1000 results for “Government Spending”.
The impact of government spending onto the overall economy is a highly debated topic, with some arguing the advantages, whilst others pointing out the limitations. A most relevant example of positive effects is given by the recent implementation of the Troubled Asset elief Program, which has had the benefit of salvaging numerous American icons. Nonetheless, this situation was an extraordinary one and other specialists argue that in times of normal economic state, the impacts of government spending are among the most negative ones on the long run. Some of these harmful effects refer to increased costs and poor quality of public services, an inefficient allocation of resources, lack of motivation and innovation and so on. The pivotal role of government spending is then that of ensuring peace and stability and creating a climate that fosters economic growth. The actual involvement should however be minimal.
Garfield, ., Government Spending and Economic Growth,…
Garfield, R., Government Spending and Economic Growth, Joint Economic Committee, http://www.house.gov/jec/fiscal/budget/spending/spending.htm last accessed on July 21, 2009
Mitchell, D.J., The Impact of Government Spending on Economic Growth, March 31, 2005, Backgrounder, Published by the Heritage Foundation
Solman, P., When the Government Writes Checks, Where Does the Money Come From? PBS, 2009, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/jan-june09/solman_03-17.html last accessed on July 21, 2009
Troubled Asset Relief Program -- TARP, Investopedia, 2009, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/troubled-asset-relief-program-tarp.asp last accessed on July 21, 2009
Wasteful Government Spending
Is the Current Level of Federal Spending Sustainable?
Over the last several years, the total amounts of federal spending have been rising sharply. Part of the reason for this, is because of the different entitlement programs (such as: Social Security and Medicare). While at the same time, Defense spending and the costs associated with the War on Terrorism, have been having an impact upon these levels. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a report released by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. They found that federal debt has risen from: 33% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2001, to 62% of the GDP in 2010. While, federal spending (in 2010) encompassed the greatest portion of the economy at 24% of the GDP. Only World War II shares this same distinction of: federal spending comprising the most of economic activity.…
"Leviathan stirs again." Economist, 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2011
"The Moment of Truth." The National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform, 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2011
"September Oversight Report: The Use of TARP Funds in the Support and Reorganization of the Domestic Automotive Industry." Congressional Oversight Panel, 2009. Web. 24 mar. 2011
Coburn, Tom. "Less Could Be More." American Spectator 43. 7 (2010) 8-9. Print.
Since G=T with a balanced budget, savings will still fall until I's again, but the expansion of government achieves the goal of replacing the shortfall in aggregate expenditures, albeit with new, higher taxes.
In our case, the increased proceeds from taxes will have to amount to $30 million, in order to set-off the increase in government spending and to maintain the same GDP. The increase in government expenditures will fully offset the negative impact of taxes.
If only $100 million are spent by the government, the rest of $50 million will have to come from tax cuts. The effect will be the total elimination of the $1.5 trillion aggregate demand.
1. Deposit Expansion Multiplier
While a single bank can only lend its excess reserves, the banking system can increase the money supply by a multiple of initial excess reserves.
Deposit expansion multiplier = 1/(reserve requirement)
The initial assumption is that banks hold no excess…
1. Alexander Huemer "Principles of Macroeconomics" info.citruscollege.com/FF/Ahuemer/chapter10.html
2. Megan Cummins "Principles of Macroeconomics" Chapter 11-Fiscal Policy dl.ccc.cccd.edu/classes / internet/economics180/module11.htm
3. Michael Melvin "Money and Banking" www.public.asu.edu/~econphd/ecn111/PowerPointChapters/PowerPointChapters/chapter13MoneyAndBanking.ppt
4. Anna J. Schwartz, "Money Supply" http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/MoneySupply.html
Solutions for the Future
Even a quick look at budget documents for the next few decades indicate a system burdened with exploding costs of Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; the latter the powder keg of the debt explosion. A reform of Medicare in which there is "only $1 in Medicare taxes for every $3 in benefits likely to be received in retirement" (Appelbaum & Gebeloff 6) must be a Congressional and Presidential priority. eturning the program to a role of insurance rather than a direct coverage program would be a start; Paul yan's proposal of premium support is a working model. Social Security must also be strengthened with common sense adjustments in payroll tax collection and age eligibility.
Those are the entitlement reforms however; these changes also forego the numerous tax expenditures which increase the government tab. The earned income tax credit, home mortgage deduction, and education credits are tax code distortions…
Appelbaum, B. & Gebeloff, Robert. "Even Critics of Safety Net Increasingly Depend on it." The New York Times. The New York Times, February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/us/even-critics-of-safety-net-increasingly-depend-on-it.html
Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)
This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.
During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not only tax…
Bibliography for a listing of non-GAO publications.) It should be noted that, as with any effort to put current events into historical context, alternative interpretations are possible. Often debated are the intent and motivation of the framers of the Constitution who created the census. In this report, we have quoted the Constitution and various laws relating to the decennial census and have attempted to place their language in an historical context. We are not, however, providing our own independent review or interpretation of the constitutional and statutory issues discussed in this report, which, unless otherwise noted, are based primarily on the analysis contained in the various publications and documents we relied upon in preparing this report.
Short answers to some frequently asked questions about the decennial census are in appendix 1. Appendix 11 contains information on changes in the apportionment of the membership of the House of Representatives between the 1920 and 1990 Decennial Censuses by region of country and on changes in the nation's population and its undercount by race and ethnicity between the 1950 and 1990 censuses, as well as a snapshot of the growth and cost of census-taking since the first decennial census in 1790. Major contributors to this report are identified in appendix III.
L. Nye Stevens Director, Federal Management and Workforce Issues
Why Take the Census?
government budget surplus affect the economy? How does a government budget deficit affect the economy? How would (or should) your company react differently to a government budget surplus vs. A deficit?
A government deficit means that a government is borrowing more money from foreign and domestic sources than the sum it is accumulating by taxation and revenue. The effect of this borrowing often drives down the value of the government's currency abroad. One of the values of deficit spending from a business company's perspective is that it is easier to sell American made products to other nations.
Thus, at times, businesses may look favorably upon deficit-inducing levels of government spending. hen the economy has high unemployment, an increase in government purchases can create a market for business output, creating income and encouraging increases in consumer spending. This creates further increases in the demand for business output. Cutting personal taxes can have…
"Deficit Spending." Answers.com. 19 Mar 2005.
Mann, Jeremiah. Spark Note on Aggregate Supply. 19 Mar. 2005 .
There may, for instance, exist various programs for relieving PTSD in veterans. The president may propose that the government should implement and fund an intervention. All would be assessed in order to choose that which is not only efficacious but also least costly. Occasionally, various programs may be mixed and their cost-effectiveness taken into account so that the result is as least costly as possible.
Incremental budgeting is another government budgetary tools that are similar to that which industries use. . Incremental budgeting bases the current budget on the previous year's budget, implementing only minor changes in the programs that are on the budget. With this approach, poorly performing programs receive cuts in spending and disruptive conflict and change in government spending is reduced.
Cost-benefit analysis is a tool used alike for business and government where the profit and advantage of projects are assessed over time to review whether they deliver.
Notwithstanding these dreadful forecast as well as the consequential results, the political will for transformation is not that strong at the moment, if these situation extends, it will be harder to alter them; conceivably it is the moment for the people as well as the government officials to work hand-in-hand in saving the country's current economic state.
In an article written by Shear and Branigin (2009), they quoted President Obama saying "we cannot rebuild this economy on the same pile of sand, we must build our house upon a rock. We must lay a new foundation for growth and prosperity -- a foundation that will move us from an era of borrow and spend to one where we save and invest, where we consume less at home and send more exports abroad."
The new economy that President Obama mentioned will surface from America's most horrible economic occurrence in the past seven decades…
Cummings, Jr., M. & Wise, D. (2001). Democracy Under Pressure: An Introduction to the American Political System. United States: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.
Lewis, A. (December 7, 2007). Bush bailout rewards the cheaters. Retrieved April 22, 2009 from The Denver Post: http://www.denverpost.com/business/ci_7655582
Lipford, J. & Slice J. (2007). The Role of Government in Modern U.S. Society: What Would Adam Smith Say? Washington Examiner: Orange County Register.
Madrick, J. (May 11, 2000). Government's role in the new economy is not a cheap or easy one. Retrieved April 22, 2009, from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2000/05/11/business/economic-scene-government-s-role-new-economy-not-cheap-easy-one-but-it-crucial.html?pagewanted=2
This is troubling because these entities are using the court system to circumvent the law. At which point, it is only a matter of time until another showdown will emerge. This is similar to the disastrous decision that Supreme Court made with the Dredd Scott case. Therefore, over the short to the medium term the influence of special interests in Washington will become more perverse. Over the long-term, this could spark such an outrage that regardless of what the Supreme Court says; these organizations do not have the same rights as an individual.
Dredd Scott v. Sandford. (2010). Retrieved April 20, 2010 from Oyez website: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1851-1900/1856/1856_0/
Gill, K. (2010). McCain Feingold Campaign Finance Reform. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from About.com website: http://uspolitics.about.com/od/finance/a/mccain_feingold.htm
Liptak, A. (2010, January 21). Justices Reject Corporate Spending Limits. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from NY Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/22/us/politics/22scotus.html
Millbank, D. (2002, January 18). Enron's Influence Reaches Deep into the Administration.…
Dredd Scott v. Sandford. (2010). Retrieved April 20, 2010 from Oyez website: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1851-1900/1856/1856_0/
Gill, K. (2010). McCain Feingold Campaign Finance Reform. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from About.com website: http://uspolitics.about.com/od/finance/a/mccain_feingold.htm
Liptak, A. (2010, January 21). Justices Reject Corporate Spending Limits. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from NY Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/22/us/politics/22scotus.html
Millbank, D. (2002, January 18). Enron's Influence Reaches Deep into the Administration. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from Washington Post website: http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0118-01.htm
Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues
Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.
Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections
The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how much spending will…
Base Closure List. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved from:
However, some people might regard my decision as unwise: after all, what 'goes up, must come down,' and interest rates will inevitably go up. I may regret not borrowing now, if I have to pay a higher rate on a car payment in the future. On the other hand, given that the low interest rates and economic stimulus have not has a seismic effect on job growth, I am still wary about spending too much, despite the fact that money in a savings account with a low interest rate is actually 'losing' value, because of the inevitability of inflation. My uncertainty about borrowing for anything other than what I absolutely need (other than student loans, which is 'spending' that does not directly result in higher levels of production in enterprise and takes me out of the full-time labor force) means that the government must find more direct ways to stimulate…
Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community
"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already strained,…
Budget of the United States Government. (2004). Budgets and taxes. Almanac of Policy Issues. Web. http://www.policyalmanac.org/economic/budget.shtml
City of Kelsey. (2006). Annual Budget for the Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of Phoenix. Web. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyBudgetBook2005.pdf
City of Kelsey. (2009). Kelsey profile. City Government. University of Phoenix. Web. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyProfile.doc
DeWeese, Adrianne. (2011). Police say safety tax is needed to help alleviate 'blackout.' The Examiner. Web. http://www.examiner.net/features/x1896018474/Police-say-safety-tax-needed-to-help-alleviate-blackout
The State of Nevada and Clark County appear to have a different manner of meeting budget deficiencies. The Office of udget and Management has an amount of finances reserved for supplemental and emergency funding, at a total of $153.1 billion dollars. Neither Clark County nor the State of Nevada appears to have emergency or supplemental funding in their budgets.
State of Nevada
The budget for the State of Nevada is larger than Clark County. The total 2006 budget for the State of Nevada is reported to be $2,400 million dollars with a deficit of -2.3%. The state of Nevada's transportation budget for 2006 was $4.6 million dollars; agriculture $21.1 million; education $56.6 million; health and human services $69.2 million; and $21.0 million for justice programs. These amounts are considerably higher than Clark County in comparison. The State of Nevada's Department of usiness and Industry recently released a new prevailing wage rate…
Clark County (2006). Clark County. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from Nevada's Clark County
Website: http://www.co.clark.nv.us/ .
Office of Budget and Management. (2006). The White House's Office of Budget and Management.
Retrieved September 22, 2006, from the Office of Budget and Management's Website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb /.
This is where incentives come in to play. agner quotes Rudolf Hickel who distinguishes between an entrepreneurial state and a tax state (our present state of affairs). Hickel and Schumpeter both see the tax state as acting outside the normal laws of contract and property to confiscate wealth. The entrepreneurial state is just the exact polar opposite of this. Corporatist principles that have been incorporated into this system. Corporate structures were in their infancy in 1787 when the U.S. Constitution was written, hence the lack of corporatist principles (ibid, 56-57). e must now incorporate the wisdom of two centuries of follow on experience.
These corporatist principles would turn a government entity like a city into a private corporation with stockholders that would provide services. In this view, government has created some markets. It is in the market already. Therefore, for us to bring the entrepreneurial state, we need to introduce…
Barth, A. (1991, Feb ). The roots of limited government. Retrieved from http://www.fff.org/freedom/0291c.asp .
Domesticating the leviathan. (2007). Retrieved from http://homepage.mac.com/npayne/leviathan.html.
Johnson, K. (2011, November 9). Tsa's expansion is questioned. Retrieved from http://www.joplinindependent.com/display_article.php/wildblue1320890017 .
Standt, N. (2010). Taxation without representation. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University School of Wagner, R.E. (1993). Parchment, guns and constitutional order. Northamton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.
Today, China owns the majority of U.S. debt, thereby inflating the Yuan and further downgrading the security of the dollar across the globe. These trends mean that American taxpayer money will increasingly be used to benefit foreign governments, leaving even fewer resources available for American citizens. A smaller, more efficient government is clearly needed, but in order to reduce government growth, a grassroots effort needs to be created to encourage term limits and eliminate wasteful and redundant government bureaucracies. In order to be successful, though, this effort must be embraced across all political party lines but the payoff will be worth it. By curbing government growth and control in business and Americans' private lives today, the country will be able to regain its financial security and maintain America's fundamental constitutional liberties.
Beland, D. & Chantal, V.F. (2004). Fighting 'Big Government': Frames, federalism, and social policy reform in the United States.…
Beland, D. & Chantal, V.F. (2004). Fighting 'Big Government': Frames, federalism, and social policy reform in the United States. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 29(2), 241-244.
Branum, T. & Dokupil, S. (2002). Security takeovers and bailouts: Aviation and the return of Big
Government. Texas Review of Law & Politics, 6(2), 431-434.
Feulner, E. (2001, November 14). The Return of Big Government. The Heritage Foundation.
It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race with the U.S.S.R.
It is also significant to note that it was during the same time that he successfully engaged Mikhail Gorbachev who was then the Soviet General secretary and culminated into the signing of Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that signaled the end in arms race and both countries agreed to decrease in nuclear weapons in their custody.
Upon ascending to presidency, Reagan was bent on introducing new political as well as economic dispensations radically. He advocated more for supply-side economics which saw him push for reduction of tax rates to speed up economic growth, money supply control to check inflation, reduction of regulation on the economy particularly business to encourage competitive and free-market free for all which as a matter of…
French Government, State, and Regime: An Overview
Vive le Difference! The French phrase, 'long live the distinction or difference,' was coined to celebrate the supposedly innate difference between men and women. These differences were supposed to created a sense of positive tension and excitement between the opposite sexes. However, there is a profound sense between not only the United States, but also the French and many of their European national counterparts, that there is also a substantial cultural, political, and economic 'difference' between France and even her closest allies. And neither France nor America nor the European Union necessarily wants such 'differences' to exist in their current form, as the current century of economic globalization unfolds.
To examine why this is so, it is worth examining how the current structures and operations of the French government, function, how and, when and why (or if) they work to further the aims of…
Carcassonne, Guy. "The French Constitution." May 2002. France from A to Z. http://www.ambafrance-uk.org/asp/service.asp?SERVID=100&LNG=en&PAGID=83
Education in France: The School System." June 2002. France from A to Z
Ferry, Jean Pisani. "Employment in France." June 2001. France from A to Z. http://www.ambafrance-uk.org/asp/service.asp?SERVID=100&LNG=en&PAGID=346
As it's expected that the mandatory federal spending on health will increase significantly in the future years, the health programs will remain broke and indebted.
Since the current state of the government's health programs is broke and indebted, there is a huge need for the adoption of effective strategies and actions to correct the tragedy. Some of the most suitable actions to correct the situation include legislative modifications, increase in revenues, and establishment of a private charity. First, the legislative modifications contribute to improved and sustainable long-term projections for the costs of government health programs. Such action would also be helpful in correcting the tragedy by enabling officials to lessen the adverse effects on helpless populations like lower-income workers and those who are currently dependent on the benefits of these programs.
Secondly, the establishment of a private charity to raise funds from willing financiers in order to assist the poor…
Johnson, Toni. "Healthcare Costs and U.S. Competitiveness." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 23 Mar. 2010. Web. 07 Mar. 2012. .
United States. Congressional Budget Office. The Long-Term Budget Outlook. Congressional Budget Office, 30 June 2010. Web. 07 Mar. 2012. .
United States. Social Security Online. SSA Logo: Link to Social Security Online Home Status of the Social Security and Medicare Programs. By Charles P. Blahous III and Robert D. Reischauer. Social Security Online, 5 May 2011. Web. 07 Mar. 2012. .
United States. The Congress. Government Spending on Health Care Benefits and Programs: A Data Brief. By Jennifer Jenson. Congress, 16 June 2008. Web. 8 Mar. 2012. .
National Health Care Spending in the United States
For several years now, health care spending in the U.S. has been on the rise. In that regard, containing the situation has become a major headache not only for the government but also for consumers and employees looking for ways of keeping up with raising costs. In this text, I explain my position on the national health care spending in the U.S. In so doing, I will review the current health care expenditures at the national level and whether the same can be said to be sufficient or insufficient. Further, I will also make recommendations on where in my own opinion additions or cuts seem necessary. Next, I will discuss how the health care needs of the public are paid for. This paper will also provide a forecast of the various health care system needs going forward and why it is necessary to…
Chantrill, C. (2011). U.S. Healthcare Spending. Retrieved September 22, 2011, from http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/us_health_care_spending_10.html
Healey, B.J. & Lesneski, C.D. (2011). Transforming Public Health Practice: Leadership and Management Essentials. John Willey and Sons.
The Tax Foundation (2010). Net Cuts to Medicare, Increased Medicare Tax on High-Income Earners Comprise Bulk of Funding. Retrieved from http://www.taxfoundation.org/research/show/26067.html
This means that Congressional officials and the White House are reluctant to make the necessary adjustments (in order to address these issues). Instead, they have been utilizing various gimmicks to demonstrate how they are dealing with the problem. During the course of their reelection campaign, they can show how they helped to tackle the federal government's fiscal challenges and increased the number of projects / funding for various programs. It is at this point that they are improving their chances of being reelected. (Kakutani, 2012)
Are they really political solutions in disguise or creating more problems than solutions?
As a result, these actions are creating more problems in the future. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Greenberg (2012) who said, "Congress remains deeply divided about how to deal with the fiscal cliff's combination of automatic government spending reductions and expiring tax cuts, amounting to nearly 5% of GDP,…
US National Debt Statistics. (2012). Statistic Brain. Retrieved from: http://www.statisticbrain.com/us-national-debt/
Greenberg, E. (2012). Political Leadership. Biz Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/blog/guest-comment/2012/10/political-leadership-needed-to-avoid.html?page=all
Kakutani, M. (2012). NY Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/08/books/the-price-of-politics-by-bob-woodward.html?pagewanted=all
U.S. Government Deficits
hy is it that the U.S. Government can spend more than it brings in through taxes and other revenue? hat are the specific reasons why the U.S. can consistently and constantly operate its programs and conduct official business while running a huge deficit? These questions and others will be reviewed in this paper.
The Deficit -- why and by how much is the U.S. In debt?
A May, 2012 article in the Economist quotes Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney saying that the U.S. Government has "…a moral responsibility not to spend more than we take in" (Economist, 2012, p. 1). The article reminds Romney that if what he is saying is true then America is "…a thoroughly depraved and immoral country" because in 76 of the past 100 years "the U.S. government has spent more than it has taken in" (Economist, p. 1). In fact in 26 of the past…
Amadeo, Kimberly. (2012). The U.S. Debt and How It Got So Big. About.com. Retrieved October 31, 2012, from http://useconomy.about.com .
Congressional Budget Office. (2012). CBO's Major Budget Reports. Retrieved October 31,
2012, from http://www.cbo.gov/publications/43648 .
Cauchon, Dennis. (2012). Real federal deficit dwarfs official tally. I. Retrieved
Investment spending is very significant because it is an essential ingredient in economic development and growth. The decrease in the level of investment spending may cause a recession. Most recessions occur as a result of fall in investment spending (Paul & Krugman, 2007). Swings in investment spending are very dramatic than those in customer spending. eduction in consumer spending is normally a result of a progress that starts with a slump in investment spending. The most significant factors that determines investment spending are the rate of interest and anticipated future real GPD. To understand the kind of reasoning, first there is a need to note that planned investment spending is the investment spending that firms intend to pass through over a given period, in contrast to investment spending that happen but is not planned (William & Greene, 2008). Planned spending on investment projects is negatively the same as the interest…
William H. Greene, Econometric Analysis, 5th Edition, Pearson Education, 2008, Table F3.1, U.S. Investment Data, 1968-1982
Paul R. Krugman, Robin Wells, Kathryn Graddy, Economics: European Edition, Worth Publishers, 2007
N.E. Savin and Kenneth J. White, The Durbin-Watson Test for Serial Correlation with Extreme Sample Sizes or Many Regressors, Econometrical, Vol. 45, No. 8 (Nov., 1977), pp. 1989-1996
R.W. Farebrother, The Durbin-Watson Test for Serial Correlation when there is no Intercept in the Regression, Econometrical, Vol. 48, No. 6 (Sep., 1980), pp. 1553-1563
The Federal Reserve System is mandated with contributing to the management of all three of these measures. The role of the Federal Reserve is to control money supply, something it does via the setting interest rates and through open market operations. The Federal Reserve works independent of the White House, although there may be consultations to ensure a match between fiscal and monetary policy.
One concept that heavily influences both monetary policy and fiscal policy is incrementalism. This is the idea that future actions will be built on past actions. There will be no sudden moves in either form of policy, and seldom are programs and spending levels subject to considerable scrutiny -- most changes are therefore incremental. This allows policymakers to avoid major shocks. The process by which fiscal policy is set revolves around the budget. The Office of Management and Budget spends 16-18 months preparing the budgets based…
Public (Government) Finance
This essay examines the debate over extending unemployment benefits. The essay reviews the arguments in favor of and against further extensions, and the implications for economic and social policies. After exploring the alternatives, I make a recommendation and discuss means of measuring the success or failure of my recommendation.
The Apparent Problem/The Facts
Unemployment insurance is compensation that is provided to workers who become unemployed through no fault of their own. Unemployment provides compensation for a specific amount of time, or until a worker finds a new job. Regular unemployment provides benefits for up to 26 weeks, based on the number of weeks that the unemployed person worked in his or her claim year (Doyle, 2011).
Extended unemployment benefits provide compensation for a longer period of time, and are available for workers when they have exhausted regular state unemployment benefits during periods of high unemployment. In addition, the unemployed may…
Allmanblogs.com. (2010). The case against an unemployment benefits extension: the three main arguments and their rebuttals. Secrets about Unemployment website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://blog.secretsaboutunemployment.com/unemployment-claim/the-case-against-an-unemployment-benefits-extension-the-three-main-arguments-and-their-rebuttals/
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Employment Situation Summary. BLS web site. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm
CNBC.com. (2009). Making the case for and against unemployment benefit extension. CNBC Guest Blog. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/32284041/Making_the_Case_For_and_Against_Unemployment_Benefit_Extension
Doyle, A. (2011). Unemployment Extension. About.com website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://jobsearch.about.com/od/unemployment/a/unempextension.htm
Externalities and Financing Government
Microeconomics Today -- hat is a fair tax?
Tax the rich, give to the poor! Tax the gas-guzzling SUVs of the rich, and give the money to the poor! Or, at very least, give the revenue in the form of tax breaks to independent and corporate organizations attempting to make alternative fuel vehicles. In theory, it seems like an excellent idea. However, although a higher gas tax may seem like a pro-environmentalist policy and superficially progressive in its political tenor and tone, in fact a gas tax really functions in its application as a regressive tax, penalizing the poorer rather than the wealthier Americans. It goes contrary to the fair financing of government, one of the philosophical principles of this nation.
Application of Microeconomic Theory -- regressive taxation and economic incentives for changes in consumer behavior through changes in tax policy
Two of the most controversial issues facing American consumers…
Carson, Robert Barry, Wade L. Thomas, Jason Hecht. (2005) Microeconomic Issues Today. 8th Edition. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Ignatius, David. (31 May 2004) "Why Gas Prices are Too Low." The Washington Post. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5080-2004May31.html
Mankiw, Gregory N. (24 May 1999) "Gas Tax Now!" Fortune Magazine. Available at http://post.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/mankiw/columns/may99.html
What is deficit spending and how does it work
Deficit spending takes place when the government expenditures surpass the government revenues in a fiscal period, which in turn increases government debt balance. This surplus spending has to be financed through borrowing, more often from global financing establishments and foreign governments. On one hand, the augmented government spending can facilitate stimulate the economy taking into account more money flows in. On the other hand, this can be detrimental as increased government borrowing can lead to higher rates of interest. This implies that deficit spending is causal to both, benefits as well as disadvantages (Investopedia, 2016).
There are benefits to. One of the advantages of deficit spending is in its deployment for mitigating financial crisis through measures taken to increase economic growth. The government is able to spend the funds on infrastructure, increase public goods and also generate more employment opportunities for the…
Green Garage. (2015). 6 Pros and Cons of Deficit Spending. Retrieved from: http://greengarageblog.org/6-pros-and-cons-of-deficit-spending
Investopedia. (2016). Crowding Out Effect. Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/crowdingouteffect.asp
Investopedia. (2016). Deficit Spending. Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/deficit-spending.asp
Mitchell, D. J. (2005). The impact of government spending on economic growth. The Heritage Foundation, 1831, 1-18.
Governments influence the economy in many ways, but the two most often discussed in economics are fiscal policy and monetary policy (another might a trade policy, for example). Fiscal policy reflects the use of government spending and taxation to influence the economy (eil, 2008). Thus, the level of spending, the amount of revenue collected, and how the money is spent are all things that must be taken into consideration in fiscal policy. Fiscal policy also frequently has an effect on the decisions that businesses and individuals make. Consider the debate about taxes and the "Buffet Rule" -- the tax polices we have now are designed to encourage specific behaviors. This is why capital gains are taxed at a different rate than dividends, and why dividends are taxed at a different rate than interest income. So fiscal policy does affect the way some people behave, as they attempt to maximize their…
Azerrad, D. (2011). Hayek's top 10 dos and don'ts in a recession. The Foundry. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://blog.heritage.org/2011/02/14/hayek%E2%80%99s-top-10-do%E2%80%99s-and-don%E2%80%99ts-in-a-recession/
FRBSF. (2012). U.S. monetary policy: An introduction. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.frbsf.org/publications/federalreserve/monetary/index.html
Weil, D. (2008). Fiscal policy. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/FiscalPolicy.html
Bernstein also makes the point that government debt is not the same as household or business debt, and that is a valid point to make. There are a few differences of note. The first is borrowing -- government has much better ability to borrow than either business or households, the United States in particular. The size and diversity of the economy is one factor, the difficulty of putting a government into default is another, but also the U.S. has control over the value of its currency. It can devalue its way out of debt if need be, like Iceland did. Households and businesses do not have this luxury -- they are usually on very short leashes with their creditors, with grace periods measured in weeks and months, rather than decades.
Ultimately, the only logical choice in the face of a recession is to increase government spending in order to offset the…
Bernstein, J. (2012). Rethinking debt. Democracy Journal. Winter 2012. 71-82.
It is because policemen may succumb to corruption; especially when their salaries are minimal and the money earned by drug dealers are immense. The legalization of drugs will eliminate such acts of illegality.
The government and elected officials have a significant amount of say and rule as to what passes as a law and what does not. Such representatives are to symbolize and stand for what the people want. However, with so many voices and opinions of how certain issues should be and what should be ruled as legal, conflicts arise. Controversy is heavily shrouded in the dilemma around the legalization of drugs, and whether the government should permit the legal selling, purchase of narcotics like alcohol and tobacco. If such law is passed, the government and its citizens are affected economically, judicially, medically, and socially. Economically, the government is able to receive billions of dollars in revenue and reduce…
Block, W. "Drug Prohibition: A Legal and Economic Analysis." Journal of Business Ethics 12.9 (1993): 689-700. Print.
Cussen, M, and W. Block. "Legalize Drugs Now! An Analysis of the Benefits of the Legalized Drugs." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.3 (2000): 525-536. Print.
"Drug War Clock | DrugSense." DrugSense. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .
"Economic Consequences of the War on Drugs." Drug Policy Alliance: Alternatives to Marijuana Prohibition and the Drug War. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .
Federal Reserve buys government bonds, it increases the overall money supply in the nation and thus pursues an expansionary monetary policy. Through buying bonds the Fed increases the amount of reserves in the banking system, leading to more loans and hence more deposits. Since deposits are part of the money supply, the money supply increases. This is often done in combination with lowering interest rates to speed up the economy by infusing it with a larger available supply of money to spend upon consumer goods.
Conversely, by selling government bonds and reducing interest rates, the Federal Reserve reduces the overall money supply. The money supply is determined by the amount of currency and bank deposits held by the public, as well as the amount of reserves held by banks. When prices and inflation are going up, the Federal Reserve tries to slow down the economy by making fungible money scarcer,…
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is far and away the most prolific and omni-present agency that exists in the United States, at least at the federal level, that regulates employers and protects employees from discrimination and other unlawful and/or unethical employment practices including inequity in who is hired, who is fired, who is promoted and why, who is given raises and why and so forth. While budgetary constraints and some of the EEOC's recent decisions certainly deserve attention and scrutiny, the EEOC's status as the ultimate arbiter of employee rights in the United States is not going to change anytime soon.
The mission statement of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is to "stop and remedy unlawful employment discrimination" (EEOC, 2014). The vision statement of the EEOC is "justice and equality in the workplace." The EEOC states quite clearly on their website that they know full well, or at…
DrugFree.org. (2014, May 18). Discrimination Against People in Recovery Rampant, Advocates Say |. Partnership for DrugFree Kids. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/discrimination-against-people-in-recovery-rampant-advocates-say/
EEOC. (2014, May 17). EEOC Home Page. EEOC Home Page. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from http://www.eeoc.gov
EEOC. (2014, May 18). Fiscal Year 2014 Congressional Budget Justification. Fiscal Year 2014 Congressional Budget Justification. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from
Minimizing Poverty Is a Government Initiative
The Progressive Era
Poverty reduction has remained a central debate in periodical democratic societies. Schemes have been established to enable citizens to be economically viable either at paid-employment or self-employment level. Activists, philosophers, and politicians have suggested technical, liberal, and legal approaches towards poverty eradication. In fact, most of the debate in relation to the field of poverty examines whether poverty is a natural phenomenon associated with human beings. As this report will identify, fighting poverty is a double-edged sword since, after all, poverty is not the only member of the league. Close players include capitalism and politics. The commencing research proves that reducing poverty is a sequential process that requires considerate participation from all stakeholders. The research will principally cite Darwin's Social Darwinism theory, the 1933-1936 national initiative New Deal and Johnson Lyndon Economic Opportunity Act.
Social Darwinism vs. Progressivism
There are close similarities between Darwin's Social…
Claeys, G. (2000). The "Survival Of The Fittest" And The Origins Of Social Darwinism. Journal of the History of Ideas, 61(2), 223.
Davies, G. (1992). War On Dependency: Liberal Individualism And The Economic Opportunity Act Of 1964. Journal of American Studies, 26(02), 205.
Hausman, W.J. (2007). Jason Scott Smith. Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956. Enterprise and Society, 8 (2), 459-461.
Johnston, R.D. (2013). Review Class Unknown: Undercover Investigations of American Work and Poverty from the Progressive Era to the Present Pittenger Mark New York University Press New York. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1998), 106 (2), 347-349.
SPENDING IN U.S. HEALTHCAE
July 26, 2013 ASSESSMENT: Policy topic Search Selection. esearch internet key words "Health" "Health Policy" select a policy topic interest. My selection topic "Cost Spending." You policy individual assignment.
Cost and spending: U.S. healthcare
While Americans would no doubt like to think that their healthcare system is the best in the world, the data confirms only that it is the most expensive. According to Kaiser Permanente, 16% of our nation's GNP is devoted to healthcare, "the highest among the world's industrialized nations. Over the past decade, the pace of total health care spending has grown faster than inflation and the growth in national income" (Costs and spending, 2013, Kaiser Permanente). One of the most frequently cited reasons for the high costs of healthcare is the inefficiencies of the American private insurance system. While in nations such as Canada and the United Kingdom there is a 'single payer' system…
Costs and spending. (2013). Kaiser Permanente. Retrieved:
Pfeffer, T. (2013). The reason U.S. healthcare is so expensive. Retrieved:
Government Should Tax Spending Vice Income
A "sin tax" is a specific type of tax that is levied on certain types of goods and services that the government has deemed unnecessary for individual consumption or action, and that society as a whole considers undesirable, but is nevertheless popular with many citizens. Predominant examples of this are alcohol, tobacco, and gambling. Alcohol and tobacco, for instance, move from an economic to a social issue because of numerous health and behavioral issues that result from use, and have a cost to society. Because of this, it is valid that the government be able to tax certain substances or activities.
The idea of sin taxing is designed not to punish, but to suggest that certain activities are not best for society: alcohol because it causes traffic issues, crime, social ills; tobacco because of the medical and productivity costs; and gambling because of its addiction…
Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. Ensuring Solutions. (2011). Web. http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/
Hoe, K. The Role of Excise as a Sin Tax. The Star Online. . (January 19, 2010). Web. http://biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/1/19/business/5496890&sec=business
Williams, R.; Christ, K. Taxing Sin. Mercatus Center at George Mason University. (July 2009). Web. http://mercatus.org/publication/taxing-sin
What are the consequences of an ever-burgeoning federal deficit and debt? Will there ever be a solution or compromise?
One of the most hotly-contested issues in contemporary American political life is how to deal with the current budget deficit. Despite running surpluses during the 1990s, the current budget is widely considered out of control by both Democrats and epublicans. The reasons for the deficit include two costly wars abroad and increased defense spending overall after 9/11; tax cuts, and the recent recession which required federal spending in the form of unemployment assistance and assistance to the states (who are legally required to balance their budgets); and less income tax revenue because of job losses. There also systemic factors that have contributed to high budget deficits (Amadeo 2012). Overall, "mandatory spending has increased. Spending to pay benefits for Social Security, Medicare and other mandated programs has been more than $2.3…
Amadeo, Kimberly. (2012). U.S. Federal Budget deficit. Retrieved at:
Economic effects of a budget deficit. (2012). Economics Help. Retrieved at:
When evidence accumulates that the international system is developing in worrying ways, then the overall force development strategy can be modified to counter this - by either expanding or contracting particular hedging substrategies as appropriate" (p. 1).
Essentially, a hedging strategy would allow the U.. To 'hedge its bets' against unexpected attacks, while focusing its limited resources on the most obvious threats. While such a strategy could potentially backfire, the odds are stacked highly against a surprise enemy, and thus may be a reasonable avenue to pursue.
Considering the enormous chunk of the national budget that is spent on military defense (see appendix C), the most obvious solution to reducing the costs of war is to simply cut back on the amount of funds allocated to national defense. The U.. Defense spending is astronomical compared to other countries, and while it is important to be protected, there is such a thing…
Poverty rose after the Islamic evolution, and so did unemployment, leaving Iran largely uncompetitive in the global marketplace. Their largest export is the sale of oil and gas, and Iran holds what is estimated to be 10% of the world's oil reserves, so their economy is growing again, and they are successfully paying off old debt that was restructured in the 1980s (Editors).
While Iran was sinking into a depression, Israel, on the other hand, was gaining ground in many areas of their economy. While they still have to import oil, and that continued during the 1975-1985 time period, their economy has modernized and gained much more ground and diversity than Iran's, at least today. However, from 1975 to 1985, the economy was a very different story. While Iran was undergoing a boom because of oil prices, Israel enjoyed no such luxury. In fact, their resources were depleted after the…
Coutsoukis, Photius. "Israel's Economy." Photius.com. 2004. 3 July 2008. http://www.photius.com/countries/israel/economy/israel_economy_economic_growth_and_~13.html
Editors. "Iran's Economy." Iran Trade Association. 2008. 3 July 2008. http://www.iraniantrade.org/doinbiz/econ.asp
Kirshner, Sheldon. "Israel's Ties With Iran Have Been Mercurial." CanadianJewishNews.com. 21 February 2008. 3 July 2008. http://www.cjnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=14065&Itemid=86
Melman, Yossi. "How Israel Lost to the Iranians." Iran Press Service. 2006. 3 July 2008. http://www.iran-press-service.com/ips/articles-2006/december2006/iran_israel_oil_071206.shtml
There was also an opportunity cost to the availability of such goods. There was an explosion of American companies selling American products and to an unwelcome public. It was difficult for the Russian people to accept quickly. Their pace of life was not the same as America's and yet they were expected to adjust very quickly. The economic reform took a down turn when the Russian people did not catch onto a lot of these American products. As a result consumer spending went down and many companies failed in their ventures. Another factor to this failure is found in the quick need for the new Russia to do away with the old Russia' state owned companies by introducing privatization. This concept was hard for the Russian businessperson to grasp. "For both cultural and ideological reasons, the attitude toward private business in the Soviet Union could hardly be described as…
Dornberg, John. The New Germans: Thirty Years After. New York: MacMillan
Publishing Co., 1976.
Goldman, Marshall I. Lost Opportunity: Why Economic Reforms in Russia Have
Not Worked. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.
Governmental acquisition can involve many different things. It is important for organizations that deal with governmental acquisition to understand why they do various things and what it is that they must do (Angelis, 35). This helps them not only comply with many of the financial management laws that have been created, as well as regulations dealing with these things, but it also helps manage costs as well (Angelis, 35). This is a very critical step in being able to define outputs, develop systems, identify customers, and trace and collect the costs of the various resources that they have all the way through to the outputs that they produce (Angelis, 35).
There are many different models that are designed for collecting and tracing these costs but the most popular one is known as the ABC model (Babbitt, 4). This stands for activity-based cost and it is important to look at how governmental…
Angelis, D. (2001). Implementing activity-based management in an acquisition organization. Acquisition Review Quarterly, 35-39.
Babbitt, G.T. (1998). War fighters are priority one. AFMC Leading Edge, 40(9), 3-4.
Babbitt, G.T. (1998). Briefing to the American Society of Military Comptrollers & Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis.
Ely, R. (1997). Accounting and accountability. AFMC Leading Edge, 39(7), 4-9.
Government and Elections
Should foreign interest groups be banned from attempting to influence the course of American government? Are foreign interest groups always opposed to the interests of U.S. companies and citizens?
It is reported in the work of Benen 2010) that a speech delivered by President Obama warned of "corporate takeover of our democracy" in the form of "shadowy groups raising millions in secret to help buy elections for Republicans. Benen notes the publication of 'ThinkProgress' which states that the trade association "organized as a 501c)6)…the U.S. Chamber of Commerce…that can raise and spend unlimited funds without ever disclosing any of its donors…has promised to spend…" the amount of $75 million to defeat specific candidates including such as "Jack Conway, Sen. Barbara Boxer D-CA), Jerry Brown, Rep. Joe Sestak D-PA), and Rep. Tom Perriello D-VA). As of Sept. 15th, the Chamber had aired more than 8,000 ads on behalf of GOP…
(4) authorize an agency to exercise a function not expressly authorized by law;
(5) increase the term of an office beyond the period authorized by law; (6) deal with more than one logically consistent subject matter; or (7) abolish enforcement functions or programs established by statues. (FAO, 2010)
These are only some of the actions that the President and government cannot take. The Constitution places limits on what government can do to protect the American public. This is because the forefathers understood that government should remain small rather than become the large bureaucratic machine that it presently is today. The present administration has sought to bypass Congress on many of its moves on restructuring the U.S. Government however as reported by the FAO (2010) "Congressional deliberative processes serve the vital function of both gaining input from a variety of clientele and stakeholders affected by any changes and providing an important constitutional check and counterbalance to the executive branch." Bypassing these governmental processes can results in too much power being vested in the President and his discretion. The Constitution provides for a system of checks and balances that serve to ensure that the Constitutional rights of the American people are not violated by the government in any of its actions or rulings.
While this is not yet true for the United tates, might the country be dangerously close? If one could return to the events on 9/11, is it not possible that the diminished freedoms brought about by legislation such as the Patriot Act and its successor almost smack of tyranny? These are important questions to consider if the much-mentioned American "way of life" is to be preserved. Tyranny is far from desirable, and governments would do well to consider its dangers as these might relate to democracy.
The answer to this question is therefore dangerously close to yes, if certain paradigms are not curbed and warnings not heeded. While I do not fully agree with Aristotle's placement of democracy in the sequence so far away from the ideal tate, it is nonetheless important to consider specific governmental paradigms. Citizens should take great care when choosing their rulers. Many believe that the…
Plato. (2000). The Republic: Book VIII. Retrieved from the Internet Classics Archive: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.9.viii.html
It appears that keeping people from moving is a priority and by implementing these plans, the town is effectively helping and serving its people (oysterbaytown.com.
Recommendations for Change and Conclusion
One must keep in mind that while Oyster Bay is a town much in tune with its citizens and their needs, there is still much room for improvement at the government level. By making changes locally, opens the floor to new ideas and way of solving problems. One change I would allow myself is to put a term limit on the council people. By allowing new members of the community on the board as terms complete, offers representation of a larger segment of the town's population. I would like to see more women represented as well the younger segment of the population. By making this change, government practices will become more flexible to other changes. ith the board as it is…
Nash, Colin. "In Oyster Bay -- Suit Stalls Underhill Development -- Civic group seeks to keep land open." Newsday 2 Feb. 1997.
Oyster Bay Town: A message from Town Supervisor John Vendetto. 13 Jan 2005 http://www.oysterbaytown.com/ .
U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice
The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What is meant by liberal welfarism? (3) Explain the parliamentary policy- making process? In addition (4) Detail the New Right critique of the welfare state?
Social Administrative Tradition
Grover Starling, administration scholar is reported to have described six characteristics of government's public administrative responsibility: (1) responsiveness; (2) flexibility; (3) competence; (4) due process; (5) accountability; and (6) honestly. (Shiguang, nd) Traditional government responsibility is noted to be that of maintaining public order. (Shiguang, nd) The World Bank identifies four primary administrative traditions as being those of: (1) Anglo Saxon (minimal state); (2) Continental European: Germanic (organicist); (3) Continental European: French (Napoleonic); and (4) Scandanavian: (mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic). The most fundamental difference is reported to be "between the Anglo-Saxon and the Continental European…
When an employee works for a company from January to August, his funds cover his expenses for between January and August. This is when the employer does not pay for continuation of the coverage under the plan. Therefore, the employee's coverage is from January to August. This covers expenses incurred as from January to August only.
Digitech can consider the following advantages and disadvantages of FSAs in deciding whether to introduce the plan. The employee's full contribution to the plan is available to the employee when the plan year commences. This is mostly January, or after the FSA vendor receives the first contribution of the employee to the FSA (Ferenczy, 2007). Therefore, the employee claims all the contributions when he encounters a qualifying event. In case the employee quits, he cannot repay the money to the employer. This is advantageous to the employee but disadvantageous on the company's side.
Ferenczy, I.H. (2007). 2006-employee benefits in mergers and acquisitions. New York, N.Y: Aspen Publishers.
Garman, E.T., & Forgue, R.E. (2012). Personal finance. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.
The Office exacts a new level of accountability, which encourages a broader range of competitions and new organizations to enter these competitions. Congress authorizes the Office to develop the franchise funds pilots and to expand the competitive environment. It also invites the private sector to participate in new markets and at new levels of commercial workload. At the same time, it encourages the public to compete for the same work on a level playing field. To insure that the taxpayer continues to get the best out of the deal, the Office suggests a re-examination of outsourcing, cross-servicing and in-house performance decisions. The ultimate goal of the Office is to restore public faith in Government through a more effective management of its resources and by giving citizens and taxpayers greater value for their dollar. Federal employees have been found to be extremely cost competitive. Its Revised Supplemental Handbook expressly prefers…
Florida, Richard. The New American Dream. The Washington Monthly: The Washington Monthly Company, March 2003
Gates, Bill. How to Keep America Competitive. The Washington Post: The Washington Post Company, February 25, 2007
Hawkins, William R. Uncoordinated Federal Technology Policies Put Nation at Risk. GAO Report. American Economic Alert: U.S. Business and Industry Council, March 4, 2007
Koskinen, John. The Freedom from Government Competition Act. Office of Management and Budget, June 18, 1997. Retrieved April 14, 2007 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb
Drug Tests and Government Benefits
Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as welfare: drug testing. People who are applying for benefits like welfare or unemployment would have to be tested for illegal drugs (Alcindor, 2012). If they were found to use drugs, they could be denied benefits. This would seen to make sense, because those who are out of work and needing government assistance should not be spending the money they do receive on illegal drugs or other nefarious activities. However, the American taxpayers are concerned about where the money for the drug tests will come from, and the federal government is already stating that states which pass this drug testing law for benefits will be in violation of federal law. That means these states could lose out on millions of dollars of…
Adams, Brooke. (26 March 2012). Guv signs off on welfare recipient drug-screening program. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/politics/53795131-90/cash-continue-drug-guv.html.csp
Alcindor, Yamiche (29 February 2012). States consider drug testing welfare recipients. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012-02-17/welfare-food-stamps-drug-testing-laws/53306804/1
Hoover, Tim. (29 March 2012). Bill to drug test welfare recipients dies in Colorado House in second reading. Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_20283105/drug-test-welfare-bill-dies-colorado-house-second?source=rss
Rivas, Jorge. (25 August 2011). 96% of Florida welfare applicants pass drug test, discredit Tea Party gov. ColorLines. Retrieved from http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/08/98_of_florida_welfare_applicants_pass_newly_implemented_drug_tests_discrediting_governor.html
U.S. Policy and the War on Terror: An Ineffective Strategy
Since 9/11 the U.S. government has pursued a policy of combating terrorism with all of its resources (intelligence, technology, military, economic sanctions, etc.). However, the question remains, nearly a decade and a half later, with terror attacks occurring more and more frequently around the world, whether the U.S. has been effective in its countering of terrorism. According to various studies, it can be shown how far from actually eradicating terrorism, the policies of the U.S. government have actually helped to foster the spread of terrorism. Now, as Russia steps into the Middle East to fight ISIS at the request of Syria, a disinformation campaign in the West has been put into practice by the mainstream media to show how Russia and Syria are hurting the war against terrorism, when the reality is that Russia has been far more effective in hurting…
Barzegar, Kayhan. "The Terror Plot, An Ideological War for Geopolitical Interests," Iran
Review. 24 Oct 2011. Web. 12 Dec 2015.
Britton, Neil. "Dog or Demon?" in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions,
Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli. International Research Committee on Disasters, 2005.
Defense Spending Military-Industrial Complex Briefly explains iron triangle model policy-making involving Congress, bureaucracy, interest groups. Analyze information relationships Congress, military bureaucracies, defense industries.
Defense spending and the military-industrial complex
The 'iron triangle' model of policy-making is defined as "the closed, mutually supportive relationships that often prevail in the United States between the government agencies, the special interest lobbying organizations, and the legislative committees or subcommittees with jurisdiction over a particular functional area of government policy" (Johnson 2005). For example, in regards to the military, members of Congress benefit when a particular military project is located in their district, so they are more apt to support such military expenditures, regardless of whether the projects are truly valuable or necessary. Compounding the problem, "the middle-level bureaucrats who run the agencies may use their special friends in Congress to block the efforts of a new president or a new congressional majority leadership bent on…
Bender, Brian. (2010). From the Pentagon to the public sector. The Boston Globe. Retrieved:
Johnson, Paul. (2005). Iron triangles. A Glossary of Political Economy Terms. Retrieved:
Discussion of the Results
Mr. Spyridos can count on French and Italians to spend more money than the Germans, and all three to spend more money than the Brits. There is a great deal of difference between German groups, which suggests that there may be some high-Euro spenders who should be appealed to in a separate marketing campaign.
The French appear to have the least variability in spending as a group, while the Italians and the Brits seem to have the highest variability. This may suggest that the French are more amenable to package tours with 'all-inclusive' or more easily-predicted pricing, a la Club Med. At the same time, the Brits and Italians may be willing to spend more once they arrive. The Brits may be lured in by promises of low initial pricing, with a propensity to spend more once they arrive. Italians are willing to spend more, and a substantial…
Healthcare spending and GDP
With the renewed comprehensive healthcare system, the obvious challenge that came with it is how to finance it. The huge projections of the financial inputs needed to efficiently run the program portends a challenge to the government and is likely to spin out of control and be unaffordable in the long run after a few decades from now. This is informed by accompanying supplies and services increasing in cost like the essential original drugs that have been noted to have increased in prices among other services within the healthcare. In many countries people are expected to pay for their own health care. Therefore the ability of people to pay for their health care or the affordability of the healthcare has become a policy issue in many countries and especially an issue of urgency. The issue of healthcare spending has been a topic for debate over the past…
Rise in healthcare spending can also be attributed to the use of improved technology, vaccine improvement, antibiotics, introduction of disease care as well as advances in surgery. There have also been improved medical devices like CT scanners, MRI, ultrasounds and defibrillators that can be implanted. At the same time there are developments in pharmaceuticals and administration costs have also contributed to the rise in costs of healthcare. Mostly the heath care costs are due to medical technology which is approximately over 200 billion per year (Wayne, 2012).
The Americans lifestyles also impact the health care industry in significant measures, almost sixty percent of the population is overweight and childhood obesity is rampant. Other factors that have an impact on the healthcare spending are; poor diets, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of exercise, drugs and drinking. It is the people themselves who have pushed the costs of health care up. The high healthcare spending ahs effects not only to families but also to businesses and public budgets. Expenditure on healthcare is seen to rise at a rate that is fast even faster than the state of the economy entirely and the wages of the working people.
In 2011 spending on medications, hospital visits as well as other medical care went up with an estimated percentage of 3.9 this consumed about 17.9% of the GDP. This is more than three times the deficit. Much of the money is considered to be spent appropriately which is keeping people alive and healthy but of
Foremost, when they occur, they generate massive financial setbacks for the institution implementing them as they generally require a large sum of money. "It is difficult to properly handle investments in public budgets. The rewards are spread out over an extended period of time while the cost or the pain of investing is immediate. That makes if difficult to finance public investments" (Penner, 2008).
For the state and local governments to be able to fund their investments, they should organize their incomes into two categories: current operating capital and capital component. A simple accounting method would help them benefit immediately from the investment. In this order of ideas, given that the investment is amortized and the amortization is registered as part of operating expenses, the users of the investments would immediately benefit from it, and also pay it at the same time (Penner, 2008).
Another means to deal with the upcoming…
Penner, R.G., June 10, 2008, Budgeting for Capital Investment, Statement before the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure
Rueben, K., McGuire, T., Kellam, S., October 2007, Navigating State and Local Finances, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy
Rueben, K., Rosenberg, C., April 28, 2008, State and Local Tax Policy: What are rainy day funds and how do they work? Tax Policy Center
Woolley, J., Peters, G., 1999, Richard Nixon, the American Presidency Project, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=3636last accessed on November 14, 2008
These different elements are important, because they are highlighting how governments can place severe restrictions, on the way various revenues are spent. (Ruppel, 2010, pp. 32 -- 42)
Alternatives for the Public Administrator
Therefore, all public administrators need to understand how to adjust to these different challenges in the future. This means that they must know how to do more with less. One possible way that this could be accomplished is by outsourcing certain city services to private corporations. If they could offer to do the same job for less money, this could help public managers to adjust to changes that are taking place from these sharp cuts. At the same time, the government could also form strategic alliances with nonprofit organizations and charities. In this case, they could see if some of the funds for delivering different services would help to support these organizations. At which point, the two could…
Knoller, M. (2011). National Debt Tops $14 Trillion. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20027090-503544.html
Ruppel, W. (2010). Fund Accounting Fundamentals. Wiley GAAP for Governments 2010. (pp. 32 -- 42). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
4 trillion and $3.6 trillion, an impressive boost to the U.S. economy in those years, the IPC explains. A study conducted by Arizona State University determined that when a person has a bachelor's degree that person earns about $750,000 more over the course of a lifetime of earning than a person with just a high school diploma earns.
The data from that study indicates that as of 2006, those working without a high school diploma earned approximately $419 per week and had an unemployment rate of 6.8%, the IPC explains. Those with a bachelor's degree earned approximately $962 per seek and their rate of unemployment was only 2.3%; over their careers college graduates earn "in excels of 60% more than a high school graduate, and workers with advanced degrees earn two to three times as much as high school graduates" (IPC, p. 2).
The Dream Act would remove the uncertainty of undocumented…
Associated Press. (2011). Court rules against Arizona immigration law. Justice Department filed suit to block law it says violates U.S. Constitution. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com .
Barreto, Matt. (2010). Senators who opposed DREAM Act may fact Latino roadblocks in 2012.
Latino Decisions. Retrieved May 7, 2011, from http://latinodecisions.wordpress.com .
Bennett, Brian. (2011). GOP drafts legislative assault on illegal immigration. Los Angeles
Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933
The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March 29, 1930, finance expert Heinrich runing had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Muller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichsprasident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. After an unpopular bill to help the Reich's finances had not found the support of the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the Sozialdemokratische Partei…
By the time Bismarck had to leave the Chancellor's office in 1890, France and Russia were working to forge an alliance in both commercial and military terms. French capital markets were supplying Russian industrialization with the investment that was drying up, not least thanks to Bismarck's intervention, from the German side. The French arms industry looked to provide the Russian armies with modern equipment. Russian officers were lavishly entertained in Paris, and naval squadrons paid much-heralded visits to Le Havre and St. Petersburg. This was the "nightmare" that Bismarck had always feared, posing a threat to Germany's strategic borders in the west and to Austria's existence in the east.
Subsequent German foreign policy initiatives, notably the initiation of a large battle fleet under the naval laws of 1898 and 1900, drove Britain into diplomatic alignment (the Entente) with a Franco-Russian alliance already in the offing at the time of Bismarck's fall. "In 1912 Lord Haldane, then the British Secretary for War, hoped that, given the new correlation of forces, Germany might be willing to sign a naval agreement to limit numbers. In Berlin, however, Haldane met with stiff resistance from Tirpitz and the Kaiser: too much prestige and funds had been invested to retreat and acknowledge defeat. There was to be no arms control."
Intensified by the reign of the far more militaristic Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bismarck's legacy would contribute to the political culture in which Nazism found significant support-bases. As a result, in Germany, as in Japan and Italy, later attempts to extend democracy would succeed in establishing the unstable democracies of the Weimar Republic. Despite advances in industry and science under the Second Reich, Germany retained a despotic aspect to its character, due to
The problems facing Medicare recipients and the federal government almost seem to be overwhelming. There are proponents of a plan to privatize Social Security and health insurance, placing the onus on the individual to pay for his own health care through savings specifically for this. Some others would have the program go through the private HMOs who have, in the past, contained the costs of care by having primary care physicians manage a patient's care and purposely keeps the costs of care down.
As with Medicaid, the recipients of Medicare would have difficulty obtaining health care without this program. The recipients would most likely have no other health insurance. The trend being what it is, a lot of individuals retiring today are fortunate to have pensions from their companies, much less health benefits. ithout a national health insurance plan, like Medicare, those individuals would have to pay for health care…
Kay, Joseph. "Bush Plans renewed Assault on Medicaid." World Socialist Website. 8 Feb. 2005.
13 Aug. 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/medi-f08.shtml .
Kay, Joseph. "U.S.: States, Federal Government Prepare Massive Medicaid Cuts." World
Socialist Website. 11 May 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/may2005/medi-m11.shtml .
U.S. Government and ethical issues of outsourcing
Description of Ideas-5
Analysis of Concepts-6
Evaluation with easons-7
U.S Government and Ethical Issues of Outsourcing
USA is at present one of the fastest growing countries as a target for outsourcing. Of late outsourcing which was once the buzzword of corporate America has been looked down upon in recent years because of growing concerns of ethics involved in outsourcing the same. Majority lament the outsourcing of jobs to low-wage economies like Asia, Philippines and elsewhere. In a slowing economy with unemployment figures hovering around 10%, outsourcing jobs is viewed as extremely undesirable. However some experts are of the opinion that outsourcing per se is not bad as it helps business to lower costs to remain in business, particularly during periods of recession. When outsourcing permits a company to cut down on costs and make production at less cost, it augurs well for the company in the long…
Breslin, David A. (1999) "On the Ethics of Outsourcing" Program Manager; vol. 28, no. 6,
Ching, Jacqueline. (2009) "Outsourcing U.S. Jobs"
The Rosen Publishing Group.
SNAP Government Program
On October 1, 2008, the Food Stamp Program officially became the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) which assisted 43 million Americans at that time 2.5 years ago when the program changed. The reason for the change to SNAP was because of the benefits that are now available to assist a broader range of households in the United States (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities 2011). According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the first food stamp program was offered a limit of $75 million to Americans on January 31, 1964 when President Johnson approved it for a permanent program for families that qualified that was successful (2009).
One of the main reasons for this program is to offer benefits depending on the needs of family and people must meet the requirements in order to receive help (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities 2011). The Center on Budget and…
Edwards, C. "Food Subsidies." July 2009. http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/agriculture / food-subsidies (accessed May 08, 2011).
Humble, W. "Posts Tagged 'Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program'." February 23
2011. http://directorsblog.health.azdhs.gov/?tag=supplemental-nutrition-assistance - program (accessed May 08, 2011).
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, "Policy Basics: Introduction to the Supplemental
Healthcare spending by the New York State persistently surpasses its earnings. That difference continues to be expanding and is also anticipated to broaden unless of course there happen to be severe, continuous modifications in spending budget actions. Lieutenant Governor ichard avitch, in "A 5-Year Strategy to Deal with the State of New York's Spending budget Deficit" released during March 2010, approximated this structural disproportion within the state's spending budget to become no less than $13 billion. The structural inequality isn't simply the consequence of the economic downturn that started during 2007, and a commonly strengthening economic climate is not going to get rid of it.
To help the State of New York in providing the solutions and dedication to quality that its residents rely on, structural modifications are needed. The aim of this paper is actually to summarize one particular realignment - solving an outright inequity involving the state as well…
California Public Employees' Retirement System, "Facts at a Glance: Health," September 2010, http://www.calpers.ca.gov/eip-docs/about/facts/health.pdf .
Citizens Budget Commission, Out of Balance: A Comparison of Public and Private Employee Health Benefits in New York City, December 2009, http://www.cbcny.org/sites/default/files/REPORT_Survey_12162009.pdf .
City of New York Office of Labor Relations, "New York City Summary Program Description, Health Benefit Program," 2010, http://www.nyc.gov/html/olr/downloads/pdf/healthb/full_spd.pdf.
Government Finance Officers Association, "Recommended Practices, Health Care Cost Containment 2004," http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/corbaHealthCareCostContainment.pdf .
What needs to happen is that economic stimulus aimed at savings and investment, not necessarily nationalization of financial institutions, needs to occur. There is a difference, and with nationalization there is the assumption of risk by a government which will naturally be one of the most risk-averse, and therefore unable to capitalize on economic growth mindsets there are. A financial strategy of seeking to infuse greater levels of trust in financial institutions by tighter regulations on them and the development of programs to get the most critical of resources, oil and gas, free form inflation, is essential for a recession to not be prolonged due to inflation. Stabilizing these two factors, GNP and controlling inflation, are what can restore trust in an economy and help it to turn around. There are no quick fixes to a recession, rather the gradual spiral that creates one need to be used to…
Abberger, K., & Nierhaus, W.. (2008). HOW TO DEFINE A RECESSION? CESifo Forum, 9(4), 74-76.
Bernard, C., & Boyle, P.. (2009). Mr. Madoff's Amazing Returns: An Analysis of the Split-Strike Conversion Strategy. Journal of Derivatives, 17(1), 62-76,5.
Berry, S., Williams, R., & Waldron, M.. (2009). Household saving. Bank of England. Quarterly Bulletin, 49(3), 191-201.
Chamberlin, G.. (2009). Economic review: October 2009. Economic & Labour Market Review, 3(10), 6-14.
Aid to Dependent Corporations
The government of United States is incurring heavy revenue loss on account of the corporate sector subsidies and other special rebates. The friendly policies of the government aimed at promoting a positive business climate are sadly being exploited. In their interests to evade tax, businesses today are taking undue advantage of the favorable federal policies. In this regard I feel that our governments tax policies and corporate procedures need to be reexamined in order to eliminate the loopholes in them and at the same time support the common welfare schemes. Let us analyze the scenario in a little detail so that we can better appreciate the situation.
One by one our leading business corporations are reeling under accounting scams. I need not mention how well such a giant corporation like 'Enron' managed to disguise its financial information from the government and the stockholders. In the prevailing scenario I…
Chuck Collins, "Dollars & Sense," 'Aid to dependent corporations: exposing federal handouts to the wealthy', May-June 1995, pg 15
The impact of government spending onto the overall economy is a highly debated topic, with some arguing the advantages, whilst others pointing out the limitations. A most relevant example…Read Full Paper ❯
Wasteful Government Spending Is the Current Level of Federal Spending Sustainable? Over the last several years, the total amounts of federal spending have been rising sharply. Part of the reason for…Read Full Paper ❯
Since G=T with a balanced budget, savings will still fall until I's again, but the expansion of government achieves the goal of replacing the shortfall in aggregate expenditures,…Read Full Paper ❯
Solutions for the Future Even a quick look at budget documents for the next few decades indicate a system burdened with exploding costs of Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; the…Read Full Paper ❯
Government Accounting Office in America (GAO) This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well…Read Full Paper ❯
government budget surplus affect the economy? How does a government budget deficit affect the economy? How would (or should) your company react differently to a government budget surplus…Read Full Paper ❯
There may, for instance, exist various programs for relieving PTSD in veterans. The president may propose that the government should implement and fund an intervention. All would be…Read Full Paper ❯
Notwithstanding these dreadful forecast as well as the consequential results, the political will for transformation is not that strong at the moment, if these situation extends, it will be…Read Full Paper ❯
This is troubling because these entities are using the court system to circumvent the law. At which point, it is only a matter of time until another showdown…Read Full Paper ❯
("ender," 2010) Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In…Read Full Paper ❯
However, some people might regard my decision as unwise: after all, what 'goes up, must come down,' and interest rates will inevitably go up. I may regret not borrowing…Read Full Paper ❯
Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community "We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But…Read Full Paper ❯
The State of Nevada and Clark County appear to have a different manner of meeting budget deficiencies. The Office of udget and Management has an amount of finances…Read Full Paper ❯
This is where incentives come in to play. agner quotes Rudolf Hickel who distinguishes between an entrepreneurial state and a tax state (our present state of affairs). Hickel…Read Full Paper ❯
Today, China owns the majority of U.S. debt, thereby inflating the Yuan and further downgrading the security of the dollar across the globe. These trends mean that American…Read Full Paper ❯
It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race…Read Full Paper ❯
French Government, State, and Regime: An Overview Vive le Difference! The French phrase, 'long live the distinction or difference,' was coined to celebrate the supposedly innate difference between men…Read Full Paper ❯
As it's expected that the mandatory federal spending on health will increase significantly in the future years, the health programs will remain broke and indebted. Corrective Strategies: Since the current…Read Full Paper ❯
National Health Care Spending in the United States For several years now, health care spending in the U.S. has been on the rise. In that regard, containing the situation has…Read Full Paper ❯
This means that Congressional officials and the White House are reluctant to make the necessary adjustments (in order to address these issues). Instead, they have been utilizing various…Read Full Paper ❯
U.S. Government Deficits hy is it that the U.S. Government can spend more than it brings in through taxes and other revenue? hat are the specific reasons why the U.S.…Read Full Paper ❯
Investment spending is very significant because it is an essential ingredient in economic development and growth. The decrease in the level of investment spending may cause a recession. Most…Read Full Paper ❯
The Federal Reserve System is mandated with contributing to the management of all three of these measures. The role of the Federal Reserve is to control money supply,…Read Full Paper ❯
Public/Government Finance Public (Government) Finance This essay examines the debate over extending unemployment benefits. The essay reviews the arguments in favor of and against further extensions, and the implications for economic…Read Full Paper ❯
Externalities and Financing Government Microeconomics Today -- hat is a fair tax? Tax the rich, give to the poor! Tax the gas-guzzling SUVs of the rich, and give the money to…Read Full Paper ❯
Deficit Spending What is deficit spending and how does it work Deficit spending takes place when the government expenditures surpass the government revenues in a fiscal period, which in turn increases…Read Full Paper ❯
Economics Governments influence the economy in many ways, but the two most often discussed in economics are fiscal policy and monetary policy (another might a trade policy, for example). Fiscal…Read Full Paper ❯
Bernstein also makes the point that government debt is not the same as household or business debt, and that is a valid point to make. There are a few…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
It is because policemen may succumb to corruption; especially when their salaries are minimal and the money earned by drug dealers are immense. The legalization of drugs will…Read Full Paper ❯
Federal Reserve buys government bonds, it increases the overall money supply in the nation and thus pursues an expansionary monetary policy. Through buying bonds the Fed increases the…Read Full Paper ❯
EEOC eview The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is far and away the most prolific and omni-present agency that exists in the United States, at least at the federal level,…Read Full Paper ❯
Minimizing Poverty Is a Government Initiative The Progressive Era Poverty reduction has remained a central debate in periodical democratic societies. Schemes have been established to enable citizens to be economically viable…Read Full Paper ❯
SPENDING IN U.S. HEALTHCAE July 26, 2013 ASSESSMENT: Policy topic Search Selection. esearch internet key words "Health" "Health Policy" select a policy topic interest. My selection topic "Cost Spending."…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Government Should Tax Spending Vice Income A "sin tax" is a specific type of tax that is levied on certain types of goods and services that the government has…Read Full Paper ❯
Budget Deficit Government Budget What are the consequences of an ever-burgeoning federal deficit and debt? Will there ever be a solution or compromise? One of the most hotly-contested issues in contemporary American…Read Full Paper ❯
When evidence accumulates that the international system is developing in worrying ways, then the overall force development strategy can be modified to counter this - by either expanding…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Poverty rose after the Islamic evolution, and so did unemployment, leaving Iran largely uncompetitive in the global marketplace. Their largest export is the sale of oil and gas,…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
There was also an opportunity cost to the availability of such goods. There was an explosion of American companies selling American products and to an unwelcome public. It…Read Full Paper ❯
Governmental acquisition can involve many different things. It is important for organizations that deal with governmental acquisition to understand why they do various things and what it is that…Read Full Paper ❯
Government and Elections Should foreign interest groups be banned from attempting to influence the course of American government? Are foreign interest groups always opposed to the interests of U.S. companies…Read Full Paper ❯
While this is not yet true for the United tates, might the country be dangerously close? If one could return to the events on 9/11, is it not…Read Full Paper ❯
It appears that keeping people from moving is a priority and by implementing these plans, the town is effectively helping and serving its people (oysterbaytown.com. Recommendations for Change and…Read Full Paper ❯
U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What…Read Full Paper ❯
When an employee works for a company from January to August, his funds cover his expenses for between January and August. This is when the employer does not…Read Full Paper ❯
The Office exacts a new level of accountability, which encourages a broader range of competitions and new organizations to enter these competitions. Congress authorizes the Office to develop…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Drug Tests and Government Benefits Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as…Read Full Paper ❯
U.S. Policy and the War on Terror: An Ineffective Strategy Since 9/11 the U.S. government has pursued a policy of combating terrorism with all of its resources (intelligence, technology, military,…Read Full Paper ❯
Iron Triangle Defense Spending Military-Industrial Complex Briefly explains iron triangle model policy-making involving Congress, bureaucracy, interest groups. Analyze information relationships Congress, military bureaucracies, defense industries. Defense spending and the military-industrial complex The…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Mathematics
Discussion of the Results Mr. Spyridos can count on French and Italians to spend more money than the Germans, and all three to spend more money than the Brits. There…Read Full Paper ❯
Healthcare spending and GDP With the renewed comprehensive healthcare system, the obvious challenge that came with it is how to finance it. The huge projections of the financial inputs needed…Read Full Paper ❯
Foremost, when they occur, they generate massive financial setbacks for the institution implementing them as they generally require a large sum of money. "It is difficult to properly…Read Full Paper ❯
These different elements are important, because they are highlighting how governments can place severe restrictions, on the way various revenues are spent. (Ruppel, 2010, pp. 32 -- 42) Alternatives…Read Full Paper ❯
4 trillion and $3.6 trillion, an impressive boost to the U.S. economy in those years, the IPC explains. A study conducted by Arizona State University determined that when a…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933 The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March…Read Full Paper ❯
The problems facing Medicare recipients and the federal government almost seem to be overwhelming. There are proponents of a plan to privatize Social Security and health insurance, placing…Read Full Paper ❯
U.S. Government and ethical issues of outsourcing Description of Ideas-5 Analysis of Concepts-6 Evaluation with easons-7 Possible Solutions-9 U.S Government and Ethical Issues of Outsourcing USA is at present one of the fastest growing countries…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
SNAP Government Program On October 1, 2008, the Food Stamp Program officially became the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) which assisted 43 million Americans at that time 2.5 years ago…Read Full Paper ❯
Healthcare spending by the New York State persistently surpasses its earnings. That difference continues to be expanding and is also anticipated to broaden unless of course there happen to…Read Full Paper ❯
What needs to happen is that economic stimulus aimed at savings and investment, not necessarily nationalization of financial institutions, needs to occur. There is a difference, and with…Read Full Paper ❯
Aid to Dependent Corporations The government of United States is incurring heavy revenue loss on account of the corporate sector subsidies and other special rebates. The friendly policies of the…Read Full Paper ❯