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Nursing Grand Theory
The nursing grand theory is the framework which guides and organizes the knowledge in nursing and explains the nursing phenomena at a more specific level. The nursing grand theory was put forth by Afaf Meleis who constructed on theory which combines the set of concepts, relationships, definitions and assumptions or propositions which are derived from the models of nursing in order to give a systematic view of the specific inter-relationships among the concept for the purpose of explaining, describing, prescribing and predicting. According to the grand theory, it is possible to reflect and provide insights which are useful for practice. However, the theory is not designed to be used for empirical testing since the theory is designed to be applicable to all instances of nursing Meleis, 2011()
Despite the many nursing theories that exist, there are four common concepts that determine and influence nursing practice.…
Meleis, A.I. (2011). Theoretical Nursing Development & Progress (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Melnechenko, K.L. (1995). Parse's Theory of Human Becoming: An Alternative Guide to Nursing Practice for Pediatric Oncology Nurses. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 12(3), 122-127.
Newman, M.A. (1979). Theory development in nursing. Philadelphia F.A. Davis.
Rogers, M.E. (1989). An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing. Philadelphia F.A. Davis.
Orlando's Nursing Process Theory
The Grand Theory chosen for this assignment is the Orlando's Nursing Process Theory. This theory was formulated by Ida Jean Orlando. The theory was based on inductive reasoning and is still considered one of the most followed nursing practice theories. The theory is based on the most basic principles of interaction between the patient and the nurse practitioner. This theory highlights how a patient makes a conversation about his needs and how a nurse provides care to him.
Background of the Theorist-Ida Jean Orlando
The grand theorist was born in the year 1926 and got her Nursing diploma from the New York Medical College. She did her Bachelor's degree in public health from St. John's University, New York. She did not stop here and got her Master's degree in Mental Nursing from Columbia University, New York. About her work experience, it is interesting to note that…
Abdoli, S., & Safavi, S.S. (2010). Nursing students' immediate responses to distressed clients based on Orlando's theory. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 15(4), 178.
Butts, J.B. & Rich, K.L. (2010). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice.
Faust, C. (2002). Orlando's deliberative nursing process theory: a practice application in an extended care facility. Journal of gerontological nursing, 28(7), 14-18.
Kim, H.S. (1994). Practice theories in nursing and a science of nursing practice. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 8(2), 145-158.
MID ANGE THEOY OF SPIITUAL WELL BEING
Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness
Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.
History of Theory Development in Nursing
The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…
Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic
Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.
Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.
Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.
With the widening of economic interdependence and spread of democratic norms, liberalism envisions a slow journey away from the realists' vision. Liberalists do not view a state as a single actor in war, but rather as a coalition of coalitions that is representing different individuals and groups. Limitations of state power, rule of law, transparency of democratic and government processes will make it easier for the sustenance of international cooperation.
In terms of security, liberalists differ from realists as they not only view it in military terms, but also as the promotion and protection of individual rights. In the fight on terrorism, the liberal approach would emphasize on application of legal instruments instead of military force. The liberal approach to the United States war on terrorism would involve issues like organized crime and its potential for creating terrorists.
This would be in contrast to the realist approach of force on…
Drezner, Daniel W. "Does Obama Have a Grand Strategy? Why We Need Doctrines in
Grand Jury: Needed or Not?
The United States is the only common law jurisdiction in the world that still uses the grand jury for purposes of screening criminal indictments. The grand jury issues an indictment for crime only if based on the evidence that has been presented it finds that there is a probable cause for one to believe that a crime has been committed by the suspect .this is unlike a petit jury that only resolves a specific type of criminal or civil cases, a grand jury serves as a group for a particular period of time in all or many cases that come up in the jurisdiction which is under the supervision of the federal; state attorney, a court district attorney or even a state general attorney and listens to the evidence without having suspect or person of interest being involved in the proceedings (Leipold, 2005).
Leipold, A.D., (2005). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.freedomlaw.com/archives/oldsite/GRANDJRY.html
Farlex, Inc., (2014). Grand Jury. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Grand+jury
Moreover, because of the secrecy surrounding the grand jury system, there is a very real concern that a defendant may not have the opportunity to actually confront his accusers. While improper evidence may not come in at trial, it is a fallacy to assume that simply protecting someone from conviction is protecting him or her from all of the possible negative effects of an improper indictment. The very real time, expense, and risk of trial means that even an actually innocent person who is indicted may consider a plea bargain rather than face the risk of trial.
While there is some merit to the idea that grand juries listen to prosecutors, individual grand juries behave in different manners. Some of them simply act as rubber stamps for prosecutors, while other grand juries more carefully consider the charges before them. However, the secrecy surrounding the proceedings makes it difficult to know…
range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge .
There is an emphasis at present on the development and use of mid-range theory in nursing. If one accepts the premise that grand theories of nursing are no longer necessary, what are the implications for nursing education, practice, and research?
Nursing theories can be classified in many different ways, but one of the most common methods is to group them into grand and middle range theories. A grand theory "provides a conceptual framework under which the key concepts and principles of the discipline can be identified," while, in contrast, a "middle range theory is more precise and only analyzes a particular situation with a limited number of variables" (Nursing theories: An overview, 2011, Nursing Theories). Mid-range theories of nursing do not attempt to…
Entry-to-practice competencies. (2011). College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta.
Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://www.nurses.ab.ca/Carna-Admin/Uploads/Entry-to-Practice%20Competencies.pdf
Is nursing theory important? (2099). All Nurses. Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://allnurses.com/general-nursing-discussion/nursing-theory-important-406192-page4.html
Kennedy, Shawn. (2009). New nurses face reality shock in hospital setting. AJN.
Range Nursing Theory
A clinical nurse is generally involved with specialized research; for example, a clinical nurse specializing in oncology would likely be heavily involved in the treatment of patients with cancer, according to Andrea Santiago. That clinical nurse specialist (CNS) working with cancer patients may also create helpful protocols or other strategies to improve the delivery of services in a hospital (Santiago, 2013). This paper delves into the reasons why the CNS can (and will) benefit from the use of the middle range theory.
hat are middle range theories?
Judy Davidson (RN, DNP, CNS) explains that middle range theories are designed to "guide practice" for nurses (including clinical nurse specialists) and are "more focused than grand theories" because they zero in on a "single aspect of practice" and are not as general as grand theories (Davidson, 2010, p. 28). Moreover, because grand theories only offer a framework in terms…
Andershed, Birgitta, and Olsson, Kristina. (2009). Review of research related to Kristin
Swanson's middle-range theory of caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23(3),
Davidson, Judy E. (2010). Facilitated Sensemaking: A Strategy and New Middle-Range Theory
As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…
Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.
Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.
Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.
Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.
Theory guides practice. This is true of many things, but is especially true of nursing. While many processes, actions, and rules are involved in becoming a great nurse, understanding and applying theory must be the most important aspect. Nursing theory allows for one to examine concepts and then attempt practical application of these concepts when theories are tested. Evidence-based practice for example, is the wonderful lovechild of theory and application in that when theories are constructed, they are then tested, and if they work, are applied to standard practice via modification. This essay aims to provide a deeper synthesis of nursing theory by examining two important nursing theories: Orem's Self-care Theory and Watsons Nursing Theory. Additionally, one will see how nursing theory has evolved since its beginnings.
Background on Nursing Theory
Many say nursing is as old as humankind. If there was someone sick, there was someone willing to…
nursing is both a discipline and a profession
All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.
Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)
The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing
Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field…
Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.
Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson. (2008). Understanding Philosophical Inquiry in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 115-121.
Dr Sharon L. Van Sell, Ioannis a Kalofissudis. (2002). A Complexity Nursing Theory.
ange Theory in Nursing
The credibility of a profession is mainly based on the professional's ability to create and apply the appropriate theory. Theories are notions or concepts used for inferring observations, elucidating experiences, and unfolding relationships of project results. Theories are derived from conceptual models. The main function of a theory is to narrow and fully specify the phenomena that is contained in the conceptual model. The theory should also provide a relatively concrete and specific structure for interpreting the initially puzzling situations, behavior, and events. A nursing theory is defined as a set of concepts, relationships, definitions, and assumptions that are derived from nursing models and project a systematic view of phenomena by designing particular inter-relationships among concepts with the purpose of explaining, describing, predicting, and prescribing. Theories are derived using either deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning (Smith & Liehr, 2013). Nurses make use of various theories in…
Davydov, M. (2014). Middle-Range Theory for Nursing. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 30(6), 316.
Fawcett, J. (2005). Middle range nursing theories are necessary for the advancement of the discipline. Aquichan, 5(1), 32-43.
Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 185-195.
Lenz, E. R., Pugh, L. C., Milligan, R. A., Gift, A., & Suppe, F. (1997). The middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms: an update. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(3), 14-27.
Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory
There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Orem's self-care deficit theory. This theory is predicated a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problems is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action. The movie Awakenings can be used as an example of how this can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions.
Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory
Dorothea Orem was a staff nurse, and later moved onto educational positions within nursing. She developed her concept of self-care deficit theory to explain nursing in terms of a key interpersonal relationship between nurse and patient, where the nurse helps the patient to take care of him/herself. The underlying assumptions are that the patient is a distinct individual, and should be self-reliant. It…
CurrentNursing.com (2016). Nursing theories: Dorothea Orem's Self-care deficit theory. Nursing Theories.com. Retrieved April 7, 2016 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
Parkes, W., Lasker, L. & Marshall, P. (1990) Awakenings (motion picture) United States: Lasker/Parkes Productions/Columbia Pictures.
Rhodes, V., Watson, P., Hanson, B. (1988) Patients' descriptions of the influence of tiredness and weakness on self-care abilities. Cancer Nursing. Vol. 11 (3) 186-194
Middle ange Theory of Self Transcendence
There are several nursing-related theories and these have the function of explaining, evaluating and applying the field in order to enhance quality of treatment. These theories are divided into three classes; low rang theories, middle age theories and grand theories. All these classes each have their specialized roles towards the improvement of the nursing practice dependent on the various treatment types they are concerned with. Middle range theories possess a number of well-defined models which are applied for experimental testing on a concept in order to determine if it is useful and effective in the nursing profession. Several active forms of middle range theories exists and they include those which are concerned with self-efficiency, empathy, human interactions, carrying out of nursing duties, reasoned action, adverse symptoms, self-transcendence etc. Generally, the benefits of these theories are evident when nursing challenges, especially those concerned…
Coward, D. D. (2003). Facilitation of Self-Transcendence in a Breast Cancer Support Group: II. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30(2), 291-300.
Masters, K (2012). Nursing Theories: A framework for Professional Practice. Sudbury, MA: Joones & Bartlett, LLC
McEwen, M. & Wills, E. M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Reed O (2008). "The Theory of Self-Transcendence." In M.J. Smith & P.R Liehr (Eds.). Middle Range Theory for nursing (2nd ed.). New York, Springer.
Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory to Awakenings
There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT). This theory has established a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problem is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action (CurrentNursing.com, 2012). The movie Awakenings (Parkes, Lasker & Marshall, 1990) can be used as an example of how this theory can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions. The focus here will be on the scene where the patients awakened. Dr. Sayer was present, as was the nurse manager and a staff nurse. At this point, there is a transition in the type of care that needs to be provided to the patients from wholly compensatory to partially compensatory.…
CurrentNursing.com (2012). Nursing theories: Dorothea Orem's Self-care deficit theory. Nursing Theories.com. Retrieved April 7, 2016 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
Geyer, N., Mogotlane, S. M., & Young, A. (2009). Juta's manual of nursing. Lansdowne, SA: Juta.
Parkes, W. (Producer), Lasker, L. (Producer) & Marshall, P. (Director). (1990). Awakenings (motion picture) United States: Lasker/Parkes Productions/Columbia Pictures
Rice, R. (2006). Home care nursing practice: Concepts and application. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
Middle Range Theories
Middle range theories are among the most commonly used theories in research alongside grand theories. This capstone project seeks to examine whether the use of a multidisciplinary approach helps to decrease readmissions within 30 days of newly diagnosed patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). The middle range theory that will be applied on nursing research for this project is the Core, Care and Cure Theory, which was developed by Lydia Eloise Hall. This theory suggests that core, care, and cure are interconnected though they vary depending on the patient’s condition (Cosejo, 2018). This theory identified the core as the individual or patient receiving nursing care based on his/her own goals while the cure is the attention provided to patients by clinical professionals and care is the primary role of a professional nurse. Core, Care and Cure Theory suggests that these three components work together toward promoting the…
Consistency, coupled by approval generates legitimacy. A government system is only legitimate if it receives the support of plural citizens. Therefore, a good example is Hosni Mubarak's one party, which was illegitimate. Any policy enjoying the majority approval of the citizens is said to be a legitimate policy. In this context, the United States invasion into Iraq has been perceived as illegitimate. This is not because many citizens of Iraq disapproved the policy but also due to the fact that majority of the Arabs recorded substantial support. As the global military utility continues to decline, a country perceived as consistent and legitimate will encounter minimal resistance from the new Arab world while the U.S. continues to execute its policies.
The occurrence of the Second World War is reflected from the relations between the American grand strategy and the initial existence of the realism, constructivism, and liberalism. Moreover, it is evident…
Betts, Richard K. Is Strategy an Illusion?
International Security 25, no. 2 (2000): 5-50.
Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons, 2012.
Gray, Colin. Why Strategy is Difficult. Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1999, 6-12.
theory about something, but not many people realize exactly what defines a theory. While there are as many definitions of a "theory," "generally speaking, a theory is an abstract system of concepts with indications of the relationships among these concepts that help us understand a phenomenon." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") When discussing a theory, it is important to understand that the application of a theory is dependent upon the level of generality. For instance, a theory about communications can apply to the all humans in general, or a specific group of people, or just very specific people in specific circumstances. But whether the theory is "Grand," "Mid-Level," or "Narrow," it must contain a number of specific goals which "can include explanation, understanding, prediction, and social change…." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Theories attempt to explain certain phenomena, then based on patterns recognized by the theory, predict something, and finally can cause social change…
"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida
State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-
One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…
Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner
Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.
McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
Criminal Justice System
Crime and the law
Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person…
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th
ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:
The respondents who step out to be part of the research process should be protected from any unwanted intrusion or any other form of personal or group harassment (Smith & Liehr, 2008).
It is formal to have and conduct nursing research according to the set ethical frameworks where the entire review of the proposal will be undertaken. Whether to be undertaken by the staff or students, this research should be subjected to ethical approvals, which will make sure that the research, proposal is directed at serving the nursing school dream and intentions. Using the Middle range theory, the nursing problems and challenges will be solved in various ways as follows (Smith & Liehr, 2003).
All the nursing researchers and educators, being the staff members, must have respect upon the dignity, interests, and rights of the nursing students and other staff members related and participating in practical and theoretical learning.
Basford, L., & Slevin, O. (2003). Theory and practice of nursing: An integrated approach to patient care. Cheltenham, U.K: Nelson Thornes.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., & Kazer, M.W. (2012). Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York:
Meleis, a.I. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters
Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.
Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan…
A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .
Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .
Anderson, T.N. (1990). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings and Habitual Sins. . Boston: House Publishers, Inc.
Backus, W.C. (1980). Telling Yourself the Truth: Find Your Way Out of Depression, Anxiety, Fear, Anger and Other Common Problems by Applying the Priciples of Misbelief Therapy . Grand Rapids: Bethany Publishing Group.
Christian Counseling Theories
Christian authors present the very unique set of principles and strategies aiming at helping empower individuals going through counseling. Examining Christian literature and theory illustrates clear assumptions that different authors share, yet also pulled out some clear differences as well. For example, Backus and Chapain (2000) present fluidity, while Adams (1986) suggests Scripture. Still, these authors do all show that the word of God is a crucial element to the spiritual healing needed in modern counseling.
Backus and Chapain (2000) present a very simple, that individuals are plagued with discomfort and unhappiness because they think incorrectly. Essentially, when one does not think the proper manner, negative results come from it. Thus, ill-natured thoughts lead to anxiety, unhappiness, and depression, all of which are the main causes for people seeking counseling in a modern context. In order to combat these ill thoughts, Backus and Chapain present when is…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
Concisely, Comfort results when an individual keeps of negative or unhealthy living and sticks to positive and healthy living. Comfort has been associated with positive institutional outcomes that include patient satisfaction. The outcome of Comfort is therefore one of the most important indicator of measuring success in nursing practice particularly for patients and families going through some tough or stressful healthcare conditions.
Benefits of the Comfort theory to the Clinical Nurses of the 21st Century
Comfort theory is an important theory that is applicable to the 21st Century clinical practice because of its many inherent benefits or advantages. This theory defines the working environment for healthcare practitioners while at the same time it charts the direction for improving the services offered by the clinical nurses. The universality of the language and concepts used in presenting the theory also promotes its wide acceptance. The simplicity of the tenets of the Comfort…
Kolcaba, K. (2003) Comfort Theory and Practice: A Vision for Holistic Health Care and Kolcaba, K.Y. (1994). A theory of holistic Comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(6), 1178-1184.
Kolcaba, K., & DiMarco, M.A. (2005). Comfort Theory and its application to pediatric nursing. Pediatric Nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
Magyrary, D. (2002) Positive mental health: a turn of the century perspective. Issues of Mental Health Nursing, 23, 331-349
Malinowski, a., & Stamler, L.L. (2002). Comfort: exploration of the concept in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 599-606.
Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation
Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.
Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.
Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.
Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html
Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
Concise Summary of Theory
Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.
The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.
Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
In reaction, diabetes research looks into pharmacological options and changes in lifestyle to contain the trend. Recent findings point to the need for healthcare professionals to empower diabetes sufferers to take recourse in self-management as the best option at the moment (Kumar).
The purposefulness of a plan and its implementation in assisting a client with diabetes helped fill in her self-care deficit (Kumar 2007). The interpersonal relationship between a nurse and her client minimizes the stress experienced by the latter and her family. This enables the client or patient and her family to act more responsibly in health matters. An assessment and plan of care may use Orem's client-related concepts -- of self-care, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand and self-care deficit --, the concepts of nursing agency and nursing system and the basic conditioning factors. Integrating these concepts into other theories on health promotion and family systems may guide effective…
Aldridge, V. (2005). Self-monitoring of blood, glucose invaluable in managing diabetes. 3 pages. Journal of Diabetes Nursing: SB Communications. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOMDR/is_10_9/ai_n27865119?tag=content;col1
Aliha, J.M., et al. (2006). Relation between self-care behavior and self-care needs in patients with heart failure.2 pages. Southern African Journal of Critical Care: South African Medical Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/article/mi_6870/is_1_23/ai_n28450856?tag=content;col1
Bruce, E., et al. (2008). Dorothea Orem's theory of self-care. 38 pages. SlideShare, Inc. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://www.slideshare.net/jben501/dorothea-orem-theory
Cook, a., et al. (2006). Self-care needs of caregivers dealing with stroke. 9 pages.
The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).
Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in estern countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and…
Martin, M.W. And Schinzinger, R. Ethics in Engineering, 2d Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.
Brantley, C.J. Survey of Ethics Code Provisions by Subject-Matter Area, American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, D.C., 2009.
Doyle, Thomas E. The Moral Implications of the Subversion of the Nonproliferation Treaty Regime, Ethics and Global Politics 2, no. 2. 2009.
Ferguson, Charles D. The Long Road to Zero: Overcoming the Obstacles to a Nuclear-Free World, Foreign Affairs 89, no. 1. January/February 2010.
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.
Chapter 6: The orld That Knew e ere Coming
Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in…
Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).
Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.
magic bullet theory" -- sometimes called the hypodermic needle theory -- holds that when recipients of broadcasted information are separated from one another they are extremely susceptible to the messages that they are receiving; theses messages can drastically influence their opinions as well as their perceptions of reality. "Agenda setting scholars corroborate the fact that our dependence on the media for news and information has shaped and reinforced our perceptions of the world around us. The mass media continue to set the news agenda for dominant events, issues and policies that subsequently become popular in our social discourse."
It is a theory regarding the nature by which information influences its receivers and is generally only accurate under a specific set of circumstances. Overall, the magic bullet theory cannot be utilized as a comprehensive model for the mass media because it ignores a number of characteristics inherent to human nature. The…
1. Alozie, Emmanuel C. (2003). Global Media Journal, volume 2, issue 5.
2. Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.
3. Gehman, Gary L. (1999). "About Magic Bullet Communications." Magic Bullet Communications, Oct. 10.
4. Holtzman, Linda. (2000). Media Messages. New York: M.E. Sharp.
Nursing Theory -- oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation Model is one of the most commonly cited and used options when it comes to nursing theories. It has been in existence since 1976, and has had a number of years to be adjusted and changed to work with the adjustments that have occurred in the field of nursing over time (Alligood, 2011). Being able to adapt and change is a very important part of nursing, because all patients are different. Additionally, treatments and medications change rapidly, and that can be difficult to keep up with if a nurse is not focused on adapting his or her style and beliefs to the changing nature of medicine. Here, the importance of nursing theory will be explored, along with the key points that are used in the oy Adaptation Model. The views and ideas that the model provides when it comes to nursing…
Alligood, M.R. (2011). The power of theoretical knowledge. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 304-305.
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2013). Essentials of nursing research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Roy, C. (2011). Extending the Roy adaptation model to meet changing global needs. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 345-351.
Roy, C. (2011). Research based on the Roy Adaptation Model last 25 years. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 312-320.
Businesses constantly face the need to update, the need to innovate. With these businesses come its leaders who feel the same bombardment at all levels. The speed at which change arises causes the lifecycles of typical businesses and the products they sell to last just a short time unless they learn to successfully adapt. As Keen (2000), explains: "Change is seen as necessary merely to survive; transformation is required to thrive and a constant need for reinvention is needed to secure long-term success (Keene, 2000, p. 15). In order to meet those demands, sometimes businesses may use a method or theory to help them.
Complexity science is a recently examined field of study. It is fast-growing, in use across all dimensions of business. Complexity science is a term typically used to signify an increasing body of interdisciplinary studies about the structure, behaviour and dynamics of change in a particular category…
Anderson, P. (1999). Perspective: Complexity Theory and Organization Science. Organization Science, 10(3). doi:10.1287/orsc.10.3.216
Dolan, S.L., Garcia, S., & Auerbach, A. (2003). Understanding and Managing Chaos in Organisations. International Journal of Management, 20(1), 23-37.
Griffin, D., Shaw, P., & Stacey, R. (1999). Knowing and Acting in Conditions of Uncertainty: A Complexity Perspective. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 12(3), 295-310. doi:10.1023/A:1022403802302
Keene, A. (2000). Complexity theory: the changing role of leadership. Industrial and Commercial Training, 32(1), 15-18.
The physical geology of the earth consists of a Core (inner and outer), the mantle, the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The lithosphere is the crust and upper mantle of the earth that is the hard and rigid layer in which humans live. This portion of the earth reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through erosion and weathering, resulting in the soil forming process (Johnson, 2006). These layers of the earth are constantly in motion, giving us the Plate Tectonics, or Continental Drift, theory. Briefly, the theory states that the continents move across the molten plate of the earth -- drifting over time based on the rotation of the earth. The early evidence for this, of course, was that the eastern part of South America and Western Part of Africa fit together quite well. However, studies after 1958 show that there are three major reasons why the "drift"…
Frankel, H. (2012). The Continental Drift Controversy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, R. (2006). Plate Tectonics -- Great Ideas in Science. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Company.
United States Geological Society. (2009). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved from:
he intersection determines the amount of investment in education / productivity factors by all individuals and institutions.
he major criticisms to the Neoclassical model come from the assumption competition holds, namely that individuals act to maximize profit in all scenarios; factor mobility is unlimited; marginal returns to labor don't increase with wage rates, and other simplifications which rarely hold true in the workforce. Nor are all workers the same to the firm (discrimination), and workers' productivity and labor supply decisions change at different wage levels. hen we have to consider frictional unemployment; information asymmetry; product substitution; any number of real constraints that complicate the pure "Marginal Demand for Labor" theory (Kaufman & Hotchkiss, 2000, p. 31).
he main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory…
The main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory where institution effects went ignored (New School n.d.). The more sociological approach recognizes 'market failures' of discrimination, collective bargaining and incorporation. Evidence surrounds us today in the form of monopolistic energy provision, embedded in every price on every shelf including wages, for example. One criticism on an Institutional line would be the persistence of poverty. If poverty is unwanted, either we allow poverty to persist, it is necessary for Neoclassical models to hold, or the model is flawed. The Institutional thread leads eventually via the London School to the modern "Post-Keynesian," "Behavioral," "Environmental," and other heterodox schools.
Comparing share of population to share of workforce for groups with a particular characteristic reveals discrimination if a group is underrepresented in a firm or industry. or, we identify where a category is overrepresented in the total labor market relative to other workers. If productivity is the same between groups, lower wages must be explained somehow. The heterodox perspective recognizes potential effects within the market, and before workers apply for a job. Some workers are less competitive than others before they apply, education being a common reason, which depends on access outside the workplace. Market discrimination enters the realm of individual aversion to classes of workers by the employer or other workers, usually over ethnicity, religion or gender, but any reason can provide empirical evidence if wage differentials persist.
Prejudice is real, and it results in lower wages for minorities (Kaufman & Hotchkiss 2000, p. 469). In the aggregate, equally
Big Bang vs. Six-Day Creation Theory
Man knows that the universe exists; however, his curiosity has not allowed him to dwell on this knowledge alone. Throughout his brief history on this planet, man has struggled to understand his "place in this universe, and furthermore, the place of the universe itself" (Laocco & othstein, n.d.). For ages, he has attempted to find answers on the age of the universe, as well as on the origins of matter and the greater universe. In his quest, man has moved from the mystical beginnings of earth's origin to the development of scientific theories, some of which have only made the subject more complex and intriguing. Man's continued interest in the subject has led to the emergence of two cadres of creationists - the young earth creationists, who posit that earth was created by a supernatural being, over a span of six days, thousands of…
Dean, D. (2003). Is the Truth Out There: A Journey through Critical Thinking that Spans Man's History, Origin, and Place in the Universe. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Landgraf, K. (2011). No Bones about It: The Truth about Fossils and Other Science Myths. Mustang, Oklahoma: Tate Publishing
LaRocco, C. & Rothstein, B. (n.d.). The Big Bang: It Sure was Big. University of Michigan. Retrieved 23 June 2014 from http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/bigbang.htm
Taylor, B. (2008). The Late Great Ape Debate. Santa Rosa, CA: Standard Publishing.
" (Magrid and McKelvey, 1990).
Although some analysts still toss around the question of nature vs. nurture, current research seems to be edging out nature and placing much more emphasis on nurture. Another notable expert who agrees with the author's premise is Benjamin B. Wolman. Wolman explores the foundations of deviant behavior in his widely-read book, "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide," and emphasizes nurture almost to the exclusion of nature, in explaining why sociopaths are more and more prevalent in our society. According to Wolman, "the way that parents rear their children can be crucial. Parental rejection can adversely affect their children's self-confidence and self-reliance. Undeniably, these children will feel neglected and unwanted if their parents are not affectionate and considerate. These children cannot however behave aggressively toward their parents as they fear that they might retaliate. Instead, they behave aggressively toward weak people who are unable…
Karr-Morse, Robin and Wiley, Meredith S., (1999). "Ghosts from the Nursery: Tracing the Roots of Violence" (1999). Chapter 2: Grand Central: Early Brain Anatomy and Violence. Pub Group West.
Magrid, Ken & McKelvey Carole a. (1990). "High Risk Children without a Conscience." Bantam, Doubleday, Dell.
Wolman, Benjamin B. (1999). "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide." Prometheus Books.
Military Theory: Jomini on Napoleon
The objective of this study is to use the Campaign of 1813 culminating in the battle of Leipzig and to identify and analyze both the critical points and decisive points that Antoine-Henri Jomini in his 'Principles of War' would have listed in relation to proper time and sufficient force and identify how many would be applied both positively and negatively to Napoleon's maneuvering and engaging.
The focus of Napoleon in the Campaign of 1813 was to launch such a mass attack on the enemy that they would be overcome and decimated. However, as this study will demonstrate, Napoleon missed chances to do just that and his poor planning and improper timing resulted in the losses of many thousands of lives that did not have to be lost. According to Jomini, the art of war is comprised by six specific parts including: (1) statesmanship…
Allen, BM (1998) The Effects of Infectious Disease on Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Air Command and Staff College, Air University. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA398046
Jomini on Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of Operations. [Excerpted from Antoine-Henri Jomini, The Art of War G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill, trs. (Philadelphia: Lippicott, 1892), pp. 85-92]. Retrieved from: http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/JominiSP.html
Keefe, JM (1995) Napoleon's Marshals in 1813. School of Advanced Military Studies. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First Term AY 94-95. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA293453
Nomura, RC (2012) Issues in strategic thought: from Clausewitz to al-Qaida. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL I. JOMINI VS. CLAUSEWITZ December 2012. Retrieved from: http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/bitstream/handle/10945/27881/12Dec_Nomura_Ryan.pdf?sequence=1
Interestingly enough, though, what is it that is so aesthetically pleasing that we want there to be a single theory of everything -- why does everything need to be explained in one fell swoop? This idea of a Theory of Everything is becoming more philiosophical than scientific. Aristotle and Plato were unsuccesful in their attempt to make a theory work, and Hawking said, in A Brief History of Time, that even if we had a Theory of Everything, it would necessarily be a large set of equations. "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"(Hawking in Fletcher, 2008, 196).
Now, though, Hawking has revised his views. In the new book, The Grand Design, Hawking and Mlodinow (Caltech physicist) argue that it is a set of equations that will, indeed, tie theories together, but that a final theory may never have a…
Fletcher, A. (2008). Life, the Universe and Everything: Investigating God and the New Physics. Denver, CO: Lulu Publishers.
Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010, September 27). The Elusive Theory of Everything. Retrieved October 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-elusive-thoery-of-everything
Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010). The Grand Design. New York: Bantam.
Pais, A. (1982). Subtle is the Lord.... The Science and Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she received a Master of Science in management.
Professionally speaking, Fiorina occupied various secretarial positions; she was also a teacher of English in Italy and a receptionist. Her fruitful career began in 1980 when she joined at&T, where after various positions, came to be the company's Senior Vice President. In 1999 she joined Hewlett-Packard as Chief Executive Officer, but was forced to leave in 2005. After her departure from HP, Fiorina engaged in personal and political actions, such as the edition of her book Tough Choices: A Memoir, or campaigning with presidential candidate John McCain (Jacoby, 2008).
Carly Fiorina possesses numerous skills which qualify her for the leader's position. First of all, she has extensive knowledge and expertise, backed…
Adams, K., 2009, McLaren Boss Retires, Classic and Performance Car, http://www.classicandperformancecar.com/news/octanenews/233620/ron_dennis.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009
Williams, R., December 22, 2007, Why Mosley is Happy with the Season that Had Everything, the Guardian
Wolff, a., June 12, 2007, 'Better than Sex' That's how Formula One Phenomenon Lewis Hamilton Described Winning His First Pole, Sports Illustrated
2007, the FIA's McLaren-Monaco Statement in Full, Formula 1 Website, http://www.formula1.com/news/headlines/2007/5/6178.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009
Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory
British Crime Survey (BCS) Review
The survey I reviewed is from primary research that provided a transcript for an interview, presumably to use in a face-to-face interview -- there are directions for showing cards to the respondents that give them a change to read response options and choices. Demographic data was collected at the beginning of the survey either to act as a screener or because it is essential to the data collection -- having this information at the start of the survey ensures that the interview will not conclude or be aborted without collecting this information. Demographic data tends to be categorized, which provides quantitative data analysis capability. A fairly consistent use of a 5-point Likert scale is used to record participants' responses. In other places, respondents are asked to choose from a list of distinct responses or simply answer yes or…
Personal Theory Paper
Since mid-1970s, a serious matter for integration between Christianity and psychology developed among Christian counsellors. The integration movement developed as a result of reaction to psychology being accepted in the sector dealing with pastoral counseling where it did not face any criticism from the Christians’ point of view. The efforts for integrating psychology with Christianity developed more energy in the last twenty years since the time when Jay Adams refused to have psychology included in the pastoral care sector (Kim, 2004). Attempting to create an integration in psychology with Christian faith is a tedious experience as a result of the different approaches of the two academic disciplines.
According to Alan C. Tjeltveit (2012), the daunting questions that come as a result of taking psychology as well as Christian faith in a serious manner have to be dealt with. The queries that come from the sectors in…
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…
(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).
Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).
The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
Dorothea Orem Nursing Theory
A theory is related concepts, and propositions used to guide a professional practice. Moreover, nursing theory serves as the interrelated concepts, predictive in nature, statement explanatory that assists in understanding the nursing phenomenon, which helps to explain and predict the nursing outcomes. Nursing theory is an organized body of knowledge used to explain the phenomena and supporting the nursing practice. Moreover, the nursing theory is defined as a set of definitions, concepts, assumptions, and relationships or propositions that are derived from the nursing model. However, the nursing theories consist of grand and middle-ranged theory. The middle ranged theory is the testable theory, limited in scope, limited in a variable, and used for the clinical research. More importantly, nursing theory serves as the body of knowledge that assists in carrying out the nursing research.
The objective of this study is to use the Dorothea Orem theory to…
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. Retrieved May 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/
Maria, O. (2015). Application of Dorothea Orem's Theory of Self-Care to the Elderly Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal 41(5): 495-498.
Roussel, L. (2013). Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators, Sixth Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Wong, C. L., Ip, W. Y., Choi, K. C., & Lam, L. W. (2015). Examining Self-Care Behaviors and Their Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls With Dysmenorrhea: An Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(3), 219-227. doi:10.1111/jnu.12134
Certainly, rhetoric lends itself to the discovery of truth, as truth (Aristotle suggests) always makes more intuitive and intellectual sense compared to falsehood, and so equally talented rhetoricians will be more convincing sharing the truth than sharing falsehood. However, critics have pointed out that there is so "tension between Aristotle's epistemological optimism and his attempt to come to terms with rhetoric as a culturally and contextually specific social institution.... [as Aristotle says] scientific discourse is concerned with instruction, but in the case of [certain audiences] instruction is impossible; our proofs and arguments must rest on generally accepted principles... rhetoric [is] something separate from and inferior to scientific and ethical deliberation." (Haskins, 2004, 13-14)
Aristotle's historical effect on rhetoric and its continued fallout
It may seem self-evident that arguments today would be based as much on logic and the greater good than on past authority and religious dogma. However, such an…
Abizadeh, Arash. (2002) "The passions of the wise: phronesis, rhetoric, and Aristotle's passionate practical deliberation." The Review of Metaphysics, v56 i2 p267(30)
Aristotle. (350 BCE) Rhetoric. Trans. Rhys Roberts. [MIT Classics Archive Database]
Haskins, Ekaterina V. (2004) "Endoxa, Epistemological Optimism, and Aristotle's Rhetorical Project" Philosophy and Rhetoric - Volume 37, Number 1, pp. 1-20. [Muse Project Database]
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
dialogue between theory and praxis has changed since the 60s.
Dialogue between Theory and Praxis since the 1960s
Jeff Koons is among the most controversial and intriguing artists to have emerged in the past decade. Like Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol before him, he is concerned with the transformation of everyday objects into art and takes such post-modern issues as high and low culture, context, and commodification of art as the central focus of his work (erger 1995).
From the November / December issue of At the Modern, the publication of the San Francisco MoMA, "It's the most important visual arts exhibition in San Francisco this year" (The San Francisco Examiner 1992).
Jeff Koons, the self-proclaimed "most written-about artist in the world," now headlining at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, has indubitably attained a certain "star" status. However, the Koons phenomenon - Koons himself, his objects, and the…
Berger, J. Ways of Seeing. New York: Viking Books, 1995.
Burger, P. "Avant-garde." Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. 185-189.
Debord, G. The Society of the Spectacle. Zone Books, 1994.
Marcus, G. Lipstick Traces. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.
The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.
Implication of the policy
The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…
Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd
Edition). Long Grove
Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,
NY: Prentice Hall
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…
Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Economics: Goods, eturns, & Applied Theory
There are a variety of good available on the market. Different goods serve different functions within a society's economy. In this brief paper, two types of goods will be discussed: normal goods and inferior goods. The paper will also make mention of the law of diminishing returns and will provide examples of each of the three topics. Finally, drawing directly from contemporary news, the paper will reflect upon an economic issue relating it to concepts recently acquired through the course content.
Contemporary News in Economics: Goods, eturns, & Applied Theory
As the market improves and more people generate greater quantities of income, there are certain products that people demand more because of the increase in their incomes. These are the items that are popular and that many people desire yet the price is just out of their economic means. Once these people generate…
Vega, T. (2012) Substantial Growth in Ads Is on the Way to FaceBook. The New York Times, Available from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/01/business/media/facebook-paves-way-for-huge-growth-in-advertising.html?ref=technology . 2012 February 29.
Nursing Handoff Communication
The delivery of patient care services is usually characterized by the involvement of various professionals in the healthcare team, especially nurses. In most cases, the delivery of care to patients involves various nurses with different functions at different stages in this process. Given the nature of their work, nurses transfer responsibility and authority of care to other nurses to help ensure continuity of care and promote patient safety. This implies that medical communication and competence plays an important role in the transfer of authority and responsibility of care from one nurse to another. This is primarily because nursing handoffs involves medical communication, which must be effective in order to enhance patient safety through ensuring continuity of care.
The theoretical framework for conducting this study on nursing handoffs is communication competence and medical communication behaviors. To this extent, the researcher assumes that nurses possess medical communication competence that…
Delrue, K.S. (2013, April). An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Nursing Handover Process for Emergency Department Admissions. Retrieved from Grand Valley State University website: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=dissertations
Streeter, A.C.R. (2010). What Nurses Say: Communication Behaviors Associated with the Competent Nursing Handoff. Retrieved from University of Kentucky website: http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=gradschool_diss
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
The holistic view of the human being (i.e. The patient) and the environment is in some ways an echo of the holistic nature of the theory itself, which quite consciously and explicitly attempted to develop a theory appropriate to all aspects and situations of nursing. Because the Science of Unitary Human Beings was developed essentially from the ground up in such a conscious and comprehensive manner, it would be practically impossible for internal inconsistencies to exist.
Just as the scope of ogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings is difficult to overstate, it is equally difficult to overestimate the impact that this theory has had on the field of nursing. Its contributions to both nursing practice and scholarship have been enormous, and as the theory continues to evolve and develop under the guidance of new scholars and practitioners its significance only grows (Butcher 2008). ogers was not the first…
Butcher, H. (2008). "Progress in the explanatory power of the science of unitary human beings." Visions, 15(2), pp. 23-36.
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Malinski, V. (2008). "Research diversity from the perspective of the science of unitary human beings." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 291-3.
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…
Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
In the pantheon of nursing theories, borrowed theories are those that derive from other disciplines and have been adapted to the nursing context. Many such borrowed theories come from the different social sciences, such as psychology or sociology, because they directly reflect critical issues in care such as human nature and the role of human interactions in well-being. One could apply religious theories to care for religious people, and it is possible even to consider things like motivational theories as well, if the nurse is trying to motivate the patient (for example, to change behavior as a means of changing health outcomes). Borrowed theories have perhaps received less study than either grand theories or mid-level theories, but they are nevertheless an important source of insight for the nursing educator, and it is important to understand the theory, where it comes from, and how it has been adapted to apply…
Villarruel, A., Bishop, T., Simpson, E., Jemmott, L. & Fawcett, J. (2001). Borrowed theories, shared theories and the advancement of nursing knowledge. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 14 (2) 158-163.
Zalenski, R. & Raspa, R. (2006). Maslow's hierarchy of needs: A framework for achieving human potential in hospice. Journal of Palliative Medicine. Vol. 9 (5) 1120-1127.
Zhan, L. (2000). Cognitive adaptation and self-consistency in hearing-impaired older persons: Testing Roy's adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 13 (2) 158-165.
isk analysis in disclosure cases also demonstrates that disclosure hazards are events that organizations repeat in cyclic patterns. Thus, to prevent violations and to accurately estimate the probability of an unauthorized disclosure, there are many opportunities to measure the abuses just as there are many opportunities to discover abuse on pregnant women.
Breaking the pattern of violence on pregnant women without help is very difficult and leaving home is not always a feasible or safe alternative. The high number of domestic murders for pregnant women demonstrates that leaving an abuser can be fatal. The abused is usually the only one in the world who truly knows if and when to go but that may be a time that is too late. But addressing the needs of the abused in regard to the HIPAA rules is possible.
Identify Antecedents And Consequences
Although pregnant and recently pregnant women are far more likely…
Domestic Violence in the United States. National Domestic Hotline. Retrieved on 21 Jan. 2005, from http://pages.ivillage.com/debi_1111/id30.html.
March of Dimes. (2000). Substance Abuse by Pregnancy Status. Retrieved January 21, 2005, at http://www.modimes.org/aboutus/1521.asp
McKenna, H.P. (1997). Nursing Models and Theories p. 144-146. London: Routledge.
Moller-Okin, Susan. (1999) "Is Multiculturalism Bad For Women?" In Okin et al., Is Multiculturalism Bad For Women? Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp 9-24
" (Health Care System, Canada, 2007)
V. THEORETICAL ASIS of OREM'S SELF-CARE MODEL
Social Learning Theory was developed by andura (1987, 1986) who held that behavior results from the individual's personal and environmental factors. It was stated in findings of a study reported by Hyndman et al. (1993) that there is a need to change the individual's environment in order to encourage positive health behavior and that there is a need to correct misperceptions about health. Training and development of skills is necessary in creation of new behaviors and in approaching solutions as well as are role models and self-efficacy. In Orem's conceptualization of health "the concept of wholeness, soundness and well-being are closely integrated." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Orem's definition of health includes "...psychological, interpersonal and social aspects of living as well as the commonly emphasized physical aspects." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Well-being has been associated with health in…
Goodwin, Marianne (1990) Is it Feasible for the Nursing Division at St. Vincent's Hospital to Adopt Dorothea Orem's Model of Nursing? Contents for the 1990 Nursing Monograph. Online available at http://www.ciap.health.nsw.gov.au/hospolic/stvincents/1990/a06.html
Hanucharurnkul, S. (2006) Nursing Knowledge Development: An Update. Online available at http://www.ra.mahidol.ac.th/rar/infor_research_rama/Annual%20Absrtract/MeetThai2006.pdf
Keeratiyutawong, P.; Hanucharurnkul, S.; Panpakdee, O.; and Melkus, G. (2006) a Self-Management Program for Improving Knowledge, Self-Care, Activities, Quality of Life, and Glycosylated HbA1c Among Thai Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Online available at
Clinical Problem: Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Settings
Mid-range nursing theories can be extremely useful in understanding specific clinical issues. These theories are less broad and all-encompassing than so-called grand theories of nursing such as Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and seek to offer a more technical and practical approach to applying theory in daily practice (Alligood, 2018). This paper will specifically examine the application of Kristen Swanson’s Theory of Caring to the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus living in rural settings without adequate access to healthcare. Virtually all nursing theories are composed of four essential core definitions, that of person, environment, health, and nursing itself. Swanson’s theory, however, specifically focuses on nursing, which Swanson defines as a very specific type of caring.
Although obesity is increasing across the nation, obesity is often particularly rife in rural settings with limited access to healthcare and healthy foods.…
(1958: 191) (Scott, 2003, p.50) Simon states that a hierarchy of goals is established in which each level is "...considered as an end relative to the levels below it and as a means relative to the levels above it. Through the hierarchical structure of ends, behavior attains integration and consistency, for each member of a set of behavior alternatives is then weighted in terms of a comprehensive scale of values -- the "ultimate" ends. (Simon, 1997: 74) "In addition to simplifying decisions for participants in all these ways, organizations also support participants in the decisions they are expected to make.
WEER'S THEORY of UREAUCRACY
DESCRIPTION of THEORY
Scott (2003) notes that it was observed by Collins (1986) that there is nothing "...known in the field of organizations, perhaps in all sociology, than Weber's model of bureaucracy. It also happens that there is no more complete misunderstanding of a major sociological…
Scott, W. Richard (2003) Organizations; Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Education - Theory
Addressing etention Issues in Community CollegesUsing Transition and Ecological/Environment Theory
Many community colleges face serious retention issues that affect student performance, persistence, and learning. The rationale employed in identifying alternative assessments involves overriding standardized test validities and predictive reliability issues. However, there are concerns regarding the derived holistic understanding among student outcomes. The goal of providing college educators through alternative supplemental approaches facilitate standardized testing of various evaluative measures as introduced. The issues of student self-assessment and social and value-added assessments, evaluations, and personal growth portfolios within community colleges had increased. The design suggests an institution of the writing and implementation of parallel outcomes in the studies are linked to different fundamental questions serving as subjects of confirm relevance to campus dynamics and student success.
The levels involved in making the students leave or stay are informative points on student engagement. This includes social and academic connection…
Braxton, J.M., & Doyle, W.R. (2013). Rethinking College Student Retention. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. International Encyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, 2nd ed., 131-214.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.
Forney, E., & DiBrito, G. (1998).Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. pp. 111-114.