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However, there is also a more prosaic explanation of the contrasting styles manifest in Gothic cathedrals: because they took so long to complete, the construction of the cathedrals was often interrupted by warfare, and thus they were constructed during different social periods and exhibited the influence of different builders, rulers, and forms of construction ("Medieval gothic principles," Medieval Spell, 2009). Furthermore, even when there is symmetry and surface order in Gothic cathedrals, there is always a sense of disorder lurking beneath the veneer: traces of individuality and the grotesque seep forth in the form of gargoyles.
The layout of the cathedrals was supposed to mirror the worshipper's spiritual path. "Entering the cathedral from the est, you are surrounded by symbols. First, is the pattern of the labyrinth in the floor stone," to represent the maze of human life ("Medieval gothic cathedrals," Medieval Spell, 2009). The light coming from the glass…… [Read More]
. from passion to insanity" ('the Eighteenth Century," Internet). These "sublime" qualities are best expressed in Horace Walpole's magnificent Strawberry Hill residence in Twickenham, built between 1749 and 1777. As compared to Blenheim Palace, this structure is pure "Gothick" with its turrets, towers, battlements, galleries and corridors. In fact,
Horace Walpole is credited with creating the Gothic style in English literature with his novel the Castle of Otranto, published in 1764.
Of course, many of the architectural features of this structure are in actuality only pseudo-Gothic representations, due to Walpole's immense imagination and desire for a house that reflected his literary tastes in Gothic omanticism. Overall, Walpole's fascination with everything Gothic was to be highly influential in the years to come, especially when the period known as Neoclassicism emerged in the mid 18th century in Europe.
STUAT'S SHAM GOTHIC UIN:
During the early days of the omantic Period, architects became…… [Read More]
By introducing abstract sequences, these people practically made it difficult and almost impossible for Christian leaders to consider that they needed to get involved in altering these concepts.
The coming of George Augustus Selwyn in New Zealand had a strong effect on attitudes that the church would express with regard to the presence of Maori elements in churches. A power struggle within Christianity between Selwyn and Evangelical missionaries influenced natives to believe that their guests were not necessarily as connected with God as they claimed to be. As natives became more and more detached from Christian influential individuals they started to concentrate on adopting Gothic influences in designing diverse buildings.
Builders who were mainly interested in creating structures that would be in agreement with Maori traditions thus created a series of buildings that were not necessarily meant to provide people with a place for worship. Instead, these buildings were meant…… [Read More]
Romanesque and Gothic Architecture
There were a number of changes that happened to Romanesque architecture to make it uniquely Gothic. Romanesque architecture was principally that for churches, whereas Gothic architecture manifested itself in cathedrals. The difference between these two is not mere diction; Romanesque churches had thicker walls and were darker and on the whole smaller than Gothic cathedrals, which encompassed a number of structural innovations to make them extremely vertical, elongated and tall, with copious amounts of light and space.
Soltes showed an example of a Romanesque structure early on in the 12th lecture (St. Sernin de Toulouse) that illustrated its five entrances denoting the five wounds of Christ suffered on the cross; the lecturer contrasted this information with that which illustrated that some Romanesque structures had three entrances which were symbolic of the trinity. Additionally, Romanesque arches were rounded and their structures contained barrel vaults. Subsequently, these edifices…… [Read More]
Gothic Cathedrals and Light
From the end of the 12th century for at least two centuries architecture underwent a revolution known as Gothic. Much like classical architecture, changes in building paralleled changes in culture. Gothic works tended to be tall, inspiring, and meant to withstand the ravages of time. Structural improvements were massive, and even though this era only lasted 200 years, it would have a profound effect on any building style from then on. The epitome of the style was, of course, the cathedral, which was meant to convey humanity's communication with God. The technological improvements that allowed arches, high ceilings, and massive glass works were specific to the larger than life view of the Church, and to inspire the peasantry when attending special services (Frankl, 2001).
Gothic art and architecture is a Medieval movement that evolved out of omanesque art, in the mid-12th century, in Europe. It spread…… [Read More]
This type of fluidization announces the Renaissance and is probably an expression of the new opening that the society goes through as it comes out of the Middle Ages. A greater creative expression in literature or painting, for example, had to be matched by a similar trend in architecture.
Another interesting comparison with the previous Gothic styles is the fact that, in the past, the Gothic style was used almost exclusively for religious constructions, notably churches. With the Flamboyant Gothic, numerous secular buildings, either town halls, castles or individual houses are built in this style, more appropriate for the expression of an individual home.
Ornament seems to be the common denominator for most of the constructions that were created in a Flamboyant Gothic style starting with the middle of the 14th century and all the way into the 16th century. The preference for ornament over the simple construction elements has…… [Read More]
William of Occam formulated the principle of Occam's Razor, which held that the simplest theory that matched all the known facts was the correct one. At the University of Paris, Jean Buridan questioned the physics of Aristotle and presaged the modern scientific ideas of Isaac Newton and Galileo concerning gravity, inertia and momentum when he wrote:
...after leaving the arm of the thrower, the projectile would be moved by an impetus given to it by the thrower and would continue to be moved as long as the impetus remained stronger than the resistance, and would be of infinite duration were it not diminished and corrupted by a contrary force resisting it or by something inclining it to a contrary motion (Glick, Livesay and Wallis 107)
Thomas Bradwardine and his colleagues at Oxford University also anticipated Newton and Galileo when they found that a body moving with constant velocity travels distance…… [Read More]
There is an emphasis on harmony in this structure that shows a new way of thought, and this sense of harmony would be carried over into other works of art of the period and later periods, harmony now being seen as an important artistic virtue. The elaborateness of the decorations have become identified with the Gothic period. As can be seen from the column from Saint-Denis, this sort of elaborate decoration took many forms and most often built sculpture into the building itself. The column from Saint-Denis also shows the power and importance of aesthetic harmony in the figure of a king seeming to emerge from the column itself. This element was not just an aesthetic but a philosophical statement of the time. Suger was much preoccupied with speculations on the metaphysics of light, which governed many of his decisions about the architecture of the building. At the same time,…… [Read More]
gothic cathedrals, with a few examples and comparisons of the cathedrals. Gothic cathedrals are some of the most beautiful and enduring buildings in Europe. They have survived for centuries as testaments to the workmen who created them and the architects who designed them. The ornate buildings are as impressive today as when they first grew on the skyline, and they represent a high point in the culture and society of the Middle Ages.
Gothic architecture, perhaps one of the most famous and ornate forms of architecture of any period, began in northern Europe as early as the twelfth century, and spread throughout Europe. It gradually replaced the omanesque Style of architecture, which had grown in popularity throughout Europe beginning at about the millennium year of 1000. omanesque buildings offered many of the same intricate details as the Gothic cathedrals, because building practices had evolved, and better tools, such…… [Read More]
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…… [Read More]
The ancient cities of ome and Florence are layered ones. If one has the chance to walk the streets of these cities it is clearly that the they have had far more than the nine lives of the feline: Layer upon layer of human life and human ingenuity is displayed in the many different styles that line the streets. While we may tend to think of ome and Florence as the classical city that they once were (and of which they still bears many elements) they are also in many ways Gothic cities, for some of the cities' finest examples of architecture date from the Gothic period. This paper examines two particular Gothic churches - Santa Maria Maggiore in ome and the church of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence is no exception. Each church is examined for the combination of specific historical forces and styles, the building…… [Read More]
20,21). Romanesque structures tend to be dark and cave-like on the inside. Arches became pointed, rather than rounded as in Roman structures. Gothic architecture represents an advancement in engineering techniques, as builders found that they could do with thinner materials and that roofs could span greater distances. The roofs in Gothic architecture was supported by this new form of arch, rather than by the massive walls, as was done in Romanesque architecture ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21)
Gothic structures sported and increased number of towers, flying buttresses, and decorative designs ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21). Gothic architectures indow openings were adorned with either stained glass or the distinctive Gothic Rose indows. Adornments included human figures, animals, scenes of ordinary life, wars, important events, gargoyles and other mythological creatures. Gothic structures were highly ornate when compared to Romanesque Structures.
Visiting different structures on a trip through Europe can be an exciting adventure.…… [Read More]
An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.
Though our current architecture is derived…… [Read More]
Neo-French Gothic evival: The Fletcher-Sinclair Mansion
Over a century old, the Fletcher-Sinclair mansion in New York is a good example of late 19th century Gothic revival and today, the building is registered as a National Historic Landmark. The mansion was named for Isaac D. Fletcher, a prominent New York City investor and banker, and Harry F. Sinclair, an oil tycoon who was subsequently caught up in the scandal-ridden administration of President Warren G. Harding. Currently, the mansion serves as the long-time home for the Ukrainian Institute of America and remains a popular destination for students, architects and others who are interested in neo-Gothic evival architecture in the United States. This paper reviews the relevant literature to describe the building in informal and historical terms, relating it to larger trends in the 19th century architecture and society and to provide an analysis concerning how this building reflects the forms ideas and…… [Read More]
Between 1225 and 1250 C.E., Notre Dame was extensively modified when the chapels were built into spaces between the buttresses and the transept arms were lengthened. Of course, it is Notre Dame's facade which draws the most attention, due to its verticality which makes Notre Dame one of the most satisfying and memorable structures in Gothic architecture.
In conclusion, the talented men who designed these churches and cathedrals which always towered over the towns and cities below symbolize a great confidence in their faith, for they regarded these structures as the "real image of the City of God" (Demus, 2004, p. 113), perhaps as a form of heavenly Jerusalem in which they felt very privileged to have worked on earth as representatives of God's own majesty.
Demus, Otto. (2004). Byzantine art and the west. New York: New York University Press.
Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain. (2006). Gothic art. New York: Abrams Academic…… [Read More]
future house, to be built in the tradition of the Gothic Revival style. This description will include an explanation of the general layout of the house, as well as address the elements of light, acoustics, and color. Further, issues of living space will be addressed, including sleeping, entering, food and storage, and bathing areas. External structure and landscaping will be outlined, as well as internal infrastructure like heating, and "smart-house" wiring.
The Gothic Revival style of architecture is a return to the architecture of the middle Ages. Although popular in Europe, the Gothic Revival eventually became the most popular in the United States and Europe. Early examples appeared in the 1700s, but Gothic Revival did not appear in full force until the 1800s. During this time, churches began to appear in the style. Soon, fashionable homes began to mimic the Gothic Revival style of these churches. hile the Gothic Revival…… [Read More]
The men had returned from the war, Americans were buying homes and putting all their energies in to building a nest for the family filled with all sorts of creature comforts. The female form reflected these comforts: it was round and healthy. On the other hand, the 1960s and 1970s signaled the rampant winds of change; while some people attribute it primarily to the debut of Twiggy, the skinny supermodel of the era other reasons are relevant to examine as well: "popular during the 1960's because of the increasingly popularity of self-expression and women's rights movements during this time that allowed women to shed clothes and bare more body. Being thin allowed them to comfortably wear clothes like the mini-skirt, which maybe at that time stood for some sort of freedom and self-expression. Being thin and shedding weight may have given some women the ability to feel better about themselves.…… [Read More]
com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…… [Read More]
Gothic Cathedral as Rhetorical Device
Usage of Gothic Cathedral
It is one thing to believe that the structure of Gothic cathedrals were a response to a desire to imbue meaning and particularly a manifestation of faith in a building that was functionally a place of worship, gathering, and the seat of local power. It is quite another to posit, as did Viollet-le-Duc, that the ultimate shape assumed by a Gothic cathedral was a mere rational response to solving structural problems. If the Gothic cathedral is thought to be completely rational in its expression, then it may also be thought of as the only possible expression, given the structural challenges it was designed to solve. Viollet-le-Duc sought correspondence between the materials used in a building with the structure that eventually took shape. He particularly believed that the use of stone to build a cathedral was both rational and functional. With…… [Read More]
Gothic vs. Romanesque Architecture
The Romanesque and Gothic styles of architecture are key to the artistic development of the Middle Ages. They are they result not only of an aesthetical development, a natural consequence of improving socioeconomic conditions and a growing interest of individuals and groups to showcase their wealth and power with churches and other constructions, but also a result of technological developments. Indeed, many of the components of these styles came about as architectural necessities: to support the new constructions, technical innovations needed to be implemented and this sometimes translated into stylistic expressions.
This paper will investigate each architectural style in part, focusing both on a separate, relevant description of the main elements and on a comparison between the Romanesque and Gothic styles. To the degree to which this is possible, the paper will aim to showcase the description and the comparison with concrete examples from the civic…… [Read More]
On the other hand, later during the Gothic period, the blackletter was more and more used as a substitute to these types of letters and became preferred especially during the later Gothic period. These were thick, richly textured letters, dominating the page, but coming into a pleasant contrast with the rest of the artistic representations.
During the Gothic period, the number of images, colors and decorations was greatly increased over the early Middle Ages and Romanesque representations. At first, there were barely any images present, the artists generally resuming to patterns and models on the sides and on or around the text. With the Gothic period, the images began to abound. The patterns also became more and more complicated, sometimes even with grotesque representations.
A final improvement during the Gothic period was also the palette of colors, which grew significantly in number. lack and white were the most spread colors…… [Read More]
Patterned after the old cathedral at Reims, the abbey church displays a similar set of volumes with east and west transepts with crossing towers; an especially large western apse balancing a triple apse at the opposite end.
The massing of the towers around the main structure of the nave, and the rows of round arched windows set high in the walls are typical Romanesque features. The overall affect is one of fortress-like magnificence - a fitting setting for an abbey in a world that was still heavily plagued by violence, and in which the learned were as yet required to turn inward. Symbolically, too, it represents the introspection of religion, the commitment of the devout to purge themselves of sin, and to create a pure space within themselves, one that is walled off from all external temptations. The interior plan, as well, is simple and straightforward, a two-aisled nave that…… [Read More]
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]
Antonio Gaudi was born 25th June 1852 and went on to be a known Spanish Catalan architect. Antonio Gaudi was a remarkable architect whose true value only came forward a while after he created the buildings. He has also been known as the Spanish Catalan and the symbol for Catalian Modernism. Just as the people of the city were attempting to make their own mark in science and art, Gaudi's exceptional and unique style came. His work and the buildings he made were criticized by most of the people at first, yet their unique production and architecture added the true beauty of Barcelona. It has also been stated that the works of Gaudi are actually inseparable from Barcelona city. (Sola-Morales 5). The buildings that Gaudi made like Casa Mila, Parque Giell, and Sagrada Familia changed the way architecture was done in Barcelona. The buildings added to the beauty…… [Read More]
The advantages in efficiency were evident, as are the ways of apprenticing younger members slowly into the family trade.
The more probable model is that the skilled labour was taken from the guilds, whose power was on the rise throughout Europe after AD 1100. Artistic and trade guilds selected their members. Such pooled labour provided training, experience, a career trajectory, and security for the craftsman, who could eventually work through the stage of journeyman to master craftsman. This system allowed for the concentration of skilled labour and guaranteed quality controls. Non-members were excluded from building projects. It was an early form of labour union. At times these guilds had a monopoly on trade labour. Out of some system like this it is likely that the labour came to work on buildings like Pisa Cathedral. The master builders themselves would have been influenced by knowledge generated in the intellectual revival at…… [Read More]
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]
The Crusader utilised stone in order to create their castle structures. During this time Castles began to adopt features of a polygonal shape with turrets in their corners, as contrasted with the classic designs of previous times which included minimal towers and were normally square in shape. Other features of the newer design endemic in most castles included the usage of detached towers which permitted for the castle to remain independent if its towers were conquered by a potential enemy.
Romanesque and Gothic architecture slowly developed in the medieval era, reaching their highest expression in the great cathedrals of the High and Late Middle Ages, which were revived again during the Victorian Era of the 19th Century. This was the basic design for all the great churches, castles, places, town halls, public buildings and monasteries during the Middle Ages, which give the period its distinctive architectural feel and look. A…… [Read More]
His belief, of course, was that the Unity was of primary importance -- which was a departure from Sullivan's sense that beauty and transcendent forms (reflections of the human spirit) were central to the idea of all forms. Wright's anti-verticality was no more in tune to Sullivan's sense of the soul than the reuer's "functional" brutalism. Sullivan alone had the sense to achieve some sort of aesthetic standard while achieving the function so desired by his contractors.
In conclusion, Sullivan announced at the end of the 19th century that "form ever follows function" -- but that did not imply that form had to be as mechanical as function. In fact, it meant for Sullivan quite the opposite. The Guaranty uilding is a perfect example of how he saw architecture as an art: its purpose was to provide the space necessary for offices and retailers but also to make…… [Read More]
1260s Transepts were changed to the gothic style.
1250-1345 the remaining elements were finished (Tonazzi, 2007).
It's easy to see that the building took a long time to complete, but it is very beautiful. A lot of different architects worked on it, too, so there are different styles on some of the towers, depending on the height that you look at.
The Notre Dame Cathedral is supposed to be one of the best examples of gothic architecture. The most famous feature is the flying buttresses, but there are others (Tonazzi, 2007). One thing that makes the Cathedral so famous from the standpoint of architecture is the fact that there are different architectural styles from different architects. Sometimes people see this when something has taken a very long time to build, especially for buildings that were built a long time ago when building methods were a lot different.
There is a…… [Read More]
Sign and Symbol," by John Onians
Signs, symbols are different depending on Context and Medium:
Context = needs of builders, users
Medium -- physical dispositions of floors, walls, roofs, supports, materials
Link between physical and expressive properties -- gives signs and symbols power in architecture
In architecture, walls, doors have real and symbolic functions
Eg. A wall excludes "before it expresses exclusion" -- has real, physical effects
Wall, roof of hut -- protection; posts -- stability; doorway -- openness; threashold -- controlled access
Group of huts = social coherence
Architecture gave meaning to concepts fundamental to existence
Hut does not just communicate meaning, it constitutes meaning, it embodies meaning
Eg of symbolic architecture that is deliberate -- Dogon -- buildings located to express gender roles, and placement of head, body
Underlying awareness that response to buildings is "cognate with response to people"
Dense urban cities -- need to differentiate between…… [Read More]
space inhabit. You visit St. Patrick's Cathedral New York analyze experience understand design theories, concepts, historical precedents looked class.
Patrick's Cathedral in New York City: A historical and architectural overview
Patrick's Cathedral is a 'working' cathedral in the U.S.: it stands both as a historical monument but also offers the function of a place of worship to parishioners. "It is the seat of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, and a parish church" yet because of its location on Fifth Avenue right across from Rockefeller Center, it is not unusual to see churchgoers mingling with tourists and people coming to services next to people taking photographs.[footnoteRef:1] A visitor can quietly pray and seek spiritual solace -- or buy rosaries at the gift shop. Although it was not originally designed to accommodate such diverse uses but rather to tend to the needs of New York's immigrant Catholic…… [Read More]
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…… [Read More]
In contrast, the exterior was almost undecorated" (25). Another significant church that was built contemporaneously with the Hagia Sophia was the cruciform Church of the Holy Apostles (536-546), which featured five domes (Nickel).
Figure 3. Cross-domed church. Most important type of ground-plan of the Middle Byzantine period. In addition to the central dome, more elaborate examples have domes over the corner chapels -- quincunx. From the tenth century onwards, the cross-domed church becomes widespread throughout Bulgaria. In Russia it develops into the dominant church type of the Middle Ages, the cruciform domed church. (Church of Theofokos, Monastery of Hosios Lukas, Greece, tenth century)
Source: Nickel 25
Constantine clearly set the architectural bar very high, and Christian architects would be hard pressed to match the Hagia Sophia in terms of size, organization and decorations, but the structure was clearly a model for future efforts. In this regard, Nickel reports that, "Compared…… [Read More]
Among the great features of Gothenburg is the Gothenburg Opera House, the Liseberg amusement park and Universeum, a great place to take the family because kids will love the discovery and science center at Universeum.
Boat trips are available that take visitors out into the harbor and into the archipelago further north. Marstand in the archipelago and is well-known as a great place for yachting and yacht racing, and it is easily located from Gothenburg.
A couple of great Swedish traditions include "The Day of the Herring" (in June) during which Swedes make it a point to eat herring; many chefs have seminars teaching people how to make a "Midsummer herring dish." There is a floating hotel and restaurant (the Salt & Sill), and while on board a visitor can devour a three-course dinner and a night's stay in the Bed and Breakfast for 65 British pounds.
The Port of…… [Read More]
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…… [Read More]
As the light changes during the course of a day, the colors change as well; reds and yellows get more brilliant at noon, blues become brilliant as the light fades in the afternoon. All the while, the pictures tell important stories or symbolize truths. Light radiating through glass adds life, beauty, is transcendent, and spiritual connections become apparent.
The above rather elaborate description is cited at length in order to provide insight into the way that stained glass windows and ornamentation can evoke a spiritual and 'transcendent' quality that is particularly in keeping with a religious context such as a church. As referred to in the previous section, the use of stained glass is also strongly related to the Christian symbolism of light. As Web ( 2007) states, "A light philosophy ("God is light") was expressed, and it was thought that light reflected on earth is the closest we can…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
London has a rich architectural history. Some of the most popular buildings today come from the 19th century when Victorian Gothic architecture was popular. St. Pancras New Church offers a take at Greek revival style with a brick build, faced with Portland stone. Another Victorian style building, Manchester Town Hall, while built in the same century as St. Pancras, has its differences thanks to the rapid expansion and accompanying pollution so frequently seen in Victorian cities. Both structures hallmarks of British Victorian architecture, but also indelibly varied and indicative of the skill and engineering of the architects of the era.
Pancras Paris Church, also called St. Pancras New Church is a Greek evival church located in St. Pancras, London. The structure was constructed in three years from 1819-1822 and designed by Henry William and William Inwood. Placed along the south side of Euston oad and the northern boundary of Bloomsbury,…… [Read More]
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…… [Read More]
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…… [Read More]
Greek Classical Era on Christian Art
The fifth century B.C.E. initiated a new philosophy in Greek art. hile before this era, Greek representations of the human form tended to be static and relatively stylized (much like Egyptian art), the Classical era exhibited a notable break with previous artistic images. Representations of the human form became much more realistic. Knowledge of anatomy combined with an ideology that celebrated and idealized the human form (while still keeping it recognizably human) characterized the style of this era, as can be seen in one of the wonders of the ancient world, the Tomb of Mausolus (Asia Minor, 359-351 B.C.E.). One famous relief on the Tomb depicts Greek warriors and Amazon women in combat. Both the soldiers and the women are intricately detailed in terms of the folds of their clothing and musculature. Both sides are also perfectly proportioned and while all look recognizably human,…… [Read More]
In religious painting with a tilted perspective or a flat perspective "space seems to open out from the picture plane. It encompasses the viewer to make him part of the sacred events depicted, bringing him into the same sphere with the holy figures of Jesus, Mary, and the saints" ("The Early Renaissance," NGA, 2008). Also in Florence, both the actual architecture as well as the architecture seen in paintings makes use of classical proportions and styles.
hile the Florentine style was less fascinated with the potential of symbolism in painting, in the Flemish style, the use of symbolism was not even confined to religious works of and was equally manifest in the domestic scenes that dominated a great many paintings, rather than the more mythic and nationalistic subjects typical of Florentine artists. For example, the Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini (c.1434), Jan van Eyck's most famous work shows the newly married…… [Read More]
Continuing through the nave past the labyrinth, one finds one's self in the crossing, with transepts to the left and the right. Characteristic of gothic architecture, the transepts are meant to suggest the building is in the shape of a cross. Passing through this area, one notices the impressive light from the over 150 stained glass windows that are adorned with a variety of Biblical figures and scenes. The stained glass, which is one of the Cathedral's most famous attributes, managed to survive a variety of conflicts and religious persecution from the cathedral's completion until modern times. Passing by the transepts through the crossing reveals the head of the cathedral, including the choir and radiating chapels, above which rises the magnificent apse.
Chartres Cathedral." (n.d.). etrieved July 30, 2008, from Sacred Destination Travel
Guide Web Site: http://www.sacreddestinations.com/france/chartres- cathedral.htm.
Stones, Alison. "Frances: Chartres." (n.d.). etrieved July 30, 2008, from Images…… [Read More]
Among some of the wonderful things inside the cathedral, one can note the museum of the cathedral, with important religious silver artwork, as well as the inside cloister.
The Cathedral of Segovia is one of the last expression of Gothic in Europe, which is probably one of the reasons why it is also influenced in style and finality of creation by the upcoming Renaissance. This can be seen in the number of small turrets and additional ornaments, also characteristic of Gothic architecture, but, in this case, with an additional inclination towards detail. The interior is also more Renaissance style, avoiding some of the usual Gothic simplicity.
1. The Lady of Cathedrals. On the Internet at http://www.spain.info/TourSpain/Arte+y+Cultura/Monumentos/H/RP/0/Catedral+de+Segovia?Language=enlastretrieved on March 11, 2009
The Lady of Cathedrals. On the Internet at http://www.spain.info/TourSpain/Arte+y+Cultura/Monumentos/H/RP/0/Catedral+de+Segovia?Language=enlastretrieved on March 11, 2009… [Read More]
Eleanor and Henry did not live "happily ever after," though, and King Louis was reportedly enraged that the marriage went forward without his consent which the king would undoubtedly have refused to given had he been asked anyway.
A historian of the day, obert de Torigny, noted that it was unclear whether the Eleanor and Henry's marriage was the result of spontaneity or if the two had actually colluded to achieve this result. Cavendish points out that one of Eleanor's most recent biographers, Alison Weir, believes that Eleanor and Henry had been conspiring ever since they had met in Paris the year before and Eleanor had deliberately encouraged the annulment of her marriage to Louis. "Either way, when Henry succeeded to the throne of England in 1154, the effect was to give the rulers of England a domain in France stretching from the English Channel to the Pyrenees and covering…… [Read More]
Venice During Renaissence
Renaissance literally meaning re-birth was a cultural movement that started at the end of middle Ages from 14th to 17th century. The movement started from Italy and spread into whole of the Europe. The age of renaissance is attributed to a heightened sense of toleration and reasoning in every aspect of life. Arts, craft, literature, politics, and science, all were re-shaped in the renaissance era. hile the birth of renaissance is widely attributed to Florence, Venice was another city of Italy that presented an interesting but challenging outlook to a historian. Venice during the renaissance era was an oligarchy but was called Republic of Venice. ith hardly any resemblance with modern day democracy, Venice enjoyed affluence and abundance due being the gateway of trade activities in Europe.
The republic also enjoyed a relatively stable political environment and trade activities thrived in the era. Glassworkers, woodworkers, artisans, and…… [Read More]
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…… [Read More]
The Gothic and Renaissance were tumultuous periods in terms of art and architecture. These were times of wild creativity and rapid development when it came to style and subject matter. Artists and architects used not only their own minds and current cultural milieu to create their works, but gained significant depth of expression by acknowledging the traditions of the past. These were used to mold new ideas and new ways of art in a way that was unprecedented at the time. Two examples of this kind of development are Nicola Pisano's marble pulpit of the Pisa Cathedral and Hieronymus osch's "The Last Judgment."
Description of Artifacts
Nicola Pisano's marble pulpit in the Pisa Cathedral is a remarkable work indeed. Supported by nine columns, the pulpit is shaped like an octagon and placed on semi-circular arches. Three of the columns are supported by marble lions. The main octagon contains…… [Read More]
ork of Architecture
Title of work: estminster Abbey
Artist, date, and medium: The Abbey is the result of the labor of a number of architects. Its construction took centuries, including significant periods of rebuilding. Its most current form dates back to the 13th century.
Location of artwork: Banks of the Thames
Image of work:
Image source: http://static.westminster-abbey.org/assets/thumbnail/0011/39197/Abbey-north-side-72-estminster-Abbey-copyright.jpg
The primary iconography of estminster Abbey is religious in nature, including depictions of Christ, St. Thomas, and St. Christopher together; St. Faith, and images from the book of Revelation of St. John the Divine. There are also images from the royal family and renditions of "aristocratic and wealthy relatives and benefactors to the building" on the wall ("Art," estminster Abbey, 2012). A number of famous people are interred in the Abbey, most notably some of England's greatest poets and writers ("estminster Abbey," Sacred Destinations, 2010).
Medium and technique
estminster Abbey is primarily…… [Read More]
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]
Ohio Capitol Building
Discuss the overall design of the building. Upon what earlier buildings or styles was the design of this structure based? hy is that significant?
According to those who helped to construct the building, the Ohio Capitol was intended to be a building that was designed simplistically, to reflect the refinement and simple nature of the people in the state (Gilkey 1902,-page 651). The Ohio Capitol Building's design is based upon Greek and Roman architecture. It has been considered a premier example of Greek revival architecture which became popular during the 19th century in the United States and Europe (Gilkey 1902,-page 652). The structure was designed before the United States Capitol building and thus does not have the round dome that most capitol buildings have, although that structure too was designed after Grecian and Roman architecture. Subsequent additions to the building, either because of the need for additional…… [Read More]
The second structural element used by Gaudi as a source of inspiration was the skeleton, the structure on which the entire construction relied. It is a fact that Gaudi studied both shells and animals' skeletons before proceeding to build his own structure for the construction. The Casa Milla, for example, shows previous studies of shells and a significant resemblance with them.
Perhaps one of the best examples of how Gaudi used biological elements around him as sources of inspiration comes from one his own stories, the way he created the donkey, from the "Flight into Egypt" ensemble, "carved in stone at the entrance of the big portal." Everything, including Joseph and Mary, had been inspired from people that Gaudi had met in the streets of arcelona. The donkey itself was a problem, so that the architect made an announcement seeking a donkey from which a plaster cast could be made…… [Read More]
" This "unembellished sobriety," though, does not extend to the structure's west front. In this regard, Logerfo notes that the west front of Saint-Trophime features "a glorious tympanum describing the Last Judgement and statues of the apostles in nearby niches separated by small Corinthian columns in the style of decoration for a oman triumphal arch."
The research showed that the term omanesque architecture refers to an architectural style that emerged in Europe during the 10th century and reached its zenith during the 11th and 12th centuries. The highly ornate qualities of the omanesque style were shown to be supplemented by vaults and buttresses that added an aesthetic quality to the structures while serving important structural functions as well. While the authorities may not agree on the precise defining architectural elements that serve to define omanesque architecture, the research also showed that there are a sufficient number of commonalities among…… [Read More]
Additional key architectural traits found in St. Patrick's include pointed-arch windows, the building's Gothic shape, the details of the clear vertical presence, and sharply pointed finials.
How does it differ from the Other Gothic-Style Buildings?
Though Saint Patrick's was built in Gothic style, its design is original and distinct. The cathedral is a mixture of the German, French, and English Gothic influences and the inside has more of a feel of English and French Gothic style.
Some Gothic buildings have rounded arches - which appears in their portals, windows, arcades, and the giant stone vaulting of their roofs. The massive downward and outward force of these heavy stone roofs required substantial pillars and broad supporting walls. St. Patrick's ceiling vaulting is not made of stone, but brick and plaster. This style of vaulting is lighter in weight and is predominantly English in design.
St. Patrick's Cathedral, due to its superior…… [Read More]
Florence aptistery North Doors
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) was a many-sided Renaissance figure: bronze-caster, sculptor, goldsmith, draughtsman, architect, writer and historian. Among his most celebrated surviving work are the bronze doors which he created for the aptistery of the Cathedral in Florence. This paper will discuss the circumstances in which Ghiberti secured and completed the commission to design the north doors of the aptistery (1400-24) and analyse their composition and character. Ghiberti's work in Florence will then be compared to that of Gianlorenzo ernini at the baroque church of Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (1658-70).
In late 1400 the officials of the Cloth-Dealers and Refiners' Guild of Florence (the Arte di Calimara) announced a competition to design a set of doors for the aptistery of the Cathedral. The aptistery is a very old structure, the primary elements of which probably date to the seventh and eight centuries AD. The exterior covering…… [Read More]
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…… [Read More]
Florence train station and its qualities. The Florence train station might be expected to be designed in the classic or even art deco style, but instead, it is a classic and well-known example of Italian modernism.
The Firenze Santa Maria Novella or the Stazione di Santa Maria Novella is the main train station in Florence. A group of Italian architects called the Gruppo Toscano (Tuscan Group) completed it in 1934. Architects Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini were two of the members of this group. Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini approved of the final design of the station after a controversial competition, and many architects believe the Tuscan Group modeled their design after Viennese modern architecture and America's Frank Lloyd Wright, known for his modern and novel architecture. The Tuscan Group only designed the front of the building, the platforms, waiting areas, and such were designed by an Italian Ministry of Communications…… [Read More]
A romanticism that was rooted in the legendary European past served well to bring comfort and a sense of place in space and time to people who might otherwise have felt rootless and adrift. In its eclecticism the Richardsonian Romanesque house gave visible expression to the deepest needs and of an age.
Gowans, Alan. Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.
Roth, Leland M., ed. America Builds: Source Docs in American Architecture and Planning. New York: Harper & Row, 1983.
Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1980.
Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture Its Elements, History, and Meaning. 1st ed. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1993.
Alan Gowans, Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression (New York: Icon Editions,…… [Read More]
runelleschi -- San Lorenzo
filippo brunelleschi & THE CHURCH OF SAN LORENZO
As one of the greatest architects of the first half of the 15th century during the Renaissance Era, Filippo runelleschi (1377-1446) was trained as a goldsmith but his ability as a sculptor was well-known during the Renaissance. Although he turned to architecture out of the disappointment linked to losing the commission for the aptistry of Florence, his interest in this artform slowly increased which was spurred by several trips to Rome (circa 1402) where "he became enthralled by the Roman ruins which were to serve as his most important architectural influence" (Frey 156). In fact, the Roman ruins, along with some earlier architectural forms such as the Gothic, inspired him to develop the revolutionary system of geometric, linear perspective that was so consciously adopted by many of his Renaissance contemporaries.
runelleschi's knowledge of Roman construction principles, combined with…… [Read More]
Churches represented the primary type of Romanesque architecture. Despite regional variations, Romanesque architecture shares a multitude of common characteristics such as harmonious proportions, stone barrel vault, round arches supporting the roof, thick and heavy walls and pillars, or small windows. Also, most Romanesque churches feature round arches used for exterior and interior decoration, a nave with side aisles though there is also a number of small, more modest churches which do not have an aisle), galleries above the side aisles, separated from the nave by a triforium, a transept, an apse and an ambulatory around the apse. Also, most Romanesque churches have multiples towers, as well as sculptured decorations on portals and capitals, and painted decorations throughout the interior. One of the most important structural developments of Romanesque architecture was the stone barrel vault which was intended as an alternative to wooden roofs which were prone to fires (Butt 162).…… [Read More]