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Gospel of Luke
According to early church traditions, Luke was a Jewish, Greek-speaking physician who accompanied Paul on his three journeys, and was chosen to write the third Gospel because his knowledge of Greek was better than most of the other writers in the church at that time. Even his use of language gives a hint about his social and cultural origins since it was composed in the same style as technical books and the type of Greek used by artisans and urban officialdom in the eastern part of the oman Empire. Luke was not from the elite or aristocracy, unlike the many oman critics of Christianity, but probably from the artisan or techne caste to which even physicians belonged in the ancient world. Both Paul and Jesus were also from the same stratum of society, and the early Christian message seemed to resonate particularly well with the freed slaves,…
Black, J.B. (2001). Why Four Gospels? The Historical Origins of the Gospels. Kregel Publishers.
Comfort, P.W. And J. Priesbach (2008). The Many Gospels of Jesus: Sorting out the Story of the Life of Jesus. Tyndale House Publishers.
Green, J.B. (1995). The Theology of the Gospel of Luke. Cambridge University Press.
Loveday, A. (1993). The Preface to Luke's Gospel: Literary Convention and Social Context in Luke 1-4 and Acts 1:1. Society for New Testament Studies.
There are seven letters by Paul and it is accepted that they were written by Paul, but no one knows clearly who wrote the rest. A critical enquiry into all this started only in the 18th century as there was no critical study of the matter. The accepted authorship of Paul is regarding the Epistles to Romans, First to Corinthians, Second to Corinthians, to Philippians, to Galatians, to Thessalonians and to Philemon. Thus, even though some other epistles are attributed to authorship by Paul, many scholars do not accept that those Epistles were written by Paul.
This sort of argument has been going on since the beginning of enquiry into the subject. Regarding authorship of the Gospels, they are all viewed to be anonymous, though they are attributed to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. This helps in the view to be correct. Thus one of the similarities between epistles and…
Bird's eye-tour of the Holy Bible. (Retrieved 23 July, 2005) Available at http://www.obf.net/biblestudy/new.htm;Internet
Gospel. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Retrieved 23 July, 2005) Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel;Internet
Holding, J.P. The New Testament: On the Formation of the NT Canon. (Retrieved 23 July, 2005) Available at http://www.tektonics.org/lp/ntcanon.html;Internet
New Testament. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Retrieved 23 July, 2005) Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Testament#Epistles;Internet
Gospel of John was written already after the disciple's death in the first century CE. It was time when there was coming a vivid schism in Christianity teaching, as Christian philosophy was influencing changes caused by the impact of Gnosticism of Greeks, and it was time when some Christian religious leaders rejected the Devine mission of Christ. In gospel, John comes to the original language used by Jesus Christ, He used when speaking to disciples, language close to original one of Palestine and to the events of that epoch. John tried to deliver the message to reader that was preached by Jesus Christ to his disciples explaining main moral and ethical aspects of Christianity, the core teaching one has to follow in order to receive salvation. The gospel of John is something more than a simple story about Christ's miracles, and simple faith in his all-mighty Devine nature, it's moral,…
New Testament: Gospel of John, Gospel of Mark
Helms, R. Who wrote the gospels? Penguin 1997
Kirby, Peter Gospel of John, Article available on web: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/john.html
Kirby, Peter Gospel of Mark, Article available on web: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/mark.html
Also, according to Luke, the "poor" may fall under a spiritual category, referring to individuals who are committed and humble and depend solely on God (Bartholomew, Green and Thiselton).
Because Jesus ministry had no boundaries, Luke wrote that the church should also have no boundaries and should include the rich and the poor. One of Luke's greatest desires may have been for the church to include the rich and the poor. Bartholomew, Green and Thiselton (2005) assert that "Luke tells the story of Jesus to address this tension and to foster 'solidarity between rich, respected Christians and poor, despised Christians'" (246). Jesus also proclaimed a turnaround of the miserable outcome of those who were considered cast outs, the oppressed, and the unhealthy by asking the healthy and rich to share what they have with those who are victims of abuse, exploitation and heartbreaking circumstances. All throughout the book of Luke,…
Bartholomew, Craig, G., Joel B. Green and Anthony C. Thiselton. Reading Luke: Interpretation, reflection, formation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. 2005. Print.
Granger Community Church "Popular culture helps put people in the pews." South Bend
Tribune, October 2004. Print.
Greenan, Julie the Gospel of Luke and Wealth (Sermon on St. Francis and Christian Poverty)
Much literary criticism assumes that the gospels are not necessarily historical or else it plays down theological or religious context. However, these assumptions are not inherent in the method; a well-crafted piece of historical writing also promotes certain ideological concerns in an artistic and aesthetically pleasing (loomberg)."
Now that we have garnered a greater understanding of the climate of Israel at the time of Jesus Christ and the criticisms that have been leveled against the gospel, let us discuss in detail each of the four gospels. This discussion will evaluate the writings and the proposed intent of the writers. We will discuss the similarities and differences of the four gospels. A careful analysis of each chapter will reiterate the idea that the gospels are eyewitness testimonies whose differences and similarities are valuable in exploring and proving the historical life of Jesus Christ the Lord God on earth.
The Four Gospels:…
Bloomberg, Craig. Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey Broadman & Holman Publishers. 1997 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=57339283
Burton, Ernest De Witt, and Edgar Johnson Goodspeed. A Harmony of the Synoptic Gospels for Historical and Critical Study. New York, Chicago: C. Scribner's Sons, 1917.
Donahue, John R.S.J. The Theology and Setting of Discipleship in the Gospel of Mark. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1983.
" Jesus, on the other hand, is overcome with compassion. Generously, Jesus performs the miracle of the loaves and the fishes so that "number of the men who had eaten was five thousand," (Mark 6:44). Mark also points out that the disciples "had not understood about the loaves," and that their "hearts were hardened," (Mark 6:52).
5. What ideas in this gospel seem more strange or surprising to you? Cite the lines (with chapters and verses) that say something odd. Speculate as best you can on why those lines are part of the gospel. With an enormous number of tales to tell, give some guesses as to why Mark included the lines you find odd.
While the Gospel of Mark is filled with miracles and marvelous moments in which Jesus displays his power and glory, there are few instances that are personally odd. For example, I find it interesting to…
Sarah's feelings about the enemy vacillate between the guilt she feels for the Confederate soldier she killed -- she wonders about the family waiting for him at home -- and personal identification with the freed slaves. Her feeling of kinship with African-Americans is particularly acute, given how badly Sarah was treated at home by her father, and the downtrodden condition of her mother. Through her compassion towards her enemy, Sarah demonstrates the gospel virtue of loving one's enemy, but still remaining true to one's moral center. She does not abandon the Union cause, but can still acknowledge the humanity of individuals deemed her enemy (Rinaldi 96). And she is able to identify with all human beings, regardless of their race, and see her humanity reflected in their eyes.
In her spirit of self-sacrifice Sarah also comes to embody the Christian virtue of putting others before herself, and acting as a…
Rinaldi, Ann. The Girl in Blue. Scholastic, 2001.
It can be left to the families of the decedents; or it can be bequeathed for public purposes; or, finally, it can be administered by its possessors during their lives." (53) Carnegie goes on to repudiate the first and last modes of spending one's massive fortune, noting that he is not speaking of a small and modest wealth associated with many years of saving and toil he is talking about grand scale wealth that amount to more than a family could ever spend in a lifetime. Giving all your money to your descendants he claims is foolhardy because they will likely squander it because they do not likely possess the skill to earn it on their own and if they do they will do so. Additionally, doing everything you can to spend it in your lifetime on trifles is foolhardy as it will only benefit your family and the few…
Compare and contrast the religious, political, and social views of the Samaritans, Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes
The Samaritans were a sect largely opposed to mainstream Judaism, hence Jesus' use of a Samaritan as an example of someone who was surprisingly compassionate, despite being of an ostracized sect; the Pharisees were the priestly, institutionalized ruling class; the Sadducees emphasized the rule of the Torah, versus the oral law endorsed by the Pharisees; the Essenes were a mystical sect largely credited with bringing forth many of the ideas reflected in the gospels.
Describe some features of Greco-Roman religion. In what ways did religion function differently than it does for people today?
Greco-Roman religion was a social construct: it meant honoring the gods of the city through sacrifices and public rituals. Religion was linked to the state's leaders and social institutions rather than something that satisfied personal, religious needs. However, separate 'cult'…
Abbott, K. Themes in Luke's Gospel. [13 Feb 2014]
The Gospel of Matthew: Jesus as the New Moses. Worldview Publications, 2007.
[13 Feb 2014] http://www.worldviewpublications.org/outlook/archive/089/089.pdf
The Christian gospel is perceived very differently among the many different members of our culture. Some accept it gladly, others question it, and others subscribe to their own specific gospels. Therefore, it is not perceived the same way by everyone, or accepted 100% by the entire culture. Even different Christian sects subscribe to different ideas of the gospel. However, most Christians agree with this account of the gospel message, and accept it.
Many people reject the Christian gospel because they have different religious beliefs. For example, Jews and Muslims have their own gospels, so they reject the Christian gospel in favor of their own. However, others who reject the Christian gospel do so for moral, emotional, and intellectual reasons. The intellectual rejection comes from different beliefs about science, the Earth's formation, and the literal Christian view of the creation. Some do not believe the Bible is a true…
The Gospels in the New Testament are books that were written at a time when there was huge literary production and remain one of the most important components in Christian literature. The significance of these books in early and modern Christian literature is attributable to their presentation of the earthly life and teachings of Jesus Christ from different perspective i.e. based on the author’s experience. In some cases, the Gospels are widely regarded as examples of early biography, which have led to the idea of the Gospels being biographies. However, the Gospels about the life of Jesus differ from an autobiography of Abraham Lincoln since these books are not biographies.
According to Boring (2012), it is widely acknowledged that the Gospels are not biographies in the contemporary sense. The Gospels are not biographies since they do not provide a description of the appearance and psychological development of Jesus. Additionally, these…
Boring, M.E. (2012). An introduction to the New Testament: history, literature and theology. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Boring, M.E. (2006). Mark: a commentary. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
The remarkable parable of the prodigal son has instrumental instructional value. As Donahue points out, the Lukan context is the original and most meaningful, as it pivots around the father’s behavior and firmly establishes the older son as being the antagonist. The parable of the prodigal son has multiple layers of meaning, and even establishes new paradigms for the human relationship with God. On a more mundane level, the parable of the prodigal son redefines the nature of family and the father-son relationship, which can be viewed as a metaphor for the God-Man relationship.
The Lukan version of the parable of the prodigal son encapsulates the Christian message. With this parable, Luke shows how the Christian vision of worship and prayer had become qualitatively different from the Jewish version. Indeed, Luke provides us with a distinct theology of Christ. Luke shows how forgiveness, compassion, and mercy would become cornerstones of…
Bergant, D. & Fragomeni, R. “Preaching the New Lectionary”
Donahue, J.R. The Gospel in parable.
Malina, B. & Rohrbaugh, R. “Social Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels”
Pilch, J. The cultural world of Jesus. Social Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels
While the Gospel of John bears some similarities to the Synoptic Gospels, as Barrett (1974) points out, it also sets itself apart in several unique ways by focusing on the mystical nature of Christ and the importance of the Church. Even the Synoptic Gospels offer differing details of the life and teachings of Christ, and in many instances, John agrees or is more in line with Mark, while Mark differs from Matthew and Luke. Still, Barrett (1974) affirms that “John’s aim was not literal accuracy, and he therefore cannot be expected to show detailed respect for the wording of any source” (p. 228). John’s aim, rather, was to illustrate the divine nature of Christ in a way that showed how the Son of God was infinitely unique in the history of the world—and how that uniqueness was to stay with the world through the sacraments of the Church.
For this reason, it is important to identify the most basic differences between Hinduism and Christianity (Christian esponse to Hinduism (http://contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php)."
While Hindus believe in a Creator the truth behind that creator is that there are many Gods within the Brahman. The Christian faith provides one Lord, one God and one true creator.
The bible instructs man to worship and love only one God.
Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one." Deuteronomy 6:4
And call upon me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you will honor me." Psalm 50:15
In the Hindu faith each person is nothing more than a manifestation of the Brahman. It is something that can create great stress with the belief that one is on earth because in a previous life they were not worthy.
The Christian faith believes that God created all mankind with free will. He…
Ghasarian, Christian (1997) We have the best gods! The encounter between Hinduism and Christianity in La Reunion. Journal of Asian and African Studies
Lambert, Yves (1999). Secularization or New Religious Paradigms? Sociology of Religion, 60 (3), Fall, pp. 303-333.
Cohen, Charles L.(2003) the colonization of British North America as an episode in the history of Christianity. Church History
Study of Basic Christian Beliefs (Accessed 5-23-07)
On its own, Matthew 23 offers rich opportunities for an expository sermon or homily. Biblical commentaries enhance the original text and offer new angles and fresh ways of approaching the material. All commentaries on Matthew 23 will offer some fruitful information that can be incorporated into a sermon or bible study. Depending on the angle the preacher or theologian wishes to take, a commentary should focus on one or more elements contained in scripture, also taking into account historical and cultural contexts.
Harrington (1991), Pilch (1995), Senior (1998), and Witherington (2006) each offer unique perspectives on Matthew 23. Of these, the most thorough and enriching seems to be Donald Senior’s, because the author includes correspondences and also places Matthew 23 within the context of prophetic wisdom. Harrington (1991) also describes the passages clearly and in great detail, allowing for a greater understanding of the role of the Pharisees, and why…
Gospels Greek text a basis. The Bible on Luke Chapter 7: 1-10 Sample Essay Outline ( a guideline, adjust argument) ! short introduction (end statement thesis [, a summary interpretation passage]) ! body (argument support thesis) " summary passage " observations contents passage " observations literary, thematic, historical contexts " summary message original audience " explanation application context ! short conclusion (begin -stating thesis).
Jesus' healing of the Centurion's servant
The biblical text of Jesus healing a Centurion's servant is recognized for the numerous ways in which it can be interpreted and for being a significant pillar of faith in the Christian world. The story is particularly intriguing because it involves a Centurion turning to Jesus in order to get help and because it is one of the only two biblical accounts involving Christ performing a miracle meant to help Gentiles and in the presence of these people. This text…
Adam, D. "Growing in Awareness." (Kevin Mayhew Publishers)
Dick, A.K. "THE GOD VIRUS: THE PONTIUS PILATE REPORT (complete and unabridged American version)." (Anna K. Dick)
Hawkins, J.B. "Staying One, Remaining Open: Educating Leaders for a 21st Century Church." (Church Publishing, Inc., 1 Feb 2010)
John, J. "The Meaning in the Miracles." (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004)
This is evidenced in the first chapter's list of Jesus' linage, recalling similar lists in the Old Testament, tracing the line of Israel. Second is the nativity gospel, or story of the hero's extraordinary origins, along the lines of Moses' story of persecution and salvation from death as a baby from Genesis. Jesus' Sermon on the Mount is a dogmatic illustration of the role of Jesus as teacher to his followers. Jesus also teaches his disciples and others through parables, through miracles, and by quoting and interpreting scripture in a prophetic style. The final genre of the Gospel of Matthew is that of the Passion story, the narrative present in all of the gospels, of Jesus' death and resurrection.
Atmosphere: The atmosphere of the Gospel of Matthew is of a world of great hypocrisy. There is a tension between the exterior world and the interior world. Jesus teaches his followers…
Boring notes that early church hymns were constructed around a core of theological content, and were largely instructional in nature. According to Boring, the Prologue was one such hymn, and was used in catechism. Boring also points out the historical and sociological function of the Prologue, which would have been to “bridge the minds of the Semitic and Hellenistic worlds,” through the central and unifying concept of logos. Both the Semitic and the Hellenistic worlds shared an appreciation for the power of the Word. Moloney (1989) points out that the Prologue presents Christ as the incarnation of the Word.
Boring also points out that the Prologue emphasizes the first person plural to engender a sense of community among readers. From a theological standpoint, though, the Prologue also tackles the central mystery—and controversy—of the incarnation of Christ. Christ embodies the paradox of a God that is at once transcendent and immanent.…
Rst: New Testament
the passion in synoptic gospels vs john'S GOSPEL
The Synoptic Gospels, which are the Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, are called "Synoptic" because their patterns and stories show similar themes as well as differences. Placing them side by side, which has been done many times, can give a quick "historical" synopsis of Jesus' life. hile the Synoptic Gospels use many of the same patterns and stories, each author stresses his own themes, particularly in describing Jesus' Passion: his suffering and death. Mark emphasizes Jesus' suffering. Matthew focuses on Jesus' kingship and the jealous plotting against him. Luke stresses Jesus' innocence and its recognition by several of Jesus' key oppressors. The Synoptic Gospels use common historical patterns and stories to convey their messages.
In contrast to the Synoptic Gospels, John's Gospel is less historical and more poetically, theologically developed. John's Gospel does not use the same patterns…
Just, Felix. The Passion and Death of Jesus. 15 August 2014. Web. 15 August 2015.
King James Bible Online. John Chapter 18. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
-- . John Chapter 19. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
-- . Luke Chapters 22 and 23. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
Matthew and Mark
The synoptic Gospels of Matthew and Mark differ significantly in their perception of Jesus, but share great similarities in the way in which they state salvation should be sought. ithin Matthew, Jesus is described as Godlike, but within Mark Jesus is seen as a special man, but not as a God. Mark and Matthew are similar in their perception of the attainment of salvation. Matthew describes salvation through repenting, keeping the commandments and giving to the poor and needy, while Mark also describes the attainment of salvation through keeping the commandments and good works. Together, the similarities and differences that exist within these closely related texts serve to highlight the challenges of the interpretation of the Bible.
Matthew describes Jesus as Godlike. In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus is not shown as fallible or limited in power or authority, as he is in Mark. Further, Matthew's Gospel…
Bible, King James Version (KJV). Gospel of Matthew. 04 may 2004. http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/matthew-kjv.html
Bible, King James Version (KJV). Gospel of Mark. 04 May 2004. http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/mark-kjv.html
Gospel of John
The Gospel of John presents Jesus to the reader in a way that makes Christ the central figure not just at the time but in all history. Christ is the logos—the Word from the beginning of time. As the faith community moved out of the synagogue, I can see how the Gospel of John helped to prepare the community for this move. Christ is depicted in the Gospel as instituting an entirely new religion—one based on love, charity, mercy and relationships. As Moloney (1998) states, “one becomes a child of God through a process of growth” (p. 38), and the abandonment of the synagogue may be seen as the young bird leaving the nest and branching out on his own. This was the growth the Church required and at the center of it was the idea of Christ as the God of all.
The four gospel books in the New Testament are the principal foundation of the information regarding the life of Jesus. These books include Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The four books tell the story of the life of Jesus, but from different perspectives. Christian faith depends on the four gospel books that narrate the historical life of Jesus. As a result, if the provisions in these four books are a correct historical account of Jesus, then the faith of Christians is practical. Moreover, if indeed Jesus rose on the third day from the departed, the claim that Jesus is the Son of God is rational. If the claim that Jesus taught the people many things highlighted in the four gospel books, then believing in Him is the only means through which Christians can have everlasting life. Although the gospel books particularly Matthew, Mark and Luke demonstrate the synoptic problem,…
Bible Society in Australia Staff 2008. Holy Bible: New international version. Australia: Bible Society in Australia Incorporated.
Donahue, J., & Harrington, S.J 2002. The Gospel of Mark: Texas: Liturgical Press.
Dunn, J 1985. The evidence of Jesus. Westminster: Westminster John Knox Press.
Green, J., Turner, M 1999. Jesus of Nazareth: Lord and Christ: Essays on the historical Jesus and the New Testament Christology. New York: Wipf & Stock Pub.
Moral reasons therefore include one's loyalty to his or her own faith and family traditions. Emotional reasons are similar: a personal conviction in another religious tradition precludes one from accepting the gospel. Intellectual reasons are those used by atheists and usually include arguments such as the existence of God cannot be proven using the scientific method.
3. What can Christians do to address these objections and better communicate the Christian gospel?
Christians can most easily address the objections raised by the materialist or atheist communities. The scientific method has become like a religion in itself. Not everything can be proven using the tools of science. Yet even science can prove that the gospel has had a transformative effect on the lives of individuals and whole communities. Therefore, the best way Christians can address objections to the gospel is to illustrate the glory of the gospel in action,…
Scholars have repeatedly stated that the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are linked together by various similarities. As such, the three writings have been united under the entitlement Synoptic Gospels. The majority of literary investigations rely on equivalences in content, style, and order of events being similar and frequent in the Synoptic Gospels to such extend that they appear vastly separated from John's. Cursive analyses of the gospels have defined the questioning of the interrelationship between the three as problematic. There are those who claim various priorities, such as Matthew's preceding Mark's and vice versa, while other scholars, specifically Christians, avoid addressing the matter. The latter deny the existence of a literary interrelationship and maintain strong beliefs that the three gospels were written independently. From a religious point-of-view, there would be no need to explain or emphasize on similarities because of the gospels' divine nature. Our goal for this…
Berkhof, Louis. 2004. Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. April 2004. Accessed September 5, 2013.
Farnell, F. David. 1999. The Synoptic Gospels in the Ancient Church: The testimony to the Priority of Matthew's Gospel. The Master's Seminary Journal 10, No. 1 (spring): 53-86. Accessed September 5, 2013. http://www.tms.edu/tmsj/tmsj10e.pdf
Ladd, George Eldon. 1993. A Theology of the New Testament (Revised Ed.). Edited by Donald H. Hagner. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
This is not necessarily a bad thing, as this might mean that these individuals acknowledge the fact that Christian messages are powerful and refrain from falling victim to prejudice when it comes to being a believer. Acting without considering matters at first can have a damaging effect on individuals because they might fall victim to producing incorrect interpretations of the gospel.
4. People who use intellectual principles in rejecting Christianity are motivated by ration and by their unwillingness to accept unfounded matters. It seems irrational for an intellectual individual to accept the concept of a person dying and coming back to life. Non-religious people who are guided by intellectual principles support science and feel that it directly contradicts religion. They tend to interpret the gospel literally and thus feel that it is similar to a work of fiction. Seeing the overall history of Christianity and the way that many individuals…
Jim Cleveland introduced the nation to the 'Gospel Choir' and in 1968 organized the Gospel Music orkshop of American and due to his success has received three Grammy Awards and a star on the Hollywood alk of Fame (Moore Pp).
Leading a movement inside the Gospel music industry to go mainstream was Edwin Hawkins, who in 1969 recorded 'Oh Happy Day' which rose to number one on the Top Fifty Chart, and a new generation of Gospel was born (Moore Pp). Then other artists such as Andrae Crouch followed Hawkins' crossover success by writing gospel lyrics for more popular secular songs (Moore Pp). Beginning in the late 1980's, contemporary gospel groups such as Take 6 and the inans began to take the gospel message to an even wider audience (Moore Pp). Both groups could easily fill a concert hall as they played their new style to the sacred and the…
The Roots of Gospel Music
Petrie, Phil. "The History of Gospel Music." http://afgen.com/gospel1.html
African-American Music: Spirituals and Gospel Music. http://www.sbgmusic.com/html/teacher/reference/styles/spirituals.html
John and the Synoptic Gospels
Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
All Biblical text presents its own set of challenges in understanding and relating to modern day incidences. hen examining the Bible, it is interesting to still see major differences that can complicate a modern interpretation of the Bible and Jesus' message. The major differences between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John show obvious differences that further complicate our understanding of the figure of Jesus.
The Synoptic Gospels are made up of the texts of Matthew, Mark, and Luke with Mark being thought to have been the first out of the three written. They all share incredible similarities in the themes and events described within their cannon. Essentially, they follow Jesus during a very similar point in his life and travels, and thus parallel each other in terms of content and the underlying message they wish to…
Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. Doubleday Publishing. 1997.
The New Oxford Annotated Bible: With the Apocryphal / Deuterocanonical Books, New Revised Standard Version. Michael D. Coogan, ed. 2001.
Encountering John: The Gospel in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective provides a remarkably thorough explication of John's gospel from multiple perspectives and points-of-view. The book is divided into five main parts, in addition to the appendices, indexes, and study tools. Author Andreas J. Kostenberger formats Encountering John as a textbook, and yet the tome also serves as a reference book that complements exegetical works and Biblical commentaries.
In the preface materials, Kostenberger clearly states that the book is intended for an audience of students. However, the tone is personal, informal, and familiar, rather than strictly scholarly or academic. This is due to in part to the fact that Kostenberger writes as a believer for believers, resisting the temptation to secularize biblical studies. The primary audience for Encountering John is students in biblical, theological, or seminary school who seek deep understanding of the gospel.
Part One of Encountering John covers…
Kostenberger, A.J. (2006). Encountering John: The Gospel in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective (Encountering Biblical Studies). Baker Academic.
Matthew 9:1-8 Exegetical
The Gospel of Matthew is often called the most 'Jewish' of the Gospels, because it begins with noting Jesus' connection to the Davidic line of kings. This connection is used as a testimony to Jesus' spiritual authority and leadership. The Gospel presents Jesus as a fulfillment of Davidic prophesy. While all of the Gospels contain this theme to some degree, in Matthew it is particularly manifest. As exemplified in the Sermon on the Mount, one of the most notable features of the Gospel, Matthew is a document that often features Jesus as a preacher and a teacher, or a 'rabbi,' above all else. "We also assume that the evangelist [Matthew] is a Jewish-Christian. And his community, while certainly including a Gentile presence and engaging in a Gentile mission, is predominantly Jewish-Christian. That community seems to stand within the broader Jewish community despite a bitter polemic with the…
Baxter, Wayne. (2006). Healing and the "Son of David": Matthew's warrant.
Novum Testamentum, 8(1): 36-50.
Deutsch, Celia. (1990). Wisdom in Matthew: Transformation of a symbol.
Novum Testamentum, 32 (1): 13-47. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1560675
As with the Gospel of Mark’s theme of impending darkness and suffering, what is the Good News? Is there a message of joy here? How do you talk to your parishioners about embracing the cross, even as we approach life with joy and hope?
Darkness and suffering are recurrent themes throughout the Bible. God’s love is offered as a resolution to the suffering endemic to human existence. The Gospel of Mark’s unique apocalyptic vision simultaneously presents the Good News to teach the truth about Jesus as the Son of Man. Depending on how the text is read and interpreted, there is certainly a message of joy embedded within the Gospel of Mark. I would therefore communicate the key themes related to the Son of Man, the identity of Jesus, and the means to salvation while disseminating the Good News to parishioners.
The beauty of the Gospel lies in its fantastic…
The Gospel of Mark is one of the most important Gospels in the New Testament. It is considered so important because it provides a canonical account of the life of Jesus, and narrates the Ministry of Jesus from his baptism from John the Baptist all the way to the death and resurrection. (Bright, 2006) The gospel focuses on the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem. It deals mainly with the attempts of Jesus to perform miracles while maintaining a sense of secrecy about his own divinity, and after he predicts the events that are about to unfold, his disciples misunderstand the immanency of Jesus' demise.
Mark's Gospel does not discuss Jesus' birth or his life before his baptism. It simply refers to Jesus as the man from Galilee. The baptism of Jesus is portrayed as an interesting affair where Jesus' position had not…
Bright, Hilda. (April, 2006). Mark's Good News. Easy English.info. Retrieved from, http://www.easyenglish.info/bible-commentary/mark-lbw.htm .
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.
Another drawback of the book is that it didn't have much perspective of what it has meant to be pluralistic or worldly in the context of the rest of the world. During the American Revolution, a country with no official religion was an odd idea. It was a general concept that the world had always been governed by a King by Grace of God, and in return protected God's true religion from heretics and blasphemers (esterlund, 2006).
In addition, the author did not discuss the major difference between the "divisive arguments about God and politics" in the late eighteenth century and today. Thus, without state support, religion flourished in the United States, and now as today is the most religious nation in the estern world. The strength of Americans' religious faith enlightens the determination of a "public religion" that even now continue to worry unbelievers and secular thinkers (esterlund, 2006).…
1. Pauline Maier. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." Washington Post.
A www.washingtonpost.com.May 7, 2006
2. Deirdre Donahue. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." USA TODAY.
Teaching Gospel to a Muslim
There are a number of practical steps that are necessary to implement to build a relationship with a follower of Islam who might be a neighbor or a co-worker. One of the first steps that one should take to establish a relationship with such a person is to establish an air of affability and respect for that person. Virtually all things of merit in this world are better achieved if there is a benign sincerity that exists between people. Once this first rudimentary step of establishing respect and a degree of friendship with a follower of Islam has been achieved, it would be necessary to display some sort of curiosity regarding the professed faith of such a Muslim. Typically, this curiosity should be displayed from an innocent perspective, which may involve asking a person of Islamic faith about particular habits related to their religion, manners,…
resurrection Jesus considered "signs" Gospel?
Jesus' resurrection as one of the 'signs' in the Gospel
There is much controversy with regard to the resurrection of Jesus and concerning whether or not it should be considered a sign in the Gospel of John. In order to determine if the resurrection should be considered a sign, one must focus on the set of details accompanying this particular event. The resurrection's significance, its purpose and the body that performed it all need to be taken into account so as for one to be able to gain a more complex understanding of the episode. The resurrection stands as a symbol for the concept of new life, as rebirth is one of the most important ideas that one can possibly think of when considering Jesus Christ.
When trying to address this topic, one needs to focus on the moment when Jesus walked on water and…
Morris, Leon, "Jesus is the Christ: studies in the theology of John," (W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 7 Jun 1989)
Towns, Elmer L., "The Gospel of John: Believe and Live," (AMG Publishers, 2002)
If, in witnessing to a Hindu, such efforts can be directed towards them and their people, then their own personal love can be brought out and they may be led to follow Christ. ecause of the diversity and complexity of their beliefs, sometimes, the simple promises of the truth of Christ and of salvation through him will assist in helping them to understand that Christianity has only these simple beliefs to follow instead of the complexity of Hinduism.
egin with the ook of John in the New Testament and in a simple version such as the New International Version (NIV). Start with Chapter 1 and emphasize mostly the passages concerning Salvation. Remember Hindus don't know Christ. You must introduce Him to them on a personal basis. Also, use 1 John 5:13 to explain that salvation is based on God's grace and not on works.
Make your spirit humble in your…
Caner, E.M. "PHILOSOPHY 104: Supplemental notes to lecture and reading: The worldview of Hinduism." n.d. 28 November 2009 <
Halverson, D. "Hinduism." 2004. International Students Inc. 28 November 2009 .
1. For John’s immediate audience and contemporary readers alike, the significance of the Multiplication miracle is in the way Jesus assumes a position of leadership during a time of potential crisis. A distinction is made between the disciples and the “multitudes” who need to be fed, but whereas the disciples cannot see how their meager means can stretch for so many, Jesus immediately takes action. In fact, Jesus assumes responsibility for all five thousand guests, asking them to recline and relax to allow the abundance and beneficence of God to wash over them. Jesus transmits the truth of God’s love to the community, showing that it is limitless and universal in scope.
The miracle also occurs on the Jewish feast of the Passover, showing how Jesus transformed ancient provincial customs and practices into ones that would be more readily multiplied for the masses. When John relays the miracle to his…
" For the more scholarly mind, however, such an interpretation might be less than entirely valid.
What most critics appear to agree on when examining these principles is the fact that there must be some sort of literary interdependence among the Synoptic Gospels.
The verbal agreement among the Gospels is one very strong indicator of such interdependence. Wallace regards both the independence theory and the Spirit Inspired hypothesis, generally held by laypeople, as naive from a scholarly viewpoint. Had the three Gospels simply been eye witness accounts of the same event, for example, there could not have been such very specific and frequent verbal agreements among them. Furthermore, the sequence and interpretation of events would likely have differed far more significantly.
The inspiration of the Holy Spirit, on the other hand, is regarded as naive for its lack of critical focus; providing a reasons for the similarities among the texts,…
Bratcher, Dennis. 2011. The Gospels and the Synoptic Problem: The Literary Relationship of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The Voice. Web: http://www.crivoice.org/synoptic.html
Carlson, Stephen C. 2004. Synoptic Problem. Dec. 22. Web: http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/synopt/faq.htm
Farnell, F. David. 2002. How Views of Inspiration have Impacted Synoptic Problem Discussions. The Master's Seminary Journal, Spring. Web: http://www.tms.edu/tmsj/tmsj13b.pdf
Just, Felix. 2007. The Synoptic Problem. June 12. Web: http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/Synoptic_Problem.htm
In reference to the World View, answer the following questions from the ible and the Gospels:
What are some ways the Christian Gospel is perceived in our culture?
Our culture perceives the gospel just like everything else that it comes into contact with; it is twisted from what is true. The work of Satan has invaded many areas, for instance, education and the media and this has allowed more alteration of the correct gospel. The gospel clearly indicates that some people will not see the gospel properly as stated in Romans 11:8 and 2nd Corinthians 4:4. Due to this elievers are not properly understood and therefore people expect us to be flawless if the ible is really correct about us.[footnoteRef:1] [1: "asic Gospel Questions for Christians." 2016. Accessed September 22, 2016. http://www.salvationscall.org/blog/basic-gospel-questions-for-christians.]
What are some specific moral reasons people may reject the Christian Gospel?
The gospel is rejected…
"Basic Gospel Questions for Christians." 2016. Accessed September 22, 2016. http://www.salvationscall.org/blog/basic-gospel-questions-for-christians .
Christian Witness to Buddhists - Lausanne Movement." 1980. Accessed September 22, 2016. https://www.lausanne.org/content/lop/lop-15 .
Griswold, Scott. "Sharing Jesus with Buddhists." 2012. Accessed September 22, 2016. https://www.ministrymagazine.org/archive/2012/06/sharing-jesus-with-buddhists .
Ragland, Michelle. "The Gospel Message." 2016. Accessed September 22, 2016. https://www.scribd.com/doc/104420666/The-Gospel-Message-1 .
The Gospel mainly consists of the first four New Testament books in the bible but it's only the first three that are considered to have synoptic problem i.e. Matthew, Mark and Luke. These books literally relate the story of Jesus in similar ways including the order of material, the stories told, sayings of Jesus, and using the same words in similar accounts resulting in the fact that they are referred to as the Synoptic Gospel. The difference now comes in the Gospel of John where the story of Jesus is shown in different format; events are viewed differently and with its own unique language and approach. Due to the different view and description of events, the book of John is not included in the Synoptic problem. Generally, a principle of only scripture had to be practiced as the cornerstone of reformation and practice of church and it should…
Bratcher, Dennis. "The Gospels and The Synoptic Problem." The Voice: Christian Resource Institute. CRI / Voice, Institute, 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 20 July 2012. .
Just, Felix. "The Synoptic Problem & Proposed Solutions." Catholic Resources for Bible, Liturgy, Art, and Theology. Catholic Resources for Bible, Liturgy, Art, and Theology, 12 June 2007. Web. 20 July 2012. .
Synoptic Gospels: A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels: The Synoptic Gospels
A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
Matthew, Mark, Luke (Synoptic Gospels)
These cover some important episodes in Jesus; life and ministry that are notable excluded from John. These include the institution of the Lord's Supper (Matt 27: 17-25; Luke 22: 7-14; Mark 14: 12-20), the Transfiguration (Matt 17: 1-13; Mark 9: 2-13; Luke 9: 28-36), and the Temptation of Jesus (Mark 1: 12-13; Matthew 4: 1-11; Luke 4: 1-13)
These provide examples of Jesus casting out demons (Matt 8: 28-34; Mark 5: 1-17; Luke 8: 28-37)
Narrative parables are presented (such as the parable of the sower in Matt 13: 1-23; Mark 4: 1-25 and Luke 8: 4-18), as well as the Lord's Prayer (Matt 6: 6-13; Luke 11: 1-4) and the Sermon on…
Matson, M. A. (2002). John. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.
Pate, C. M. (2011). The Writings of John: A Survey of the Gospel, Epistles and Apocalypse. Grand Rapids, Eerdmans.
Becoming gospel refers to putting scripture into action, but it means more than just practicing what one preaches. Becoming gospel means being “living exegesis,” in whatever way is most suitable to our particular socio-historical context (Gorman, 2015, p. 297). Ultimately, there are many ways to become Gospel and many involve personal sacrifice, and placing the interests of the community before the self. Becoming Gospel basically means that my life’s purpose is dedicated to fulfilling the mission of God, in everything I do. Some of the specific ways that I become Gospel include through my communications with others, endeavoring always to interact with authenticity, peace, and harmony. I perform evangelical work in the way that is appropriate for me, while also building bridges with members of the non-Christian community. Doing so helps promote the mission of God through the example of my faith. I pray, and have a rich interior spirituality…
John's Gospel is a strongly theological work. The basis for the Christology of John's Gospel is the Word. Also, John gives deep theological insights through the stories of the Samaritan woman at the well, the man born blind and the rising of Lazarus from the dead. John's account of the Passion is also deeply theological and quite different from the accounts of the other gospels. Finally, John uses many motifs to highlight the divinity of Christ. It is clear that John's gospel is not merely an historical account of Jesus' life on earth; rather it is a skillful examination of the theology of Christ and Christianity.
The Christology of John's gospel based on the prologue.
The basis for the Christology of John's Gospel is found immediately in the prologue's first sentence: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God" (King James…
Brown (1994) offers an astute Christological analysis via a close and critical reading of scripture. A close reading allows for the contextualization of each Gospel, to resolve issues like conflicting or inconsistent imagery and anecdotes. With inconsistencies between the Gospels, it becomes imperative to piece together Jesus's core intentions and the meanings behind both His words and His actions. The need to understand scripture historically and linguistically is also apparent in the Brown analysis. In fact, Brown (1994) also points out the importance of historical and cultural context in interpreting Scripture. For example, attributions of "magical action," which is beyond "miracle," corresponds with the Greek "miracle worker" stories during the time Scripture was being codified (Brown, 1994, p. 35). Brown notes that the Gospel portrayal of Jesus's miracles was indeed qualitatively different from either magical powers attributed to Greek "miracle workers" or to similar Levantine pagan concepts.
It may also…
Even though Matthew 8:23-27 and Mark 4:36-41 describe the same event in the life of Christ, each does so in a slightly different manner from the other. The two writers place emphasis on specific words or ideas, which is unique to their own writing and does not reflect on the other. Yet, the two go together and show a dependency of thought that supports the notion that the two were not conceived independently of one another. The reasons that the texts appear similar and yet dissimilar at the same time are that 1) the audience of the two gospels were different; 2) the writing styles of the two differed; and 3) the context of the two gives each its own special significance that makes it unique. This paper will argue for dependence of one upon the other with respect to the gospels of Matthew and Mark and explain why they…
Review of The Gospel According to Jesus by MacArthur
MacArthur’s Gospel According to Jesus is an interpretation that emphasizes the need for one to have authentic faith. It focuses on the fact that Jesus calls everyone to be born again in Him, meaning that it is not enough to try to address one or two shortcomings in one’s own life; rather, one must actually work to become new in Christ—a new person who is entirely Christ-centered, so that Christ can shine out through one’s own actions and expressions.
Some of the points that MacArthur makes are that God wants true worship—nothing half-hearted or that is as much man-centered and self-worshiping as it is God-centered and Christ-worshiping. One cannot be vainglorious or self-righteous and expect to be saved. Christ came to save sinners, and unless one sees how one is a sinner and wants to be made whole in Christ, filled…
MacArthur, John. The Gospel According to Jesus: What Does Jesus Mean when He Says\\\\" follow Me\\\\"?. Zondervan, 1994.
Religion the Gospel of Matthew
There are a number of similarities between Helmut Koester's article, The Gospel of Matthew: Jesus as the New Moses, and that of Marilyn Moses, also entitled The Gospel of Moses. Both of these works examine the reason and purpose that the book of Matthew was written, and explore the impact upon the immediate surrounding community of Christianity. However, in order to best summarize these works, it is necessary to do so individually, in order to gain the best understanding of these articles.
Koester's article primarily focuses on the book of Matthew's portrayal of Jesus as being directly descended from Abraham and aligned with traditional Israeli law. This is a particularly important aspect of the Koester's article (and the book of Matthew), because it verifies the fact that Jesus's teachings and works are directly in accordance with the Israeli tradition which preceded his existence, and which…
How would the image of Jesus, the Noble Shepherd, have spoken to the Johannine community in their Greco-Roman context?
The image of the Noble Shepherd is anchored in time and geographic space, speaking directly to John’s audiences. A seemingly simple image and concept, the Noble Shepherd actually reveals the complex social hierarchies in Greco-Roman societies. Moreover, the Noble Shepherd embodies the ideals and ethics that defined the Greco-Roman community. Critical to the Noble Shepherd is the “noble death,” a death defined by self-sacrifice and which has its ultimate manifestation in martyrdom (Neyrey, 2007). The death of the Noble Shepherd is voluntary and conscious, and ironically shows how individuals can achieve eternal life through a death that is filled with political meaning.
Moreover, the Noble Shepherd is the epitome of a just and kind leader, the humble counterpart to a King. The Noble Shepherd is more closely tied to the earth…
Jesus warns not just Peter but all of "them" about not boasting about the messiah in Mark, Matthew, and Luke too. Jesus's warning comes immediately after the miraculous healing of the blind man (Mark 8:30; Matthew 16:20; Luke 9:21). Interestingly, the Gospel of Matthew is more emphatic about Peter's future role as the "rock" of the Church of Christ: "And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven," (Matthew 16:18-19). In the Gospel of Matthew, the author is ultimately concerned with the establishment of a new and formal covenant with God. The seeds of Christianity have been planted in the soil…
Aherne, C. (1910). Gospel of Saint Luke. In the Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved November 30, 2010 from New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09420a.htm
Donahue, J.R. & Harrington, D.J. (2002). The Gospel of Mark. Collegeville: Liturgical Press.
"The Gospel of Mark" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.abu.nb.ca/courses/ntintro/mark.htm
Harrington, D.J (1991). The Gospel of Matthew. Collegeville: Liturgical.
Despite the general strength of this book there are some weaknesses. Since the focus of this book is personal evangelism, he lacks the cohesive discussion of how organized evangelism should occur and how it fits within the holistic paradigm. By only talking about the personal evangelizing efforts, we do not have enough insight into what Metzger believes we should act as a body. By ignoring this aspect of evangelism, Metzger fails to give the significance of having a solid congregation of believers to support the newly converted and lend their strengths to the development of the Whole Person.
There are many other books that deal with the theme of evangelism. One such book is John Blanchard entitled "Is Anybody Out There?" This book differs from "Tell the Truth" in that it is less a directional book rather than a book that seeks to answer questions related to the scripture. This…
synoptic problem" and explain how the 2-source theory provides a solution for it.
The synoptic problem refers to the differences and similarities that exist between the synoptic gospels, those being the books of Matthew, Mark and Luke. hile there are marked similarities between the three books, there are also very significant differences. The differences with John, the one gospel book that is not synoptic, are even starker. Thus, this is why it is not included with the other three gospels that form the synoptic trio. Anyhow, the two-source solution is a way to deal with the differences and similarities that exist between the books. As explained by the Blue Letter Bible website, the two-source theory is one of the more "widely accepted" solutions to conflicts that arise. They state that "it settles the problems that arise with Matthean priority, while confronting the difficulty of double tradition. The Blue Letter website…
Bible Hub. 'Topical Bible: Beatitudes'. Biblehub.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 18 July 2015.
BLB. 'Study Resources:: The Synoptic Problem And Q'. Blue Letter Bible. N.p., 2015.
Web. 18 July 2015.
Oxford. 'Infancy Narratives - Oxford Biblical Studies Online'. Oxfordbiblicalstudies.com.
Worldviews and Christianity
What practical steps could be taken to build a relationship with a follower of this worldview who might be a co-worker, neighbor, etc.
One of the first steps, in my opinion, would be to build an understanding of the individual's worldview. This would include the doctrines and dogmas of the religious beliefs that this worldview holds, but also the information about why this individual is affiliated with that worldview. For example, it may be the case that a Buddhist or Hindu was born into the faith and was taught the teachings of the religion through their family and the broader network of people in their lives. A secular humanist, by contrast, may have chosen their worldview based on their own personal reasoning as opposed to family or cultural reasons. However, understanding the worldview and how the person became affiliated with it will provide an avenue to communicate…
One of his more dramatic example was the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's. To oth those who elieved in the Civil Rights movement and those who opposed the movement, God was frequently invoked. The Civil Rights movement had strong roots in religion, with its leaders and followers often meeting in churches. The movement's most prominent leader, Martin Luther King, was an ordained minister. Meacham descries the famous confrontation at the ridge leading into Selma, Alaama, where Civil Rights marchers were faced with a small army of Alaama State Troopers, who insisted that the marchers had two minutes to "return to their church" (p. 193). The marchers could not move forward, and they could not retreat, so they knelt and egan to pray. The police moved in and viciously eat the praying demonstrators. It was a visual image flashed around the world, and eight days later, President Lyndon Johnson took…
bibliography. Because of this, any reader of the book can check his sources to see if any kind of personal bias has distorted his views. This makes American Gospel a significantly honest look at religion and politics in the United States.
Meacham, Jon. American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of an American Nation. 2006: Random House, New York.
"Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls…my yoke is easy, and my burden is light" (Matthew 11: 28-29).
Description: Understanding the path that it takes to become an evangelist is important out in front of any decision to follow that path. It is clear that in the book of Matthew, he is quoting what Jesus said in His desire to teach others. Christ made a promise to those who would become believers, to learn from Him, and he wasn't reluctant at all about telling prospective believers that he would give them spiritual rest, if only they would take the necessary steps towards becoming future participants in Christianity.
In John 20:31 -- "But these [scriptures with…
Gospel of Luke / Confucius REVISED
Although Jesus and Confucius are both seen as sources of wisdom in major religious traditions, it is useful to distinguish between the two of them. For a start, Confucianism is not a religion per se -- it offers no particular view of God or the afterlife, and instead concentrates on social relationships, aiming at rules of proper behavior. A comparison of certain well-known sayings by each sage -- taken from the Gospel of Luke and the Analects -- might clarify some of the differences between these two ethical worldviews.
Confucius notes "While your parents are alive, you should not go too far afield in your travels: if you do your whereabouts should always be known" (Lau 74). As Confucius is mostly concerned with principles of social organization and behavior, the right relation of children to their parents quite nearly provides the basis for his…
Theology -- Youth and Theology
Genuine truth is the focus of Palmer's To Know as We Are Known: Education as a Spiritual Journey. Pointing to Jesus as the source of truth, Palmer contrasts truth with society's currently deranged approach to knowledge. The author also discusses a faith-based, holistic, communal, healing approach to education in which the teacher is a lifelong student who creates space in which the teacher and students practice obedience to the whole truth.
What is Truth?
Parker J. Palmer's To Know as We Are Known: Education as a Spiritual Journey hinges on Truth; consequently, exploring the author's approach to education logically begins by discussing the meaning of truth. According to Palmer, truth consists of more than facts and reasons (Palmer xxiv). Truth is personal and communal Christian faith focused on "the person who said, 'I am…the truth'" (Palmer 47). It consists of living relationships with Jesus and…
Palmer, Parker J. To Know as We Are Known: Education as a Spiritual Journey. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993. Print.
He does not, however, say where the text came from.
Another main way of seeing the problem is to claim that the writer has used different sources to create his gospel. These sources preceded him in the Christian tradition, and may have included both the synoptic gospels and other non-canonical or lost texts. In putting different sources together, he has been forced to make decisions. When he relied on tradition and not his own account, he is not able to make a coherent well-flowing narrative. It comes out disjointed.
Schnackenburg proposes perhaps the most satisfactory solution. His view is that John 15-16, and John 17 separately, were later insertions to the text done by an editor. He accepts that there is some continuity of content in the discourses following 14:31, which makes chapters 15-17 appropriate. ut he accepts also that the transition is overly abrupt, and that the more original…
Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. Trans G.R. Beasley-Murray, R.W.N. Hoare, & J.K. Riches. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971.
Haenchen, Ernst. John 2: A Commentary on the Gospel of John Chapters 7-21. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.
Schnackenburg, Rudolf. The Gospel According to St. John. Vol. 3: Commentary on Chapters 13-21. New York: Crossroad, 1990.
Rudolf Bultmann, the Gospel of John: A Commentary, trans G.R. Beasley-Murray, R.W.N. Hoare, & J.K. Riches (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971), 625-631.
Second, he must attempt to present good doctrine. Contrary to what some may suggest, these first two goals are not identical -- merely by translating from the page to the screen what the gospels describe happening would not explain the theological significance of the events, as Jesus is rather too busy being executed to have much time to explain his purpose of salvation in those chapters -- this purpose is clarified at other points before and after his death, and must somehow be worked into this narrative without making it overly ahistorical. Finally, in order to function as a film, the film must function on an artistic level and be coherent both to the viewer and within the tradition of Christological art. It would not reflect well on Christ to be presented within the context of a shoddily film -- many people would refrain from belief for no other reason…
This is why Hall advocates a "disengagement" from that image of American public life. Getting some distance from this aspect of the dominant culture will enable a framework for evangelism that embraces the diversity of God's community. Thus, Christ can truly become the "all in all."
Keifert defines the two main challenges in American culture as being the moral imperative to respect diversity, coupled with the spiritual imperative to nurture the current awakening. That an awakening is taking place is evident in the growing numbers of church members, but it is also important to keep in mind what both atson and Hall say about the problems with large church culture in America. Bigger is not necessarily better. Christians need to move beyond the "supersize me" mentality and embrace a quality over quantity mentality when it comes to their ministries.
From a theological and scriptural perspective, the suggestions offered by atson…
Hall, Douglas John. "Ecclesia Crucis: The Theologic of Christian Awkwardness." In the Church Between Gospel and Culture. Hunsberger and Van Gelder.
Keifert, Patrick R. Welcoming the Stranger. Augsburg, 1992.
Watson, David Lowes. "Christ All in All: The Recovery of the Gospel of Evangelism in the United States." In the Church Between Gospel and Culture. Hunsberger and Van Gelder.
Not all miracles are signs; signs are a special type of miracle. "Yet all miracles are not signs, for signs convey some distinct teaching in addition to their display of power," (Anderson, n.d.). As Morris (1989) puts it, a sign is that which "points beyond itself," (p. 2). Moreover, a sign is "not self-contained, not an end in itself," (p. 2). Whereas a miracle may stand alone as an example of Christ's glory, a sign is that which points toward something else -- it "has a meaning that is fulfilled elsewhere than in the miracle," (Morris, 1989, p. 2). Therefore, signs serve a special function in the Bible. They point not only to the power of Christ but also to underlying meanings in the events that give cause for deeper contemplation and analysis. The word in Greek for sign is semeion, which is used 17 times in the…
Anderson, N. (n.d.). Thoughts on the eight signs of John's Gospel. Retrieved online: http://stempublishing.com/authors/anderson/8SIGNSJN.html
Brown, D.A. (n.d.). The Christian walk illustrated in the seven miracles of Jesus recorded in the Gospel of John. Retrieved online: https://www.valleychurchia.com/uploads/7Miracles.pdf
Fitzgerald, T. (2003). The signs of John's Gospel. The Testimony. Retrieved online: https://www.valleychurchia.com/uploads/7Miracles.pdf
Morris, L. (1989). Jesus is the Christ. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.