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Government Intervention in the Steel Industry
The Bush administration announced the imposition of sweeping tariffs of up to 30% on steel imports to the United States for a period of 3 years in March 2002 purportedly to save the ailing steel industry from collapsing. Predictably, the action has invited particularly harsh criticism from the U.S. trade partners that have been directly affected by the tax, i.e., the European Union, Japan, and China. Domestically too, the proponents of a free market economy have been no less critical of the measure, although the U.S. steel industry, in general, has welcomed the move.
This research report will focus on various aspects of the U.S. government's imposition of steel tariffs. It will discuss the benefits and costs of tariffs in general, and include a history of government's support of the U.S. steel industry, details of the steel tariff 2002, why it was imposed, and…
Anderson, William L. "A History of Privileges." (January, 1999). The Free Market. Retrieved on July 8, 2002 at http://www.mises.org/freemarket_detail.asp?control=43&sortorder=articledate
Anger over steel." (March 6, 2002). From Economist.com Global Agenda. Retrieved on July 9, 2002 at http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=1022220
Arnold, James. (March 6, 2002). "Steel Sector Stares into Abyss." BBC News Online Business Report. Retrieved on July 8, 2002 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm
Bartlett, Bruce. "Suffering Steel Tariff Side Effects." (April 22, 2002). The Washington Times. Retrieved on July 9, 2002 at http://www.washtimes.com/commentary/20.htm
Government managing of the economic using fiscal policy typically amounts to spending more, as governments rarely use fiscal policy to slow an overheated economy, preferring to rely on the more effective monetary policy tools that central banks have at their disposal. An increase in government spending provides a short-term boost to the economy. If the money is spent on investments for future growth such as transportation infrastructure and education, then the impacts will be long-term positive as well. There is the risk that active management of the economy through fiscal policy will be insufficient, or that it will have long-term negative impacts if the government borrows too much to pay for the spending.
Overall, government efforts to manage the economy make things better. Our economy does not even remotely resemble a free market economy, and has not since at least the 1930s. The economy has experienced, with few breaks, a…
Leamer, E. (no date). Components of GDP. UCLA. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/edward.leamer/documents/Hw%20Components%20of%20GDP%20Eviews%20Version.pdf
Lesher, M. & Miroudot, S. (2006). Analysis of the economic impact of investment provisions in regional trade agreements. OECD Trade Policy Working Papers.
government intervention through examining the meaning of market failure, reasons the market under-produces public goods, how externalities result in distortion of market outcomes, how market power prevents optimal results, and policy options for government interventions. The author considers market failure as the what question that contributes to the potential for government intervention in order to generate the most appropriate combination of output with present resources. Through an analysis of the nature of market failure, the term is used to describe less than perfect or suboptimal outcomes. The concept implies that supply and demand forces have not contributed to the realization of the best point on the production-possibilities curve.
Since it's a justification for government intervention, market failure is brought by various microeconomic factors such as public goods, externalities, market power, and inequity. This implies that market failure can be understood through examining these micro-economic sources or factors. Moreover, government intervention…
"Government Policy and Market Failures." (n.d.). Colander - Chapter 15. Retrieved from http://www2.gsu.edu/~ecorlcx/Colander-ch15-MarketFailure.ppt
Shiller, B. (2009). Government Intervention. In Essentials of economics (7th ed., Chapter 9, 182-
203). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
It has even created a new network of medical clinics that provide easy access to medical treatment at affordable prices at an efficient pace for such routine treatments as strep throat cultures, physicals for jobs or athletics, flu shots, and other procedures that enable people to pay a reasonable rate for timely care, which would not be given to them in a system of national coverage, and which would cost them more at a doctor's office that accepted their insurance (if they have insurance) because of the extra bureaucracy and paperwork necessary to validate insurance coverage ("al-Mart Medical Clinics," 2006, Healthcare NBIC).
The example of al-Mart illustrates how the marketplace is infinitely more responsive to the needs of the public out of its own self-interests. Necessity is the mother of invention and also the kind of personal initiative that pulls people out of desperate circumstances. Less government regulation would enable…
Rivlin, Alice. "Why Can't We Get things Done?" Chapter 66.
From The Brookings Bulletin. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institute.
Wal-Mart Medical Clinics." (Feb 2006). Healthcare NBIC. Retrieved 17 Jan 2007 at http://in3.typepad.com/hnbic/2006/02/walmart_medical.html
Following the onset of the Great Depression, America’s leaders tried to find ways to get the country going again, to stimulate the economy, put Americans back to work, and recreate the prosperous good times of the 1920s. Franklin Roosevelt called for action.1 Hoover before him called for the government to resist intervention.2 Two decades earlier Teddy Roosevelt called for intervention in the regulation of labor.3 Henry Ford called for self-help—not intervention—but independence.4 Based on these four perspectives, this paper argues that government intervention leads to a culture of dependency, which does not facilitate growth or positive and innovative solutions to real problems; therefore, government should not seek to intervene in the economy but rather allow the bad blood to work its way out, as painful as that may be.
Teddy Roosevelt felt that in order for America to have equitability, the government should get involved. He argued that “the right…
Tobacco industry has seen significant government intervention since at least the New Deal. Tobacco farmers have typically received subsidies for their crops and the benefits of marijuana prohibition but in more decent decades they have also faced increasingly strict controls on the sale of tobacco products. Prior to the era of restrictive cigarette sales, and buoyed by subsidies, tobacco was one of the more lucrative products to farm in the United States, a situation that has changed of late. The most recent move on the part of the government was the Transitional Tobacco Payment Program, which as the name implies was intended to provide incentive for farmers to transition to other crops (Mccord, 2014).
The moves on the part of government have reflected different roles that government has played. The subsidies reflected the role that government plays in promoting agriculture, not just promoting a farming lifestyle but ensuring a certain…
CHIA'S IMPROVIG ECOOMY
FOR PARTCIPATIG ATIOS
CHIA'S MOST SURPRISIG TUR
CHIA'S IMPROVIG ECOOMY
China has been an independent nation since the beginning of time, specifically its financial institutions are state owned. Although under developed, and one of the slowest developing countries, China was a proud and self-sufficient country, desiring to be individual, and dependent upon no other nation. Many years of being independent have severely limited the incoming and outgoing of financial funds and support, and as a result, China has reached its lowest economic downfall in history. Last December, China agreed to sustain an agreement with the World Trade Organization, after debating over the idea for the past fifteen years. The goals of entering an agreement with the World Trade Organization, were reducing the unemployment rate, and improving the China's economy. One of the obligations on China's part was they must submit to…
NA, DOMESTIC NEWS ITEMS FORM XINHUA, XINHUA NEWS AGENCY 04/17/2002
LARDY, NICHOLAS, THE DRAGON OUT OF PUFF, BROOKINGS INSTITUTION PRESS,
WASHINGTON DC, 2002
Governments neutralize the monetary impacts of their foreign exchange activities. This sterilization seeks to prevent foreign exchange transactions from posing as obstacles to the domestic monetary policy objectives. The underlying disturbance is likely to cause conflict between governments. When the underlying disturbance to exchange rate originates from the domestic government, it is likely to pursue inflation objectives through non-sterilized foreign exchange interventions (Auerbach & Kotlikoff, 2009).
While other governments have boundaries on investments relating to international financial markets in different currencies, some governments factor objectives of nominal exchange rates into their financial policy decisions. For instance, the federal government occasionally alters the rate of federal funds while it undertakes compatible foreign exchange activities. Erecting the required monetary policy changes across the sale or purchase of foreign currency has a bigger impact on the foreign exchange rate. This is contrary to initiating this move through open market activities in state securities.…
Auerbach, a.J., & Kotlikoff, L.J. (2009). Macroeconomics: An integrated approach. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press.
Madura, J. (2011). International Financial Management. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning, Inc.
Yotopoulos, Pan a. (2010). Exchange Rate Parity for Trade and Development: Theory, Tests, and Case Studies. Cambridge Univ Pr.
Governments should limit their interference in market progress.
The recent Presidential election was billed as a choice between two visions for America. Unfortunately for voters, there are many other visions that were not presented as viable options. If those options had been presented, voters may have chosen them. One such alternative political philosophy is libertarianism, which makes the case that government should interfere as little as possible in the daily lives of Americans. This is especially true in the economic realm -- whether it is regulation or tax handouts to powerful donor lobbies, the two big parties are equally culpable for creating needles burden that constricts the growth of the American economic engine.
Decentralization of government is a key concept. Manor (1999) notes that there has been a trend towards the decentralization of government worldwide. This trend is occurring because governments realize that decentralization can spur economic growth and alleviate…
Ehrlich, I. & Lui, F. (1999) Bureaucratic growth and endogenous economic growth. Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 107 (6) 270-293.
Krueger, A. (1990). Government failures in development. NBER Working Paper #3340. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w3340.pdf
Manor, J. (1999). The political economy of democratic decentralization. The World Bank. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from http://elibrary.worldbank.org/content/book/9780821344705
Qian, Y. & Weingast, B. (1999). Federalism as a commitment to preserving market incentives. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol 11 (4) 83-92.
This leads directly to the issue of efficiency, which can be seen quite clearly from the above description to be harmed by government intervention in the short-term; by not allowing the market to find appropriate price point in the rapid manner of supply and demand curves, efficiency is eroded. This is where things get complicated, however, and where a true definition of terms must occur. The concept of efficiency itself is fairly straightforward, but in this context long-term and short-term efficiency must be distinguished. Though short-term efficiency is diminished by government intervention, this is not necessarily the case when major detrimental fluctuations over the long-term are controlled.
It is in the area of market stability that the theoretical quandary of the efficiency issue can be solved. Government regulation quite directly and purposefully, in almost all circumstances, increases market stabilization by controlling prices, providing subsidies, and in some instances controlling the…
In this respect, it was not the reality which mattered but rather the perception of that reality. Most of the times during the Cold War, but especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the reality showed that the perception of the Russian Soviets as the strongest forces in the world was often not true. Still it motivated the U.S. To consider all sorts of side games to defeat the communist threat, which in fact was not as big as considered throughout the decades.
Diversionary war has its own motivation in terms of psychological impact on the population. People tend to view the international threat as being the ultimate point of reference for danger. The state in itself is the most trusted instrument for the insurance of security, and an international threat constitutes the questioning of this establishment. More precisely, it has been argued that "as the leader of one…
Baker, William D.. "The Dog That Won't Wag: Presidential Uses of Force and the Diversionary Theory of War" Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004).
Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984
Hendrickson, Ryan. "Clinton's Military strikes in 1998: diversionary uses of force?" In Armed Forcea & Society, vol. 28, no. 2. Winter 2002, pp 309-332.
James, Patrick and John R. Oneal, "The Influence of Domestic and International Politics on the President's Use of Force," Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (1991): 307-332.
Competency development in the balanced approach emphasizes the need for a broader concern with maturational development, especially by means of acquiring the survival skills required for daily living (p. 485).
Interventions that emphasized the balanced approach do look at the deficits and dysfunctions of the individual, but also identify family and community strengths, to draw upon. Not only would this intervention increase competency in the delinquent youth, but also help ensure public safety. Mentoring with a parental education and community organization approach, coupled with an effective sanctioning guidelines with meaningful consequences, is one intervention that would fulfill this criteria.
This type of intervention differs significantly from the interventions commonly utilized in the current system. Most interventions are geared to address a singular facet of delinquency, and regretfully ignore the others. As an example, the Boys and Girls Clubs of America offer a wide variety of programs to help counter risk…
Education and career. (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from http://www.bgca.org/programs/education.asp .
Ek, A. (Mar 2008). Cluster profiles of youths living in urban poverty: Factors affecting risk and resilience. Social Work Research, 32(1). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from CINAHL Plus database.
Leve, L. & Chamberlain, P. (Jun 2005). Association with delinquent peers: Intervention effects for youth in the juvenile justice system. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(3). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from PubMed Central database.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (Aug 1997). Balanced and restorative justice for juveniles. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/framwork.pdf .
To become a senator, a person has to be at least 30 years of age and should have been a citizen of the U.S. For a minimum period of nine years at the time of election. Also, he or she has to be a resident of the state from which he or she is elected so that the state can be well-represented. In the case of representative, he or she should be at least 25 years old and must be a citizen of the U.S. For at least seven years at the time of election. Also, he or she has to be a resident of the state, but there is no mandatory rule that the representative should be a resident of the district that he or she represents.
Major steps in the process of a bill becoming a law
The first step is a member of the congress should introduce…
Northern Territory (NT) Intervention
In this essay, the author will examine how the Australian Federal Government can pass legislation (as was done with the Northern Territory (NT) intervention) which is not subject to the operation of acial Discrimination Act (Clth) and, in turn, any State/Territories acial Discrimination Acts. The author will raise the question of whether or not the Federal Government has such power. If this is so, the author will then examine under what circumstances such power should be exercised. Further, in the essay the author will raise the question of whether the federal government exercised this power correctly with regards to the NT intervention. Finally, the essay will examine if the Federal Government should not have such power, then how human rights can be protected in Australia.
It is the author's opinion that the Australian government far overstepped its mandate. While technically legal, the intervention was only barely…
Ashby-Cliffe, J. (2008) 'Reaching the End,' Army (1202), 4.
ABC News. (2007). Pearson Fears for Indigenous Parents' Freedom. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-06-22/pearson-fears-for-indigenous-parents-freedom/78106 . Last accessed 6 September 2011.
Australian Human Rights Commission. (2007). Submission of the Human Rights
and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Committee on the Northern Territory National Emergency
This provides two strong disincentives to innovate. hat is left is a Chinese state that discourages the development of the most tried-and-true means of economic development -- competition and innovation -- and instead relies on wealth transfer due to currency manipulation as the foundation of its success.
The role of government in an economy, therefore, should be limited if long-term sustainable growth is the objective. For totalitarian capitalism to be the superior system would require that system to develop competencies that enable its economies to compete globally. Thus far, these competencies have only emerged in the Chinese firms that have access to estern systems -- Lenovo's Hong Kong roots place it into estern-style competition for example. ithout competencies, you have short-term success built on an artificial and unsustainable economy, rather than long-term success. The estern style emphasizes a limited role for government and the power of market forces. The totalitarian…
Huang, Y. (2008). Just how capitalist is China? MIT Sloan Research Paper 4699-08.
No author. (2008). The long march backwards. The Economist. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.economist.com/culture/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12333103
No author. (2010). The spirit of enterprise fades. The Economist. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.economist.com/business-finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15331470
Krugman, P. (2010). Taking on China. New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/15/opinion/15krugman.html?hp
Oil Price Fluctuation
Actions adopted by the government to reduce or limit price fluctuation
Oil Price Fluctuation iii
This report will focus on the actions adopted by the government to reduce the fluctuation in oil prices. A brief introduction is discussed in the assignment. The reasons are also described in the assignment for which the oil prices fluctuate. This assignment also puts light on the price stability and why governments need to intervene to reduce the volatility in oil prices. Strategies adopted by the government to stable the oil prices are also discussed.
easons of price fluctuation
Government intervention to stable the oil prices
Strategic oil reserves
Actions adopted by the government to reduce or limit price fluctuation
The prices of oil were increased in 2007 to 2008. The oil prices were highly fluctuating in 2007 between the months January…
Bacon, R. & Kajima, M. (2008) Coping with Oil Price Volatility. ESMAP p.1-174.
Conerly, B. (2013) Oil Price Forecast for 2013-2014: Falling Prices. Yahoo Inc. p.1-2.
European Central Bank (2007) Price stability: why is it important for you? P.1-87.
Gillman, T. (2008) Why Oil and Gas Prices Fluctuate. Yahoo Inc. p.1-3.
All it is really accomplishes is forcibly transferring wealth from one party to another.
These transfers can actually create new market failures by forming barriers to market entry, and creating unfair competitive advantages through subsidies, tariffs, tax-breaks and regulations that favor one party over another.
Fundamental to the notion of government regulation is that its purpose is to eliminate unfairness in competition. However, powerful businesses have huge influences on policy making in the United States that make this an ideal rather than a reality. They hire lobbyists, create ad campaigns, and court politicians to gain influence. Companies compete for bureaucratic power just as much as they do for market power.
ecause of the advantages government regulation can offer, firms try to out-regulate each other rather than to just out-compete each other in the market. Government regulation has invited businesses to become involved in government and the best way to put…
Conigliaro, a., Elman, J., Schreiber, J. And Small, T. "The Danger of Corporate Monopolies." http://cse.stanford.edu/class/cs201/Projects/corporate-monopolies/index.html
Franco, Nicholas C. "Corporate Environmental Disclosure: Opportunities to Harness Market Forces to Improve Corporate Environmental Performance." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 8-11 Mar. 2001. http://www.rosefdn.org/images/EPA.Disclosure.Study.pdf
Invisible Hand." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invisible_Hand
The government should provide health care, because the economic characteristics of health care make it ripe for abuse in a market environment. Government should provide as a service to its population those goods that, for one reason or another, are open for abuse in a normal market economy. Normally, the main condition is natural monopoly, which makes the case for government involvement in commodities like electricity, water, or policing. Health care is not a natural monopoly in that there can reasonably be a number of different providers, but it has other characteristics that make it a strong candidate for government intervention.
In even the freest capitalist economies, there are public goods that the government provides. The government provision of certain services is accepted by populations because the alternative -- total anarchy -- results is a severely degraded quality of life. No government services at all is a failed…
Besley and Gouveia write about different modes of health care provision. They discuss in particular some of the cost drivers in the American system, and evaluate some other systems in order to come to some conclusions about what other options exist. They note that insurance is a key issue for a private health care system, and because of this most countries opt for public health care systems, typically with mandatory insurance.
Gupta and Davoodi seek to understand how corruption affects the provision of government services, including health care. Unfortunately, their analysis has significant bias, as they begin with the assumption that government-run programs are inherently corrupt.
Transparency International is an organization that measures the level of government corruption in all the countries of the world. This source was required to examine the claims of Gupta and Davoodi. It was found that in the West there is very little government corruption. While the U.S. has more than most Western nations, it remains a spurious claim on the part of Gupta and Davoodi that corruption is inherent in government programs. Further, the line between corruption (accepting payment in return for favors) and capitalism (accepting payment to provide a service) is not explored.
Lloyd and Sreedhar wrote about Hobbes' moral and political philosophy. Hobbes' seminal discussion about the state of nature is relevant because societies have evolved different forms of governance specifically to avoid the state of nature; an argument that government should not be involved in health care must consider the implications of having such a weak government -- these range from the state of nature to poor health outcomes and quality of life measures.
Preventing Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is on the rise in America and across the world. Obesity presents physical, social, and emotional complications for all sufferers. However, childhood obesity is especially concerning because the chronic conditions associated with obesity such as type II diabetes and heart disease are increasingly difficult to manage over time and today's generation of obese children is more likely to become a generation of overweight adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 17% children and adolescents aged 2 -- 19 are obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014). Obesity in children is significantly correlated with poverty and certain specific minority statuses. "In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was higher among Hispanics (22.4%) and non-Hispanic black youth (20.2%) than non-Hispanic white youth (14.1%). The prevalence of obesity was lower in non-Hispanic Asian youth (8.6%) than in youth who were non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black or Hispanic" obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014).…
Bray, G. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(4): 537-543
Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/4/537.full
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
The Federal Reserve System is mandated with contributing to the management of all three of these measures. The role of the Federal Reserve is to control money supply, something it does via the setting interest rates and through open market operations. The Federal Reserve works independent of the White House, although there may be consultations to ensure a match between fiscal and monetary policy.
One concept that heavily influences both monetary policy and fiscal policy is incrementalism. This is the idea that future actions will be built on past actions. There will be no sudden moves in either form of policy, and seldom are programs and spending levels subject to considerable scrutiny -- most changes are therefore incremental. This allows policymakers to avoid major shocks. The process by which fiscal policy is set revolves around the budget. The Office of Management and Budget spends 16-18 months preparing the budgets based…
Supply Chain Integration
How Defining Supply Chain Standards Can Improve Integration and Performance
Supply chains by their very nature of often disorganized, lack a cohesive data model or taxonomy for sharing information and knowledge and over time can become exceptionally myopic and inward centered. When these conditions exist in conjunction with dominant firms who seek to create their own unique, proprietary supply chain integration standards, the fragmentation or balkanization of an entire industry and its value chain often occurs (Jayaraman, Rardin, uyurgan, et.al. 2011). Nascent efforts to resolve this issue have been taken on by industry standards organization RosettaNet (Thibodeau, 2002), yet this organization's focus has only been on the high technology industry. The Enterprise Integration Act of 2002 (Thibodeau, 2002) looks to create a more unified series of integration standards so that the fragmentation of supply chains does not occur.
How Government-Defined Standards Will Improve Supply Chain Management
Hofman, D. (2004). The Hierarchy Of Supply Chain Metrics. Supply Chain Management Review, 8(6), 28-37.
Jayaraman, R., Rardin, R., Buyurgan, N., Varghese, V., Burbano, A., Pazour, J., Dixon, D. (2011). Data standards in healthcare supply chain operations. IIE Annual Conference.Proceedings, 1-8.
Li, L., Su, Q., & Chen, X. (2011). Ensuring supply chain quality performance through applying the SCOR model. International Journal of Production Research, 49(1), 33.
Thibodeau, P. (2002). Supply chain standards up for federal funding. Computerworld, 36(42), 6.
The growing relevance of Universal preschool education across the world is a pointer to its relevance. I am of the opinion that the government should support and finance preschool education via grants whose payment is made to not only public, but also private sector educational providers. This is a model that has already been tested, tried, and applied in Great Britain. Studies conducted on this front have demonstrated that the relevance of preschool programs cannot be overstated when it come to the social development of children (Swiniarski, 2007). Here, these programs have a positive impact in the enhancement of a child’s communication abilities – more so given that one of the learning goals identified encompasses communication, language, and literacy (Swiniarski, 2007).
Universal preschool education has, however, been criticized on some fronts. Questions have specifically been raised on whether the rapid growth of the programs at present can sustain…
If the minimum wage is raised, and all competing businesses with al-Mart raise their wages and thus the prices of their goods, al-Mart can be assured of a more level playing field, theoretically, even if it must raise the prices of its goods by a few cents. Scott himself said his company could not change its own wage structure without government assistance because of tough competition from competitors like K-Mart and Target. "Even slight overall adjustments to wages eliminate our thin profit margin...because we are so big, people forget that we have to compete." (Joyce, 2005, p. D5) Scott noted that al-Mart actually paid above the technical national minimum wage, and said he was thinking more of the customers of the store, rather than the store's employees. However, one might note that there is quite a great deal of overlap between the two, al-Mart employees and al-Mart shoppers. hich consumer…
Meyerson, Harold. "Trouble in Wal-Mart's America. The Washington Post. A26: (Oct 26, 2005) [12 Jun 2006] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/25/AR2005102501456.html
Joyce, Amy. "Wal-Mart Chief Says Customers Need Increase in Minimum Wage." The Washington Post. D5: (26 Oct 2005. [12 Jun 2006] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/25/AR2005102501724.html
Unions, HM and Government Intervention
Unions, human resources management personnel, and government interventions all set about addressing worker rights and safety in different ways. For instance, in the early 20th century, unethical companies were exploiting child labor and allowing unsafe practices to continue at workplace environments. The government finally enacted laws curbing these activities: it created the 40-hour work week, the minimum age law, and the Food and Drug Administration to oversee regulatory practices and ensure safety in production. This is primarily the way that government intervenes -- through laws and rules and regulations.
Unions and human resources management personnel, however, address these issues different. Human resources attempts to ease situations under company control and to impact workers through direct action and leadership skills. Jacqui, Cairncross and Lamont (2014), for instance, observe that identifying the needs of employees allows managers to steer their workers towards the goals of the organization…
Beer et al. (1984). Managing Human Assets. The Free Press: New York, NY.
Jacqui, L., Cairncross, G., Lamont, M. (2014). Inducting and training Generation Y
volunteers: a sport event case study. Proceedings of the CAUTHE 2014: Tourism and hospitality in the contemporary world: trends, changes and complexity. Brisbane: University of Queensland: 363-374.
Rogers, S., Jiang, K., Rogers, C., Intindola, M. (2015). Strategic Human Resource
To preserve the forests, however, government intervention and regulation are necessary. Industry does not have the vested interest or the financial resources to research scientific tree farming, because the profits from such research will be a long time in coming.
Thompson's analysis makes economic as well as environmental sense. In the case of some products, like natural resources, private enterprise cannot be expected to take a long-term view and make long-term investments in researching scientific conservation, because commercial industry must show a short-term a profit for the company's owners. The profits from forestry improvement may only be realized after several generations. However, it is still critical that such improvements occur, thus this is an ideal example of when government intervention is required to help the environment and to preserve the future of an industry.
Thompson, Roy a.H "Timber." From Visions of Technology. pp.156-159
Thompson, Roy a.H "Timber." From Visions of Technology. pp.156-159
The notion of 'intervention' has the literal, Oxford English Dictionary meaning of "stepping in or interfering in any affair, so as to affect its course or issue." But its connotative meaning within contemporary culture is more resonant and multivalent in nature. The television show Intervention exemplifies the positive, pop psychology notion of an 'intervention,' in which an individual is saved from an addiction by group of outsiders (usually friends, family, and treatment staff). But many 'interventions' have a negative resonance: more traditional notions of intervention raise questions of sovereignty and legitimacy. At the heart of the conflict between 'good' and 'bad' notions of intervention is the question of autonomy. When is it acceptable and appropriate to impinge upon the autonomy of a human being or of the state? Is it ever moral to not intervene?
Awareness of injustice has increased in the era of Internet-based social networking and communication.…
Similar to what happened in Chile happened between the 1930s and the late 1970s in most countries in Latin America that used the import substitution industrialization model (ISI) to build their industry and therefore reduce their dependency upon imports from foreign countries. The result of the ISI in these countries has included the rapid urbanization of one or two major cities and a growing urban population of the working class and a membership in the world economic system via globalization through the vehicles of the IMF and the World Bank. Much of this was done in response to the economic crisis of 1997 when the leaders of these countries very quickly adopted and the implemented new neoliberal policies. In countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, the United States and Uruguay, capitalism and central private banking are now the norm with firms and economies being one intact whole (Taylor,…
Neoliberalism: origins, theory, definition. (2005, December 2). Retrieved from http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/neoliberalism.html .
Taylor, L. (1997). Editorial: the revival of the global creed. Wolrd Development, 25(2), 145-152.
There may, for instance, exist various programs for relieving PTSD in veterans. The president may propose that the government should implement and fund an intervention. All would be assessed in order to choose that which is not only efficacious but also least costly. Occasionally, various programs may be mixed and their cost-effectiveness taken into account so that the result is as least costly as possible.
Incremental budgeting is another government budgetary tools that are similar to that which industries use. . Incremental budgeting bases the current budget on the previous year's budget, implementing only minor changes in the programs that are on the budget. With this approach, poorly performing programs receive cuts in spending and disruptive conflict and change in government spending is reduced.
Cost-benefit analysis is a tool used alike for business and government where the profit and advantage of projects are assessed over time to review whether they…
Notwithstanding these dreadful forecast as well as the consequential results, the political will for transformation is not that strong at the moment, if these situation extends, it will be harder to alter them; conceivably it is the moment for the people as well as the government officials to work hand-in-hand in saving the country's current economic state.
In an article written by Shear and Branigin (2009), they quoted President Obama saying "we cannot rebuild this economy on the same pile of sand, we must build our house upon a rock. We must lay a new foundation for growth and prosperity -- a foundation that will move us from an era of borrow and spend to one where we save and invest, where we consume less at home and send more exports abroad."
The new economy that President Obama mentioned will surface from America's most horrible economic occurrence in the past…
Cummings, Jr., M. & Wise, D. (2001). Democracy Under Pressure: An Introduction to the American Political System. United States: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.
Lewis, A. (December 7, 2007). Bush bailout rewards the cheaters. Retrieved April 22, 2009 from The Denver Post: http://www.denverpost.com/business/ci_7655582
Lipford, J. & Slice J. (2007). The Role of Government in Modern U.S. Society: What Would Adam Smith Say? Washington Examiner: Orange County Register.
Madrick, J. (May 11, 2000). Government's role in the new economy is not a cheap or easy one. Retrieved April 22, 2009, from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2000/05/11/business/economic-scene-government-s-role-new-economy-not-cheap-easy-one-but-it-crucial.html?pagewanted=2
On the whole, the Academy calls for the abolition of exemption laws and endorses initiatives to educate the public about the medical needs of children (Committee on ioethics)..
While AAP recognizes the importance of religion to people's lives, it also warns physicians and other health care professionals should put the health and welfare of children over religious considerations (Committee on ioethics 1997). It encourages pediatricians to respect parents' decision but not when their religious convictions interfere with medical care necessary to prevent harm, suffering or death. When this happens, pediatricians should seek the authorization of the court to override parental authority. If the threat to a child's life is imminent, the health care practitioner should intervene over parental objections. Securing court authorization should, however, be the last course of action. The health care practitioner should cooperate with the family in applying appropriate palliative care. Even when the securing of court…
Bender, Denise G. Do Fourteenth Amendment Considerations Outweigh a Potential State
Interest in Mandating Cochlear Implantation for Deaf Children. Journal of Deaf
Studies and Deaf Education: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2004
Committee on Bioethics. Religious Objections to Medical Care. Volume 9 number 2
Teenage pregnancy is described as being pregnant or being a mother below 20 years of age in most of the conducted researches. Only two researches considered had an age limit of 20 years, while another one had a limit of 21 years (Noll, Shenk, & Putnam, 2009).
The rate of teenage child birth differs by a 10 factor in case of first world nations. Netherlands on one hand has a negligible rate of 12 infants per 1,000 teenagers each year while Russia on the other hand has a rate of 100 infants per 1000 teenagers. During the 1990's United States of America spiked with teenage pregnancies which was the same in 1980's as well. Japan and European nations have controlled pregnancy rates (40 infants per 1,000). England peaks the European bloc with teenage pregnancy. One research in 2000 concluded that annually in England, around 90,000 child births…
Amoran, O. (2012). A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria. Amoran International Journal for Equity in Health, 2-7.
Dickins, T., Johns, S., & Chipman, A. (2012). Teenage Pregnancy In The United Kingdom: A Behavioral Ecological Perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 344-359.
Fonseca, L., Araujo, H., & Santos, S. (2012). Sexualities, teenage pregnancy and educational life histories in Portugal: experiencing sexual citizenship? Gender and Education, 647-664.
Hoggart, L. (2012). I'm Pregnant...what am I going to do? An examination of value judgments and moral frameworks in teenage pregnancy decision making. Health, Risk and Society, 533-549.
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…
About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical
Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.
Even if one uses the previous five sets, they must decide the percentage of importance and relevance to assign to each criterion. It as such becomes understandable why peoples or states use the same decisional framework and come to inconsistent results. Personally, I would place the most emphasis on human rights and would generally decide in favor of an armed intervention in countries where more cases of human rights breaches are registered. Secondly, I would also look at the United States' interests and possible losses pegged to the intervention. How could it benefit or harm us? Third, I would seek international acceptance, support and cooperation from other sovereign states. The final element I would consider is not present in the five set decision criteria, but I hold it pivotal. It would consist of an analysis of the diplomatic efforts in the region. I would trail the discussions and their outcomes;…
Peace Agreements and International Intervention
A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…
Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.
Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .
Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and Grievance, Policy Research Paper 2355." World Bank Development Group. May 2000.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
The accident in the Tonkin Gulf when North Vietnamese forces attacked the U.S. vessels and caused two airplanes to crash was a good reason to start the conflict, as the troops of North Vietnam violated the Geneva Convention and attacked a foreign navy in the neutral international waters. The United States has to react on this accident, as it was the mater of international respect, but at the same time the presidents administration had to estimate the future consequences of the military strike back. It was not secret that a lot of Soviet weapon was concentrated in North Vietnam, and Viet Kong army was ready to start the war for the unification of the country as it was guaranteed to have a support from Soviets.
Invention in Grenada was caused by the Cuban influence on Grenada's government in early 1980 iers. Grenada changed its political orientation and turned to the…
John J. Johnson, a Hemisphere Apart: Foundations of U.S. Policy toward Latin America Westview Press; 2nd edition (January, 2001)
Alonso Aguilar, Pan-Americanism from Monroe to the Present Monthly Review Pr (June 1, 1969)
Protection and Humanity
Intervention in an independent state
Sadly, human rights violation persists in this modern era. This is clearly the case in third world countries run by operators. The states are all independent for that matter; there comes a point when third party must intervene for saving the humanity at large.
When massive portions of population are being wiped off, efforts must be taken to avert the killings. The violations of human rights are a concrete reason to intervene in an otherwise independent state.
There are a number of factors which affect the present dilemma. By proposing that human rights are being violated means that the issue at hand is being handled too loosely. This paper will profess to highlight the value of human rights violation. Then situations will be examined where it was imperative to intervene, considering the ins and outs each party carry. The justification of the…
Cheadle, Don. Prendergast, John. (2005). Never again' again. USA Today.
United Nations Chronicle. (1993). Enforcing human rights: The UN machinery. Vol 30 (1) p93-95
Ghandhi, P.R. (1998). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at fifty years: Its origins, significance and impact. German Yearbook of International Law Vol 41 p206-252
The Economist. (2005). Lengthening the arm of global law. Vol 375 (8421) p38
However, there is some common sense in knowing when government is necessary and when too much government is detrimental to quality of life.
A world without government would be a much worse world, one in which crimes proliferated, in which an economy would be impossible to maintain on a global scale, and in which public works projects could not be maintained feasibly. Too much government, such as with socialist and communist systems, do not work well because they restrict the rights and freedoms of people. However, too many Americans believe that any government is bad. Before Americans forget what government is good for, they should remember that governments pay for schools because citizens agree that an educated population is a safe and happy population. Governments also create public works projects that allow citizens to enjoy clean drinking water, communication networks, and transportation systems. Anarchy and complete privatization might be fun…
Amy, D.J. (2007). Stealth Deregulation: The Untold Story.
Benson, E. T (1968). The proper role of government. Retrieved online: http://laissez-fairerepublic.com/benson.htm
Feinman, R.D. (2004). Government's Role. Retrieved online: http://robertdfeinman.com/society/government_role.html
Halloran, L. (2011). Deficit Forces Question: What Is Government's Role? NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/2011/04/12/135352906/deficit-forces-question-what-is-governments-role
Job Creation and Government
JOB CEATION SHOULD NOT BE GOVENMENT'S ESPONSIBILITY
Government in all capitalist nations is actually responsible for efficient allocation and diversion of resources and not for creation of employment opportunities for the people. Capitalist countries thrive on the principle of entrepreneurship and in such countries corporations literally control all economic activity. For this reason, it is impractical to expect the government to intervene when employment opportunities are scarce. Instead government's intervention must be limited to efficient allocation of economic resources and regulation of financial markets through fiscal measures during times of economic slow-down. But under no circumstances, should the government be expected to raise employment level in the country because it is essentially incapable of carrying out the task successfully. It has been noticed that when government is assigned the task of job creation, it does so inefficiently usually hiring more people than needed for various government…
Milton Friedman, "Can Government Make Jobs?" Newsweek, December 13, 1982, p. 122.
The increasing and gruesome mass killings in schools and other public arenas is connected to military type assault rifles and hidden handguns, carrying large amounts of ammunition magazines. These artilleries of war are modeled to cause overwhelming damage within short periods without reloading (Rosenthal, 2016). There is an upcoming logical debate to convince the government to ban these artilleries among the public.
A large number of Americans prefer banning "assault weapons"; the same case applies to the majority of students who strongly support criminalizing the possession, receipt, transfer and manufacture of assault weapons. The congress of 1994 permitted the assault weapons ban. It expired in 2004. Arguments to renew the ban happen periodically and a number of federals have enacted the bans.
The Sandy Hook basics school massacre in Newtown, Connecticut, which took place in December, 2012, caused a new round of ideas in relation to banning assault weapons as…
Nursing Intervention in Disaster
The possibility of occurrence of disasters is a reality. With this in mind there should be efforts made to prevent any upcoming or potentially disastrous events. These efforts are what are known as disaster prevention. Disaster prevention therefore refers to efforts put in place to ensure that adverse effects of events that are potentially disastrous are prevented even when the disaster cannot be controlled. Disaster prevention is done at various levels of the society and is undertaken so as to prevent all types of disasters. Nurses are involved to a large extent when it comes to the prevention and mitigation of disasters. Nurses are involved in institutions that can influence change and due to the unique skills that they posses they can make interventions in disasters. To perform efficiently, a nurse must be always prepared to make changes in plan actions at any time and at…
Harden, E.G., (2004). The role of nursing in disasters. Retrieved march 22, 2013 from http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jdi018e/2.html
Rittenmeyer, L., (2007). Disaster preparedness: Are you ready? Retrieved march 22,2013 from http://www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/ce_article.asp?tid=726331
Wolters Kluwer Health, (2007). LWW Journals - Beginning with A. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://journals.lww.com/smajournalonline/fulltext/2007/09000/spiritual_issues_in_the_aftermath_of_disaster.32.aspx
Torticollis is a condition which can be either temporary and of a minor inconvenience or it can be chronic and physically debilitating. The implications of the condition can run the gamut of severity and susceptibility to treatment. Torticollis, or a twisting of the neck, can be extremely common but its causes and impact exist across a wide range of variations. The discussion here will offer a concise overview of the condition with consideration of its various suspected causes, its most salient symptoms, strategies for its treatment and existing technologies or adaptive strategies aimed at helping individuals live with the condition.
Torticollis is not an altogether uncommon presence at the time of birth. hen the condition is present at the time of birth, it is referred to as congenital or inherited torticollis. According to the research provided by the Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (BMAB) (2012) "about…
Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (BCMAB). (2012). Torticollis. Babycenter.com.
Cunha, J.P. (2009). Torticollis Overview. EMedicine Health.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2008). Cervical Dystonia. Mayo Clinic.com.
Medline Plus. (2011). Torticollis. NLM.NIH.gov.
Public Administration and Public Schools
The transformation which Kettl has discussed in his work of literature entitled The Transformation of Governance: Public Administration for Twenty-First Century America is that of government and its public administration. Specifically, the author believes that government has changed from that of the hierarchical authority of centralized, solitary governments to a decentralized approach in which the administration of government actually takes place between various governments. A trenchant way of looking at this transformation is something akin to the dissolution of nation states -- although the author is not advocating such a dissolution. Instead, he is stating that governments will no longer operate autonomously (and have no longer operated autonomously) and are instead bound to one another via cross-governmental administration and non-governmental entities.
We should care about the author's perception of this transformation because the change in the administration of government greatly affects the participation of the…
Kettl, Donald F. (2002). The Transformation of Governance: Public Administration for Twenty-First Century America. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Rhee, M. (2009). Testimony of Michelle Rhee, chancellor. District of Columbia Public Schools.
Government-Business Relations 1004 PPP -- Reading Report
Tutorial (e.g. Monday 10.00am-11.30am):
Reading full reference
Wilson, G. (2003). Business and politics: A comparative introduction. 3rd ed. New York: Chatham House Publishers. Chapter 2. "Business and Politics in the United States," pp. 27-57.
Main point(s) made by the author(s)
In contrast to modern European democracies, the United States has embraced a form of capitalism that is extremely hostile to proactive social welfare policies. Within U.S. culture there has tended to be a more uncomplicated celebration of such values as individualism and self-reliance. Even the Democratic Party, which is currently considered the more liberal of the two major governing parties, is less supportive of comprehensive social welfare policies such as universal healthcare vs. European nations. The U.S. has a very weak welfare state, one of the weakest in the modern industrialized world. The U.S. also has a federalist system, which accords considerable power…
esponse to instruction and intervention TI2 is reported as a general approach in education to closing the gap in achievement. TI2 methods are constructed upon the esponse to Intervention (TI) model that was an option for schools under the 'Building the Legacy, Idea 2004 reauthorization of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. (California Department of Education, 2011) TI and the expanded TI2 are reported as being based upon "17 years of practice that has refined continuous progress monitoring as a strategy for keeping students on a path toward success." (California Department of Education, 2011) TI is reported as a strategy that moves all students through the steps set out in the learning standards and is further more stated to be an approach that views both academic and behavioral achievement of students.
Tier 1 included the 'Universal Interventions' which include "preventive, proactive, universal intervention in all…
Benchmark interventions -- reinforcement (2011) Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://pubs.cde.ca.gov/tcsii/ch2/bnchmrkrnfrcmnt.aspx
Case Study: El Rancho Unified School District in Pico Rivera, California (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from: http://www.reading.org/downloads/resources/rti0707_implications.pdf
Case Study: Pella Community School District, Iowa (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from:
Government egulation of the Outdoor Industry
The outdoor industry is a booming business in America today. With the failing economy, more people than ever are heading to the outdoors to unwind and relax. To jump on this trend, Amazon.com opened an Outdoor ecreation Store at its site in July, and it has shown steady growth ever since it opened. Another trend in the outdoor industry is imposing more government regulation on outdoor sports and activities, and that is something Americans should not allow. As a member of the International Kayak Fishing Association, I strongly urge Americans to contact their Congressional representatives about the government's attempts to regulate the paddling community. This is the plain truth. Governments want to regulate kayaks, canoes, and other paddleboats because of the huge income potential. These are the facts. "The National ecreational Boating Survey reported in 2002 that canoes were the second most-operated boat, just…
Editors. "Paddlers Eyeing Threat of Increased Boating Regulations Warily." Kayak-fishing.org. 2009. 12 Oct. 2009.
Wise Law Group. "Disturbing Facts about ATVs." Resource4Accicents.com. 2009. 12 Oct. 2009.
U.S. Policy and the War on Terror: An Ineffective Strategy
Since 9/11 the U.S. government has pursued a policy of combating terrorism with all of its resources (intelligence, technology, military, economic sanctions, etc.). However, the question remains, nearly a decade and a half later, with terror attacks occurring more and more frequently around the world, whether the U.S. has been effective in its countering of terrorism. According to various studies, it can be shown how far from actually eradicating terrorism, the policies of the U.S. government have actually helped to foster the spread of terrorism. Now, as Russia steps into the Middle East to fight ISIS at the request of Syria, a disinformation campaign in the West has been put into practice by the mainstream media to show how Russia and Syria are hurting the war against terrorism, when the reality is that Russia has been far more effective in…
Barzegar, Kayhan. "The Terror Plot, An Ideological War for Geopolitical Interests," Iran
Review. 24 Oct 2011. Web. 12 Dec 2015.
Britton, Neil. "Dog or Demon?" in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions,
Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli. International Research Committee on Disasters, 2005.
Reasoning with clear ideas and examples, what are at least two of the main justifications for the legitimacy, authority, and usefulness of the UN, and two of the main criticisms?
Legitimacy means the acceptance and right of a given authority such as a law for governance, or a specified regime. Legitimacy refers to a whole set of governance system. On the other hand, authority refers to a specified position in a government. Government on its part refers to a sphere of influence. Any authority is perceived to be legitimate if it practices the mandate to use power justifiably. Legitimacy is, primarily, the most important ingredient for governing. If a government does not have legitimacy it is likely to encounter legislative deadlock (City, 2015. 2).
The mandates of the UN are basically normative. They aim to preserve peace, protect human rights and to promote development. The plans for operations are ideally…
The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…
Analysis: Who are the Taleban?" BBC News. December 20, 2000. November 23, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/144382.stm
Chapter I: Purposes and Principles." Charter of the United Nations: UN.org. November 23, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter1.htm
Hassan, Sulman. "The legality of the United States intervention in Afghanistan."
American Studies Today Online. July 15, 2004. November 23, 2007. http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/Forum/Afghanlegality.htm
The first on the recommended list is that the physician must acknowledge the grief that the person is feeling, and also acknowledge the fact that he, himself, may not know what the bereaved person is going through at that particular moment. He can directly express sympathy for the bereaved family, and he can talk freely about the deceased, and mention his name too, when talking about him. He can elicit questions about the exact circumstances in which the death had occurred, and he can ask direct questions about how the bereaved feels, and what he thinks about the death and how it has affected him. The don'ts to be followed by the physician or clinician are that the clinician must never adopt a casual or passive attitude, like for example, saying, 'call me if you want to talk'. He must also learn never to make statements that what happened was…
Ambrose, Jeannette. "Traumatic Grief, what we need to know as Trauma Responders" Retrieved from http://www.ctsn-rcst.ca/Traumaticgrief.html. Accessed 15 July, 2006
Christie, Grace. (2000) "Healing Children's Grief, surviving a parent's death from cancer"
Crisis Intervention" Retrieved at http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Crisis-intervention.html. Accessed 14 July, 2006
Davidson, Joyce D. (1999) "Living with Grief, at work, at school, at worship"
WHAT WORKS EST
Adherence Intervention for Afro-Caribbeans
Recent improvements on prescription medications are beneficial only if patients adhere to them faithfully. Non-adherence is common and results in adverse conditions (Ho et al., 2009). This is a problem both to patients and heir care providers as well as the healthcare system itself. The solution consists of identifying the causes and motivations of non-adherence and the design and implementation of better interventions to improve adherence (Ho et al.). The following studies present and suggest more effective interventions for a variety of health conditions among Afro-Caribbean people who have been reported to have a high level of non-adherence to therapy.
Many health providers contend that more effective interventions in reducing risks for diseases, especially HIV / AIDS, through greater adherence need to culturally conform to the specific culture of the subject population (Archibald, 2011). This study used a…
Adams, O.P. And Carter, A.O. (2010). Diabetes and hypertension guidelines and the primary health care practitioners in Barbados: knowledge, attitudes, practices and barriers -- a focus group study. Vol 11 # 96, BMC Family Practice: BioMed Central.
Retrieved on February 1, 2013 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/11/96
Archibald, C. (2011). Cultural tailoring for an Afro-Caribbean community: a naturalistic approach. Vol 18 # 4, Journal of Cultural Divers: Pubmed. Retrieved on January 27,
2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3408883
According to Kane and Houston-Vega, Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and manifests as "an insidious memory impairment, with other possible symptoms including aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and disturbances in executive functioning" (p. 286).
In a highly multicultural society such as characterizes the United Kingdom today, identifying any relevant cultural factors that must be taken into account when formulating walking regimens as proposed herein. For example, Kane and his colleagues report, "There are differing epidemiological rates for dementia among the various ethno-cultural groups. Additionally, there are differing values, beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, coping strategies, and needs related to Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. This is evidenced by an expanding body of literature that describes the effect of mental health concerns, such as dementia, on diverse ethno-cultural groups" (p. 285).
Beyond the challenges to the provision of a cost-effective, community-based walking regimen is the difficulty involved in…
College of Occupational Therapists Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. (2005). College of Occupational Therapists. [Online]. Available: http://hsc.uwe.ac.uk/practicesupport/ .
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1998). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Evans, S. & Garner, J. (2004). Talking over the years: A handbook of dynamic psychotherapy with older adults. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Hill, R.D., Thorn, B.L., Bowling, J. & Morrison, a. (2002). Geriatric residential care. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
The international law is the universal rules and principles guiding the conducts and relations between nation-states, and international organizations. The modern concept of international law started in the 17th century, and has been accepted as the rules and conducts guiding the relations among nation states. In the contemporary international environment, rules and principles guiding the states' conducts have become critically important to maintain international peace and security, and preventing violation and aggression. However, the principle of the international law prohibits the use of force against other state actors except where the security council authorizes the use of military force to restore the international peace or where a state uses the force as a self-defence. In the international arena, nation states have been found using the overt and covert method to exercise military interventions against other states. However, a self-defense is one of the major factors that provokes a state to…
juvenile justice interventions to parental intervention and readiness for change. The study evaluates Parenting with Love Limits (PLL) group therapy program to determine its effect on adolescent behavior and its effect on parent factors as well as parent adolescent relationship and readiness for change.
The methods and procedures used in conducting this study are descriptive and experimental. It also involves statistical analysis of data. It also reviews previous studies that relates to it. It is descriptive in the sense that it gives a reader an insight into what terminologies like recidivism, re-adjudication, and community based intervention mean with regard to reducing adolescent oppositional and conduct disorders. The design was experimental in the sense that it used The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to measure behavioral problems and social competencies of children as reported by their parents. The parents are reported to have completed the CBCL by themselves. The CBCL integrates 118…
Sells, S.P., Early, K.W. & Smith, T.E. (2011). Reducing Adolescent Oppositional and Conduct
Disorders: An Experimental Design Using the Parenting with Love and Limits Model. Professional Issues in Criminal Justice 6(3&4), 9-30.
Warr, M. (2005). Making delinquent friends: Adult supervision and children's affiliations.
Criminology, 43(1), 77 -- 106.
As the end of the Cold War, would present a unique opportunity to take advantage of this situation. This strategy could have been successful had there been a commitment from both the U.S. And UN to the long-term stability of Somalia. The problems began, when the different roles of the mission would change and there would not be enough resources or support to obtain the different objectives of UNSOM II.
At the same time, various war lords and terrorists would fear that a large international presence will take away their power as well influence. At which point, they would begin to target the different troops and aid workers. This is troubling, because various bureaucrats and political talking heads refused to take into account this reality. As a result, both operations were doomed to failure because there were no resources or the support to engage these warlords and terrorist. This would…
Ambush in Mogadishu. (2010). PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/etc./cron.html
Glossary a -- B. (2001). University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from: http://www.umass.edu/wsp/statistics/glossary/ab.html
Qualitative Research. (2009). Market Research World. Retrieved from: http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=393&Itemid=42
United Nations Operation in Somalia. (2003). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom2.htm
hile most see these and other similar reforms as necessary, serving merely as a legal upgrade for law enforcement, one provision of the act's section regarding wireless communication has created much controversy. This section allows foreign intelligence agencies to wiretap citizen's phones and computers without a court order. Bringing the country back to the short-lived standard of 1928, when a fraction of the technology that is used on a regular basis today was even invented, this portion of the act leaves room for the undocumented surveillance of United States citizens (Podesta). Similarly, President George . Bush announced that in the days and months following the September 11th terrorist attacks he ordered the wiretapping of several United States residents without approval from congress, admitting and defending his expansion of the role of executive. Thus, while both public and private wiretapping have a long history of use in the United States, the…
Americans see 9/11 as most important event of their lives." Breitbart.com. 10
September 2007. Breitbart.com. 7 August 2008. http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=070910151708.55q95fzq&show_article=1 .
Balz, Dan and Deane, Claudia. "Differing Views on Terrorism." The Washington Post.
11 January 2006.
Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933
The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March 29, 1930, finance expert Heinrich runing had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Muller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichsprasident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. After an unpopular bill to help the Reich's finances had not found the support of the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the Sozialdemokratische…
By the time Bismarck had to leave the Chancellor's office in 1890, France and Russia were working to forge an alliance in both commercial and military terms. French capital markets were supplying Russian industrialization with the investment that was drying up, not least thanks to Bismarck's intervention, from the German side. The French arms industry looked to provide the Russian armies with modern equipment. Russian officers were lavishly entertained in Paris, and naval squadrons paid much-heralded visits to Le Havre and St. Petersburg. This was the "nightmare" that Bismarck had always feared, posing a threat to Germany's strategic borders in the west and to Austria's existence in the east.
Subsequent German foreign policy initiatives, notably the initiation of a large battle fleet under the naval laws of 1898 and 1900, drove Britain into diplomatic alignment (the Entente) with a Franco-Russian alliance already in the offing at the time of Bismarck's fall. "In 1912 Lord Haldane, then the British Secretary for War, hoped that, given the new correlation of forces, Germany might be willing to sign a naval agreement to limit numbers. In Berlin, however, Haldane met with stiff resistance from Tirpitz and the Kaiser: too much prestige and funds had been invested to retreat and acknowledge defeat. There was to be no arms control."
Intensified by the reign of the far more militaristic Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bismarck's legacy would contribute to the political culture in which Nazism found significant support-bases. As a result, in Germany, as in Japan and Italy, later attempts to extend democracy would succeed in establishing the unstable democracies of the Weimar Republic. Despite advances in industry and science under the Second Reich, Germany retained a despotic aspect to its character, due to
Privacy and Security: Apple vs. Federal Government
With increased usage of smartphones and other mobile devices, concerns over unauthorized access to private and confidential data stored in the devices have soared. In recent times, Apple Inc., one of the largest manufacturers of smartphones in the U.S. and worldwide, resorted to robust cryptographic techniques in an attempt to protect data customers store on its devices. The move has led to a fierce battle between Apple and the federal government, with the latter citing national security concerns. The government's concerns over national security have gained further momentum following the discovery that one of the masterminds of the December 2015 San Bernardino terrorist attack owned an iPhone 5C (Stavridis). Unable to unlock the device due to Apple's strong encryption software, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) sought the intervention of the courts to compel Apple, under the premise of All Writs of 1789,…
Identify and Describe the Aggregate
This paper focuses on a particular section of HIV patients - that of men having sex with men, in the United States. There is also an identification and description of the aggregate, its needs and risk factors. The advantages, applications, limitations and adaptability of the interventions for the aggregate form the bulk of the discussion in this paper.
In almost every country in the world, it can be said with certainty, that there are men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, however, this is a very diverse group. Some of these men label themselves as bisexual; others as gay and a large number simply refer to themselves as heterosexual men who just have sex with other men. In the global HIV and AIDS context, sex between men is a key front in the fight against the spread of this disease, because such…
Aceijas, C., Stimson, G., Hickman, M., & Rhodes, T. (2004). Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users.
Avert.org. (2014). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved from Avert: http://www.avert.org/men-who-have-sex-men-msm-hiv-aids.htm
Beyrer, C. (2007). HIV Epidemiology Update and Transmission Factors: Risks and Risk Contexts -- 16th International AIDS Conference Epidemiology Plenary. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 981-987.
CDC. (2013, Novemeber 29). HIV Testing and Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men -- United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), pp. 958-962.
The public opinion differences in support for the Haiti and Panama interventions were that the latter was viewed by the people (prompted by the media) simplistically, as a mission of good guys (the U.S.) fighting bad guys (Noriega); on Haiti, the public (again prompted by the mainstream media) was the reverse—intervention was unnecessary and was just a case of Clinton trying to get the spotlight off his own back. This paper will compare and contrast the way the government handled the two interventions and discuss the media’s role in the interventions and how a “rally ‘round the flag effect” occurred for the Panama intervention—but not for the Haiti intervention.
In the Panama intervention under Bush, the media depicted the soldiers as effectively bringing Christmas and Santa Claus to the Panamanians (Milburn Panama Video 1, n.d.). The propaganda campaign made it appear as though Noriega was a ruthless dictator who was…