Gonorrhea Essays (Examples)

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Sexual Transmitted Disease

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78834875

STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov /std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf.

CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:
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The Ethics of Controlling Disease Spread

Words: 1071 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96833020

Medical Ethics

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing

MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?

While it is definitely not a good thing that…… [Read More]

References

Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050

Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428220/

Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. About.com Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://std.about.com/od/prevention/f/contacttracing.htm

McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323978104578332461533970412
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Vaginosis a Growing Scourge Among

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84440910

A newer and easy test is the OSOM Vlue, which mixes a swabbed specimen from the vagina with a reagent. The test yields sialidase activity or presence in the vaginal fluid in 10 minutes. Sialidase is produced by V pathogens (Mashburn).

pH Level

The most reliable criterion for detecting V is a pH>4.5 (Mashburn, 2007). A normal pH should, therefore, rule out V. A pH >4.5 can also indicate trichomoniasis or muco-purulent cervicitis. Vaginal inflammation more strongly suggests trichomonas or muco-purulent cervicitis, in turn associated with gonorrhea or chlamydial trachomatis (Mashburn).

The patient's pH level is 6, indicating V.

Wet Smears

These are an inexpensive and relatively easy screening procedure for the most common sexually transmitted diseases, such as V (Iglesias, Alderman & Fox, 2000). The practitioner should be appropriately trained and experienced in using this procedure. Hence, the proper protocol and quality control are needed to insure accurate diagnosis.…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alfonsi, G.A.; Cshlay, J., and Parker, S. (2004). What is the best approach for managing

Recurrent bacterial vaginosis? Journal of Family Practice: Dowden Health Media,

Inc. Retrieved on July 7, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_8_53/ai_n6169486/?tag=content;col1

Brown, M (2007). Treating a case of bacterial vaginosis -- case study. Health and Republic News: Health Republic. Retrieved on July 12, 2009 from http://www.healthcarerepublic.com/res/clinical/article/572868/treating-case-bacterial-vaginosis
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Conduct a

Words: 4252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80809171

ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.

Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.

The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.

3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:

Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;

Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;

Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.

Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.

Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.

Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
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Incidence and Morbidity of Unprotected Sexual Behavior

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98106939

risky behavior, unprotected sex can lead to serious health consequences. isky sexual behaviors include having sex frequently with strangers or multiple partners, particularly without the use of condoms. Similarly, avoiding birth control can be considered a risky sexual behavior. Physiological consequences of unprotected sex include the contraction of a sexually-transmitted infection, many of which can lead to fatal illnesses like HIV / AIDS or Hepatitis. Gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections present serious health consequences even when they are not life-threatening. In the United States, about 15 million people are infected every year with a sexually transmitted illness (SIU School of Medicine, 2010). Morbidity rates for sexually transmitted illnesses are high overall, and in fact, STIs are the most commonly reported of all communicable diseases in some states (Washington State Department of Health, 2014). Common sexually transmitted illnesses include chlamydia and herpes. Chlamydia morbidity rates are far higher for women…… [Read More]

References

Healthwise (2015). High risk sexual behavior. http://www.webmd.com/sex/tc/high-risk-sexual-behavior-topic-overview

SIU School of Medicine (2010). Sexual behavior. Retrieved online: http://www.siumed.edu/medicine/gim/sexual_behavior.htm

Washington State Department of Health (2014). STI Fast Facts. Retrieved online: http://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/347-350-FastFacts2013.pdf
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Effects Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior

Words: 4729 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33616752

Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior

Since the ancient days of Bacchanalian celebratory worship of the Greek pantheon, the consumption of alcohol and risky sexual rites have gone hand in hand. Both drinking and sex are considered to be pleasurable activities, and conservative or religious portions of the population may consider them to be sinful or immoral on varying scales. Regardless of whether alcohol and sexual activities have a negative social stigma within a certain social group, peer group, or subculture, these activities are inevitably associated with some risk. Physical, emotional, and social well-being are put on the line when partaking in drinking or sexual modern rituals. The combination of these activities may increase the level of risk associated with them, and likewise they may also be contributing factors to the likelihood that the other will occur (e.g., drinking may increase the chance of sexual activity). However, despite the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2000, April 28) Alcohol policy and sexually transmitted disease rates -- United States, 1981-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Business Publishers. (2004, February) High-risk drinking and sexual assault go hand-in-hand, researchers find. Campus Crime, 14.2, 13.

Coren, C. (2003, January-February) Timming, amount of teenage alcohol or marijuana use may make future risky sex more likely. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health.

Chandra, P.S. (2003, February) High-risk sexual behaviour & sensation seeking among heavy alcohol users. Indian Journal of Medical Research.
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HIV AIDS on American Society What

Words: 3463 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33384543

HIV / AIDS on American Society

hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).

The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging. (2011). Older Adults and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from  http://www.aoa.gov .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). What is HIV? Retrieved August 26, 2013,

From http://www.ced.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). What Persons Aged 50 and Older Can Do.
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Words: 2543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51889587

Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem

Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.

This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…… [Read More]

references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.

Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.

Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
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Health Departments React With Alarm

Words: 1155 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33919610

13-15). Individuals who come to women's or STD clinics may not be representative of the population, and may be more likely to manifest prevalence of the ailment or not to manifest prevalence because of more frequent testing.

Secondly, an additional variable is that of the region-specific nature of the screening. In some regions, federally funded Chlamydia screening supplements local- and state-funded screening programs. This may make the screening more comprehensive in nature in some areas of the country than others, as in some regions there may be additional funding from local and regional as well as federal sources. The different levels of regional scrutiny may also affect the tracking of the disease, as in some regions awareness about STDs is more highly promoted in schools and in the media than other regions, which can result in higher levels of traffic at STD clinics as well as theoretically greater levels of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Health departments react with alarm to new CDC surveillance data. (22 Jan 2009). Medical

News Today. Retrieved January 31, 2009 at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/136289.php

STD surveillance report. (2009). Center for Disease Control. Retrieved January 31, 2009 at   http://www.cdc.gov /std/Chlamydia2006/CTSurvSupp2006Short.pdf 

STD article review
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Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish Louisiana

Words: 2397 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13049820

Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana

Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana

With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.

Table

Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish

Population Size

Census

Pop.

5,282

8,884

68.2%

12,140…… [Read More]

References

About the Parish of Caddo. (2011). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://

www.caddo.org/about.cfm/.

Annual report. (2007, 2010). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://www.caddo.

org/pdfs/.
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic Inflammation

Words: 994 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8358589

There are no diagnostic procedures that can specifically identify PID. However physicians rely on a number of symptoms that can be correlated in the diagnosis of PID. Diagnosis will begin with the physical examination of the abdomen. lood test is undertaken and in general there is an observed increase in the white blood cells. Around 50% of patients with PID have WC level greater than 10,000 and high ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate).[

Stephanie Abbuhl] DNA testing, fluorescent antibody testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests can be used on cervical samples to identify the possibility of Chlamydial PID, while cervical samples collected on a medium of Thayer-Martin agar is used to identify gonorrheal infections. Ultrasound and laparoscopy tests are also indicated as they reveal inflammations and pelvic abscesses. However it is not possible to sufficiently examine the fallopian tube using laparoscopy hence diagnosis is not all that straight forward when the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease," Accessed on Nov 27th 2004, http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdpid.htm

Stephanie Abbuhl, "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease," Accessed on Nov 27th 2004, http://www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic410.htm

3) Zandt, Shirley Van, "Pelvic Pain in Women," Clinical Reviews, 9/1/2000

4) Famolare, Nancy E. "Teaching and communication strategies: working with the hospitalized adolescent with pelvic inflammatory disease,"
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Prokaryotes Consist of Millions of Genetically Distinct

Words: 2739 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60665561

prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.

3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance.  http://www.cdc.gov /drugresistance/actionplan/html/

4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
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Virginia Department of Health Sexually

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76832022



The State Division of HIV/STD works with local health districts to provide Chlamydia screening to all adolescents receiving pelvic examinations at STD clinics, at family planning clinics or at prenatal clinics. Although the VDH does strive to test the male partners of infected females, the emphasis of the program is obviously slanted to screening and treating females. Women and girls in general are also more likely to seek medical care, for all ailments. The Division of HIV/STD of the VHS provides educators the resources "to counsel selected high-risk teens and locate contacts for treatment. This Division also collects and disseminates aggregate data on all reportable STDs in Virginia," although again this may, because of its focus on public health clinics, disproportionately emphasize low-income youth (Adolescent, 2009, VHD). "The Division also funds HIV prevention programs targeting youth. Programs include prevention education for at-risk communities and populations and 19 projects to reach…… [Read More]

References

Adolescent services. (2009, May 28). The Virginia Department of Health. Retrieved January 27,

2010 at http://www.vahealth.org/adolescenthealth/services.htm

Mission, role, priorities, and function. (2008, July 16). The Virginia Department of Health.

Retrieved January 27, 2010 at  http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/Administration/BOH/mission.htm
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Absence of Paternal Involvement and

Words: 5319 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7397251

" (ean, 2006) ean notes that a "dramatic decline in the influence of father involvement has been shown to be correlated with fathers' maintaining a residence other than that of their children." (2006)

According to the work entitled: "Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency" developmental pathways of adolescent delinquency has been examined by researcher "through both longitudinal research and meta-analyses." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) Resulting from these empirical investigations are "numerous insights...key indicators and predictors of behavior of those youths who engage and those who persist in delinquent behavior." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) According to this work there have been a number of studies which had made identification of characteristic patterns of parent-child relationships that are strongly associated with juvenile delinquency." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) the work of Juby and Farrington (2001); Patterson and Stouthamer-Loeber (1984); and Steinberg (1987) state that "evidence clearly demonstrates the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, Sarah; and Daly, Kerry (2007) the Effects of Father Involvement: An Updated Research Summary of the Evidence Inventory. FIRA-CURA Centre for Families, Work & Well-Being University of Guelph, Ontario Canada. Online available at http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:9pJUiihSv0YJ:fira.ca/cms/documen ts/29/Effects_of_Father_Involvement.pdf+CORRELATION+BETW EEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=26&gl=us

Bean, Matthew (2006) Understanding Father's Roles: An Evidence-Based Practice Guide for Family Therapists. Kansas State University 2006. Online available at http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:R_K1C-afXJ8J:krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/2097/314/1/MatthewBean2007.pdf+CORRELATION+BETWEEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=37&gl=us

Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at http://edt.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Dissertation/BrooksC-051107-D6584/research.pdf

Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.) (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at http://edt.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Dissertation/BrooksC-051107-D6584/research.pdf
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Infertility the Inability to Naturally

Words: 2812 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40383504

However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.

Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…… [Read More]

References

Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.

Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html

General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.inciid.org/faq.php?cat=infertility101&id=1

Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 RX.com. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at  http://www.3-rx.com/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/default.php
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Brockton Massachusetts Use of the Adaptation Model

Words: 2911 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 202784

Brockton, Massachusetts: Use of the Adaptation Model, Nursing Process and Guidelines for a Comprehensive Community Assessment

This work in writing will utilize the Adaptation Model, nursing process and guidelines to complete a community assessment, analyze gathered data for implications for health care, formulate a nursing diagnosis for the community, and incorporate findings into the nursing process and formulate a care plan for a specific community problem.

According to the Public Health Nursing: Leadership Guide and esource Manual" published by the Massachusetts Association of Public Health Nurses (2005) nurses employed in public health nursing are constantly conducting assessments of the community's needs and resources both those available to the individual and groups. Public health nurses are focused on organization and working with a diverse network in promoting ensuring and strengthening the well-being and health in the community with goals for high standards of health care for the population. Public health is…… [Read More]

References

Challenges and Successes in Addressing the Health Care Needs of Underserved Populations in Southeastern Massachusetts - Needs Assessment Conducted by AHEC: The Area Health Education Center of Massachusetts - A Program of Health Care of Southeastern Massachusetts, Inc. In partnership with JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc. 44 Farnsworth Street, Boston MA Jan 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.healthimperatives.com/ahec/pdf/needs%20assessment%20AHEC%20of%20SEM.pdf
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Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell the Tipping

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41193097

Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell

The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference is a book about epidemics. However, Gladwell is not writing about diseases. He is writing about how the behaviors and attitudes of a population change in much the way an epidemic spreads. As Gladwell describes, only one child has to go to school with measles. The next week, almost every child at the school can have measles. It only took one change in this one child to make a significant difference. This situation where seemingly small changes make big differences is the focus of the book. Gladwell uses the metaphor of a spreading virus to explain how ideas, products, messages, and behaviors can all spread in the same way. He explains how something can suddenly become an accepted fashion item, how people's behavior can change on a mass scale, how information can spread via…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gladwell, M. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Back Bay Books, 2004.
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Using Antibiotics

Words: 1386 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98812868

Antibiotics

Penicillin

Mechanism of Action

Penicillin G, when injected into the patient, will act against actively proliferating penicillin-sensitive strains of bacteria (Drugs.com, 2011). This does not include several strains of staphylococci producing penicillinase or bacteria that are quiescent. The mechanism of action is inhibition of cell-wall mucopeptide biosynthesis. Penicillin G. works best against staphylococci groups A, B, C, G, H, L, and M, pneumococci, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponemapallidum, and many others.

Clinical Uses

Penicillin is used to treat serious infections, such as septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, empyema, and meningitis (Drugs.com, 2011). Penicillin is also indicated in cases of anthrax, botulism, actinomycosis, diphtheria, listeria infections, erysipelothrix endocarditis, severe infections of the oropharynx, lower respiratory tract, and genitals. Penicillin is also used to treat gonorrhea, syphyilis, rat-bite fever, and Haverhill fever. Only penicillin-sensitive bacteria should be treated due to the risk of creating penicillin-resistant strains. Although treatment should begin immediately in…… [Read More]

References

Drugs.com. (2011). Penicillin G. Sodium Injection (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/penicillin-g-sodium-injection.html.

Drugs.com. (2013). Septra (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/septra.html.

Drugs.com. (2014a). Gentamicin Sulfate (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/gentamicin-sulfate.html.

Drugs.com. (2014b). Zithromax (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/zithromax.html.
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Purnell Model the Book the

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79212776

A dominant healthcare practice for many Mexican-Americans is the hot and cold theory of food selection, where illness or trauma may require adjustments in the hot and cold balance of foods to restore body equilibrium. In lower socioeconomic groups is a wide-scale deficiency of vitamin a and iron, as well as lactose intolerance.

Mexican-American birth rates are 3.45 per household compared to 2.6 per household among other minority groups (Chapa & Valencia, 1993 as cited in Purnell & Paulanka, 1998). Multiple births are common, particularly in the economically disadvantaged groups. Men see a larger number of children as evidence of their virility. If a woman does not conceive by the age of 24, it may be considered too late. Given their predominant Catholic beliefs, the tendency is only to use acceptable forms of birth control, although many will use other unacceptable forms. Abortion is morally wrong. Family planning is an…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Lopez, P. (2003) Mexican-American Health Issues for the 21st Century. Californian Journal of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000) Health Disparities: Bridging the Gap. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Purnell, L, & Paulanka, B. (1998). Transcultural Healthcare. Philadelphia: Davis Company.

Purnell, L. & Paulanka, B. (1998a) Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. in

Nava, G. (director) Quintanilla, a. (executive producer) (1997) Selena. Q Productions.
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Indigenous Studies Colonization Can Negatively

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18600663

In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.

Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.

Government policy and exclusion

According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aboriginal health issues. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/aboriginal_health_issues-open

Anderson, I.,&Whyte, D. (2006). Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 5-16.

McCalman, J., Morley, R., & Mishra, G. (2008). A health transition: Birth weights, households and survival in an Australian working class population sample born 1857 -- 1900. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1070-1083.

McCalman J., Smith L., Anderson I., Morley R., Mishra G. (2009) Colonialism and the health transition: Aboriginal Australians and poor whites compared, Victoria, 1850 -- 1985. History of the Family 14-253 -- 265
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Sexual Risk Assessment Mary Jane

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88389946



Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.

There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…… [Read More]

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Culture Found in Baltimore Maryland

Words: 1441 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38532480

In the studies quoted herein the numbers show evidence that blacks suffer a much higher rate of incidence than do whites or Latinos, and that black women suffer a much higher rate when compared against their white counterparts and they are a significant percentage of the overall rate of incidence in both Baltimore and the United States. There is not much potential in numbers for a bias, after all, they are what they are. The number of incidences reported can only be interpreted as being either a person of African-American descent, white heritage or Latino in nature. ith numbers there can hardly be any quibbling back and forth, especially when the numbers are as lopsided as they are in this paper.

Analysis

The answer to the question of whether culture affects the incidence of AIDS/HIV infection seems to be numerically clear, in that the statistics show that in Baltimore and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, G. (2003) HIV / AIDS among African-Americans and U.S. women: Minority and young women, Minority Nurse Newsletter, Fall Issue 2003

Elder, M.C. (1999) AIDS conference addresses African-American AIDS epidemic, New York Amsterdam News, Vol. 90, Issue 36

Ferguson, Y.O.; Quinn, S.C.; Eng, E.; Sandelowski, M.; (2006) the gender ratio imbalance and its relationship to risk of HIV / AIDS among African-American women at historically black colleges and universities, AIDS Care, Vol. 18, Issue, 4, pp. 323-331

More women infected by AIDS virus (1994) Futurist, Vol. 28, Issue 2, p. 62
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Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been

Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97185279

Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]

References

ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site:  http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/aboutDHAP.htm

HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
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Gender Identity Disorder the Site

Words: 4708 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6525014



3. Where did you find it? (Book, article, URL, etc.)

The information was found at http://www.religiousbook.net/Books/Online_books/Sx/S_5.htm, and it was actually presented in a very sensitive and informative way.

4. Further thoughts:

The understanding of human sexuality has perhaps served to bring a dimension of maturity to my own thinking about human sexuality. Often times these things are taken for granted, but when we begin exploring them at an academic level, we find that we probably were not so well informed as we might have at first believed ourselves to be. It is incredibly interesting to me that the brain and the skin are two of the most significantly involved organs in the sexual act, and yet they have so much to do with the pleasure derived from intimacy that it almost makes one feel kind of silly to have overlooked it, or to have let it go without great thought.…… [Read More]

A Massachusetts woman was raped by her boyfriend's brother, but because she thought she was having sex with her boyfriend, the brother could not be charged with rape because the Hampton County woman had consensual sex, and was not forced to have sex with the man. The details of the case are this: the woman and boyfriend lived in the boyfriend's family home, in the basement. While her boyfriend was at work, the brother entered the basement bedroom that the couple shared, naked, and when the woman called to him by name, the man did not respond, but got into bed with her, undressed her and engaged in sex. When the act was completed, the man got out of bed to leave the room and when he opened the door, the woman was able to see that it was not her boyfriend.

Massachusetts law (see http://www.mass.gov/legis/laws/mgl/265-22.htm) says that an act of rape is one that is accomplished by force; it does not have a clause for rape by "fraud." Even though the man is alleged to have allowed the woman to believe he was someone he was not, he did not use force to accomplish the sexual act. Therefore, at that time, there was no statute under Massachusetts State law by which to prosecute the defendant, and he was released.

In 2006 when this event occurred, the jury that heard the case ended with a hung jury, no verdict. The defendant maintains that he did not pose as his brother, and that the sexual act was consensual. Massachusetts lawmakers said they planned to update the law, but as of this date, it remains unchanged via internet search.
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Latina & AIDS Hispanic Population

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15524811

The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.

Ethnicity

Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…… [Read More]

References

Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.

Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.

Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.

Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
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Adolescent Influences and Adjustments What

Words: 6386 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72263638

The key years during which experimentation occurs - between 13 and 16.

Kobus discusses influences that launch an adolescent's smoking habit from several perspectives. First, the "social learning theory": relationships that are "more intimate" and that are developed "earlier in the youth's experiences" and thought to be more important; and youths are more likely to "imitate the smoking habits" (or non-smoking habits) of those with whom they have the closes and most frequent contact. Second, the "primary socialization theory" takes into consideration influences of the family, schools, and peer clusters; this theory also gives consideration to an adolescent's "individual personality traits" like self-esteem, anxiety, "sensation seeking and psychopathology" that are "direct influences on drug use and deviance," Kobus writes. hen the bonds a youth has with family and school are "weak," the role of peer clusters is "heightened"; and of course if the individual has low self-esteem, the peer cluster…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American School Board Journal. (2007). Violent video games poison the teenage brain:

Study. National School Boards Association.

Crosby, Richard; Voisin, Dexter; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClement, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.;

Caliendo, Angela M. (2006). Family Influences and biologically Confirmed Sexually
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Health Disparities in Louisville KY

Words: 3177 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30788288

Health Disparities in Louisville KY

Health Disparities

Health inequities have become a major problem in the United States. Hofrichter stresses in Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice:

A Handbook for Action ( 2006) that, "The awareness of the existence of inequities in health, health status and health outcomes between racial and ethnic groups in America is as old as the nation itself" (Hofrichter, 2006,P. vii). As will be discussed in this paper, these inequalities have a wide range of repercussions, including social and psychological implications. A definition of health disparity is: "... The difference in the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups" ( Samuels, 2005).

There is also a consensus in the literature that inequalities in health and healthcare throughout the world are on the increase. This is largely due to the increasing gap between rich…… [Read More]

References

Eliminating social and economic barriers to good health and safety: Louisville

Center for Health Equity. Retrieved from http://www.preventioninstitute.org/component/jlibrary/article/id-278/127.html?tmpl=component&print=1

Galvin, J.R. (2006) Diabetes. Ebony, 61 p. 157.

GradNation - Making the Connection: Health & Student Achievement. Retrieved from http://www.silentepidemic.net/Our-Work/Dropout-Prevention/~/media/Files/Our%20Work/Dropout%20Prevention/Grad%20Nation%20Action%20Forum/Steve%20Tarver%20working%20sess%20PPT.ashx
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Healthcare Issue in Culturally Diverse Situation

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90191911

Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA

County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).

The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&

Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA:  http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm 

Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State: http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704

Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA:  http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill
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Health Is Affected by Behaviors Economics and

Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1072453

health is affected by behaviors, economics, and social structure.

Health is affected by behaviors in that if good habits are formed from the latter, the former is then influenced positively. However, if practices like smoking and excess alcohol consumption, the former is impacted negatively. Williams and Torrens (2010) has noted that intake of alcohol "beyond a moderate level is associated with numerous physiological complications including cirrhosis of the liver, various cancers, intestinal disorders, and brain function deterioration…Alcohol abuse results in illness and injury to others, including-but certainly not limited to-vehicular accidents, workplace injuries, poor fetal outcomes associated with fetal alcohol syndrome, and spousal and child abuse." The dietary behaviors people make in their lives has an effect in their lives, for example it may cause "enhanced morbidity and mortality…elevated consumption of fat, sodium, and sugar, leading to an epidemic of obesity and associated problems" (Williams and Torrens, 2010). Health is…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, M. (2000). Changing patterns of infectious disease. Nature, 406, 762-767.

Fauci, A. (2001). Infectious Diseases: Considerations for the 21st Century. Clin Infect Dis, 32(5), 675-685.

OTA. (1976). Development of medical technology opportunities for assessment.. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment.

Olshansky, S., Passaro, D., Hershow, R., Layden, J., Carnes, B., Brody, J., et al. (2005). A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century. N Engl J. Med, 352, 1138-1145. Retrieved April 24, 2011, from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsr043743#t=article
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Teenage Substance Abuse Substance Abuse

Words: 5378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9674352

Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.

Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.

Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html

Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm

Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html

Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
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Chlamydia Trachomatis

Words: 1117 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83474203

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.

Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)

Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004,

http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Bact330/lecturechlamydia

2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November,

  http://www.cdc.gov /std/Chlamydia/STDFact-Chlamydia.htm
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Sexual Practices of All Groups

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11182322

The vaginal fluids that may contain the infection are shared freely between partners. This also is the same with anal penetration. Oral sex between partners also is a source of transmission, particularly oral vaginal to kissing on the mouth. ubbing against each other leads to transmission of vaginal fluids. Another practice that can lead to transmission of STDs is the lack of hand washing during sex. As with heterosexual sex and with gay men sex, the practice of having sex with unknown partners is a great risk. Not knowing the person you are having sex with certainly increases the risk that the partner has had sex with an HIV infected person. This is particularly true of bisexual women. isky behavior occurs in each strata of sexual orientation. Drugs and alcohol lead to risky behavior, multiple partners and the lack of hygiene while engaging in the sex act.

All of this…… [Read More]

Reference List

Hillier, S. & Holmes, KK. (1999). Bacterial vaginosis, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, third ed., 563-586.

Institute of Medicine. (1990). Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the Future, Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.

Marrazzo, J., Coffey, P. & Bingham, a. (2005). Sexual practices, risk perception and knowledge of sexually transmitted disease risk among lesbian and bisexual women, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Volume 37, Number 1.

Retrieved May 1, 2005, from http:www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3700605.html.
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Sexually Transmitted Disease Chlamydia a Disease That

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 198407

Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not Available. "An Introduction to Sexually Transmitted Infections." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.org. July 1999. 25 July 2005.

< http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdinfo.htm

Nordenberg, Tamar. "Chlamydia's Quick Cure." FDA Consumer July 1999: 24.

Tomlins, Jacqueline. The Infertility Handbook: A Guide to Making Babies. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
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Mr Everett Is Diagnosed With

Words: 2645 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36624444

Contraindications include false sugar readings in diabetic patients. This medication can also cause a black tongue or dark stool.

Irritable bowel syndrome is another gastrointestinal disorder. Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a problem that affects mainly the bowel, which is also called the large intestine. The bowel is the part of the digestive system that makes and stores stool. The word syndrome means a group of symptoms. IBS is a syndrome because it can cause several symptoms. For example, IBS causes cramping, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation. Two medications that are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome are: 1.) laxatives and 2.) antispasmodics. Oral laxatives are medicines taken by mouth to encourage bowel movements to relieve constipation, which is a common symptom of IBS. Side effects include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cramping, gas, and increased thirst. A contraindication of any laxative is dehydration. Advice to the patient and the patient's…… [Read More]

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Kaplan M S Crespo C J Huguet N &

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38056611

Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/Racial Homogeneity Sexually ransmitted Disease: A Study 77 Chicago Community Areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.

Knowledge of SDs around the world

Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/racial homogeneity and Sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.

he article "Ethnic/racial homogeneity and sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas" by Kaplan (et al. 2009) examined the association between SDs, race, and poverty in America. Americans of color have historically manifested higher rates of SDs. o shed further light upon this phenomenon, the researchers studied 77 enclosed neighborhoods in Chicago. he findings were that communities that were majority African-American (60% or more of residents) had higher rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea than communities that were majority Hispanic, even when other influential socio-demographic variables were controlled. Overall, regardless…… [Read More]

The article "Apprentices' knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted disease" by Oncel (2012) was a study of 'apprentices' in Turkey, or students who did not go on to higher education but instead entered a trade (apprenticeship) school. An in-class questionnaire was used to determine attitudes about STDs. While 60.9% of the apprentices recognized the name of at least one STDs, 83.6% of the participants did not know about the symptoms of any STDs and only 28.1% were knowledgeable about effective protection methods. A significant majority believed incorrect information about STDs, such as the idea that healthy-looking people could not have an STD (51.4% of the tested population). Chi-square and regression models were used to assess the data. Turkey is a conservative Muslim country and the results are troubling regarding the state of knowledge of STDs amongst young people.

Which research studies seems to yield the most meaningful and valid results, and which seems to be the weakest or most questionable

The most comprehensive study was that of Adebowale (2013), using large scale numbers based upon statistical analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. However, the idea that poverty and ignorance increases one's risk of STDs is not a novel one, and no data was used to determine if the same predictors were true of males, and how male attitudes towards condom use might differ amongst various socio-economic groups, which could affect public education campaigns: if men are unwilling to use condoms, focusing on educating women might be less effective. The Kaplan (et al. 2009) study of Chicago residents was valuable in its contrast of African-American and Latino populations of similar demographic characteristics in terms of STD rates, although for all persons regardless of race, poverty and lower education levels were strongly associated with higher rates of STDs. Although it took the form of a relatively narrowly-based questionnaire, the Oncel (2012) offers interesting preliminary research about a failure to educate the majority of working-class Turkish youths about STDs. More demographic data on the participants would have been helpful to fully contextualize the results. Given that men, persons specializing in hygiene education, and graduates from STD education programs had higher rates of accurate knowledge, this suggests that religious and cultural attitudes may impede the dissemination of accurate information.
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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97294962

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues

Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://121.52.154.227/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
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Teenage Issues in America While Many Parents

Words: 1023 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74950132

Teenage Issues in America

While many parents would like to believe that teenage culture in the United States is just about hanging out with friends, movies and fun, statistics reveal that teenage issues, such as alcohol and drug abuse, violence and sexual orientation, are one of the most critical problems in America (Sound Vision, 2003). The following statistics, while not representative of every teenager, demonstrate the extent of these problems.

Teenage sexual orientation has become a major problem in the U.S. (Sound Vision, 2003). In the U.S., seven in 10 women reported having had sex before age 14, and six in 10 of those who had sex before age 15 reported having had sex involuntarily. Nationally, one-quarter of 15-year-old females and less than 30% of 15-year-old males have had sex, compared with 66% of 18-year-old females, and 68% of 18-year-old males who have had sexual intercourse.

In addition, nearly one…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dew, Diane. (March 11, 1995). The Troubles Teens Face. The Covington News.

Karzon, S. (August 1, 2003). Juvenile delinquency. The Daily Star.

Sound Vision Foundation, Inc. (2003). U.S. Statistics on Teens. Sound Vision. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.soundvision.com/Info/teens/stat.asp

The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1996). Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and Pregnancy, New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
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Penicillin Focuses on the Miraculous Discovery of

Words: 811 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91017196

Penicillin focuses on the miraculous discovery of Alexander Fleming in the world of medicine called the Penicillin. This paper illustrates the process of discovery of this drug and outlines the various advantages it has caused not only to people but the society as well. This paper also emphasizes on the side effects of antibiotics but also proves how this may prove to be beneficial for many researchers, doctors and scientists.

Penicillin

One of the most brilliant knowledge advances of this century - as great as the computer, as great as the abolition of natural racial inferiority and growing awareness of spaceship earth, has been the conquest of infectious diseases. Drugs are thousands of years old. Neolithic, perhaps even paleolithic shamans and medicine men and women knew the curative powers of many plants. The ability of alcohol, in wine, beer and stronger liquors, to make life seem better than it really…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mary B. The History Of Penicillin. 2003. Available on the address http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blpenicillin.htm. Accessed on 22 Nov.
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Most Important Discovery Development of the Last Century

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4602447

Discovery / Development of the Last Century

There have been a number of important scientific and technological developments in the last century that have profoundly affected the lives of people all over the world. The 20th century saw the invention of the airplane and mass production of automobiles that signaled a revolution in transportation; delivery of mass-produced electricity into our homes that transformed the way people live; and the invention of transistor and personal computer that triggered the information revolution. While all these developments have contributed significantly in raising the living standards of billions, there was one other discovery of the last century that did much more: it literally saved the lives of billions of people. That discovery was the development of the miracle drug called penicillin. In this essay I shall discuss when and how penicillin was discovered and why I consider it to be the greatest discovery of…… [Read More]

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Foreign Influence on Hawaii

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80258308

Foreigners and the Economy

Impact foreigners had on Hawaii Island

The history of the discovery and consequent changes caused by the outside world dates back to the third voyage that Captain James Cook made to the Pacific with an attempt to explore more on the Northwest passage in 1778. This is when he first sighted the Islands and was well received by the locals of the islands, indeed they considered him a messenger of a god and gave him decent hospitality during his stay there. As a show of gratitude, Cook left the Hawaiians two English pigs, three goats and seeds for melons, onions and pumpkins. He then named some of the islands after his patron and this interaction can be considered the beginning of external influence on the economy of Hawaii since these gifts led to the introduction of animal husbandry and land tilling for growing the various plants…… [Read More]

References

Alternative Hawaii, (2011). Post-Contact Hawaii. http://www.alternative-hawaii.com/hacul/history1.htm

Info Grafik Inc., (2015). Captain Cook Arrives in Hawaii. http://www.hawaiihistory.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=ig.page&PageID=265

Justin W.V. & Manning A., (2012). The Effects of the American Civil War on Hawai'i and the Pacific World. http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/9.3/vance.html
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Chlamydia Trachomatis

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60923996

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Scientific Details

Life Cycle of Chlamydia Trachomatis in the Human Body

Infection & Symptoms

Diagnosis

Screening

Prevention of Chlamydia Infection

Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium, has a tendency to infect the columnar epithelium of the cervix, the urethra, and the rectum. Apart from genital areas the bacteria can affect and infect other areas of the body like the lungs and the eyes. This bacterium is one of the prime sources of most of the sexually transmitted diseases. There are practically no prior symptoms of infection by this bacterium (Breguet, 2007). However several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women can occur if the infection if left untreated for a long time. Men can also develop disease complications like epididymitis and orchitis from this bacterium.

Treatment for the uncomplicated state of this infection is fairly simple and should include simple antibiotics like azithromycin or doxycycline.…… [Read More]

References

Breguet, A. (2007). Chlamydia. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

Landers, D., Wiesenfeld, H., Phillip Heine, R., Krohn, M., & Hillier, S. (2004). Predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in women. American Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynecology, 190(4), 1004-1008. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2004.02.015

Marrazzo, J., & Cates, W. (2011). Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53(suppl 3), S64-S78. doi:10.1093/cid/cir695

Miller, W. (2004). Prevalence of Chlamydial and Gonococcal Infections Among Young Adults in the United States. JAMA, 291(18), 2229. doi:10.1001/jama.291.18.2229
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Need for Information Outreach in Camden City

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91505835

STD Testing: Community Health Outreach

When it comes to health care in the United States, it is often those most in need that find themselves somewhat neglected and under serviced. Nonetheless, state programs and coalitions do make an effort to prevent any person, regardless of economic status or other differentiating factors, from going without the care that he or she needs. The main challenge is to make certain populations aware of programs and clinics that are available to provide for their care. As a result of low socio-economic status, these populations are often not only underserved, but also unaware of the fact that they can do something about their health status, especially when it comes to issues such as STIs. In New Jersey and Camden City specifically, statistics show that, in addition to the worsening effects of STIs and other related conditions, the population tends to neglect seeking help, mainly…… [Read More]

References

New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. (2013, Jun.). New Jersey Part B Comprehensive Plan. Rutgers. Retrieved from: http://hpcpsdi.rutgers.edu/

State of New Jersey Department of Health (2015). Division of HIV, STD, and TB Services -- Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program Reported Sexually Transmitted Diseases Morbidity in Camden County by Municipality for Report Year 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.state.nj.us/health/std/stdstats/stdstats2012/camden.pdf

West, B. (2014, Oct.) Public Health Coalitions in South Jersey. Rutgers University, Camden. Retrieved from: http://wrand.rutgers.edu/files/FINAL-SJ-PublicHealthCoalitions.pdf
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Psychosocial Assessment

Words: 1748 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34201218

Psychosocial Assessment

Describing Problem

Personal Status

Current Pattern of Use and Drug History

Substance Abuse and Treatment History

Medical History and Current Position

Family History and Present elationships

Positive Support Structures

Crime and Law-breaking

Education

Employment

Inclination for Treatment

Social History

esources and Accountabilities

Mental Status Exam Narrative

Treatment Plan

Psychotic Disorder

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Drug Dependence, in sustained remission

Depression

Psychosocial Assessment

PSYCHOSOCIAL ASSESSMENT-William Burg

Describing Problem

William is a 35-year-old, black male. William Living in CUCS supportive housing, alcohol addiction/sober for 6 months and has PTSD. He also does not have rent money and needs employment to be able to pay the minimal rent required.

Personal Status

William is the middle of three brothers and sister. He has an older brother and a younger sister. William was born and raised in Kentucky. He moved to New York at the age of 21. He was thrown out of the…… [Read More]

References

Cox, C.B. (2005). Ethnicity and Social Work Practice. New York city: Oxford University Press.

Gitterman, A. & . (2008). The life model of social work practice: Advances in theory & practice. New York City: Columbia University Press; 3rd edition.

Goldstien, E. (1995). Ego Psychology and social work practice. New York City: The Free Press; 2nd edition .

H., N. (1995)). Clinical Social Work: Knowledge and skills. Oxford University Press.
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A Close Look at the Demographics of Hempstead Village NY

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41365197

history of Hempstead Village in Nassau County, New York, along with the demographics, the poverty statistics, and information pertaining to the problem of STDs (Chlamydia) in the community.

Brief History of Hempstead Village

The Reverend Robert Fordham and John Carman rowed across Long Island Sound in 1643 to negotiate with several Native American tribes (Massapequak, Mericoke, Rockaway and Matinecock) about buying land for a village. Subsequently, in the 1800s, Hempstead Village became a trading center and by 1853 it became incorporated as a village. Such notables from the American Revolution as George ashington enjoyed staying in Hempstead Village. The population of Hempstead Village skyrocketed after orld ar I, because many people in the City of New York preferred the suburban lifestyle (villageofhempstead.org).

Hempstead Village Facts -- Demographics & Poverty Rate

Today, according to the U.S. Census, the there are approximately 55,527 (as of 2014) residents in this town of 3.7…… [Read More]

Works Cited

City Data. (2013). Poverty Rates in Hempstead. Retrieved December 12, 2015, from http://www.city-data.com.

MedicineNet. (2015). What is Chlamydia / What causes Chlamydia? Retrieved December

12, 2015, from http://www/medicinenet.com.

New York Department of Health. (2014). Reported Cases by Disease and County. Retrieved December 12, 2015, from http://www.health.ny.gov.
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Report on Prenatal Care

Words: 1317 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68377156

Prenatal care is an important aspect of pregnancy and can result in positive outcomes for both mother and infant. Low-risk pregnancies have different recommendations for prenatal care than high-risk pregnancies. Low risk pregnancies begin with medical checkups that include screening tests. This will help the mother know if the baby is healthy and if she is healthy while pregnant. Prenatal care also involves some aspect of counseling as well as education on how to handle various facets of pregnancy. Patient education could involve topics like healthy eating, any additional screening tests needed, and level of physical activity. They may also include as part of prenatal care, what to expect during labor plus after delivery.

The first trimester for a low-risk pregnancy as previously stated, involves tests, labs, and screenings. The first thing they do is determine the expectant mother's blood type and h factor and to look for signs of…… [Read More]

References

Ghulmiyyah, L. & Sibai, B. (2012). Maternal Mortality From Preeclampsia/Eclampsia. Seminars In Perinatology, 36(1), 56-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2011.09.011

Markovic, T., Muirhead, R., Overs, S., Ross, G., Louie, J., & Kizirian, N. et al. (2015). Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low -- Glycemic Index Diet on Pregnancy Outcomes in Women at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The GI Baby 3 Study. Diabetes Care,39(1), 31-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc15-0572

Peccatori, F., Azim, H., Orecchia, R., Hoekstra, H., Pavlidis, N., Kesic, V., & Pentheroudakis, G. (2013). Cancer, pregnancy and fertility: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals Of Oncology, 24(suppl 6), vi160-vi170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt199

Song, K., Musci, T., & Caughey, A. (2013). Clinical utility and cost of non-invasive prenatal testing with cfDNA analysis in high-risk women based on a U.S. population. The Journal Of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(12), 1180-1185. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2013.770464
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Prostitution Causes and Consequences

Words: 1615 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43391768

Prostitution: Causes and Consequences

Prostitution has been termed as one of the oldest professions, with its history going back to as early the ancient period. Indeed, records of most ancient societies -- from Greeks and omans to Jews, Hebrews, Asians, and Muslims -- point to the existence of prostitution several thousand years ago (Sanders, O'Neill & Pitcher, 2009). Today, though illegal in some jurisdictions, prostitution is a widespread practice, with virtually every major urban area across the globe having numerous brothels, escort services, and joints disguised as massage parlors. Prostitution is also practiced at the sex worker's or client's residence as well as in adult entertainment locations such as strip clubs. Emanating mainly from individual and socioeconomic factors, prostitution is associated with a number of dangers on the individuals involved, and may expose one to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This paper describes the causes and consequences of prostitution, clearly demonstrating…… [Read More]

References

Elmes, J., Skovdal, M., Nhongo, K., et al. (2017). A reconfiguration of the sex trade: how social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable. PLoS ONE, 12(2): e0171916

Farrell, A., & Cronin, S. (2015). Policing prostitution in an era of human trafficking enforcement. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 64(4-5): 211-228.

Gorkoff, K., & Runner, J. (2003). Being head: the experiences of young women in prostitution. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.

Jeffreys, S. (1997). The idea of prostitution. 1st ed. Melbourne: Spinifex Press.
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Improving Medication Regimen Adherence among STD Patients

Words: 6195 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36554386

Evidence-Based Project Proposal

Graduate Project in Nursing

The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases has been increasing among adolescents in countries around the world, but there remains a dearth of timely and relevant studies concerning salient differences in knowledge level and attitudes between different cultures and ethnic populations. One common factor that has been consistently demonstrated in improving the effectiveness of treatments for sexually transmitted diseases is promoting adherence to treatment regimens, most especially for medications since these are used in all treatments for sexually transmitted diseases. While there have been some studies concerning various strategies for promoting adherence levels to treatment regimens, there remains a lack of studies concerning evidence-based practices that incorporate technological solutions. To this end, the proposed study intends to conduct an experiment using innovative face recognition and motion detection smartphone app to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting adherence to medication regimens among a population of adolescents…… [Read More]

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Women's Biology Review and Critique of a

Words: 1954 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43259632

Women's Biology

Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology

How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy

Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).

Review of the…… [Read More]

From: http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/population-groups/women/reviews/our-review

Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"

Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692