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Ah Toy is representative for the way in which immigrants and in her own case the Chinese were treated by the state authorities and the judicial system in particular. It was common practice the discriminatory attitude of the judicial system towards the Chinese immigrants given the fact that, on the one hand the legislature considered the immigrant population to be a threat to the well being of the Americans, and on the other hand, the Chinese' apparent lack of interest for the American judicial system would make them irrelevant in the face of the law. This is why the 19th century saw a number of legislative initiatives which legalized a discriminatory treatment of the Chinese immigrants and of miners in particular. Therefore, "in 1852, scarcely three years after the first Chinese arrived in California, the state legislature passed a discriminatory tax measure, aimed primarily at Chinese gold miners (an 1854…
Conversation with Jo Ann Levy." The Gold Rush. http://www.goldrush.com/~joann/conversa.htm (accessed 18 February 2007)
Beckett, Elizabeth, and Sarah Teel. Women in Alaska's history- Gold Rush. http://library.thinkquest.org/11313/Gold_Rush/index.html (accessed 18 February 2007)
Broukal, Milada and Michael V. Uschan. The California Gold Rush. New York, Gareth Stevens, Inc., 2003.
Butler, Anne. Daughters of Joy, sisters of misery: prostitutes in the American West, 1865-90. Illinois, University of Illinois Press, 1997.
S. State Department that a new Sino-American treaty be drafted. In January 1887, negotiations began as American politicians were readying for the 1888 presidential election campaign. The U.S. originally wanted Chinese immigration suspended for 30 years, as well as a prohibition of all certified Chinese residents returning to America after visiting China. The Chinese agreed to suspend new emigration for 20 years and to forbid the return of Chinese-American laborers who visited China, unless they held property or financial claims or had family in the U.S. The Chinese government asked the U.S. government to provide better protection of resident Chinese and indemnities in cases of future outbreaks of anti-Chinese violence. Although negotiations were difficult, they finally had an agreement in March of 1888. The Bayard-Zhang Treaty prohibited Chinese immigration or the return of Chinese laborers to the U.S. For 20 years, unless the laborers had assets worth at least $1,000…
Borthwick, J.D., 1857 Three Years in California. London, Edward Blackwood and Sons.
Espiritu, Y.L. 1997. Asian-American Women and Men: Labor, Laws and Love. Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD
Fessler, L.W. 1983, Chinese in America: Stereotyped Past, Changing Present, Vantage Press, New York, New York.
McClain, C. 1994, in Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle Against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America California Press, Berkeley, CA.
California." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Color in the River. orld and I; 3/1/1999
Edwards, Bob. MORNING EDITION from NPR News Host. 09-08-2000.
Gold Rush." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004..
Kyle, Douglas E. "Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California." California History Spring 2004: 72+.
Landazuri, Roberto. "Days of Gold! Songs of the California Gold Rush." California History inter 2000: 228..
Lavender, David. California: Land of New Beginnings. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.
Roberts, Brian. American Alchemy: The California Gold Rush and Middle-Class Culture. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. Questia. 12 Dec. 2006 http://www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=author:%5bSTARR%3bKEVIN%5dStarr, K. America's Golden Dream - Historian H.. Brands' vigorous narrative history of the gold rush as a defining American event is an interpretive tour de force. http://www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=Californian+gold+rush%20publication:%5b%22orld%20and%20I%22%5dorld and I. www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=Californian+gold+rush%20pubdate:%5b20021229;20030104%5dJanuary 1, 2003
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=101227181' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Natalie Merchant’s song “Gold Rush Brides” offers an impression of history, and also reflects on the one-sided nature of historiography. The song simultaneously evokes the myth and mystique of the wild west, of the days of frontier settlement when men and women ventured west seeking their fortunes and in the process encountered the native people who they would kill. Merchant draws interesting parallels between the frontier mentality and patriarchy, too, showing that the stories of women have vanished (“who were the homestead wives? Who were the gold rush brides?”) just as Native American stories and whole cultures were being obliterated, driven by nothing but a “lust for gold.” In fact, Merchant makes the connection between women and Native Americans even more direct in the line, “Dakota on the wall is a white-robed woman.” As Foner discusses the start of the gold rush in the Dakotas, Merchant mentions this lesser-known start…
Part of the impact of this book is the lush illustrations, maps, and photos that illustrate the text. They make it more interesting, help set the different periods in time in the reader's mind, and they help make the entire book more entertaining and relevant to the reader. The rush comes alive because of all the illustrations, documents, and other elements of the book's design, and it makes the book more complete and fulfilling, somehow. The author often quotes from primary documents like letters, journals, newspapers, and diaries, and that helps make the book more real to the reader, too. It is possible to actually feel what the pioneers were feeling as they crossed the desert on the last leg of their journey to California, and it helps make the hardships and their determination more real, as well.
The book also ties in other areas where California influenced history and…
Holliday, J.S. Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1999.
Brands, H.W. The Age of Gold. New York: Doubleday, 2002.
Get rich quick. This philosophy or fantasy can be seen everywhere today. It is seen in the eyes of the person who turns the slot machine in Atlantic City. It is seen in the sight of people lining up in front of a 7-11 several states away because the 'Power ball' jackpot has hit record highs. It can even be seen in the example of those ordinary investors who lost their shirts in the 1990's heady stock boom and bust. And it was seen, and originates in the Gold Rush of the 19th century, says author and historian H.W. Brands in his book The Age of Gold.
America has always been a place of freedom, a lack of pretension, and thus of easier enrichment, in the eyes of many. But the traditional American dream and Puritanical work ethic held that…
Inductive reasoning leads Legrand to discover an encrypted message that he sets out to painstakingly decipher. Poe's detailed analysis of the cryptogram is quintessentially romantic, encouraging rational inquiry into seemingly supernatural phenomenon. A respect for both the natural and supernatural worlds is implied by the story. Interestingly, nothing supernatural does take place in "The Gold-ug." Legrand admits to the striking coincidences that led him to the treasure, but coincidences themselves are not supernatural events. Legrand states, "it was not done by human agency. And nevertheless it was done."
The titular bug is a scarabaeus, which is a direct allusion to ancient Egypt. Like pirates, the imagery and lore of ancient Egypt has romantic, compelling connotations for readers. The reference to the scarab is coupled with the eerie image of the skull. When Jupiter finally climbs out on the "dead" limb the situation takes on an ominous tone before resolving itself…
Budding interest in the science of mind is also a key theme in Edgar Allen Poe's work. In "The Gold-Bug," Legrand is suspected to be mentally ill. In fact, the narrator is certain that his friend is going mad and urges him repeatedly to seek help. The narrator comments on Legrand's carrying the bug like a conjurer, "When I observed this last, plain evidence of my friend's aberration of mind, I could scarcely refrain from tears." Legrand later admits to teasing the narrator and deliberately acting insane just to humor him. However, Legrand also does exhibit genuine signs of mild bipolar disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Towards the beginning of the story, the narrator states, "I thought it prudent not to exacerbate the growing moodiness of his temper by any comment...I dreaded lest the continued pressure of misfortune had, at length, fairly unsettled the reason of my friend." Legrand even begins to take on the appearance of someone who is mentally ill: "His countenance was pale even to ghastliness, and his deep-set eyes glared with unnatural luster." Although it would be a full fifty years before Freud, Poe does suggest awareness of mental instability as a natural rather than supernatural occurrence.
Edgar Allen Poe's 1843 short story "The Gold-Bug" addresses attitudes towards race in antebellum America. The story is rooted in the Romantic literary tradition, while remaining grounded in historical fact as well. Even the Captain Kidd legend introduces readers to the real role of pirates during the colonial era. Poe mentions the combination of French, Spanish, and English loot. Legrand's Huguenot background also begs inquiry into the minor threads of European colonization.
The intended audience for Poe's story included any American curious about history, science, and the supernatural. The story is set in the same time it was written, which encourages the reader to identify fully with the narrator. Poe deliberately blanks out the last two digits of the dates in the story, too, which allowed his nineteenth century audience to project whatever date they wanted onto the story. Readers during the middle of the nineteenth century would have been curious about the natural sciences as well as the discovery of gold. After all, the California gold rush and the Wild West loomed in American consciousness. The idea that Americans had access to buried treasure and could get rich quick was as real in the 1850s as it is today.
Empire of the South Atlantic
"Slave owners in Brazil were not unanimous about whether Sudanese slaves from Guinea or the Bantu from Angola were the best; and fashions in slaves, as in other commodities, were not always the same. Broadly speaking, the slaves of Sudanese origin tended to be more intelligent, more robust, and more hard working (when they did work), but they were more rebellious and less disposed to become reconciled to their menial lot. The Bantu on the other hand, were more cheerful, adaptable, and loquacious, but were not so strong or so resilient to disease" (Charles B., 4).
The excerpt above gives central aspects that informed the choice of slaves and hence the geographical areas of concertation by the slave traders. Basically the slaves were seen as commodities whose value was based on the needs of the slave owner, the physical capabilities and the inner or innate…
With all the resources of normal use for Indians in missionary control, Indians began to attack the missions and military forces to steal animal and take revenge of sexual assaults on Indian women. Continuous demand of laborers for the missions impacted the Indian tribes greatly and finally in 1836, the Mexican Republic who officially took over from Spain in 1823, took away the missions powers of obtaining forced labor from Indian and the missions collapsed.
One third of the California Indian population, over 100,000 Indians perished to deaths attributable to missions of California. The 1824 constitution of Mexican Republic promised Indians voting rights as citizens but they continued to be treated as slaves.
The discovery of Gold in California in 1848 subjected the Indians to the most horrible period of their history. California was seized by U.S. military from Mexico in 1846 and sufferings of the Indians multiplied by the…
California Indians Past and Present, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.allianceofcatribes.org/californiaindians.htm
Census 2000, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.nahc.ca.gov/California 'sNativeAmerican, Eskimo and Alute populations.htm
Five Views: An Ethnic Site Survey for California, Nov. 2004, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views1.htm
Heizer, R.F. The Destruction of California Indians: A Collection of Documents from the Period 1847 to 1865 in Which Are Described Some of the Things That Happened to Some of the Indians of California, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 1993.
At first, Young was ambivalent towards the Methodist -- or any other -- Church. He "held back from joining the Methodists" like his brothers had because of an "independent, deliberate personality" that rejected belief under pressure (8). Methodist revival meetings also turned Young off because of their "loud, crowded, and hyperactive" qualities," (8). Yet while living in the Auburn-Port Byron area, during an economic depression, he was "swept up by religious enthusiasm" and joined the Methodist Church in 1824 (13). The conversion turned out to be integral to Young's "program of self-improvement," (14). The Church prompted Young to give up swearing, one of his self-admitted habits. He experimented with vegetarianism, too, in an attempt to live an overall cleaner and healthier lifestyle. The religion also helped him to overcome his shyness and fear of public speaking (14). In addition to helping him on his personal path, the Methodist…
5. The Gold Rush altered the course of westward expansion, driving increasing numbers of non-Mormons to western lands and especially to California. The Gold Rush was therefore instrumental in preventing Young from entertaining the idea of moving the Mormon camp to California. Young feared a "renewed Mormon/non-Mormon conflict," (94). Mormon Samuel Brannan struck gold and was later excommunicated because he refused to tithe on his huge fortune (94-95). A large number of fortune-seeking trailblazers had made the path to the Great Salt Lake basin easier, which solidified the decision to settle in what is now Salt Lake City (95). Therefore, the Gold Rush had a huge impact on the geography of Mormon settlement. The Gold Rush also directly benefitted the Mormons economically, as gold seekers would stop in Salt Lake City en route to California.
6. By the 1850s, Salt Lake City's Mormon businesses were prospering due to trade with gold seekers. Young encouraged economic self-sufficiency and diversification from what could have easily been an agriculture-dependent economy. Young and the Mormons had brought "to the Great Basin 75 to 100 black slaves," a fact that Young "tried to conceal from federal officials" due to the brewing controversy over slavery in the new territories (104). In spite of this, Young was ambivalent about the Civil War because it represented for him the spiritual end times. When it became apparent that the North was headed for victory, Young took an opportunistic stance of supporting the Union but for strategic reasons only. Young remained staunchly pro-slavery. In 1850 also, Young encouraged the development of an "Iron Mission" that would take advantage of the wealth of raw materials like iron in the region (108). By the end of the 1850s, Young was involved in three "broad categories" of business: first, deals involving partnership with the Mormon Church; second, those involving partnerships with other businessmen; and third, those in which Young was the sole investor (149).
7. Although the Transcontinental Railroad did not pass directly through Salt Lake City, it benefitted the Mormon economy. At the same time, Young feared the large numbers of non-Mormons it would bring to the territory (179). Young agreed with the prevailing patriarchal view that men have dominion over women; that women were inherently inferior to men; and were also less intelligent (192). Moreover, women represented sin, temptation, and spiritual corruption. The United Order was "a system of economic cooperation that called upon selected Mormon communities to pool their equipment, their property, and their energy and work together," (199). It was therefore a system of socialist cooperatives. Variations depended on different levels of economic commitment to the cooperative.
In addition, she discusses some of the positive, socially constructive things that prostitutes brought to their locales, particularly in the developing West. In much of Colorado, the atmosphere was absolutely dominated by males, so that prostitutes might be the only female companionship a man could find.
MacKell ends her official coverage of prostitutes in 1930, although, throughout the book one finds references to brothels that continued to exist into the 1930s and 1940s. However, as prostitution became illegal throughout much of the state, the nature of prostitution changed. Women could no longer openly ply their trade in brothels. In 1909, oulder's red-light district closed down for good, and after 1910, one saw the same thing occur in a number of Colorado towns (MacKell, 2004, p.233). In 1930, a prostitute named Anna Ryan killed a former police officer Maurice Lyons, which was another death knell for the trade. Therefore, while brothels…
MacKell, Jan. Brothels, Bordellos, & Bad Girls: Prostitution in Colorado 1860-1930.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004.
colorful period in America's remarkable early history is the gold rush era. In the late 1800's the discovery of gold triggered a flood of immigrants into the country, all intent on making their fortune. These miners shaped the early history of America, and created a great deal of the legend that surrounds the era of the "ild est." hile some of the legends of lawlessness and debauchery are clearly exaggerated, life in the mining towns of the gold rush era was clearly rough and ready.
This paper will examine life in the mining camps of the gold rush era. This will include a look at the people who made up the camps, the general atmosphere, as well as prostitution, gambling, general lawlessness, and the role of religion within the mining camps. The demise of the mining camps will be examined in the context of the development of the railroad and…
Arizona's Ghost Towns. 02 December 2003. http://www.carizona.com/ghosttowns.html
Baumgart, Don. Some Mining Camps Faded Others Grew To Be Cities. Nevada County Gold Online Magazine. 02 December 2003. http://www.ncgold.com/History/BecomingCA_Archive22.html
CmdrMark. Travels in the American Southwest. 02 December 2003. http://www.cmdrmark.com/ghosttowns.html
Koeppel, Elliot H. The California Gold Country: Highway 49 Revisited. Malakoff & Co.
The main causes of the war relied in the issue of slavery as well as the right of the states to be part of a federal entity with equal rights and voices. The implications for this war were enormous as it provided a different future for the colonies and for the U.S. As a whole.
The main cause of the war was, as stated, the issue of slavery. In this sense, the Mexican war played an important role. It pointed out the importance of the slavery issue even in an apparently international situation. The Wilmot Proviso is essential in this way. Thus, it represented an additional act to a bill that enabled the U.S. To satisfy the financial needs of Mexico. The act in itself however was not passed because it pointed out the fact that none of the territories acquired during the Mexican war should be opened to slavery;…
Africans in America. The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act. 2007.Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html
Caughey, John Walton. The California gold rush. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1975.
Civil Rights Act of 1866. Historycentral.com. 2000. Available at http://www.historycentral.com/documents/civilrightsact.html
Cornell University Law School. "13th Amendment." United States Constitution. 2010. Available at http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiii
It also sought to stop the Atlantic slave trade between those three continents. It has also been referred to as the anti-slavery movement. As a result of the abolitionist movement, slavery was abolished in Europe and America by the last half of the 19th century. Africa finally stopped the practice of slavery by the first quarter of the 20th century.
Women, both white and black, made enormous contributions to the abolitionist movement.
Ann Yearsley, Hannah More, Susan . Anthony, Julia Ward Howe, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances Ellen Watkins, and many others worked against the enslavement of other human beings. While the white women used their status, money and freedom to work against slavery and help the black women to "find their voices," the black women could tell eye-opening stories of their own experiences to elicit sympathy and support.
In the early years of the…
Blashfield, Jean. "A Day on the Trail." Blashfield, Jean. Oregon Tail. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books, 2000. 11.
Levy, JoAnn. "The Crucible Women on Overland Journey." 1998. Oakland Museum of California. 29 March 2009 .
Perkins, Kathryn. "Real women' who defied stereotype." Sacramento Bee 18 January 1998: Part Three.
Sometimes in our internet age it seems that we don't ever need to leave our own homes to experience the world. Google can let us drive in a virtual way down nearly any street in the world. We can chat at any hour of the day with residents from any continent about any subject. We can even craft online selves that allow us to become more interesting, more educated, and more urbane than are our actual personas.
So why -- given the complexities, unavoidable drudgeries and occasional miseries and sometimes even outright dangers of travel -- should we ever venture any significant distance from our homes? Because there is still -- and surely there will never be -- anything comparable to travel to teach us about the varieties of the world. Without meaning to disparage the wonders of either online information acquisition or reading about other places and…
The Internet began to rise in the early part of the decade, but the major landmark was the launch of the Netscape Navigator, the pioneering Internet browser. This, combined with significant infrastructure investments on the part of telecommunications companies, helped to drive the rapid growth of the Internet through the 1990s. Already in the mid1990s, companies in the Valley and beyond were beginning to exploit the commercial value of the Internet. By 1995, future giants such as eBay and Amazon had been established.
The early successes of these and other pioneering Internet firms hinted at the commercial viability of the Internet. Investors noted that the opportunity to buy a future global giant at IPO pricing, or near to it, was a rare opportunity. This fueled demand for stock in Internet companies. Although the business models for most Internet companies were unproven, investors were not willing to wait, fearing that it…
While unable to purchase land in their original locations, Europeans and Americans alike moved to the West as this region presented them with the ability to capitalize more on their money. Additionally, the decreased cost of transportation would have also contributed to the movement of the population. Last, it is also argued that the migration was generated by technological developments. All these in essence worked together to create a more appealing image of the West and it came to a situation in which the actual exodus led other people to also move to the West.
"Population growth and technological innovation worked in concert as the main driving factors of Western Expansion. Specifically, the decrease in transportation costs induced Western migration and the redistribution of the American population -- without it only 30% of the population would have been in the West in 1900, compared to an actual historical figure of…
2008, What caused westward expansion in the United States? Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080228150402.htm last accessed on December 12, 2011
California Gold Rush, Learn California, http://www.learncalifornia.org/doc.asp?id=118 last accessed on December 12, 2011
Westward expansion 1800-1860: business and economy, Bookrags.com, http://www.bookrags.com/history/westward-expansion-business-and-economy / last accessed on Westward expansion, Son of the South, http://www.sonofthesouth.net/texas/westward-expansion.htm last accessed on December 12, 2011
Western Experience: Native American Displaced to Oklahoma
The rumors were true, and I feel like a fool that I had not believed them when I first heard them. They had been talking for years about the possibility that the government would come and take our land, but, like many others, I felt that would not occur if we cultivated the land the same way as the white men. The main objection to our people being in the East had been that were barbaric and uncivilized, so that living like white people would spare us from being treated as subhuman. My family and I settled down to farm our land and we were very successful at it, which made us think that there would be no further efforts to rob us from our land. We had heard so many arguments that the government would want to take land from us because…
Edmunds, R.D. (2006, March 14). "Native American displacement amid U.S. expansion."
Prelude to War: Manifest Destiny. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from PBS Website
Sherfly, M. (2003). "Indian removal." Dictionary of American History. Retrieved March 15,
Frederick Jackson Turner is perhaps most well-known for his famous essay, "The Significance of the Frontier on American History." In this essay, Turner defines and supports his thesis that the history of the American West is the history of America. This theory directly correlates to the concept of Manifest Destiny put forth by Monroe in which the push westward and the subsequent development, it was believed, was man's God-given right.
One of the key components to Turner's work is the theory that this development does not take place along a single line, but rather, takes place in a series of "rebirths." Turner says
Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial…
Fehrenbacher, Don F. And Norman E. Tutorow. California: An Illustrated History. London: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.
Lavender, David. California: A Bicentennial History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976.
Quiett, Glenn Chesney. "The Fight for a Free Port" from Los Angeles: Biography of a City by John and LaRee Caughey. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" from The Frontier in American History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.
Kent on the other hand cannot prevent himself from gazing again and again at the man's scar and making all sorts of stupid remarks. He also fails to stop the sailor from controlling him and he is absorbed by -- enslaved to -- his superstitions:
This was the real Man with the Gash, the man who had so often robbed him in the spirit. This, then, was the embodied entity of the being whose astral form had been projected into his dreams, the man who had so frequently harbored designs against his hoard; hence -- there could be no other conclusion -- this Man with the Gash had now come in the flesh to dispossess him. And that gash! He could no more keep his eyes from it than stop the beating of his heart. Try as he would, they wandered back to that one point as inevitably as the…
Such ads have become increasingly common within the last fifty or so years, as other elements of cultural life tell Americans that the western frontier is closed. Therefore, commercialism is playing off our yearning for a new frontier, one which we can still romanticize.
The next step of the western frontier is through the World Wide Web. As print advertising has moved into massive online advertising, the western romanticized image has also gone digital. The online world itself represents a new frontier to be conquered, both by capitalism and the individual consumer; "Like the western frontier, the e-frontier is vitally significant to American economic and strategies of interests that were manifested first in continental (and now wired) expansion;" (McLure 458). It embodies the feeling of discovering a whole new world, a whole new playing ground which is then to be settled and explored. According to research, "the cyber frontier also…
McLure, Helen. "The Wild, Wild Web: The Mythic American West and the Electronic Frontier." The Western History Quarterly. 2000. 31(4):457-476.
Limerick, Patricia Nelson. "What on Earth is the New Western History?" Trails: Toward a New Western History. 1991.
West, Elliot. "Selling the Myth: Western Images in Advertising." Montana: The Magazine of Western History. 1996. 46(2):36-49.
The history of any particular region or state is commonly made up or three different kinds of information. True stories of people who have researched the area of interest compile the first category. Sometimes truth is stranger than fiction, but when researching the settlement of the old west, the most common themes are hard work, hard ships, hard winters hard heads, and hardy people. The true stories of those who settled the state of Nevada are filled with stories of these types of experiences.
The second type of information compiled when researching history are those storied which are loosely based on truth, but have been significantly embellished over the years. hen settlers headed west during the gold rush, tales of huge riches awaited them which could be produced by little work.
Many of the 49'ers died enroute to their riches, and many more settled in the towns working…
Earl, Phillip. This was Nevada. Reno, Nevada: Reno Historical Society. 1986
Lexalt, Robert. Nevada: a Bicentennial History. New York: WW Norton and Company. 1921
Bowers, Michael. The Sagebrush State. Reno: University of Las Vegas Press. 2002.
Hulse, James. The Silver State. Reno: University of Las Vegas Press. 1991.
Chinese immigrants living in the an Joaquin Valley, California. It has 4 sources.
The an Joaquin Valley, California acquired its name in an interesting manner. panish history has documented this incident and attributed its name to a panish Army Lieutenant Gabriel Moraga who accidentally ventured to this unknown land while looking for new land for potential panish missions. During this journey, he came across a small creek, which he named 'aint Joachim', referring to aint Joachim, who was the father of Mary, the Virgin mother of Jesus Christ. In panish, aint Joachim became 'an Joaquin' and hence, the river near the creek came to be known as the 'an Joaquin River'. oon enough, the entire central valley came to be known as the 'an Joaquin Valley'. (How the Valle Got Its Name, 2000)
The Chinese immigrants who chose the United tates as a place to live did so for more…
History of the Chinese-Americans in California. http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views3a.htm
Angel Island. Angel Island, San Francisco, Chinese Immigration History. http://sandiego-online.com/forums/chinese/htmls/angel.htm
How the Valle Got Its Name. San Joaquin Valley History (2000). http://www.virtuallodi.com/history/ValleyName.asp
Wong, Yung Hiu. Stockton - The Third Port (June 15, 2003). http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~hywong2/trip/03summer/Stockton/stockton.htm
(Famous Cattle Trails)
The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas.
Abilene, History" Retrieved at http://www.kansascattletowns.com/abilene/abilene.html. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Beef Farming" Retrieved at http://www.face-online.org.uk/resources/factsheets/pdf_doc/beef.pdf. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Biodiversity and Conservation: a Hypertext Book by Peter J. Byrant" Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/\?\?Z[??[?K?X????[X??H?[Y\?X?[?L??Y??[?X??\??Y
earn to live while some live to earn. Levi Strauss, the renowned owner and the pioneer of the jeans industry, once dreamed to be a man with a big name as big as his company enjoyed during and after his successful life until yesterday and certainly lived to earn handsome profits. This research paper sheds light on the history of both the founder of Levi's and the company that came to be known as Levi Strauss & Co.
History of Levi Strauss
One of the famous names in the garment industry, Levi Strauss was the first to capitalize the California's gold rush economic detonation and owner of one of the top American companies who is a victim of the recent economic recession. The odyssey of Levi Strauss from a young orphan to the owner of various companies and finally the founder of Levis jeans can be well comprehended and enjoyed…
Levis To Levis Co: 501 Facts. Available at http://www.levis-levis.com/history.html (October 31, 2002)
Strauss Levi (1829-1902). Available at http://www.germanheritage.com/biographies/mtoz/strauss.html (October 31, 2002)
Mattox W. Antique Talk: There's gold in them thar' jeans!. Available at http://www.antiquetalk.com/column197.html (October 31, 2002)
Levi to close 11 U.S. jeans plants," Independent, 02-23-1999, pp 17
battle for Santa Monica Bay
In the history of our nation, few battles have take place on our soil. The oceans which boarder our country also protect it from outsider who would attempt to over through our nation. However, battles are not always military. Currently, numerous cultural battles are taking place in the public arena. Battles over right and wrong, or over what society will allow, and what society considers as disruptive or harmful to our continuance are often more contentious than a military conflict fought on a foreign soil. The case of the Battle for Santa Monica Bay falls into this latter category. The willingness of the state of California to become a center of gambling, with the social maladies which tend to follow the gambling industry was the source of what is referred to as the Battle for Santa Monica Bay.
During the Gold ush, and for the…
Lavender, David. 1987. California: Land of New Beginnings University of Nebraska Press.
Gambling, Bingo, and Prohibition. 2001. North American integration and development Center. UCLA [online] Cited 1 Dec 2003 Available from World Wide Web http://naid.sppsr.ucla.edu/venice/articles/gambling.htm
The Era of the gambling Ship and the Battle of Canta Monica Bay. 2003. Los Angeles Almanac. [online] Cited 1 Dec 2003. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.losangelesalmanac.com/topics/history/hi06ee.htm
The History of Gambling. 2001. The history of Gambling online. [online] Cited 1 Dec 2003. Available from the World Wide Web: http://history-gambling-online-casinos-reviews-blackjack-slots.com/content/history/visionary-backgrounds/stralla-anthony-cornero/
Starting in the 1920's and 1930's, the lake's resorts were host to many Hollywood elite and prominent political figures. Author Peter Goin's book, Lake Tahoe (Arcadia Publishing, 2005) details this part of the Lake's history and talks about the steamers that frequently ran from point to point on the lake, whose whistles added to the trademark ethereal experience of the lake during that time period. Goin's book is heavy with historical details but in terms of academic merit, there is very little except for the few pages devoted to the Washoe Indians and their legacy.
Squaw Valley, a Lake Tahoe ski resort hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics, which helped to solidify Lake Tahoe as an internationally renown travel destination. By the late 1960's, concerns had growth relative to the environmental impact that tourism and visitors were having on the lake. The book entitled, Lake Tahoe: A Fragile Beauty by Thomas…
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…
"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763
Shorter Sales Cycles
As an expert in the field, Remont will also enjoy the benefit of shorter sales cycles. People who come to them will require less research, and will push more people to their product (Charlesworth 2009). They will approach the site with confidence and they will find them buying quicker than ever.
Becoming an expert will also influence others in the trade to seek a business out. They will look to connect with Remont because of their money making potential, and whether they are offering similar or complimentary products, it will enhance business (Reis 2001).
The basics steps of leveraging the Internet must be understood before the technical one, and these following ones will serve as the foundation of the sales approach.
Step 1 -- Be Giving
Having the right attitude on the website is essential for making progress with Internet pages. The company needs to…
Charlesworth, A. 2009, 'Internet Marketing: A Practical Approach', Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Ferrell, O.C. And Michael D. Hartline, 2008, 'Marketing Strategy, 4e', Thomson South-Western, Mason, OH.
Lee, O. 2001,'Internet Marketing Research: Theory and Practice', Idea Group Publishing, Hershey, PA.
Ries, A. And Jack Trout, 2001, 'Positioning: How to Be Seen and Heard in the Overcrowded Marketplace', The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY.
They needed to pass a medical exam, a test on their language skill and many others. Among the people who were turned away without exception were those deemed mentally deficient, admitted or suspected revolutionaries, and those who did not pay for their own passage (Anderson 28-29). In short, many immigrants felt that they were being inspected, manhandled, mistreated, and dealt with in a manner more befitting of animals than human beings.
The quota system that made this sort of treatment possible was eventually overturned in 1965. "Following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the National Origins System, a new wave of immigration began. Since 1970, more than three-quarters of legal immigrants have come from developing nations in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia." (Torr 71). This has often been regarded as the third wave of United States Immigration. This act sought to base whether or not…
Anderson, Dale. Arriving at Ellis Island. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2002.
Andryszewski, Tricia. Immigration: Newcomers and Their Impact on the United States. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1995.
Brimelow, Peter. Alien Nation. New York: Random House, 1991.
Brown, Lester R. And Gary Gardner et al., eds. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
Theory (MPT) and its role in asset allocation and diversification. The paper reviews arguments in favor of and against MPT, in addition to reviewing how MPT affects portfolio management.
MPT describes a theory on how risk-averse investors can build portfolios that optimize or maximize expected return based on a given level of market risk, while emphasizing that risk is an inherent factor of higher reward. MPT posits that it is possible to construct an "efficient frontier" of optimal portfolios that offer the maximum possible expected return for a given level of risk (Modern portfolio theory, 2011).
Modern Portfolio Theory
Typically, an investor looking for the ideal investment, would choose one whose attributes included high returns coupled with low risk. The ideal investment probably does not exist, but the search for it has caused financial managers and investment analysts to spend time to develop methods and strategies, many of which are…
Bernstein, W.J. (1996). The expected return of precious metals equity. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.efficientfrontier.com/ef/197/preci197.htm
McClure, B. (2011). Modern portfolio theory: why it's still hip. Investopedia Web site. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/06/MPT.asp
Modern portfolio theory: Dynamic diversification for today's investor. Vision Financial Markets. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.usafutures.com/modernportfoliotheoryinvesting.pdf
Modern portfolio theory -- MPT. (2011). Investopedia Web site. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/modernportfoliotheory.asp
South Dakota and its elections of 2004.The entire discussion in the paper will be based on the factors, which are involved in the Senate elections of the South Dakota. This topic, South Dakota Senate Race 2004 will be analyzed and previewed by discussing four areas:
Voting history and important political demographics of the state.
Candidate characteristics strengths and weaknesses for each of the Major Candidates.
Emerging issues in the state that will likely determine the outcome of the election
Propose a winning scenario for each of the major candidates.
elcome 2004 Voters!
These are the four major areas, which will be presented in the paper so as to present the whole scenario of elections to the readers. These four parts are the major factors, which are included in the election process of South Dakota. Therefore, a complete discussion and analysis of these factors will provide the readers with all the…
As retrieved from-Additional Voting Information, South Dakota Voting Machines in South Dakota
http://www.congress.org/congressorg/e4/voterinfo/?state=sdOn April 26,2004
As retrieved from South Dakota
Northern and Southern California -- Cultural and Geological Differences
Unintentionally, the recent death of President Reagan combined with the growing media fixation on the celebrity culture of the Hollywood entertainment industry creates a juxtaposition between the two cultures present in California -- that of the conservative and wealthy enclaves of Southern California's Seamy Valley and Orange County, and the liberal and open attitudes typified by the Northern Californian Los Angeles movie moguls that gave Reagan the Democratic Party leanings he ultimately reacted to as a politician. Thus California is a paradox -- a huge state that is extremely wealthy, a magnet for illegal immigration, a cite of cultural ferment for the entire nation and the home base of Proposition 13 and the Reagan conservative social and economic revolution that took control of the nation during the 1980's. "California, in fact," seems "to be evolving culturally into a federation of regional…
"California's Beaches." (2004) California Coastal Resource Guide. Retrieved on June 9, 2004 at http://ceres.ca.gov/ceres/calweb/coastal/beaches.html
Sailer, Steve. (April 18, 2004) "The Limits of Libertarianism: Southern California's Catastrophe." VDARE.Com Website. Retrieved on June 9, 2004 at http://www.vdare.com/sailer/ca_history.htm
Starr, Kevin. (2001) "California: The Dream, the Challenge." California State Informational Website. Retrieved on June 9, 2004 at http://www.ca.gov/state/portal/[email protected]@@@[email protected]@@@& BV_EngineID=ccchadcljheijlicfngcfkmdffidfog.0& sFilePath=%2fportal%2flinks%2fthe_dream.html& sCatTitle=California+-+The+Dream,+The+Challenge
Immigration, Spatial, And Cultural Aspects of the Canadian Pacific Railway
At the turn of the 19th century, Chinese emigration began in Canada. The Chinese saw Canada as a place for new and prosperous opportunities in order to send money and goods back to their relatives in China. Voyagers from Hong Kong to Canada would take three weeks on water. Often they left China after being poverty or destitution.
From the 1880's up till the 1920's the kind of labor the Chinese were involved in was the raw work of a beginning industrial economy. The Chinese workers were either semiskilled or skilled and worked in the British Columbia salmon canneries and sawmills. hile some worked in the factories and sawmills, still others worked farming, clearing land, or becoming shopkeepers, peddlers, or even restaurateurs. The Chinese immigrants who were unskilled, typically found work in the laundry trade.
Before the 1920's however, Chinese…
Cleveland, Jennifer, and Brittany Dewar. Connecting Canada: a History of the Railway through Rogers Pass from 1865 to 1916. British Columbia: University of Victoria, BC, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. .
Downey, Jack C. "The Chinese in Canada - The Good, The Bad and the Ugly by Jack CD Downey AKA The Gallopping Geezer." Canadian Culture- Canada's Number 1 Supportive Networking Directory - Find yourself here Canada. N.p., 2012. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. .
FCCRWC. "The Ties that Bind." MHSO - Multicultural History Society of Ontario. MHSO, 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. .
"History of the Chinese in Canada." Welcome to Mysteries of Canada. Debates of the Senate (Hansard) 1st Session, 36th Parliament, Vol. 137, 2 Feb. 1999. Web. 23 Nov. 2013. .
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
The prosperity of the North American continent arguably depended in large part on the Protestant work ethic found in both the United States and Canada. In general, too, both nations are 'free trade' nations, although there have been some missteps that had a dampening effect. The raising of tariffs in the U.S. In the 1920s and 1930s constitutes one such misstep. Some contend that doing so caused, or at last aggravated, the Great Depression. In turn, coping with the Depression prevented North America's early intervention in Germany, and so was indirectly responsible for World War II (Lind 1994, p. 16+). Those same analysts see a willingness to "police the world and promote global free trade" as essential to the economy of North America, which is, when all the opinions are laid to rest, founded on global trading of its still-abundant natural resources and endowments.
Durning, a.T. (1996,…
Durning, a.T. (1996, November/December). The six floods. World Watch, 9, 28+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Lind, M. (1994, Fall). The Op-Ed history of America. The National Interest, 16+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database,
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…
Economy in the Civil War. (2014). The Civil War. Shmoop.
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History 47(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
movie industry in America has been controlled by some of the monolithic companies which not only provided a place for making the movies, but also made the movies themselves and then distributed it throughout the entire country. These are movie companies and their entire image revolved around the number of participants of their films. People who wanted to see the movies being made had to go to the studios in order to see them. They made movies in a profitable manner for the sake of the studios, but placed the entire industry under their control and dominated over it. The discussion here is about some of those famous studios inclusive of that of names like Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Culver, RKO, Paramount Studios, Warner Bros, 20th Century Fox, Walt Disney Studios, Universal Studios, Raleigh Studio, Hollywood Center Studio, Sunset Gower Studio, Ren-Mar Studios, Charlie Chaplin Studios and now, Manhattan Beach Studio.…
"What better way to annoy the Hollywood liberals than to remind them every single day that
George W. Bush is STILL the President?" Retrieved from https://www.donationreport.com/init/controller/ProcessEntryCmd?key=O8S0T5C8U2 Accessed 15 September, 2005
"What's interesting about the business is that it's no longer the movie business" Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hollywood/picture/corptown.html Accessed 14 September, 2005
Management of Casinos
The history of gambling in the United States consists of three periods, called waves. During these periods, laws and social standards vacillated from prohibition to regulation and vice-versa (Dunstan 1997).
The first wave was during the colonial era from the 1600s to the middle of the 1800s when early colonists had a vastly different attitude towards gambling. These colonists were the Puritans and the English who established their individual communities, where their distinct values were observed and lived. The Puritans, prominently in the Massachusetts ay Colony, prohibited gambling, the possession of gambling items (cards, dice, gaming tables) and even dancing and singing. This rigid behavior, however, relaxed the following year to allow innocent gaming as recreation, but not as a trade or profession. The English, in contrast, not only allowed it but indulged in gambling as a harmless and popular diversion (Dunstan). Gambling was further enhanced by…
Best Gambling Games. Beginning Gambling History. http://www.best-gambling-games.com/gambling_history.html
Dunstan, Roger. History of Gambling in the United States. California Research Bureau: California State Library, Jan 1997. http://www.library.ca.gov/CRB/97/03/chapter2.html
Irwin, Arthur E. Your Casino's Chief Financial Officer, an Important Regulatory Ally. Gaming Regulation News, Winter 1997-98
KPMG. The New Imperative: Customer Centric Management, a real estate report. Ideas and Trends, KPMG Peat Marwick LLP, 1998
There he exhibited 125 of his large Pacific coast views and had more than a thousand images accessible for view through stereoscopes. During these years, he traveled further afield in search of new subjects: he sailed to the barren Farallon Islands, twenty-six miles off the California coast; he photographed the geysers of Sonoma County; he traveled to Mount Shasta in the northern part of the state; and he documented the massive hydraulic gold mining operations in the Sierra Nevada foothills (Watkins' Life and Works, 2010).
Watkins received support in his travels from his friend Collis Huntington, a principal in the Central Pacific ailroad, who offered him a flatcar to carry his van filled with photographic materials. By 1869 the Central Pacific line had pressed through the Sierra Nevada Mountains, allowing Watkins to take photographs of the wilderness landscapes that could now be seen by railroad travelers. Throughout the final years…
Friedel, Megan K. (2010). Carleton Emmons Watkins (1829-1916). Retrieved July 31, 2010,
from The Oregon Encyclopedia Web site:
Hill, Eric. (2004). Carleton E. Watkins. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from Web site:
Some of te true reasons for wic settlers were coming in large numbers was te rumor tat Arizona old great rices in its soil. Te land ad a great number of places were gold or coal could be found and mining proved to be an excellent industry for te land of Arizona. ttp://www6.nau.edu/library/scadb/imagedisplay.cfm?item_num=1865&type=Image
Contrary to te belief tat its natural resources were endless, wit te passing of time, tey started to fade and te land was soon drained out of its precious elements. People began to loose interest in coming to Arizona and resumed to migrating to te more economically advanced areas from te U.S. Only te iger development of te industrial companies enabled tem to keep teir businesses. Te valuable potential of Arizona as dropped since te 1890's till today because of pollution, tree cutting, and excessive industrialization.
Some of the true reasons for which settlers were coming in large numbers was the rumor that Arizona hold great riches in its soil. The land had a great number of places where gold or coal could be found and mining proved to be an excellent industry for the land of Arizona. http://www6.nau.edu/library/scadb/imagedisplay.cfm?item_num=1865&type=Image
Contrary to the belief that its natural resources were endless, with the passing of time, they started to fade and the land was soon drained out of its precious elements. People began to loose interest in coming to Arizona and resumed to migrating to the more economically advanced areas from the U.S. Only the higher development of the industrial companies enabled them to keep their businesses. The valuable potential of Arizona has dropped since the 1890's till today because of pollution, tree cutting, and excessive industrialization.
Chapter 17 entitled "In the Wake of War," chronicles the political aftermath of the American Civil War, the Reconstruction Era, and the settlement of the American West during the latter half of the 19th century. In the words of the chapter, although civil conflict had been stemmed in America, there were just as many new problems for the emerging union as there were new, proffered solutions regarding racial tensions in the wake of reunification. Many of these problems were 'solved' with political half-measures as the triumphs of self-interest of politicians wishing to capitalize upon the South's weakened state became ascendant over the real interests of Blacks in the union. The promises made to African-Americans were eventually subsumed to the perceived needs of a unified nation and an ascendant federal congress.
The ultimate aftermath of the war saw only a technically freed African-American people, but a people whose rights were…
Baker-Barnhart, J. he Fair but Frail: Prostitution in San Francisco 1840-1900 Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1986.
During the time of the prior to the Chinese exclusion, Chinese immigrants were restricted to male immigrants only. In addition, only the men could enter into the coolie contracts, and thereby secure passage into America. As a result, the demand for Chinese women for sexual gratification, and for potential wives grew. his resulted in a thriving sex trade in San Francisco, served by both Chinese and white women who were sold into prostitution.
Campbell, P.C. Chinese Coolie Emigration to Countries within the British Empire. 1923, repr. 1971.
he Coolie emigration from china was similar to the slave trade which emanated from Africa during this same time in history. he Coolie laborers were brought to the U.S., and other British and Portuguese colonies are workers. hey entered into repayment agreements, called coolie…
The Chinese emigration into America, and other westward nations was an atypical change for Chinese citizens. The high degree of family commitment, and social bonding, in addition to a political aversion toward emigration created strong cultural ties for Chinese citizens to stay in china. However, a series of economic and agricultural setbacks, together with the advent of ocean bound merchants created economic reasons for the Chinese to leave their homelands, and venture to other countries.
Chiu, P. Chinese Labor in California, 1850-1880: An Economic Study Madison, 1967.
Chinese laborers in California during the period from 1850 to 1880 faced some of the greatest opportunity, and the greatest discrimination. News of the gold rush reached as far as China by ocean traveling merchants, and a flood of Chinese immigrated to the states for the same reasons that Americans traveled from east to west n to find gold. Also, the availability of work on the national railroad guaranteed peasant Chinese citizens the ability to start a new life. These factors brought Chinese laborers to America. At the same time, a high level of Americanism, and a bit of xenophobia created an environment in which the Chinese were treated as threats rather than co-labors who contributed to American prosperity.
Peer Avg: 12.99
Peer Avg: 12.66
EMC Corp. (MA)
Fixed and Variable Cost Analysis
The following table defines the fixed and variable costs associated with the new venture. At a minimum to create an enterprise-wide content management system that has the ability to manage per-content transactions, it costs approximately $1.5M. SG&A at $200K and Marketing at $120K are all fixed as this is needed to launch the company. Variable costs are all defined on a per customer engagement model.
Next, benchmarks comparing the dominant competitors in the web content management arena who could easily move into the monetization market are analyzed in Table 2.
Financial Analysis of Enterprise Content Management Systems Competitors -- Industry benchmarks
Operating Income - 2008
Net Income - 2008
Gross Margin % - 2008
Inventory Turnover - 2008…
Hall, E.. (2010, March). Lessons for U.S. media from European paid-content plays. Advertising Age, 81(9), 10.
Ives, N.. (2009, August). Before you base your business plan on paid content, read this. Advertising Age, 80(27), 1,20.
Peter Kafka. (2002, April). Partial Pay Dirt. Forbes, 169(10), 090-091.
William H. Manz. (2000). Floating "free" in cyberspace: Law reviews in the Internet era. St. John's Law Review, 74(4), 1069-1086.
Another strategy companies often rely on are franchising their operations to attain economies of scale and global growth at the same time (Altinay, 2007). Franchising however has significant risk as it requires a high degree of branding consistency and brand enforcement over time (Altinay, 2007).
Any expansion strategy has a direct implication on a company's value chain. A merger, acquisition, alliance or joint venture can completely re-define the value chain of an organization (Porter, 1986). The value chain for Marriott's expansion into China is shown in Figure 1, Marriot Value Chain for China Expansion.
Figure 1: Marriott Value Chain for China Expansion
Based on the value chain model from Porter (1986)
The competitive dynamics throughout China are unique as the majority of hotels and revenue are state-controlled. As of 2010, 58% of hotels are state-owned and 37% are private. This makes the ownership of a private hotel in China exceptionally…
Agarwal, J., Malhotra, N., & Bolton, R.. (2010). A Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Approach to Global Market Segmentation: An Application Using Consumers' Perceived Service Quality. Journal of International Marketing, 18(3), 18.
Levent Altinay (2007). The internationalization of hospitality firms: factors influencing a franchise decision-making process. The Journal of Services Marketing, 21(6), 398-409.
Francesca Auch, & Hedley Smyth. (2010). The cultural heterogeny of project firms and project teams. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 3(3), 443-461.
Bodla, M., & Nawaz, M.. (2010). Transformational Leadership Style and its Relationship with Satisfaction. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(1), 370-381.
1). Ironically, these workers who feed others are often hungry themselves, even when they bring home some of the rejected crop they harvest to feed their families. A 2007 study of agricultural workers in the area found that nearly half (45%) met the criteria of food insecurity. 34% of respondents were food insecure without hunger while an additional 11% were food insecure with hunger (irth et al. 2007, p.1). "Nearly half (48%) of eligible respondents reported utilizing the food stamp program, which is comparable to 53% of eligible Fresno County residents. However, food stamp participation varies by season. hereas 55% of eligible respondents utilized the program in the winter, only 37% of eligible respondents did so in the summer. Many respondents interviewed during the summer believed they were not eligible for this program because they were working or earned too much" (irth et al. 2007, p.24). They had little or…
Fresno California. Greenwich Mean Time. February 29, 2009. November 29, 2009.
Drury, Pauline. "Fresno." Ancestry.com. November 29, 2009.
The liabilities are subject to reserve requirements, however. This means that the bank cannot have more financial assets than it has liabilities. So debt utilization is an entirely different animal in the banking industry than it is in conventional industries.
Therefore, typical debt utilization ratios are of little relevance. Interest coverage is tied to liquidity, and is therefore not measured for banks. The debt-to-equity ratio is measured, however. For ells Fargo, this is 3.01. For Bank of America it is 3.97. The industry average is 3.28. The significance of this metric in the banking business is that the higher the ratio, the riskier the business. Another measure is the leverage ratio. This is at ells Fargo 12.0, versus 9.7 at Bank of America and 14.7 overall. Thus, both of these companies are less highly leveraged than the industry as a whole. ells Fargo has a lower debt-to-equity ratio indicating lower…
Company overview and some financials from MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved May 15, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/companyreport?Symbol=WFC
2008 Wells Fargo Annual Report. Retrieved May 15, 2009 from
Despite this apparent contempt, Frank does in fact desperately want to fit in with the happy crowd he suggests he otherwise despises, but April recognizes his hypocrisy as well as her own miserable lot in suburbia and takes her own life as a consequence. After April commits suicide, Frank's frantic reaction is not unlike the running part of the trip taken by Ned Merrill to reach a home that was no longer there, but the suburbia described by Yates is no place for such tragies. In this regard, Yates portrays suburbia as a hiding place from the real world that exists outside, all plastic and tinsel with little real substance:
The evolutionary Hill Estates had not been designed to accommodate a tragedy. Even at night, as if on purpose, the development held no looming shadows and no gaunt silhouettes. It was invincibly cheerful, a toyland of white and pastel…
Spigel, Lynn. 2001. Welcome to the Dreamhouse: Popular Media and Postwar Suburbs (Duke University Press).
Cheever, John and Eleanor Perry. 1968. "The Swimmer." Columbia Tristar Home Video.
Waldie, D.J. 2005. Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir (New York: St. Martin's Press).
Yates, Richard. 1962. Revolutionary Road. Boston: Bantam Books).
Waverley Park was designed for and reflected a demographic shift in Melbourne's population away from the inner suburbs to the south and east. Waverley Park was a symbol of, and a contributor to, the shift of the locus of power within the Victorian, later Australian, Football League from the clubs to the league, a change whose consequences are still being felt in 2000. The stadium reflected an Australian tradition of multi-sports facilities despite its genesis in Australian ules, both in its conception and subsequent development. Waverley Park played a significant role in the development of post-war Australian football, cricket and baseball. In April 2000 it was nominated for the Victorian Heritage egister by the City of Greater Dandenong (Hay et al.).
Waverley reflected also a major geographic shift, taking the game away from the traditional inner urban areas to outlying suburbs where a more affluent society with discretionary income…
And the winners are...: The votes are in and business travellers across the region have had their say on Asia's best hotels. Business Asia, 15(2), 20.
Berry, J. & McGreal, S. (1999). Cities in the Pacific Rim: Planning systems and property markets. London: E & FN Spon.
Cannon, M. (1995). The land boomers: The complete illustrated history. Carlton: Melbourne University Press in Berry & McGreal at p. 225.
Crozier, M. (2003). Political legacies: Australian political studies and the University of Melbourne. Melbourne Journal of Politics, 29, 8.
" (2008) Williams finally state that dynamic computing can enable innovation through enabling it departments to shift "from a 'light on' operation to a proactive, forward-looking approach." (2008)
The work of Edward M. Rizzo and Leslie a. Worsley entitled; "Emerging Technologies and the Internet Enable Today's E-Workforce" states that with the changes occurring in today's workforce "management requires a new way of thinking. The tools driving organizational effectiveness shave changed drastically in recent years in order to meet the needs of an ever-evolving workforce." (2001) a larger percent of the workforce is comprised of professional employees whom are "more mobile, and there is a growing dependence on temporary or contract employees to ensure adequate staffing levels." (Rizzo and Worsley, 2001) Rizzo and Worsley state that to this end more and more employers are depending on emergent technologies in facing staffing challenges including the Internet. While "traditional businesses have…
Alter, Allan E. (2005) Innovation Makes Emerging Technologies Pay Off. CIO Insight. 5 June 2005. Online available at http://www.cioinsight.com/article2/0,1397,1826516,00.asp
Alter, Allan E. (2005) Innovation Makes Emerging Technologies Pay Off. 5 June 2005. CIO Insight. Research online available at
On the other hand, most businessmen found new opportunities in the South and tried to benefit from the political and economic vacuum. This orientation however, created new tensions between the Northerners and the Southerners, the latter feeling an increased aversion especially towards the economic initiatives of the former. Even so, the Northern part of the country was considered to be more prosperous and to represent the future of a modern nation.
The West was the least explored part of the country up to the Civil War. The expansion towards west provided businessmen and farmers alike with an immense availability of land, as that territory had been very little explored, a possibility which catered for the needs of the American nation to populate remote areas in the West. This was encouraged by legislative acts such as the Homestead Act which encouraged people to move west. Meanwhile, the Gold Rush had drawn…
Franklin, John Hope. "A century of Civil War Observance." The Journal of Negro History. Vol 47, no. 2. 1962. Accessed 8 November, 2007, at http://www.jstor.org/view/00222992/dm990511/99p0197y/0?currentResult=00222992%2bdm990511%2b99p0197y%2b0%2cFF0F&searchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3DA%2Bcentury%2Bof%2BCivil%2BWar%2BObservance%26wc%3Don
Hesseltine, William B. The Tragic Conflict: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York: George Braziller, 1962.
Jenkins, Philip. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002
What happened?" What happened was that many hotel restaurants have focused on providing their guests with better food that has them returning in droves: "Many restaurants in hotels are extremely competitive in both the quality of food served and the dining service" (Lee, 1998, p. 38). In response to precedent-setting losses in 1995, the hotel industry has been "looking for innovative food and beverage concepts intended to first and foremost make the hotel a center community," the American Hotel and Motel Association. Hotel service reports, including food service, which must be sufficiently compelling to keep hotel guests in-house while remaining sufficiently innovative to keep them from walking out the door (Lee, 1998). This point is echoed by Meryment (2006) who reports of Australia hoteliers: "There was a time, not long ago, when to eat in a hotel restaurant was akin to suffering a social death. Nobody, but nobody, would choose…
Daylesford. (2004). The Age Co. [Online]. Available: http://www.theage.com.au/news/Victoria/Daylesford/2005/02/17/1108500206394.html .
Johnson, E. (2006, September 15). Restaurants: Not Hollywood - but cuisine shouts class. Daily Post, 20.
Kane, J.J., & Personick, M.E. (1993). Profiles in safety and health: Hotels and motels. Monthly Labor Review, 116(7), 36.
Lee, D.T. (1998). Young, but seasoned hotel chefs. American Visions, 13(6), 38.
S. further supporting exclusion of targeted populations.
During this time frame many states passed laws that prohibited certain nationalities from owning land in that state or any other real property as well.
The 14th amendment which provides equal protection under the law was used to begin chipping away at the exclusionary policies, not only for Asians but for African-Americans.
The relationship between Chinese exclusion and the revolutionary improvements for African-Americans during econstruction often goes ignored, even though pre-Civil War state laws regulating the migration of slaves served as precursors to the Chinese exclusion laws. It was no coincidence that greater legal freedoms for African-Americans were tied to Chinese misfortunes. As one historian observed, "with Negro slavery a dead issue after 1865, greater attention was focused on immigration from China." Political forces quickly reacted to fill the racial void in the political arena (Johnson, 1998 pp 1112-1148)."
As racial exclusionary laws…
Chinese Exclusion Act (Accessed 5-20-07)
Davis, Ronald Ph.D. Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay (Accessed 5-20-07)
Climatology, in "semi-tropical" Southern California, a place that was as dry and hot as Italy although mercifully "without the Italians," tourists even from the United States "discovered that umbrellas were useless against the drenching rains of Southern California but that they made good shade in the summer; that many of the beautifully colored flowers had no scent; that fruit ripened earlier in the northern than in the southern part of the state; that it was hot in the morning and cool at noon...jack rabbits carried water on their backshere, in this paradoxical land, rats lived in the trees and squirrels had their homes in the ground" (96; 105) Economic fortunes seemed as unstable as the weather -- wharfs, railways, hotels sprung up only to be abandoned after the bubble of expectation in the real estate market went bust (116).
However, almost despite itself, the booms and busts increased the population…
McWilliams, Cary. Southern California: An Island on the Land. First published 1946.
Gibbs Smith, 1980.
Rice, Richard B., William a. Bullough, & Richard J. Orsi. The Elusive Eden: A New
History of California. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
However, as Baender demonstrates, it has to be too much of a fluke to have such "sophisticated" (192) humor. That is, telling the story tongue-in-cheek as such as serious anecdote. Twain, himself, reflected on using this device in "How to tell a story," when he said that the "humorous story is told gravely." And that the teller should "conceal the fact that he even dimly suspects...there is something funny." Even before he wrote the story he said about Coon's delivery: "He was a dull person, and ignorant; he had no gift as a story-teller, and no invention...he was entirely serious, for he was dealing with what to him were austere facts...he saw no humor in his tale..." (Baender 194)
Twain gives hints about his feelings of this seriousness by stating in his first draft of the story: "...the spectacle of a man drifting serenely along through such a queer…
Baender, Paul. The "Jumping Frog" as a Comedian's First Virtue. Modern Philology
1963) 60.3: 192-200
Bruggers, James. Biologist hopes to save celebrated frog. Contra Costa Times.
Cuff, Roger Penn. Mark Twain's Use of California Folklore in His Jumping Frog
I thought that the authors made it exceedingly clear in the book that having been deprived of slave labor, the British then turned to an equally disturbing practice of indentured labor. This new abomination of humanity gave an sudden threat to European wages and an enduring threat to colonial white rule (Reynolds). I thought that the book showed the thought-provoking process of how when colonial lawmaking organizations hit back by struggling to prevent immigrants, or by rejecting to publicize the rights of residency on the grounds of race, they stumbled upon objection from the British imposing interests.
I learned that in response to all of that, British colonists hired a strategy fostered in the American South. The authors did an in-depth job depicting this policy by first showing us that the Cape and then Natal accepted the Mississippi Literacy Test as a means of prohibiting, and it was this test…
Reynolds, Marilyn Lake and Henry. Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men's Countries and the Question of Racial Equality. Sydney: University Press, 2008.
ince most of the drafters of Arizona's Constitution were Progressives, the state's constitution included the initia-tive, referendum, and recall. However, since President Taft condemned recall of judges, and, a therefore, vetoed Arizona statehood, Arizona eliminated the recall of judges until after they became a state when they consequently pushed it through.
Part II-Write a reflective analysis on the amendment process for the Arizona Constitution. Is this a "fair" process? Does it give too much power to the people? Do you think the Progressive framers would approve of the way the process has been used thus far? Why? Defend your rationale.
The Arizona Constitution has undergone more amendments than the American Constitution itself has since Arizona became a state in 1912. ince the Progressive framers wanted to give rights to the people and since many of the amendments deal with curtailing the power of the judges and authorities, they would have…
Arizona: state history http://www.shgresources.com/az/history/
Arizona's Direct Democracy
What is the process for amending the Arizona Constitution - JustAnswer http://www.justanswer.com/law/1hc03-process-amending-arizona-constitution.html#ixzz1vruo6Q2z
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode Networks)
This report aims to discuss Asynchronous Transfer Mode, known simply as ATM technology, as it pertains to Networking in a detailed and coherent manner. "It is clear that Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM) technology will play a central role in the evolution of current workgroup, campus and enterprise networks. "The ATM protocol is flexible enough to be used not only for local and wide area network applications, but also possibly for backplane processor-to-processor interconnection. The adoption of ATM for LAN applications has altered the industry landscape and significantly speeded up the expected deployment of ATM services by WAN service providers." Estes, 1993) ATM delivers important advantages over existing LAN and WAN technologies, including the promise of scalable bandwidths at unprecedented price and performance points and Quality of Service guarantees, which facilitate new classes of applications such as multimedia." Alles, 1995) The objective of this work therefore…
The AAL is made up of two sub-layers which complete the four layers of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode. The convergence sub-layer of CS and the segmentation and reassembly sub-layer or SAR. The convergence sub-layer receives data from applications and creates variable length data packets called convergence sub-layer protocol data units or CS-PDU's. The segmentation and reassembly sub-layer gets the CS-PDU's and maps them into the 48 byte payload of an ATM cell. There is also a variable bit rate called the AAL2. It is the connection oriented service that utilizes a synchronous protocol for timing transfers for compressed voice or video formats. A third approach is for handling variable bit rates with the AAL 3/4 process. This is used for connectionless services which never need timing transfers and are considered asynchronous. Examples of these are SMDS and LANs.
ATM switches provide the switching and multiplexing of cells in the system. "The fact that ATM is connection oriented implies the need for ATM specific signaling protocols and addressing structures, as well as protocols to route ATM connection requests across the ATM network. These ATM protocols, in turn, influence the manner in which existing higher layer protocols can operate over ATM networks." (Alles, 1995) Switches are designed to provide virtual paths as well as virtual channel switching
The next cycle came with Polish, ussian, and other Baltic state immigrants being targeted during the 1940's and 50' with events like the ed Scare that swept across America. There is no doubt that all of these periods had very restrictive immigration polices directed at the target groups and there were specific legal policies implemented to curb future immigration. but, perhaps more worrisome was that there were also underlying mass racism movements during all of these scenarios directed against these immigrants whether they were enemies of our nation or not.
Again, our immigration and naturalization policies needed reevaluation after September 11, 2001, which was an obviously horrific day in our history. That event made us view our existing immigration, naturalization and work as well as student visa policies. In other words, we were doing the same things that were done to the Chinese, German, Japanese and Baltic state immigrants -…
Chew, Kenneth SY, and John M. Liu. (2004). "Hidden in Plain Sight: Global Labor Force Exchange in the Chinese-American Population, 1880-1940." Population and Development Review Vol. 30
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on March 9, 2005, from Ed. Monroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
Sociology - Welfare
Another solution that both policymakers and water users are discovering that can help alleviate water shortages is water markets. Water markets balance supply with demand. Although water markets do not create, new supplies, they reallocate water to make more efficient use of existing supplies, promote water conservation and allow water users to get more out of their supply than they otherwise could.
Water rights in California are fairly secure. When California entered the Union in 1850, one of the first actions taken by its lawmakers was to adopt the common law of riparian rights. One year later, the Legislature also recognized the appropriative right system as having the force of law. The appropriative system continued to increase in use as agriculture and population centers blossomed and ownership of land was transferred into private hands. This is the basis of a series of disputes which have continued through today.
The Role of Water Transfers in Meeting California's Water Needs." An LAO Report. 1999. LAO Publications. 10 June 2005 http://www.lao.ca.gov/1999/090899_water_transfers/090899_water_transfers.html .