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Sometimes history needs to be rewritten so as to comport with modern sensibilities. Today, we live in an era where the average life span has been increases as a result of modern technology; however, sometimes our lives our being prolonged (e.g. given more quantity) at the expense of quality of life. The founding fathers of our nation did not have such technological and ideological issues to debate. In fact, we did not even have penicillin until relatively recently in our history. In short, given that we have been able to live longer, we must understand that there may be times when the quantity of life should not be chosen over the quality of life. Both are equally important, but if there is no quality in one's life, what good is the quantity anyway?
A similar argument may be made against those whom believe that physician-assisted suicide is anti-thetical to Christian…
Works Cited, the organization publishing the research and/or data will be provided to further serve the end of providing an objective look at this issue and supporting the argument herein stated. Moreover, medical journals which seek to provide an objective analysis of the issue will also be used for the purpose of understanding the arguments as well as supporting the argument herein that patients and doctors should not be restricted from using euthanasia as a means of treatment for the terminally ill.
God and Good Death Concept
Philosophers have argued for centuries the concept of a "good death." Death being one of the realities that everyone in life must face regardless of their status is universal and, therefore, as a concept it affects us all. Suicide as an alternative has been with us since antiquity but it has been only recently that suicide as a legal right has begun to emerge as a matter of public debate.
The camps are split on the issue of legalized assisted suicide and those who argue that any form of suicide is morally wrong. Those favoring the legalization of assisted suicide believe that individuals should be able to control the time and circumstances of their death. Further, they argue that actively causing one's own death is no different than refusing life-saving treatment. Opponents argue vulnerable individuals, that is, those living in chronic pain or degenerative disease…
Frey, R.G., and Wellman, Christopher Heath. A Companion to Applied Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html .
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html .
Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do .
Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-216. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 27-166. Print.
Murder cannot be a decried and yet practiced by the same entity without being hypocritical. Innumerable individuals on death row have been wrongfully convicted due to any number of reasons. The appeals of death row inmates sometimes never get heard. Those inmates who cannot afford to fight a good appeal are the worse off of all. Because DNA testing and more traditional forms of evidence can be used to reverse the death penalty, caution should be used when sentencing a citizen to death. Death is irreversible; life in prison is not. The families of the wrongfully convicted deserve such consideration.
Moreover, the death penalty is meted out unjustly to a greater number of poor, minority, and disabled population. Capital punishment reveals biases and flaws in the American judicial system. The death penalty is also extremely costly even though it would seem that killing a convict costs less than feeding one.…
ACLU. "Race and the Death Penalty." 2003. Retrieved Feb 21, 2008 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10389pub20030226.html
Amnesty International. "Cost of the Death Penalty." Retrieved Feb 21, 2008 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/Fact_Sheets/Cost_of_the_Death_Penalty/page.do?id=1101084&n1=3&n2=28&n3=99
Bonner, Raymond and Fessenden, Ford. "States With No Death Penalty Share Lower Homicide Rates." The New York Times. 22 Sept 2000. Retrieved Feb 21, 2008 at http://www.truthinjustice.org/922death.htm
Death Penalty Focus. "Cost Studies." Retrieved Feb 21, 2008 at http://www.deathpenalty.org/index.php?pid=cost
[James fieser] We also have to assess the 'proportionality of happiness' factor in determining if capital punishment is justifiable in a particular case. That is to say that if the execution of a prisoner will save the lives of many people capital punishment can be approved in such cases. Let us for instance take the example of a captured terrorist or a suicide bomber. In this case it is fairly obvious that the destructive potential of these people would be greater and consequently their execution entails greater safety, protection and happiness for the society. Under these circumstances capital punishment stands clearly justified. Finally, the cost factor is also used by abolitionists in supporting their argument. While the legal cost of executions maybe high they are insignificant when compared with delivering justice.
The deontological theory on the other hand is concerned only with the rightfulness of an act irrespective of its…
1) James Fieser, "Capital Punishment," Accessed on 3rd June 2007, available at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/c/capitalp.htm
2) Dudley Sharp, "Death Penalty as a Deterrent," Accessed on 3rd June 2007, available at http://www.dpinfo.com/death_penalty_as_a_deterrent.htm
3) Kenneth Cauthen, " Capital Punishment," Accessed on 3rd June 2007,
Available at, http://www.frontiernet.net/~kenc/cappun.htm
165). On page 166 Bannister points out that outside of China, the numbers show a decrease in individuals being put to death through capital punishment. In 2006, the number of reported executions dropped to 1591 from 2148 in 2005; also, since 1996 more than 30 nations have "put an end to this cruel and inhuman practice" (Bannister, 170).
The Chief Editor of Criminal Law Review, Chen Xingliang, writes that there is a consensus among the scholars that contribute to his publication; and those scholars "…are in favor of strict limitations on the death penalty in order to eventually abolish it" (p. 41). However, Xingliang admits that the "public understanding of the death penalty is quite different fro that of these scholars" (p. 42). That is because the "public support for the death penalty is formed with an irrational understanding and thus should not be a justified factor considered for…
Center for Individual Freedom. (2007). Death Penalty Deters Future Murders, According to Remarkable New Empirical Study. Retrieved Dec. 1, 2010, from http://www.cfif.org .
Bannister, Piers. (2008). The death penalty: UN victory puts total abolition within our grasp.
International Review of Law Computers & Technology, 22(1-2), 165-170.
DeathPenalty.com (2010). Does the death penalty deter crime? Retrieved Dec. 1, 2010, from http://deathpenalty.procon.org . (Muhlhausen, ACLU, Bert, Reno, Borg, Van Den Haag).
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…
The Academy of American Poets" Poets.org. 1997-2007. http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/348 .
Cole, Toby, (ed.). "Garc'a Lorca" in Playwrights on Playwrighting, 1961.
Hills, Elijah Clarence and Morley, S. Griswold, Modern Spanish Lyrics, New York: H. Holt, 1913.
Jehle, Fred F. Anthology of Spanish Poetry: A Collection of Spanish Poems, 1999. http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/poetry.htm.
Our prejudiced minds and clouded vision make us believe that all black men are criminals resulting in a twisted criminal justice system. Thomas Sancton (1991) reveals, "...blacks and Hispanics are proportionally far more likely to be sent to death chambers than whites; that poor defendants are condemned more often than rich ones; that the existence of the death penalty, despite widespread beliefs to the contrary, in fact has no deterrent value. The execution in some states of minors and retarded inmates is profoundly shocking to many people in the U.S. And abroad, as is the multiplicity of judicial errors that have sent innocent people to execution chambers or long terms on death row."
Regardless of what people have to say about death penalty, researches and unbiased studies have shown that this form of punishment doesn't serve any good purpose. It exists because society refuses to operate with compassion but revels…
1) Richard a. Posner, Capital Crimes., the New Republic, 04-01-2002
2) Thomas Sancton/Paris With reporting by James Graff and Gareth Harding/Brussels, Barry Hillenbrand/Washington, Christine Whitehou, a Matter of Life or Death the McVeigh case shows how differently Europe and America view capital punishment., Time International, 05-21-2001, pp 28+.
4) Eric Pooley Reported by Sally B. Donnelly and J.F.O. Mcallister / Washington, Sylvester Monroe/Atmore, Andrea Sac, Nation/Crime and Punishment: Death or Life? Mcveigh Could Be the Best Argument for Executions, but His Case Highlights the Problems That Arise When Death Sentences Are Churned Out in Huge Numbers., Time, 06-16-1997, Pp 31+.
5) the cruel and ever more unusual punishment. Vol. 351, the Economist, 05-15-1999.
Indeed, the death penalty is one of the most divisive issues in the entirety of the criminal justice system as it currently exists within the United States of America. Although many polls do suggest that a majority of Americans ultimately do support the employment of the death penalty, it faces stern and strong opposition from a violent minority that radically opposes the death penalty for a variety of reasons, including the concerns that it is unfair for the state to deny an individual of his life, that it is racist in its employment, that it is more likely to be applied to defendants that cannot afford their own counsel, and that it is a terrible practice because mistaken executions are irrevocable and no fitting reparations can ever be made. Indeed, the concerns are so great that the United States Supreme Court even instituted a death penalty ban during…
Carlson, Margaret. "Don't Give Him the Satisfaction." Time Magazine. April 22, 2003.
Retrieved November 19, 2003, at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org /article.
Shapiro, Bruce. "Dead Reckoning." The Nation. August 6, 2001. Retrieved November 18, 2003 at
Capital Punishment: Does it Reduce Crime?
Capital Punishment is a social controversy that epitomizes the axiom "an eye for an eye."
In the United States there are 38 states that utilize the death penalty, and usually for select crimes, including treason, and mass murder. In 2002, 71 inmates were executed, which was 5 more than 2001, and of these 71 inmates, 53 were Caucasian, and 69 were male (Capital Punishment Statistics, 2003).
Capital Punishment has been in effect since the 1970s, despite cases and controversy that it goes against a person's 8th Amendment rights. Nevertheless, there has been changes in Capital Punishment laws and "in 2002 the Court barred the execution of mentally retarded offenders, overturning its 1989 ruling on the matter. In the same year the Court ruled that the death penalty must be imposed through a finding of a jury and not a judge" (Columbia, 2003). In 2002,…
Capital Punishment Statistics
Bureau of Justice Statistics, November 2003.
Printable copy at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cp.htm
Study # 3667: Capital Punishment in the United States 1973-2000
Throughout the play, Willy longs for the wealth, privilege, and equality the America was alleged to have been built upon until he can no longer deny that the promises of the American dream are just an illusion. While this is without a doubt a scathing critique of capitalism, at the same time, the play seems to be trying to show that nothing is truly real and once you remove all of the 'bells and whistles.' In other words, 'real' people, just like the American dream, are a myth. No one is immune to putting on a 'front' for other people, but when the opinions of others dictate your life and your decisions, this is when the human soul begins to deteriorate. Willy Loman is the characterization of this corrosion.
The death of the American Dream portrayed in the play, as well as the constant comparisons between the rich and the…
Bloom, H. (1991) Willy Loman. New York: Chelsea House
Miller, a. (1998), Death of a salesman, New York: Penguin Books
Novick, J. (2003) Death of a salesman: Deracination and its discontents. American Jewish History 91(1), 97-107
The research shown to the Supreme Court suggests just the opposite about them (Liptak, 2005).
Third, evidence shows that many teens in jail for serious crimes have significant mental health problems. Representative Henry Waxman (D) of California noted that in his state, one of the most populous in the country, there is little competent psychiatric help for youthful offenders who are incarcerated. He and his staff found that hundreds of teens held in California services were not getting the mental health services they desperately needed (Author not stated, 2005). 70% made suicide attempts while incarcerated, and nearly 75% attacked others (Author not stated, 2005). In spite of such clear evidence of instability, nearly six out of ten California facilities lacked staff with mental health training. Youthful offenders, meanwhile, had a wide range of diagnoses including not only substance abuse but AD/HD, retardation and learning disabilities (Author not stated, 2005). These…
Author not stated. 2005. "Mentally ill California youth await treatment in detention." Child Protection Law Report, Feb. 11.
Liptak, Adam. 2005. "Too young to die?" New York Times, Feb. 14.
Yen, Hope. 2005. "Supreme Court strikes down death penalty for juveniles." AP Worldstream, March 1.
Latour takes several steps to repair the damage done to the church by the moral misdeeds of rogue priests and, to a certain extent, the American and Mexican governments. Latour dispatches Valliant to Albuquerque and, in Valliant's travels, he performs sacraments and admonishes a priest for gambling with parish funds. Latour, for his part, helps rescue Magdalena from the abusive uck Scales and orders the founding of a girl's school - another important symbol of permanence and the church's commitment to the community. Latour also replaces Gallegos, a corrupt priest who drinks, gambles and left his parish in a "scandalous state," with Father Valliant (p.83).
Latour's house cleaning continues throughout the story, as he is determined to conquer the book's moral setting, as he conquered its natural setting. Perhaps Latour's greatest triumph is when he forces Father Martinez, who had become a "dictator to all parishes in Northern New Mexico"…
Cather, Willa (1962). "Death Comes for the Archbishop." New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell Without knowing that a ball turret is small place in a B-17, we would not understand the central metaphor analogizing the mother's womb to the ball turret, which is essential to understanding that the poem is about the contrast between the warmth of a mother's love and the cold dehumanizing treatment of the "State" where he is just another soldier.
Common Ground by Judith Cofer Before reading the poem, the title seemed quite self-explanatory, I figured the poem would be about finding common ground between people, and in a sense it is, but the message, after reading the poem, is much starker. It is more about the inescapability of aging, the common links that tie generations as the young get old and realize the commonalities they share with their parents.
Hazel Tells LaVerne by Katharyn Machan Knowing the fairy tale helps…
Death Penalty II
The Death Penalty and the Bible
The Bible is an important and valuable book providing a wealth of information, and it should be used as a determination as to whether the death penalty should be chosen for certain, specific crimes, despite the often-cited issue of separation between church and state.
f. Other Crimes
The Death Penalty
ansom From the Death Penalty
The Separation of Church and State
The death penalty has been around since biblical times, during which it was commonly used for a number of offenses. It is important to point out, however, that these offenses were punishable by death, meaning that the death penalty could be used. That does not mean that it had to be used, and there was discretion available. Here, several common crimes will be looked at in the context of biblical death…
Anderson, B.W., Bishop, S., & Newman, J. (2006). Understanding the Old Testament. NY: Pearson.
Anderson, E. (2007). If God is dead, is everything permitted? In Hitchens, Christopher. The portable Atheist: Essential readings for the nonbeliever. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press.
Dershowitz. (2000). The Genesis of Justice. NY: Grand Central Publishing.
Freedman, D.N., Myers, A.C., & Beck, A.B. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. NY: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…
Aguirre, a., Jr., & Baker, D.V. (1991). Race, racism, and the death penalty in the United States. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Vande Vere Publishing.
Amnesty International (1999).. Killing with prejudice: race and the death penalty. Amnesty International, Pub. No. AMR 51/52/99. London: Amnesty International.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, Q., & Pulaski, C.A., Jr. (1990). Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, G., Zuckerman, D., Weiner, N.A., & Broffitt, B. (1998). Racial discrimination and the death penalty in the post-Furman era: An empirical and legal overview, with recent findings from Philadelphia. Cornell Law Review 83:1638-770
In contrast, other data, compiled by state and federal agencies within the last twenty years, failed "to demonstrate any deterrent value to the death penalty" and according to data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, "when states with the death penalty (were) compared to those without the death penalty," it was shown that "a majority of death penalty states have homicide rates higher than non-death penalty states" (Espejo 58).
The death penalty has also come under other criticism, especially in relation to executing innocent persons on death row in America's prison system. Of course, with the advent of DNA testing, many death-row inmates have been exonerated after tests revealed that they could not have been involved in their alleged crimes. Yet some death penalty advocates still believe that the possibility of executing innocent people does not justify the abolition of the death penalty. As Stephen Markman puts it, "the death…
Bedau, Hugo and Paul Cassell. Debating the Death Penalty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Bidinotto, Robert. Criminal Justice?: The Legal System vs. Individual Responsibility. New York: Foundation for Economic Education, 1996.
Espejo, Roman, Ed. Does Capital Punishment Deter Crime? Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson-Gale, 2003.
Pojman, Louis and Jeffrey Reiman. The Death Penalty: For and Against. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
The story investigates justice from different standpoints. Gerardo and Paulina have similar perceptions on how the military rule in the past had treated their society wrongly. However their perspectives vary in terms of how justice should be served. According to Gerardo, the efficiency of the commission he led was the best way to proceed. This would involve assessing all related human rights and letting the courts decide on a solution. Paulina was unsure of judges and their decisions considering their lack of support in the past seventeen years under a dictator. According to her, the pre-existing foundations of justice are not trustworthy enough. Making the final decision herself made more sense to her. The severity of what happened to her, guided her opinions. At one point when Gerardo tries to act reasonably rather than violently, she emphasizes how someone who did not experience any abuse himself does not have the…
Dorfman, Ariel. Death and the Maiden. Nick Hern Books, 1996. Print.
Therefore, even staunch proponents of capital punishment share the concern that it be (1) imposed only where extreme punishment is appropriate to the nature of the crime, and (2) applied in a manner that does not cause unnecessary pain or prolonged suffering. Assuming those elements are satisfied, capital punishment is warranted in certain situations.
The prospect of conviction in error is one of the strongest positions against capital punishment, precisely because the concept of valuing the preservation of the freedom of the innocent from wrongful conviction over the value of ensuring punishment for the guilty is fundamental to American justice. By extension, one could argue convincingly that protection against wrongful execution is even more important than wrongful criminal conviction in general. However, it is possible to establish more stringent standards of proof, judicial review, and myriad other conceivable procedural safeguards short of abolishing capital punishment altogether. Therefore, that approach would…
Dershowitz, Alan, M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Friedman, Laurence, M. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hall, Kermit, L. (1992) the Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.
Nowak, John, E., Rotunda, Ronald, D. (2004) Nowak and Rotunda Hornbook on Constitutional Law, 7th Edition (Hornbook Series). St. Paul, MN: West
The debate surrounding capital punishment is not as clear as one might think -- in fact, there is a great deal of gray within this debate. The actual definition is State controlled taking of a human life in response to some crime committed by a person who was legally convicted of that crime (Lacayo, 2009). Capital punishment has been part of human history, and currently 58 global nations actively practice it, 95 have abolished it, and the remained have not used it in over a decade (Amnesty International, 2010). Some scholars tout the view that capital punishment produces an extremely strong deterrent effect to crime that actually saves lives, is supported by the majority of Americans, and that each execution actually results in a statistically viable reduction in murders (Muhlhausen, 2007). As of 2010, however, Amnesty International categorizes most countries as abolitionist regarding the death penalty (Figures on…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Atkins v. Virginia (2002). U.S. Supreme Court 536 U.S. 304.
"Campaign to End the Death Penalty." (2010). NoDeathPenalty.com. Cited in:
"Capital Punishment, 30 Years On: Support, but Ambivalence as Well." (2006).
The issue of whether capital punishment is justified in a civilized world that is progressively concerned with achieving human rights and dignity for all its citizens is a subject that challenges the very scales of justice. On the one hand, the imposition of the death penalty prematurely terminates a human life and precludes any chance of rehabilitating criminals as productive members of society. On the other hand, abolishing the death penalty implies endangering society with the presence of known, dangerous anti-social elements who may one day become eligible for parole or worse escape from prison. Thus, the scales need to be weighed taking into consideration that society's primary responsibility is to ensure that its honest and upright citizens are able to lead a secure and safe life. Indeed, it is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that the scales of justice need to necessarily be tipped in…
Jacoby, J. "When Murderers Die, Innocents Live." The Boston Globe.
Sept. 28, 2003. Accessed Feb. 29, 2004: http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2003/09/28/execution_saves_innocents/
Kane, G. "To murder victims' families, executing killers is justice." The Baltimore Sun. Feb.5, 2003. Accessed Feb. 29, 2004: http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/local/bal-md.kane05feb05,0,6385621.column
Murdock, D. "A sure way to prevent prison escapes." Mar 30, 2001.
Through which he concluded that each execution prevents around seven or eight people from committing murder (Worsnop 402). In 1985, an economist from the University of North Carolina by the name of Stephen K. Layson published a report that showed that every execution of a murderer deterred eighteen would be murderers (Guernsey 68). While the numbers from these studies seem quite low as compared to the large number of murders committed every day in the United States, the numbers become quite large when discussed in the terms of every year executions. (Guernsey 65)
The opponents of capital punishment here give different points which are also quite true. According to the critics of capital punishment many of the people who commit acts of murder are either retarded or are immature. Capital punishment doesn't have an effect on the youth and immature people. As Richard L. Worsnop writes in his article entitled…
Worsnop, Richard L. Death Penalty Debate Centers on Retribution. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1990.
Guernsey, JoAnn Bren. Should We Have Capital Punishment? Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co, 1993.
Van den Haag, Ernest, and John Phillips Conrad. The Death Penalty a Debate. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.
Maestro, Marcello T. A Pioneer for the Abolition of Capital Punishment Cesare Beccaria. [New York]: Journal of the History of Ideas, 1973.
Crude, twisted justifications were offered during this period of time that both upheld family values yet reflected the desperation of the era -- such as the defense that it was better to eat one's relatives, than to let the whole family starve, or the idea that if one consumed one's relations, then they lived on, at least a little longer.
Spence admits that he is operating with certain difficulties regarding the sources of his chronicles, given that few documents remain behind of the Chinese peasantry of this period. However, he says to give voice to the voiceless was one of his primary motivations in writing the text. The lack of documentary evidence, rather than being perceived as a hindrance, as might be the case with some historians, merely spurred him on to reveal what was left for posterity. He deploys a variety of sources including a Confucian civil servant and…
Spence, Jonathan D. The Death of Woman Wang. New York: Penguin, 1998.
Death of a Salesman
In order for a family to be fully and healthily functioning, it has to be honest and communicative, supportive and nurturing. The Loman family, however, lacks these characteristics and appears more dysfunctional than functional. Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman is essentially a eulogy for the American Dream, killed by the dysfunctionality of American life. That dysfunction is what seeps into the Loman family and prevents it from operating the way it should. As Biff states at one point in the play, “We never told the truth for ten minutes in this house” (Act 2, Part 7, pg. 104). Communication barriers exist and dishonesty is rife. It is so stifling in the family that Biff states earlier in the play that his time in the house feels wasted: "I've always made a point of not wasting my life, and every time I come back here I…
Death Penalty Is Wrong
It is often suggested that morality comes from a venerated source - from reason, or from God (Wheatley & Haidt, 2005). Judgments on the basis of morals are important, complex, and intuitive. Moral judgments thus become particularly fertile foundations of motivated reasoning (Ditto, Pizarro, & Tannenbaum, 2009). In view of this respected observation, we chose to develop a broad-based questionnaire based on morality institutional regimens. This has been necessitated as Morality does not have the same rigors as that of logical and reasoning assiduity. The essence of Morality and post hoc deliberations are relative and affect combined societal percepts. There has always been a quandary about the rights of a person when posited in opposition to another. "The consensus view in moral psychology has been that morality is first and foremost about protecting individuals"-- (Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009). Thus, quandaries arise out of morality being…
Right from the times of Plato in the fourth century B.C., philosophers have been intrigued by the dilemma faced by humans between logic and emotion. Emotions have been seen as conceptual errors leading to difficult conditions created by affectual feelings of morality. The model presented in support of such an understanding makes use of the affectations of reasoning of one person, A, on the intuition of another, B whose judgment, consequently in turn affects the intuition of A, thereby becoming a self-feeding mechanism leading to a social acceptance that, as noted earlier is swayed by motivated or manipulated machinations. This is a rationalist model of moral judgment, in which moral judgement is thought to result from moral reasoning (Haidt, 2001). This strategy is perhaps the most persuasive of all three adopted strategies. The audience is made to ponder over what is being presented. It employs facts, statistical data, and authorities, i.e. this approach is fact-based. Logos refers to appeal which is based on reason or logic. Documents that are distributed by corporations or companies are logos-guided, as are scholarly documents. Logos (plural: logoi) refers to rational appeal or its simulation; the word 'logic' stems from 'logos'. Normally, it is used for describing facts or figures to support the topic of the speaker. Logos appeals tend to enhance ethos, as this information makes the individual speaking appear prepared and knowledgeable to the audience (Henning, 1998).
Rationality and logic are greatly valued in the present society, and this kind of strategy for persuasion is more privileged compared to an appeal to the speaker's character or the audience's emotions. However, scientific reasoning and formal logic are not usually apt for the general audience; thus, a dependence on more rhetorical kinds of reasoning should be made (Edlund & Pomona). In particular, an eliciting situation affects senses and by consequence morality that in turn has an effect on the reasoning (or the lack of it) an individual carries, which is the fore bearer of judgement in the rationalist model of judgement
This strategy is opposed by the hypothesis put forward, where moral reasoning does not cause moral judgement; rather, it is an after effect generated when a judgment has been made (Haidt, 2001).. Implying that, the reverse sequence holds
death by Sherwin Nuland and Socrates. It has 4 sources.
One of the most mystifying phenomenons that keep most of us wondering is death. For the ordinary individual death is not only a topic that they have no clue about but also that they will never be able to satisfy their curiosity unless they experience it themselves. For medical professionals like Sherwin B. Nuland death is something that they see day in day out but never actually could explain unless they get into the technicality of it. Thus, in essence no one from the time of ancient civilization to the modern technological age could really explain the exact nature of death. They can only in fact attempt to explain the nature, cause and effects of death. There are several factors attached to the reason why death cannot actually be explained but only experienced.
In the following sections, the…
Sherwin B. Nuland. How We Die: Reflections on Life's Final Chapter. 1993, ISBN: 0679742441
Plato. The Last Days of Socrates. Ed, Hugh Tredennick and Harold Tarrant. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
Treddenick, Hugh (Tr.). Last Days of Socrates. Accessed on 6-2-2004 at http://lilt.ilstu.edu/drjclassics/texts/Plato/Socrates.shtm
Canavan, Francis. Letting Go: How We Die. First Things 44 (June/July 1994): 54-56.
Good Life / the Good Death:
Ideas of the Greater Good and Highest Pursuit in Plato's Death of Socrates / Apology
When Plato was still a boy, he witnessed the trial and execution of Socrates. Historians tell us that during the trial he attempted to speak out in defense of the great philosopher. "Plato mounted the platform and began: 'Though I am the youngest, men of Athens, of all who ever rose to address you' -- whereupon the judges shouted out, 'Get down! Get down!' " (Laertius) Perhaps in his youth Plato would indeed have known very little, and had no great wisdom to add to the debate. If this is true, then according to Socratic ideas he would certainly have been the best advocate of all, for Socrates' entire defense lay upon the point that the truest wisdom lay in recognizing one's ignorance, and that the ultimate truth in…
Kalkavag, Peter. "Who Is Socrates? -- Thoughts on Plato's Apology." GB Quarterly, Winter 2000. http://arachnid.pepperdine.edu/goseweb/GBQuarterly/winter00/whoissocrates.html
Plato. Apology (Also known as The Death of Socrates) Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Project Gutenberg, 1999. http://unseelie.org/books/plato.socrates-apology
Laertius, Diogenes. "LIFE OF SOCRATES" Trans. Robert Drew Hicks. 1925. http://www.litfinder.com/search/worx.asp?R=777168374&act=A70&rothST=socrates%20apology
A ritual is an observable behavior that is exhibited by a society. There are many different types of rituals, ranging from simple ones, which a person submits to on a day-to-day basis, to more complex ones such as a rite of passage ceremony in which boys are turned into adults (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2016). esearcher Kastenbaum (2012) defines dying as one of the many transitions that everyone must experience. He goes further to state that death often commences as a psychosocial incident, then organ systems shutdowns. However, death itself is felt in the social and personal spheres of an individual's life (p. 112).
Practices Associated with Death and Dying in the United States
Kastenbaum explains that death and dying have been medicalized in the United States. And that the medicalization of death has worked to insulate medical doctors and policymakers from appreciating the mortal realities of death. There are…
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2016). Ritual. Retrieved February 27, 2016, from ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA: www.britannica.com
Gire, J. (2014). How Death Imitates Life: Cultural Influences on Conceptions of Death and Dying. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. Retrieved February 27, 2016 from www.scholarworks.gvsu.edu
Kastenbaum, R. J. (2012). Death, Society and Human Experience. New Jersey: Pearson.
Euthanasia comes from the Greek phrase meaning "good death," ("Euthanasia" 112). The various practices that fall under the general rubric of providing a person with the means for a "good death" include physician-assisted death, also referred to as physician-assisted suicide. Until recently, all forms of euthanasia were illegal in the United States and in most other developed countries but within the past generation, these laws have been liberalized so that citizens in democratic societies increasingly have access to a "good death." Physician-assisted suicide occurs under the guidance of an experienced and qualified physician, who is not legally obliged to agree to the practice. Therefore, no coercion takes place. The doctor is not permitted legally or ethically to coerce a patient into dying prematurely and the patient is likewise not ethically or legally allowed to persuade their doctor to intervene on their behalf. hat physician-assisted death laws do allow is for…
"Euthanasia." Chapter 10.
Lee, Richard. "Kant's Four Illustrations." Retrieved online: http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/rlee/iethsu06/oh/k-4egs.html
"State-by-State Guide to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Retrieved online: http://euthanasia.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000132
Warren, Mary Anne. "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion."
I do believe, therefore, that the Harvard criteria for determining brain death are a very important component of making decisions that affect individuals and families at the end of their lives.
When the EEG criteria are applied, for example, it might affect a family's decision to terminate artificial means of keeping a person alive, since there is no hope of revival. It could also affect the decision to donate organs.
ne thing I found quite surprising was that the concept of "brain death" only became an official diagnostic category in 1981. The term has been used so often that it feels almost like it has been in existence for far longer than this. Still, I think I find it quite comforting that there are criteria to determine whether a person has indeed completely died, or whether the end of brain function could be recovered after ceasing because of drugs or…
One thing I found quite surprising was that the concept of "brain death" only became an official diagnostic category in 1981. The term has been used so often that it feels almost like it has been in existence for far longer than this. Still, I think I find it quite comforting that there are criteria to determine whether a person has indeed completely died, or whether the end of brain function could be recovered after ceasing because of drugs or seizures. One wonders how many misdiagnoses have been made of death over the millennia of human existence. The particular horror of being buried alive has been the subject of many a horror tale. It is comforting that the possibility of this has been significantly diminished with the implementation of elements such as the Harvard criteria.
In conclusion, I find it particularly interesting that the reading gives such particular consideration not only of death in terms of physical functioning, but also in terms of the concept of spirituality. While nobody can truly claim to know what death is or whether anything happens after we die, it is good to know that there are criteria to determine whether death has indeed occurred.
I therefore believe that the Harvard criteria sufficiently cover all the areas necessary to determine the state of physical death. Where voluntary breathing, reflex, sensation, and brain function has ceased, it is indeed logical to assume that a person has died and that there is no hope of the person reviving.
I would set aside the death sentences imposed as violative of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments." ("Top 10 Pros and Cons," 2012) This is significant, in showing how the use of the death penalty is considered to be a violation of the basic civil rights that are provided to everyone.
Conclusion of why we should abolish
The main reason why opponents are arguing that the death penalty should be abolished is based on: the right of the government to take life and it is violation of the principles of democracy. These basic ideas are directly associated with the ethical theory of deontology. This is when an action is judged based upon how it is applied to society's rules. Given the fact that America is based on freedom and the right to life means that the death penalty is going against these basic provisions. This is important, in showing how the…
Ethical Theories Compared. (2001). Trinity. Retrieved from: http://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/intro/ethical_theories.html
Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty. (2012). Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved from:
Both characters found ways to avoid living through isolation. They alienated themselves from practically everyone and this resulted in severe pain. The message here is to think about the things that consume us and then consider how important those things will be at the end of our lives or when our lives become difficult.
The Death of Ivan Ilych" and "ard No. 6" are compelling stories that force us to think of life and death through the most painful experience of others. The search for the meaning of life becomes significant with these men who have lived rather aloof lives until they are stricken with a confounding truth. Ivan must face the truth that his life was not lived the best way that it could have been. Andrey must come to terms that he has been living has been terribly misguided. Both men realize that to some extent, their lives…
Chekhov, Anton. Ward No. 6." Read Print Online Library. Information Retrieved February 27, 2009. http://www.readprint.com/work-356/Anton-Chekhov
Tolstoy, Leo. "The Death of Ivan Ilych." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981.
Capital punishment is a controversial topic because it involves the taking of a human life as a punishment. Traditionally, Judeo-Christian and other mainstream religions strictly prohibit killing because they regard the matter of giving and taking of human life as exclusively within the jurisdiction of God and never something that is appropriately executed by the operation of human decisions or judicial determination.
In modern times, secular society has recognized several other equally important conceptual objections to relying on capital punishment within the framework of crime control and punishment.
Specifically, there may be good reason to believe that the death penalty has, historically, been applied unequally to offenders of minority communities and to members of society who lack the necessary means to secure their legal rights to their fullest extent by virtue of poverty. Moreover, despite the often-cited proposed justification that the death penalty provides an effective deterrent to…
Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Kaveny, C. "Justice or vengeance: is the death penalty cruel and unusual?"
Commonwealth, (February 18, 2008).
esearch reveals that those who kill white victims are much more likely to receive the death penalty than those who kill black victims. One study found that for similar crimes committed by similar defendants, blacks received the death penalty at a 38% higher rate than all others (Dieter, 1998).
It is significant to note that the death penalty is more likely to be imposed on men than woman. Death sentences and actual executions for female offenders are rare in comparison to such events for male offenders. Woman account for 10% of the murder arrests, 2% of the death sentences imposed at the trial level, 1.7% of the persons presently on death row, and 1% of the persons actually executed since 1973 (Streib, 2010).
States vary enormously in the quality of representation they provide to indigent defendants. The quality of legal representation is related to the arbitrary application of the death…
There are many situations and concerns in the world that require using ethical thought. There are many issues we read about an learn about when we have to ask ourselves what we believe in. hich side do we take on euthanasia or abortion or sexual morays? It is the responsibility of all people to explore these issues so that their opinions are education and well-informed. It is the lazy individual who formulates their opinions on innuendo and rumor. hat is ethical? hat is moral? hat is right? hat is good? It is everyone's responsibility to ask themselves these questions and formulate their own answers to these extremely important issues. Perhaps one of the most controversial topics for debate is over the ethical right of the death penalty. Some feel the penalty to too severe and inhumane. Others feel the penalty is just and not used often enough. How…
Axtman, Kris. "Judicial Rarity: Death Penalty in a Rape Case." The Christian Science Monitor.
"Facts About the Death Penalty" (2011). Retried from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org
MacKinnion, Barbara (2007). Ethics. Thomas Wadsworth.
"Roper v. Simmons." (2005). Supreme Court of the United States.
In order to understand the underlying concepts of faith with respect to philosophy, first it is important to understand 'philosophy' adequately. Jaspers was concerned about noting the originality and singularity of philosophy and he frames it as "to elucidate" (erhellen). As per Jaspers, this clarification or elucidation does not come to philosophers through an external agent but it happens by itself during the philosophical process and this happening is an innermost act. (Wildermuth, 2007). Philosophers understand the meaning and philosophy behind actions and things as they seek to explore hitherto mysterious, unexplained happenings and phenomenon.
However, only a few philosophers speak about the death. Even then, the best they can reveal about death is about its awareness. As such, although death is an unavoidable event and that is the only knowledge we have about it. All are aware that they have to face death one day and it will…
Feminist critics have taken a more positive view of Hulga and a more deflationary view of O'Connor's central meaning. "Nothing in O'Connor quite so flagrantly bears out the feminist theologian Mary Daly's assertion that '[t]he myths and symbols of Christianity are essentially sexist' - which is to say "rapist."(1)…it is the author's strategy in… 'Good Country People' to knock these proud female characters down a notch" (Havird 1). David Havird calls the loss of Hulga's leg and, symbolically her intellect, a kind of rape. Given the way that O'Connor frames the tale, O'Connor views it as a kind of deserved 'rape.' Manley Pointer's name supports this reading -- his manliness and taking away of Hulga's symbolic phallus or male 'member' (her leg) suggests that O'Connor views Hulga as insufficiently humble as a woman should be before God. Hulga's disdain of affection, her coldness to being kissed, and her disgust at…
Havird, David. "The saving rape: Flannery O'Connor and patriarchal religion." The Mississippi
Quarterly. Winter 1993. FindArticles.com. January 14, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3524/is_n1_v47/ai_n28633529/
Lake, Christina Bieber. "Flannery O'Connor's beatific vision." Christianity and Literature.
Autumn 2010. FindArticles.com. January 14, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb049/is_1_60/ai_n56366241/
One is most deterred by what one fears most. From which it follows that whatever statistics fail, or do not fail, to show, the death penalty is likely to be more deterrent than any other.
If it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to prove statistically, and just as hard to disprove, that the death penalty deters more from capital crimes than available alternative punishments do (such as life imprisonment), why do so many people believe so firmly that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent?
Some are persuaded by irrelevant arguments. They insist that the death penalty at least makes sure that the person who suffered it will not commit other crimes. True. Yet this confuses incapacitation with a specific way to bring it about: death. Death is the surest way to bring about the most total incapacitation, and it is irrevocable. ut does incapacitation need to…
1. Bedau, Hugo and Radelet, Michael., Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases, 40 Stan. L. Rev. 21., 1987.
2. Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153. 1976.
3. Louis Pojman, The Death Penalty: For and Against, Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
4. Nathanson, Stephen., An Eye for an Eye, 2d ed., Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield, 2001
Hanging, for example, can sometimes produce horrendous results: if the drop is too short, it results in slow and agonising strangulation; if it is too long, it may tear the head off. Electrocution too, at times, fails to kill instantly and the awful stench of burning flesh that follows the process is indicative of the excruciating pain suffered during the killing.
Another reason why capital punishment is wrong is because death is irreversable, human justice is fallible and criminal proceedings would always be prone to errors. There have been several cases of sentencing to death before evidence proving their innocence was uncovered. Since 1973 alone, 119 people in 25 USA states have been released from death row when evidence of their innocence came to light. ("Capital Punishment" ikipedia) Others, not so lucky, have been executed before evidence clearing them was discovered. James Adams, a Black American, who was executed in…
Baird, Robert M., and Stuart E. Rosenbaum, eds. Punishment and the Death Penalty: The Current Debate. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1995.
Bedau, Hugo Adam. (1992). "The Case Against The Death Penalty." American Civil Liberties Union. 1992. Retrieved on September 29, 2005 at http://sun.soci.niu.edu/~critcrim/dp/dppapers/aclu.antidp
Capital Punishment." From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. On September 29, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_punishment
Death Penalty, Q&A." Amnesty International USA. 2005. Retrieved on September 29, 2005 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/dp_qa.html
Death in Poetry
Poetry is an effective form of literature wherein the significance and importance of human experience are depicted. Life as people perceive and live it are the most common issues and topics used in poetry, although death is becoming a dominant topic in contemporary poetry because of its enigmatic and subjective quality. Death has many meanings for people: death can be an escape, relief, punishment, pain, suffering, or a meaningless void in a person's life. These different depictions of death will be discussed in the analyses of 5 poems wherein the theme of death is used.
Emily Dickinson's poem entitled, "Death" is a poem that talks about the futility of Man's greatness after death. The poem illustrates two dead people who had been known for their beauty (character 1) and a champion for the truth (character 2). Although these people had been great in their previous lives,…
Moreover, it is not necessarily even clear that capital punishment through humane means is worse than life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. The many prisoners who choose not to appeal their capital sentences and (especially) those who purposely commit capital offences while incarcerated for the express purpose of qualifying for capital punishment provide evidence that life imprisonment may be comparable in "harshness" to the death penalty.
With respect to the issue of mistaken prosecution, that represents a completely valid concern; to the extent capital punishment is justified in principle, it must be applied through procedures that preclude erroneous sentences. However, that is not a valid objection where evidence of guilt in uncontroverted. Likewise, both the general moral obligation and the U.S. Constitution require that execution of capital sentences not involve unnecessary or prolonged physical suffering. At law, that issue has long-been decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, which specifically…
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Friedman, A. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Critic Heyen says, "There is no question but that the play is elusive. As Miller himself has said, 'Death of a Salesman is a slippery play to categorize because nobody in it stops to make a speech objectively stating the great issues which I believe it embodies'" (Heyen 47). Therefore, many critics look at the play in different ways, attempting to categorize it and reference it according to their literary and dramatic experience. Heyen, on the other hand, tries to give his own personal reaction to the play, which is that Willy dies happy because he thinks what he is doing is right. He says, "Willy Loman, and this is his new and peculiar dimension, ends up dying happily, ecstatically, because he holds to the dream of meaning, holds to his sort of spiritual Franklinism" (Heyen 56). Willy dies happy, believing he is doing the right thing, and in the…
Clurman, Harold. "Willy Loman and the American Dream." Readings on Arthur Miller. Ed. Tomas Siebold. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1997. 132-136.
Heyen, William. "Authur Miller's Death of a Salesman and the American Dream." Arthur Miller Death of a Salesman. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House,1988. 47-57.
Jacobson, Irving. "Family Dreams in Death of a Salesman." Critical Essays on Arthur Miller. Ed. James J. Martine. Boston G.K. Hall & Co., 1979. 44-52
Miller, Arthur. "Death of a Salesman." Masters of Modern Drama. Ed. Haskell M. Block and Robert G. Shedd. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962. 1020-1054.
Though he hated his father's beliefs and principles, iff inevitable became the victim of these misguided ideals, and like Willy, eventually became a failure.
iff was not able to achieve his desire to satisfy his father's expectations about him to be economically successful -- that is, to subsist also to his father's 'American dream' kind of life. iff's resentment to his father resulted to his current state of poverty, with no permanent job to provide him with financial support and immaturity in dealing with his problems in life. He also lacks self-confidence because of his father's constant criticisms about his life and lack of ambition, which made him indecisive and resigned in the kind of life that he leads: " ... I realized something about myself and I tried to explain it to you ... I think I'm just not smart enough to make sense out of it for you"…
Miller, A. (1976). Death of a Salesman. NY: Penguin Books.
Otten, T. (2002). The Temptation of Innocence in the Dramas of Arthur Miller. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Shamir, M. (2002). Boys don't cry? Rethinking the narratives of masculinity and emotion in the U.S. NY: Columbia UP.
Thompson, T. (2002). "Miller's Death of a Salesman." Explicator, Vol. 60, Issue 3.
An on-going Debate on Ethics and Morality
The topic examined in this assignment was the death penalty. In this country, this issue is one of constant debate, as it exists in half the country (roughly), but not in the other half. The first paper, as mentioned, analyzed three articles, all of which were subsequently described and included in the copy in order to see how the death penalty was described by intellectuals, and what arguments they gave as to its use, or lack thereof. This paper will utilize Universal Intellectual Standards (UIS) to critically review and re-evaluate the rational utilized in the previous assignment.
Firstly, clarity is very important in this assignment. The reason why the results here were further stratified was because the initial results were lacking in clarity. According to the UIS, clarity is the fist that should be applied to any work, in order to…
Cooper, K. (2010). Why the death penalty still exists in the U.S.: Author ties the practice to slavery, racism. The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from . (ProQuest was utilized)
Richey, W. (2009). Death penalty is too expensive for states, study finds. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from .
Rosenberg, P. (2002). A balanced study of death penalty. The Denver Post. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from . (LexisNexis was utilized)
Please also note that for this analysis, the source provided by the customer including paper requirements were also utilized.
Biff, by no means, was him a lazy bum, he had many different jobs before, but did not stay long at any of them, so he was not a dependent user who would wait for others to provide for him, he actually worked. The perception of Willy on Beff's job is evident when he speaks about Biff's recent job as a farm hand with disdain. He demeans the job without caring that it was a means where he would make an honest living. It indicates that no matter the job he would have picked for himself, Willy would not have supported him unless it was the one that brought the glory and reverence to the Lamon family name (Magil 1365-1368).
Thematic issues like father-son relationships that the author pursues in his writing: Biff and Will's relationship is not only representative of how fathers plan and map out their child's life,…
Bender, David, "Arthur Miller," San Diego CA: Greenhaven Press 1997, 5-6
Corrigan, Robert, "A Collection of Critical Esays" Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice hall, 1969 98-107
Miller, Arthur "Death of a salesman" New York, Penguins 1949, 10-13
Magil, Frank "Death of a Salesman: Master plots" Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem, 1976. 1365-1368
Death of a President by illiam Raymond Manchester
This paper provides a review of The Death of a President by illiam Raymond Manchester. The writer of this paper presents the reader with an opinion about the writing as well as the ideas that the author portrays in the book. There was one source used to complete this paper.
THE TELLING OF A STORY HILE IT IS STILL FRESH CAN MAKE ALL THE DIFFERENCE
One of the most compelling reasons to read The Death of a President by illiam Raymond Manchester, is that he wrote the book very soon after the events. The death of President John F. Kennedy rocked the nation to the core. It was televised because he was in a parade and waving to his constituents when it occurred and the world tilted sideways as the bullet hit his head. This book is an extremely detailed overview of…
While many books about the death of Kennedy have second hand accounts or tales from those who heard the story from others, Manchester's book has actual eyewitness stories of what happened in the days leading up to the death and the death itself. This book is an excellent source of information for anyone who wants to know what really happened that day and wants to know whether or not there was a conspiracy. The minute-by-minute accounts of his whereabouts and actions remind the reader the president was also a human, a husband, and a father. Manchester placed him in a light that exuded strength, power and compassion while he walked the readers through the steps until the shot rang out. Few writers will be able to compete with this book as the author had the benefit of not only the eyewitnesses but also the Kennedy family. While it is long, over 700 pages, it reads with such interest and accuracy that it feels like a much shorter book. This would be a good book for anyone to read who wants to study the Kennedy's, the shooting, or the era.
Manchester, Raymond, William. The death of a president: November 20-November 25, 1963
Finally, there is a sense of release or uplifting at the end of the play. Linda's comment, "We're free" (Miller 1054) seems to encapsulate the family's struggles and inner turmoil. Willy has died in a blaze of glory, utterly convinced he is doing the right thing, and perhaps that has made his last moments happier than they have been in years. He will never know he failed again, and failed his family in the most permanent way. However, there was so much argument, turmoil, and strife in the family, perhaps removing himself was really the thing the family needed. There is a feeling, even though it may be implied, that the family will come together as a result of Willy's death, and that they will survive. There is also a feeling that the two sons will have some impetus to make something of themselves, even if it is because they…
Miller, Arthur. "Death of a Salesman." Masters of Modern Drama. Haskell M. Block and Robert G. Shedd, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1962. 1020-1054.
The reality of this truth is that is Nora does not know herself, her husband cannot possible know who she is. Nora experiences the pain of a blind love that has finally seen the truth. In a moment of enlightenment, she tells her husband, "You don't understand me, and I have never understood you either -- before tonight" (194).
For years, Nora lived safely behind the lie that she called a marriage but after Torvald found out about the loan, the happy marriage was gone and both partners saw the lies of one another. Nora's difficulty with love is different in that she makes a positive discovery in addition to the terrible truth she has learned. In short, not all is in vain. Nora can walk away a more informed, educated, and independent woman as a result of what she went through with Torvald. She can also look forward to…
Chekhov, Anton. "The Lady with the Pet Dog." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981.
Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House. Three Plays by Ibsen. New York: Dell Publishing Company, Inc. 1963.
However, from time immemorial, each soul has been obliged to repeatedly live and die in countless embodied forms: as a human being; an animal; a plant; a tiny unseen creature which lives only for an instant in air, water, fire, or earth; as an inhabitant of one of many terrible hells; or, as one of many classes of deity in an elaborate hierarchy of heavens. Overall, therefore, this universe of circulating souls is overwhelmingly characterized by pain, sickness, loss, want, and wickedness. Any pleasure is merely transitory. Even the gods will go through the agonies of death, then those of birth, and resume their life of suffering in another body (Laidlaw, p. 2).
Therefore, the religion advocates that the only way to break the cycle and obtain release from this samsar of endless suffering is through disciplined ascetic practice and by carefully abstaining from any sinful action such as the…
Archer, J.C. "Faiths Men Live by." New York: T. Nelson and sons, 1938.
Banks, M. "Organizing Jainism in India and England." Oxford: Oxford University Press,
Laidlaw, J. "Riches and Renunciation: Religion, Economy, and Society among the Jains."
Oxford: Clarendon Press.
A philosopher looking at this article would likely believe that the author was using consequentialist arguments, because the author appears to feel that the action that must be taken is one that would make everything better. This betterment would be the 'consequence' of not allowing capital punishment for anyone that was under 18 when his or her crime was committed. The article is really very persuasive in that it makes the U.S. look bad and shows that there can be mistakes made when someone is executed and DNA and other evidence later may show that the person was actually innocent of the crime. However, those that believe strongly in justice will not want capital punishment abolished, no matter what the age of the criminal.
Schetky, Diane H., MD. (2001). Juveniles and the death penalty. American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. AAPL Newsletter, 26(3), 9-10. Retrieved May 27,…
Schetky, Diane H., MD. (2001). Juveniles and the death penalty. American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. AAPL Newsletter, 26(3), 9-10. Retrieved May 27, 2006, at http://www.emory.edu/AAPL/newsletter/N263_Juveniles_death_penalty.htm
.....deathbed, Morrie reflects on his life, and relays several messages about the meaning or purpose of life. Ironically, one of the main messages of the story is that life does not necessarily have a greater or cosmic meaning. Meaning is found in what is immediately before us, in the day-to-day existence and especially in relationships with others. Life's meaning is found in accepting life for what it is rather than wishing it could be something else. The meaning of life can therefore be best understood by appreciating what we have now instead of wishing we were different or that things were different.
Second, and following from this, the meaning of life is located in the small details, things we can frequently overlook -- finding beauty and joy in every day, even on bad days and in situations that are painful or uncomfortable. Meaning is especially found in friendship, caring for…
It may be too late but he does come to understand what is right and good.
In "The Murders in the Rue Morgue," we find another type of struggle, which aims at working toward solving a mystery. This story is noted for being one of the first of its kind and the narrator reaches his conclusion through analysis. How Dupin comes to his conclusions is his struggle because he is working with disarray. The atrocity of the murders and the chaos of the of Mademoiselle L'Espanaye's apartment set the scene for a rather messy situation. The furnishings in the apartment were "broken and thrown about in all directions" (Poe 63) and the bed was tossed in the middle of the floor. Someone had stuffed the daughter in the chimney, "head downward" (63) in such a way her body had been "thrust up and disengaged" (63). The mother's throat was cut…
Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Murders in the Rue Morgue." The Complete Tales of Mystery and Imagination.
Minnesota: Amaranth Press: 1984. Print.
Tolstoy, Leo. The Death of Ivan Ilych. The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Shorter Sixth Ed.
Eds. Cassill, R.V. And Bausch, Richard. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 2000. Print.
The most difficult thing I have ever lived through has been my sister's death. Five years ago, when she was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer we had about five months left to be with her before she was gone. I know that death is never easy but I never knew it could be so hard. Jenny was eight years older than I was, and I had grown very accustomed to her being a part of my life every single day since I can remember. There was nothing to prepare me for her death.
The day she died was weird for all of us but I remember telling myself that it had really happened but I did not feel like it had really happened. I knew that I was probably in some sort of shock and I remember lying on my bed in the dark waiting for it to hit me.…
Good Man is Hard to Find
Flannery O'Conner's short story, a Good Man is Hard to Find is a modern parable. The story is laced with symbolism and religious subtext. In many ways the piece is similar to classical Greek plays about pride and retribution.
efore launching into a discussion of O'Conner's story it is important to understand the woman and her motivations to write. O'Conner was born in Savannah, Georgia in 1925 to her devout Catholic parents, Edward and Regina O'Conner. Flannery spent her youth attending Catholic parochial schools. In 1938, the family moved to a town just outside Atlanta called Milledgeville where Flannery continued her education. Unfortunately, her father would ultimately die in this town as the result of complications from the disease lupus. Flannery went on to Georgia State College for Women and then proceeded to the State University of Iowa where she received her MFA in…
O'Conner, Flannery. A Good Man is Hard to Find. 1953. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR/goodman.html
Galloway, Patrick. The Dark Side of Flannery O'Conner. 1996. http://www.cyberpat.com/essays/flan.html
Mitchel, J. Tin Jesus: The Intellectual in Selected Short Fiction of Flannery O'Conner. 2000. http://sunset.backbone.olemiss.edu/~jmitchel/flannery.htm
Coles, Robert. Flannery O'Conner's South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1980.
Good Man is Hard to Find
For the purposes of this essay, I chose Flannery O'Connor's short story "A Good Man is Hard to Find." "A Good Man is Had to Find" is an apt topic for research such as this, because the ambiguity of the story's position regarding a grandmother ultimately responsible for the death of her entire family leads to a wide variety of possible readings, each with its own adherents and defenders. Upon reading this story, I immediately questioned the grandmother's role in the story, and especially whether or not the story portrayed her in a positive or negative light, because although at points in the story she appears positive in contrast to the other characters, she is ultimately shown to be reactive, shortsighted, and altogether incapable of protecting either her family or herself. Using Google Scholar, I searched for academic essays and books discussing "A Good…
Bandy, Stephen . "One of my babies": the misfit and the grandmother." Studies in Short Fiction.
Winter. (1996): 1-7. Print.
Desmond, John. "Flannery O'Connor's Misfit and the Mystery of Evil." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature. 56. (2004): 129-37. Print.
Evans, Robert C. "Cliches, Superficial Story-Telling, and the Dark Humor of Flannery
Both have in their own way gone against the norm. When Babli, embittered by the men in her life, and after losing hope of ever having the man she loves decides to have a baby alone, she breaks her fathers will. For in a traditional Hindu family the girl accepts the match set up by the father, but here, we read how she chooses her mate, loses him and then goes against her own values to have a child. it's the ultimate rebellion from the conventional ways and undermines the very conception of hindu family values as understood by the traditional Indians, and hence creates a conflict of conventional and modern ways and starts the debate of whether second and third generation immigrants will ever completely follow their own cultures as set forth by their parents.
5. The Gold-Legged Frog by Khamsing Srinawk
Passage: "You sure are lucky,' the words…
" Having in mind the relation between work and amusement, it is safe to say that by finding amusement in consumption implies creating a bigger need to work (otherwise one would not have the necessary financial resources). Working exclusively for money for a long time has a negative impact on people who come to be less and less motivated. The author underlines the fact that the reasons for which we work are more important than the actual work we do. For example, working in order to have enough money to pay for a superior education is definitely more rewarding than working in order to be able to buy Cd players and clothes. Work plays a determinant role in shaping our lives and impacts our happiness in a fundamental manner. Therefore, if we work just to be able to spend more, it is easy to understand that this type of long-term…
Ciulla, J.B. Leisure and consumption
Solomon, R.C. Strategic Planning- For the good life
However, the numbers used to report murder rates only tell us the number of crimes that have occurred. They tell us nothing about crimes that were never committed because of fear of the death penalty. The conundrum is that there is no realistic way to measure something that did not happen in the general population, at least in a way that would be credible from a scientific point-of-view.
Those that support the death penalty tend to place more emphasis on the credibility of econometric methods of analysis. They can find many studies to support their position among this group of analyses. They discredit comparative methods of study that do not support their position. Both proponents and their opposition have attempted to reduce the issue of whether the death penalty acts as a deterrent to murder to one of credibility of the research findings. However, this argument fails, as there are…
Archer, D. And Gartner, R (1984). Homicide and the death penalty: A cross-national test of deterrence hypothesis. In Archer and Gartner, Violence and Crime in Cross-
National Perspective, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dezhbaksh, H., Robin, P., and Shepherd, J. (2002). Does capital punishment have a Deterrent effect? New evidence from post-moratorium panel data. American Law and Economics Review 5(2): 344-376.Retrieved February 5, 2007, from: http://aler.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/2/344.
Fagan, J. (2005). Deterrence and the Death Penalty: A Critical Review of New Evidence.
2. Discuss and examine public education in Texas. What is the purpose and function of an I.S.D. What are the purposes of the SOE and the TEA? In your opinion, is the TAKS
test good for educating students in Texas? If the Legislature eliminates the TAKS test, then what should it be replaced with?
Texas education, much like the education in the United States as a whole, faces a crisis in meeting the requirements of a global community. The United States is being far surpassed by competing international educational systems. A study was conduct by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) which looked at the educational systems in developed countries across the planet. The educational system in the U.S. ranked surprisingly low when compared against other countries.
The PISA studies fifteen-year-old students across the globe on three different subjects. The test given is similar to the Texas TAKS test…
Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed. . (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Pro-Death Penalty: http://off2dr.com/modules/cjaycontent/index.php?id=21
Texas Department of Criminal Justice. (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Executed Offenders: http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/stat/executedoffenders.htm
(Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 2010)
(Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed., 2010)