident in these areas have pushed people into towns and cities. Suburban areas are residential areas often situated on the outskirts of major cities. Although they have more residents, they have fewer resources as compared to rural areas. The current population in the suburbs has increased to 51%, something that has never been witnessed before. Cities in the U.S. are the largest areas of settlement and are often congested due to high population. The National Center for Education statistics reported that 33%…… [Read More]
Now is the time for each organization to examine and strengthen its conflict of interest policies." (illars)
The conflicts she described were: accepting benefits, using confidential information, insider trading, and targeted marketing. Her intention of course was not to provide a complete list of possible conflicts of interest; it was more to give a general overview of new scenarios for nursing management to consider.
After listing some conflicts of interest, she then went on to provide some strategies to combat these specific examples. "The following 2 strategies have been identified as most effective in preventing conflicts of interest. Nurse Executives throughout the healthcare industry now hold positions to either implement various prevention strategies or persuade other healthcare administrators to adopt conflict of interest policies." (illars)
Results believe the article certainly helped me by contributing a new understanding of the future of nursing management in the international healthcare industry. orld economics…… [Read More]
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…… [Read More]
Global Human Resources Management
The objective of this work is to describe International Human Resources Management and concerns about effective human resources management in the global environment. The factors that most strongly influence HRM in international markets will be discussed as well as will differences among countries that affect HR planning at organizations with international operations. As well, this work will describe how differences among countries affect HR planning at organizations with international operations. This work will further describe how companies select and train human resources in a global labor market. Discuss challenges related to compensating employees from other countries. Explain how employers prepare managers for international assignments and for their return home.
Effective HR Management in the Global Environment
Development of the global workforce is critically important and it is necessary to acknowledge that these employees work in an environment that is multi-cultural or global and general awareness programs…… [Read More]
Major Issues of the 21st Century: Who is Responsible for Addressing Global Warming?
Global warming is one of the most pressing issues in the 21st century. In the last few decades, the world has experienced higher temperatures, increased melting of ice caps, rising sea levels, more regular and more adverse weather events (such as storms, floods, heat waves, and drought), and changing rainfall patterns. We have also observed increased rain and ocean acidification, desert expansion, as well as greater species endangerment. These occurrences have largely been linked to human activity, particularly air pollution, burning of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, industrialization, and deforestation. The issue is so pressing that it threatens the ability of future generations to sustain their lives, which is ethically unfair. Indeed, global warming threatens food security, human health, human and non-human survival, as well as socioeconomic stability in the future (Cummins, 2014; Justin, 2015).…… [Read More]
Health Care -- Lean Philosophy on Cost Reduction and Quality Improvement
Lean Philosophy is initially traced back to Henry Ford's innovative assembly line, revolutionizing manufacturing while failing to provide true variety. Building on Ford's concepts Toyota management established a Lean Philosophy in the 1930's and 1940's that focused on production flow and waste elimination, resulting in rapid, low cost and high quality processes, along with simpler and more accurate management. These concepts were further elucidated by authors including James omack, who established the Lean Enterprise Institute in 1997.
The essential elements of Lean Philosophy are 5 principles including: defining the value sought by the customer; specifying the value stream of the product satisfying that value while challenging wasted steps; making a continuous flow of product through refined steps; creating "pull" (essentially meaning "customer demand/expectation") from step-to-step for continuous flow wherever possible; continually improve and refine the process to cut the…… [Read More]
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…… [Read More]
Starbucks has committed to provide healthcare coverage to employees who work at least 20 hours a week. This year, the cost will add up to over 200 million dollars for coverage of its over 80,000 employees. Schultz's perspective, differing from G is that the company's healthcare accounts for its very low employee turnover and high productivity. However, their generosity is even now bringing down their bottom line, Starbucks is attracting older workers who no doubt join the company for its healthcare benefits. As a result, Shultz notes that Starbuck's future healthcare costs will dramatically increase. Starbucks has seen that their insurance costs have had double digit increases in each of the past four years, and that this growth is completely "non-sustainable." Part of the reason that Starbucks is able to maintain its current healthcare policy is the relative newness of the company and its current lack of retirement healthcare costs.…… [Read More]
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…… [Read More]