Grand Theory Essays (Examples)

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Grand or Mid Range Theory

Words: 3055 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90388700

ange Theory

MID ANGE THEOY OF SPIITUAL WELL BEING

Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness

Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.

History of Theory Development in Nursing

The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…… [Read More]

References

Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic

Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.

Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.

Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.
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Grand Strategy and Theory There

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83503880



With the widening of economic interdependence and spread of democratic norms, liberalism envisions a slow journey away from the realists' vision. Liberalists do not view a state as a single actor in war, but rather as a coalition of coalitions that is representing different individuals and groups. Limitations of state power, rule of law, transparency of democratic and government processes will make it easier for the sustenance of international cooperation.

In terms of security, liberalists differ from realists as they not only view it in military terms, but also as the promotion and protection of individual rights. In the fight on terrorism, the liberal approach would emphasize on application of legal instruments instead of military force. The liberal approach to the United States war on terrorism would involve issues like organized crime and its potential for creating terrorists.

This would be in contrast to the realist approach of force on…… [Read More]

References

Drezner, Daniel W. "Does Obama Have a Grand Strategy? Why We Need Doctrines in
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Grand Jury Needed

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23664261

Grand Jury: Needed or Not?

The United States is the only common law jurisdiction in the world that still uses the grand jury for purposes of screening criminal indictments. The grand jury issues an indictment for crime only if based on the evidence that has been presented it finds that there is a probable cause for one to believe that a crime has been committed by the suspect .this is unlike a petit jury that only resolves a specific type of criminal or civil cases, a grand jury serves as a group for a particular period of time in all or many cases that come up in the jurisdiction which is under the supervision of the federal; state attorney, a court district attorney or even a state general attorney and listens to the evidence without having suspect or person of interest being involved in the proceedings (Leipold, 2005).

The question…… [Read More]

References

Leipold, A.D., (2005). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from  http://www.freedomlaw.com/archives/oldsite/GRANDJRY.html 

Farlex, Inc., (2014). Grand Jury. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from  http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Grand+jury
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Grand Juries the Purpose of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77304092

Moreover, because of the secrecy surrounding the grand jury system, there is a very real concern that a defendant may not have the opportunity to actually confront his accusers. While improper evidence may not come in at trial, it is a fallacy to assume that simply protecting someone from conviction is protecting him or her from all of the possible negative effects of an improper indictment. The very real time, expense, and risk of trial means that even an actually innocent person who is indicted may consider a plea bargain rather than face the risk of trial.

While there is some merit to the idea that grand juries listen to prosecutors, individual grand juries behave in different manners. Some of them simply act as rubber stamps for prosecutors, while other grand juries more carefully consider the charges before them. However, the secrecy surrounding the proceedings makes it difficult to know…… [Read More]

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Range Theory Nursing If Accepts Premise Grand

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24736764

range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge .

There is an emphasis at present on the development and use of mid-range theory in nursing. If one accepts the premise that grand theories of nursing are no longer necessary, what are the implications for nursing education, practice, and research?

Nursing theories can be classified in many different ways, but one of the most common methods is to group them into grand and middle range theories. A grand theory "provides a conceptual framework under which the key concepts and principles of the discipline can be identified," while, in contrast, a "middle range theory is more precise and only analyzes a particular situation with a limited number of variables" (Nursing theories: An overview, 2011, Nursing Theories). Mid-range theories of nursing do not attempt to…… [Read More]

References

Entry-to-practice competencies. (2011). College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta.

Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://www.nurses.ab.ca/Carna-Admin/Uploads/Entry-to-Practice%20Competencies.pdf

Is nursing theory important? (2099). All Nurses. Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://allnurses.com/general-nursing-discussion/nursing-theory-important-406192-page4.html

Kennedy, Shawn. (2009). New nurses face reality shock in hospital setting. AJN.
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Middle Range Theory

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92092960

Range Nursing Theory

A clinical nurse is generally involved with specialized research; for example, a clinical nurse specializing in oncology would likely be heavily involved in the treatment of patients with cancer, according to Andrea Santiago. That clinical nurse specialist (CNS) working with cancer patients may also create helpful protocols or other strategies to improve the delivery of services in a hospital (Santiago, 2013). This paper delves into the reasons why the CNS can (and will) benefit from the use of the middle range theory.

hat are middle range theories?

Judy Davidson (RN, DNP, CNS) explains that middle range theories are designed to "guide practice" for nurses (including clinical nurse specialists) and are "more focused than grand theories" because they zero in on a "single aspect of practice" and are not as general as grand theories (Davidson, 2010, p. 28). Moreover, because grand theories only offer a framework in terms…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andershed, Birgitta, and Olsson, Kristina. (2009). Review of research related to Kristin

Swanson's middle-range theory of caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23(3),

598-610.

Davidson, Judy E. (2010). Facilitated Sensemaking: A Strategy and New Middle-Range Theory
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Medical Theory Ever Since the

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24024442

As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.

Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.

Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.

Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.
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Nursing Theory Imogene King

Words: 7913 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41921604

Nursing Theory Analysis

Theory-based nursing is the phenomenon that has been researched much during the past two decades. Nursing theory has become the foundation for nursing practice with its own knowledge base. The current paper is an analysis of King's theory of goal attainment. King acquired her goal attainment theory model from an interpersonal system and a behavioral science. The nurse and patient communicate to achieve a common goal of patient satisfaction and better health outcomes. To achieve this goal, there is a need for nurses to explore patients' perceptions and expectations. It has been found in research that patients' satisfaction with healthcare is strongly linked to their satisfaction with nursing care. King attained that if the nurse is aware of patients' expectations of care that they can achieve the goal of patients' satisfaction. This theory is also applicable in the nursing education program for those nursing students having poor…… [Read More]

References

Abramowitz, S., Cote, A.A., & Berry, E. (1987). Analyzing patient satisfaction: a multianalytic approach. QRB. Quality Review Bullenin, 4, 122-130.

Ahmad, M.M., & Alasad, J.A. (2004, October). Predictors of patients' experiences of nursing care in medical-surgical wards. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 10(5), 235-241.

American Nurses Association . (2005). Utilization guide for the ANA principles for nurse staffing (). Retrieved from Nursing World Organization website: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/NursingStandards/ANAPrinciples/UtilizationGuide.aspx

American Nurses Association. (1983). Standards of school nursing practice. In Standards of school nursing practice (p. 3).Scarborough, MD: National Association of School Nurses
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Watson's Nursing Caring Theory the

Words: 3295 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16302880

Jean Watson and in reality "belonging becomes an ethic in itself and guides how we sustain our being in the world." Dr. Watson emphasizes the fact that the practices of nursing have experienced evolution and this has allowed certain distortions in the nursing practices. Dr. Watson brings to attention 'Palmer's epistemology as ethics' yet the epistemology, in the view of Palmer to be 'informed by cosmology' has great power in that it may either "form of deform the human soul" and thereby also form or deform the nurse's "way of being/becoming more human and humane (Palmer 1993; as cited by Watson, 2005)

III. rief Analysis of Watson's Caring Mode

The model of caring in nursing model as proposed by Dr. Jean Watson is one that is fairly simplistic in nature that has as its key concepts the factors of love, kindness and empathy. In making an identification of the applications…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Levinas, E. (2000) Totality and Infinity. Pittsburgh, PA; Duqesne University Press (Original work published in 1969)

Fawcett, Jacqueline (2005) Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and Theories. Davis Company, Philadelphia. Online available at http://www.fadavis.com/related_resources/1_2042_618.pdf

Watson, J. (2005b) What, May I Ask is Happening to Nursing Knowledge and Professional Practices? What is Nursing Thinking at this Turn in Human History? Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14.

Palmer, P. (1987). Community, conflict and ways of knowing. Magazine for Higher Learning, 19, 20-25.
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Role of Theory and Philosophy

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70782494

nursing is both a discipline and a profession

All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.

Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)

The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing

Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.

Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.

Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson. (2008). Understanding Philosophical Inquiry in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 115-121.

Dr Sharon L. Van Sell, Ioannis a Kalofissudis. (2002). A Complexity Nursing Theory.
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Grounded Theory Examining a Specific

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Still, they published their theory in a coauthored work and there were not large differences in the overall theory at this point (Hart & Gregor 2005).

As the two scholars' careers diverged, however, they continued to develop their thinking on grounded theory independently from each other. What has become known as the Glaserian approach (developed, of course, by Barney Glaser) stresses the non-prescriptive nature of inquiries that occur utilizing grounded theory, with much broader categories of conceptualizations inherent to this version of the theory (Hart & Gregor 2005). Glaser also asserted that rigorous verification methods, such as might be more typical in the traditional scientific method, were suitably applied only to a very few of the central theoretical hypotheses that developed in the course of a grounded theory inquiry, which was another aspect of the Glaserian grounded theory that makes it more open to adjustment from the observations themselves and…… [Read More]

References

Borgatti, S. (2010). "Introduction to grounded theory." Accessed 6 November 2010.  http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm 

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: a practical guide. London: Sage.

Dick, B. (2005). "Grounded theory: a thumbnail sketch." Accessed 6 November 2010. http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html

Hart, D. & Gregor, S. (2005). Information systems foundations constructing and criticizing. Accessed 6 November 2010. http://epress.anu.edu.au/info_systems/mobile_devices/index.html
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Nursing Theory Applicable in the 21st Century

Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11380990

ange Theory in Nursing

The credibility of a profession is mainly based on the professional's ability to create and apply the appropriate theory. Theories are notions or concepts used for inferring observations, elucidating experiences, and unfolding relationships of project results. Theories are derived from conceptual models. The main function of a theory is to narrow and fully specify the phenomena that is contained in the conceptual model. The theory should also provide a relatively concrete and specific structure for interpreting the initially puzzling situations, behavior, and events. A nursing theory is defined as a set of concepts, relationships, definitions, and assumptions that are derived from nursing models and project a systematic view of phenomena by designing particular inter-relationships among concepts with the purpose of explaining, describing, predicting, and prescribing. Theories are derived using either deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning (Smith & Liehr, 2013). Nurses make use of various theories in…… [Read More]

References

Davydov, M. (2014). Middle-Range Theory for Nursing. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 30(6), 316.

Fawcett, J. (2005). Middle range nursing theories are necessary for the advancement of the discipline. Aquichan, 5(1), 32-43.

Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 185-195.

Lenz, E. R., Pugh, L. C., Milligan, R. A., Gift, A., & Suppe, F. (1997). The middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms: an update. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(3), 14-27.
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Orem S Self Care Theory and the Movie Awakenings

Words: 1615 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59906186

Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory

There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Orem's self-care deficit theory. This theory is predicated a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problems is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action. The movie Awakenings can be used as an example of how this can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions.

Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory

Dorothea Orem was a staff nurse, and later moved onto educational positions within nursing. She developed her concept of self-care deficit theory to explain nursing in terms of a key interpersonal relationship between nurse and patient, where the nurse helps the patient to take care of him/herself. The underlying assumptions are that the patient is a distinct individual, and should be self-reliant. It…… [Read More]

References

CurrentNursing.com (2016). Nursing theories: Dorothea Orem's Self-care deficit theory. Nursing Theories.com. Retrieved April 7, 2016 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html

Parkes, W., Lasker, L. & Marshall, P. (1990) Awakenings (motion picture) United States: Lasker/Parkes Productions/Columbia Pictures.

Rhodes, V., Watson, P., Hanson, B. (1988) Patients' descriptions of the influence of tiredness and weakness on self-care abilities. Cancer Nursing. Vol. 11 (3) 186-194
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Orem S Self Care Theory and the Movie Awakenings

Words: 1873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29533031

Nursing Theory

Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory to Awakenings

There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT). This theory has established a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problem is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action (CurrentNursing.com, 2012). The movie Awakenings (Parkes, Lasker & Marshall, 1990) can be used as an example of how this theory can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions. The focus here will be on the scene where the patients awakened. Dr. Sayer was present, as was the nurse manager and a staff nurse. At this point, there is a transition in the type of care that needs to be provided to the patients from wholly compensatory to partially compensatory.…… [Read More]

References

CurrentNursing.com (2012). Nursing theories: Dorothea Orem's Self-care deficit theory. Nursing Theories.com. Retrieved April 7, 2016 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html

Geyer, N., Mogotlane, S. M., & Young, A. (2009). Juta's manual of nursing. Lansdowne, SA: Juta.

Parkes, W. (Producer), Lasker, L. (Producer) & Marshall, P. (Director). (1990). Awakenings (motion picture) United States: Lasker/Parkes Productions/Columbia Pictures

Rice, R. (2006). Home care nursing practice: Concepts and application. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
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Grand Strategy Liberalism and How

Words: 1893 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46507194



Consistency, coupled by approval generates legitimacy. A government system is only legitimate if it receives the support of plural citizens. Therefore, a good example is Hosni Mubarak's one party, which was illegitimate. Any policy enjoying the majority approval of the citizens is said to be a legitimate policy. In this context, the United States invasion into Iraq has been perceived as illegitimate. This is not because many citizens of Iraq disapproved the policy but also due to the fact that majority of the Arabs recorded substantial support. As the global military utility continues to decline, a country perceived as consistent and legitimate will encounter minimal resistance from the new Arab world while the U.S. continues to execute its policies.

The occurrence of the Second World War is reflected from the relations between the American grand strategy and the initial existence of the realism, constructivism, and liberalism. Moreover, it is evident…… [Read More]

Reference List

Betts, Richard K. Is Strategy an Illusion?

International Security 25, no. 2 (2000): 5-50.

Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons, 2012.

Gray, Colin. Why Strategy is Difficult. Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1999, 6-12.
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Theory About Something but Not Many People

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23534994

theory about something, but not many people realize exactly what defines a theory. While there are as many definitions of a "theory," "generally speaking, a theory is an abstract system of concepts with indications of the relationships among these concepts that help us understand a phenomenon." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") When discussing a theory, it is important to understand that the application of a theory is dependent upon the level of generality. For instance, a theory about communications can apply to the all humans in general, or a specific group of people, or just very specific people in specific circumstances. But whether the theory is "Grand," "Mid-Level," or "Narrow," it must contain a number of specific goals which "can include explanation, understanding, prediction, and social change…." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Theories attempt to explain certain phenomena, then based on patterns recognized by the theory, predict something, and finally can cause social change…… [Read More]

References

"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida

State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-

hill.com/hm.tpx?_=0.7114620032315365_1347227828446
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Theory of Nursing

Words: 2135 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88861122

Nursing Theory

One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…… [Read More]

References

Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner

Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).

Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.

McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from  http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
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Theories of Criminal Justice

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73487615

CIME

Criminal Justice System

Crime and the law

Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person…… [Read More]

References

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th

ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:

Curriculum Technology.
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Nursing Theory Middle Range Theory

Words: 2277 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98474698

The respondents who step out to be part of the research process should be protected from any unwanted intrusion or any other form of personal or group harassment (Smith & Liehr, 2008).

It is formal to have and conduct nursing research according to the set ethical frameworks where the entire review of the proposal will be undertaken. Whether to be undertaken by the staff or students, this research should be subjected to ethical approvals, which will make sure that the research, proposal is directed at serving the nursing school dream and intentions. Using the Middle range theory, the nursing problems and challenges will be solved in various ways as follows (Smith & Liehr, 2003).

All the nursing researchers and educators, being the staff members, must have respect upon the dignity, interests, and rights of the nursing students and other staff members related and participating in practical and theoretical learning.

Any…… [Read More]

References

Basford, L., & Slevin, O. (2003). Theory and practice of nursing: An integrated approach to patient care. Cheltenham, U.K: Nelson Thornes.

Fitzpatrick, J.J., & Kazer, M.W. (2012). Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York:

Springer Pub.

Meleis, a.I. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters
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Christian Personal Christian Theory of

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17212565



Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.

Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .

Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .

Anderson, T.N. (1990). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings and Habitual Sins. . Boston: House Publishers, Inc.

Backus, W.C. (1980). Telling Yourself the Truth: Find Your Way Out of Depression, Anxiety, Fear, Anger and Other Common Problems by Applying the Priciples of Misbelief Therapy . Grand Rapids: Bethany Publishing Group.
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Nursing Theory Discuss Several Aspects of Professional

Words: 3198 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38976507

Nursing Theory

"Discuss several aspects of professional communication as it relates to the use of language in terms of form (e.g., clarity, accuracy) and content (culture and/or ethics)." (Question, 2014, p1).

Communication is the reciprocal process where messages are received and sent between two or more individuals. Communication involves exchange of ideas, or opinion, which could be in form oral or written form. On the other hand, communication involves a series of information or message that people send out or receive using senses such as touching, seeing and hearing. However, professional communication is a basic tool in the professional practice, and a professional communication is a formal relationship that must follow certain rules and norms in order to make it more impressive and readable by another person. Typically, quality of communication is very critical in enhancing clarity and accuracy of communication system. While the professional communication system is generally based…… [Read More]

Reference

Alligood M.R, Tomey, A.M. (2002). Nursing Theory: Utilization & Application .(3rd ed). Missouri: Elsevier Mosby Publications.

AMN Healthcare Education (2012).Professional Communication: Speak Up, Speak Well. AMN Healthcare Education Services.

Butts, J.B (2008). Ethics in Professional Nursing Practice. Chicago, Jones & Bartlett .

Croyle, R.T. (2005). Theory at a Glance: Application to Health Promotion and Health Behavior (Second Edition). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
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Christian Counseling Theories Christian Authors Present the

Words: 1408 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33660140

Christian Counseling Theories

Christian authors present the very unique set of principles and strategies aiming at helping empower individuals going through counseling. Examining Christian literature and theory illustrates clear assumptions that different authors share, yet also pulled out some clear differences as well. For example, Backus and Chapain (2000) present fluidity, while Adams (1986) suggests Scripture. Still, these authors do all show that the word of God is a crucial element to the spiritual healing needed in modern counseling.

Backus and Chapain (2000) present a very simple, that individuals are plagued with discomfort and unhappiness because they think incorrectly. Essentially, when one does not think the proper manner, negative results come from it. Thus, ill-natured thoughts lead to anxiety, unhappiness, and depression, all of which are the main causes for people seeking counseling in a modern context. In order to combat these ill thoughts, Backus and Chapain present when is…… [Read More]

References

Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.

Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
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String Theory the Fundamental Forces

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81433491

This implies we live in a universe "in which six of the space dimensions have been collapsed or curled up in themselves." (Tipler 650). Since all of these dimensions are believed to be of the order of the Planck length they cannot be seen by any common experimental procedures currently in practice today.

Despite the attractiveness of string theory its utilization of large numbers of space dimensions raises many important questions regarding the formation of the universe, and questions about the possibility of ever verifying it in the lab. Considering the fact that many aspects of physics depend upon the existence of only three spatial dimensions, this might suggest that "three" is a deep principle within nature. Somehow, physics might demand that three dimensions of space grow infinitely while the others collapse on themselves; then again, the creation of our universe may have been utterly accidental in its outcome.

Clearly,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrow, John D. The Origin of the Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Calle, Carlos I. Superstrings and Other Things. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics, 2001.

Davies, Paul and John Gribbin. The Matter Myth. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

Filkin, David. Stephen Hawking's Universe. New York: Perseus, 1997.
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Clinical Theory Practice of the

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13460142



Concisely, Comfort results when an individual keeps of negative or unhealthy living and sticks to positive and healthy living. Comfort has been associated with positive institutional outcomes that include patient satisfaction. The outcome of Comfort is therefore one of the most important indicator of measuring success in nursing practice particularly for patients and families going through some tough or stressful healthcare conditions.

Benefits of the Comfort theory to the Clinical Nurses of the 21st Century

Comfort theory is an important theory that is applicable to the 21st Century clinical practice because of its many inherent benefits or advantages. This theory defines the working environment for healthcare practitioners while at the same time it charts the direction for improving the services offered by the clinical nurses. The universality of the language and concepts used in presenting the theory also promotes its wide acceptance. The simplicity of the tenets of the Comfort…… [Read More]

References

Kolcaba, K. (2003) Comfort Theory and Practice: A Vision for Holistic Health Care and Kolcaba, K.Y. (1994). A theory of holistic Comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(6), 1178-1184.

Kolcaba, K., & DiMarco, M.A. (2005). Comfort Theory and its application to pediatric nursing. Pediatric Nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Magyrary, D. (2002) Positive mental health: a turn of the century perspective. Issues of Mental Health Nursing, 23, 331-349

Malinowski, a., & Stamler, L.L. (2002). Comfort: exploration of the concept in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 599-606.
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Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation Any Theory

Words: 2664 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53620833

Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation

Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.

Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…… [Read More]

References

Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.

Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.

Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html

Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
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Truth Concise Summary of Theory Christian Counseling

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61375719

Truth

Concise Summary of Theory

Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.

The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.

Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…… [Read More]

References

Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
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Conceptual Framework for Studying HIV in the US and Canada

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59617741

GAND THEOY: HIV IN MINOITY POPULATION

Introduction of the Framework

The conceptual framework used in the article is the Grand theory framework. The idea of using grand theory in this article is based on the aspect of the set of abstract ideas that together bring about a broad statement concerning human beings, the health, nursing, and the environment. Grand theory represents a broader scope of ideas in carrying out any form of study. The theory encompasses some concepts together with propositions with less abstract nature and generality unlike the concepts and propositions linked with the conceptual model. Nonetheless, even with such a perception, the model has not involved more concrete propositions and concepts like the middle-range theory (Olivia et al., 2013). The theory has been used by the study in this article in place of a conceptual model, which serves as a guide for carrying out research.

The article titled…… [Read More]

References

In Smith, M. C., & In Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories & nursing practice. New York: Routledge

Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2016). Advancing your career: Concepts of professional nursing. New York: Routledge

Olivia Carter-Pokras, Tabatha Offutt-Powell, Jay S. Kaufman, Wayne Giles, and Vickie Mays. (2013). Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities. Ann Epidemiol. 2012 Jun; 22(6): 446-455. Doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.04.018

Smith, M. J., & Liehr, P. R. (2014). Middle range theory for nursing. New York: Springer.
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Nursing Theory Applications in Nursing Theory and

Words: 4440 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78758413

Nursing Theory

Applications in Nursing

Nursing Theory and its Applications

In this paper, we will assess a grand nursing theory namely the Humanistic Model. First let's have a brief introduction regarding this theory. The nursing theories either grand or middle range give organization in expressing statements which are related to questions in the field of nursing. It also gives nurses the opportunity in describing, predicting, explaining and controlling different sorts of activities which are relative to their daily practice. Nursing theories regarding the humanistic model believe on the phenomena that patients hold the key potential in self-actualization which can be used in many healthy as well as creative ways. Here, the focus of the humanists lie in the belief that nursing care is basically two-way interaction which occurs between patients and the nurse, the outcomes of this relation are influenced by both of their actions.

Firstly, let's have a look…… [Read More]

References

McKenna, H. (1997). Nursing Theories and Models. London: Routledge.

Kelly, Y. (2002). The Nursing Experience. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Daly, J. (2005). Professional Nursing. New York: Springer.

Traynor, M. (1999). Managerialism and Nursing. London: Routledge.
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Orem's Theory of Self-Care Deficit

Words: 3089 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90083470

In reaction, diabetes research looks into pharmacological options and changes in lifestyle to contain the trend. Recent findings point to the need for healthcare professionals to empower diabetes sufferers to take recourse in self-management as the best option at the moment (Kumar).

The purposefulness of a plan and its implementation in assisting a client with diabetes helped fill in her self-care deficit (Kumar 2007). The interpersonal relationship between a nurse and her client minimizes the stress experienced by the latter and her family. This enables the client or patient and her family to act more responsibly in health matters. An assessment and plan of care may use Orem's client-related concepts -- of self-care, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand and self-care deficit --, the concepts of nursing agency and nursing system and the basic conditioning factors. Integrating these concepts into other theories on health promotion and family systems may guide effective…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aldridge, V. (2005). Self-monitoring of blood, glucose invaluable in managing diabetes. 3 pages. Journal of Diabetes Nursing: SB Communications. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOMDR/is_10_9/ai_n27865119?tag=content;col1

Aliha, J.M., et al. (2006). Relation between self-care behavior and self-care needs in patients with heart failure.2 pages. Southern African Journal of Critical Care: South African Medical Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/article/mi_6870/is_1_23/ai_n28450856?tag=content;col1

Bruce, E., et al. (2008). Dorothea Orem's theory of self-care. 38 pages. SlideShare, Inc. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at  http://www.slideshare.net/jben501/dorothea-orem-theory 

Cook, a., et al. (2006). Self-care needs of caregivers dealing with stroke. 9 pages.
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Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality Compared to

Words: 2886 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4005352

Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?

Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Carl ogers

Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…… [Read More]

References

Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging

Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.

DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.

Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
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Ethics Position - Nae Grand

Words: 2346 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17244654

The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).

Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in estern countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Martin, M.W. And Schinzinger, R. Ethics in Engineering, 2d Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.

Brantley, C.J. Survey of Ethics Code Provisions by Subject-Matter Area, American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, D.C., 2009.

Doyle, Thomas E. The Moral Implications of the Subversion of the Nonproliferation Treaty Regime, Ethics and Global Politics 2, no. 2. 2009.

Ferguson, Charles D. The Long Road to Zero: Overcoming the Obstacles to a Nuclear-Free World, Foreign Affairs 89, no. 1. January/February 2010.
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Nursing Theory The Nursing Field Is a

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12270682

Nursing Theory:

The nursing field is a practice discipline where the learning of students incorporates the capability to apply theory during the provision of care to patients. However, the use of theory in nursing practice requires an understanding of the abstract and the mechanism of applying the abstract to practice. Therefore, the use of theory in nursing practice is not only a challenging but also appropriate experience in developing new nursing programs. One of the major goals of planning for a new undergraduate nursing program is to develop way with which the nursing students can establish care practices that focus on the human reaction to illness.

Since theory is an important aspect of educational programs in nursing, the new undergraduate nursing program will incorporate middle-range theory into the curriculum. Middle range theory can be described as a series of related ideas that are directed towards a restricted dimension of the…… [Read More]

References:

Carpenter, R. (2010, February). Using Story Theory to Create an Innovative Honors Level

Nursing Course. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(1), 28-32.

McMahon, M.A. & Christopher, K.A. (2011, April). Toward a Mid-range Theory of Nursing

Presence. Nursing Forum, 46(2), 71-82.
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Cyndi Banks' Criminal Justice Ethics Theory and

Words: 1049 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24300420

Cyndi Banks' Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice

No serious-minded individual over the age of twelve actually thinks that justice and ethical issues involved in criminality are purely black-and-white or clear-cut issues of good and bad. The first chapters of Cyndi Banks' (2008) Criminal Justice Ethics, however, make it clear that the issues of right and wrong in the criminal justice system are far more complex, specific, and subtle than one might have guessed, even when grand and overarching principles serve as the ultimate source for the ethical considerations in a criminal justice case. Especially when supplemented by additional research regarding the workings of the criminal justice system and the application of ethics in cranial justice decisions and policies, the first chapters of this book have a profound effect in shaping an awareness of such considerations.

The Importance of Ethics

One of the most profound impacts the first chapter of…… [Read More]

References

Banks, C. (2008). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chin, G. (2002). Race, the War on Drugs, and the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction. Journal of Gender, Race, & Justice 6: 253.

Easton, M., Den Boer, M., Janssens, J. Moelker, R. & Vanderbeken, T. (2010). Blurring Police and Military Roles. Berlin: Hogent.
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Miller Evolution Miller's Theory of

Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28820253

As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.

Chapter 6: The orld That Knew e ere Coming

Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).

Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.
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Magic Bullet Theory

Words: 3545 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74196382

magic bullet theory" -- sometimes called the hypodermic needle theory -- holds that when recipients of broadcasted information are separated from one another they are extremely susceptible to the messages that they are receiving; theses messages can drastically influence their opinions as well as their perceptions of reality. "Agenda setting scholars corroborate the fact that our dependence on the media for news and information has shaped and reinforced our perceptions of the world around us. The mass media continue to set the news agenda for dominant events, issues and policies that subsequently become popular in our social discourse."

It is a theory regarding the nature by which information influences its receivers and is generally only accurate under a specific set of circumstances. Overall, the magic bullet theory cannot be utilized as a comprehensive model for the mass media because it ignores a number of characteristics inherent to human nature. The…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

1. Alozie, Emmanuel C. (2003). Global Media Journal, volume 2, issue 5.

2. Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.

3. Gehman, Gary L. (1999). "About Magic Bullet Communications." Magic Bullet Communications, Oct. 10.

4. Holtzman, Linda. (2000). Media Messages. New York: M.E. Sharp.
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Thomas Kuhn's Paradigm Theory

Words: 2840 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67219198

Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) was an American scientist, historian and philosopher who wrote a controversial book in 1962 called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn was born in Cincinnati, Ohio and from an early age expressed interest in science, particularly physics; obtaining his BS degree in physics from Harvard in 1943. He stayed at Harvard for his MS and PhD, and credits the period of the late 1940s in helping him develop his views on the history and philosophy of science. He taught at Berkeley until 1964, and then moved to Princeton from 1964 to 1979, moving to MIT until 1991. Kuhn died in 1996 from lung cancer, but left a long tradition of scientific articles, books and student input (Fuller, 2000)

This book introduced the term "paradigm shift" and made several claims surrounding the manner in which we understand scientific knowledge, process that knowledge, and use that knowledge to come…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains. (2011, June). Retrieved from nwlink.com:  http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html 

Fuller, S. (2000). ThomasKuhn: A Philosophical History From Our Time.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Gould, S. (2007, March). Puntuated Equilibrium. Retrieved from PBS.org:
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Understanding Nursing Theory

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65561219

Nursing Theory -- oy Adaptation Model

The oy Adaptation Model is one of the most commonly cited and used options when it comes to nursing theories. It has been in existence since 1976, and has had a number of years to be adjusted and changed to work with the adjustments that have occurred in the field of nursing over time (Alligood, 2011). Being able to adapt and change is a very important part of nursing, because all patients are different. Additionally, treatments and medications change rapidly, and that can be difficult to keep up with if a nurse is not focused on adapting his or her style and beliefs to the changing nature of medicine. Here, the importance of nursing theory will be explored, along with the key points that are used in the oy Adaptation Model. The views and ideas that the model provides when it comes to nursing…… [Read More]

References

Alligood, M.R. (2011). The power of theoretical knowledge. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 304-305.

Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2013). Essentials of nursing research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Roy, C. (2011). Extending the Roy adaptation model to meet changing global needs. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 345-351.

Roy, C. (2011). Research based on the Roy Adaptation Model last 25 years. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 312-320.
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Organization Development and Complexity Theory

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27582047

Businesses constantly face the need to update, the need to innovate. With these businesses come its leaders who feel the same bombardment at all levels. The speed at which change arises causes the lifecycles of typical businesses and the products they sell to last just a short time unless they learn to successfully adapt. As Keen (2000), explains: "Change is seen as necessary merely to survive; transformation is required to thrive and a constant need for reinvention is needed to secure long-term success (Keene, 2000, p. 15). In order to meet those demands, sometimes businesses may use a method or theory to help them.

Complexity science is a recently examined field of study. It is fast-growing, in use across all dimensions of business. Complexity science is a term typically used to signify an increasing body of interdisciplinary studies about the structure, behaviour and dynamics of change in a particular category…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, P. (1999). Perspective: Complexity Theory and Organization Science. Organization Science, 10(3). doi:10.1287/orsc.10.3.216

Dolan, S.L., Garcia, S., & Auerbach, A. (2003). Understanding and Managing Chaos in Organisations. International Journal of Management, 20(1), 23-37.

Griffin, D., Shaw, P., & Stacey, R. (1999). Knowing and Acting in Conditions of Uncertainty: A Complexity Perspective. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 12(3), 295-310. doi:10.1023/A:1022403802302

Keene, A. (2000). Complexity theory: the changing role of leadership. Industrial and Commercial Training, 32(1), 15-18.
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Labor Econ the Theory of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48080519

he intersection determines the amount of investment in education / productivity factors by all individuals and institutions.

he major criticisms to the Neoclassical model come from the assumption competition holds, namely that individuals act to maximize profit in all scenarios; factor mobility is unlimited; marginal returns to labor don't increase with wage rates, and other simplifications which rarely hold true in the workforce. Nor are all workers the same to the firm (discrimination), and workers' productivity and labor supply decisions change at different wage levels. hen we have to consider frictional unemployment; information asymmetry; product substitution; any number of real constraints that complicate the pure "Marginal Demand for Labor" theory (Kaufman & Hotchkiss, 2000, p. 31).

he main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory…… [Read More]

The main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory where institution effects went ignored (New School n.d.). The more sociological approach recognizes 'market failures' of discrimination, collective bargaining and incorporation. Evidence surrounds us today in the form of monopolistic energy provision, embedded in every price on every shelf including wages, for example. One criticism on an Institutional line would be the persistence of poverty. If poverty is unwanted, either we allow poverty to persist, it is necessary for Neoclassical models to hold, or the model is flawed. The Institutional thread leads eventually via the London School to the modern "Post-Keynesian," "Behavioral," "Environmental," and other heterodox schools.

Comparing share of population to share of workforce for groups with a particular characteristic reveals discrimination if a group is underrepresented in a firm or industry. or, we identify where a category is overrepresented in the total labor market relative to other workers. If productivity is the same between groups, lower wages must be explained somehow. The heterodox perspective recognizes potential effects within the market, and before workers apply for a job. Some workers are less competitive than others before they apply, education being a common reason, which depends on access outside the workplace. Market discrimination enters the realm of individual aversion to classes of workers by the employer or other workers, usually over ethnicity, religion or gender, but any reason can provide empirical evidence if wage differentials persist.

Prejudice is real, and it results in lower wages for minorities (Kaufman & Hotchkiss 2000, p. 469). In the aggregate, equally
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Supercontinent Theory the Physical Geology of the

Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10576083

Supercontinent Theory

The physical geology of the earth consists of a Core (inner and outer), the mantle, the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The lithosphere is the crust and upper mantle of the earth that is the hard and rigid layer in which humans live. This portion of the earth reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through erosion and weathering, resulting in the soil forming process (Johnson, 2006). These layers of the earth are constantly in motion, giving us the Plate Tectonics, or Continental Drift, theory. Briefly, the theory states that the continents move across the molten plate of the earth -- drifting over time based on the rotation of the earth. The early evidence for this, of course, was that the eastern part of South America and Western Part of Africa fit together quite well. However, studies after 1958 show that there are three major reasons why the "drift"…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Frankel, H. (2012). The Continental Drift Controversy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, R. (2006). Plate Tectonics -- Great Ideas in Science. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Company.

United States Geological Society. (2009). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved from:

 http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/historical.html
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Big Bang vs Six-Day Creation Theory

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46062392

Big Bang vs. Six-Day Creation Theory

Man knows that the universe exists; however, his curiosity has not allowed him to dwell on this knowledge alone. Throughout his brief history on this planet, man has struggled to understand his "place in this universe, and furthermore, the place of the universe itself" (Laocco & othstein, n.d.). For ages, he has attempted to find answers on the age of the universe, as well as on the origins of matter and the greater universe. In his quest, man has moved from the mystical beginnings of earth's origin to the development of scientific theories, some of which have only made the subject more complex and intriguing. Man's continued interest in the subject has led to the emergence of two cadres of creationists - the young earth creationists, who posit that earth was created by a supernatural being, over a span of six days, thousands of…… [Read More]

References

Dean, D. (2003). Is the Truth Out There: A Journey through Critical Thinking that Spans Man's History, Origin, and Place in the Universe. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.

Landgraf, K. (2011). No Bones about It: The Truth about Fossils and Other Science Myths. Mustang, Oklahoma: Tate Publishing

LaRocco, C. & Rothstein, B. (n.d.). The Big Bang: It Sure was Big. University of Michigan. Retrieved 23 June 2014 from  http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/bigbang.htm 

Taylor, B. (2008). The Late Great Ape Debate. Santa Rosa, CA: Standard Publishing.
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Biological Theories of Youth Crime

Words: 956 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81963374

" (Magrid and McKelvey, 1990).

Although some analysts still toss around the question of nature vs. nurture, current research seems to be edging out nature and placing much more emphasis on nurture. Another notable expert who agrees with the author's premise is Benjamin B. Wolman. Wolman explores the foundations of deviant behavior in his widely-read book, "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide," and emphasizes nurture almost to the exclusion of nature, in explaining why sociopaths are more and more prevalent in our society. According to Wolman, "the way that parents rear their children can be crucial. Parental rejection can adversely affect their children's self-confidence and self-reliance. Undeniably, these children will feel neglected and unwanted if their parents are not affectionate and considerate. These children cannot however behave aggressively toward their parents as they fear that they might retaliate. Instead, they behave aggressively toward weak people who are unable…… [Read More]

References

Karr-Morse, Robin and Wiley, Meredith S., (1999). "Ghosts from the Nursery: Tracing the Roots of Violence" (1999). Chapter 2: Grand Central: Early Brain Anatomy and Violence. Pub Group West.

Magrid, Ken & McKelvey Carole a. (1990). "High Risk Children without a Conscience." Bantam, Doubleday, Dell.

Wolman, Benjamin B. (1999). "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide." Prometheus Books.
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Military Theory

Words: 5275 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32003274

Military Theory: Jomini on Napoleon

The objective of this study is to use the Campaign of 1813 culminating in the battle of Leipzig and to identify and analyze both the critical points and decisive points that Antoine-Henri Jomini in his 'Principles of War' would have listed in relation to proper time and sufficient force and identify how many would be applied both positively and negatively to Napoleon's maneuvering and engaging.

Napoleon's Focus

The focus of Napoleon in the Campaign of 1813 was to launch such a mass attack on the enemy that they would be overcome and decimated. However, as this study will demonstrate, Napoleon missed chances to do just that and his poor planning and improper timing resulted in the losses of many thousands of lives that did not have to be lost. According to Jomini, the art of war is comprised by six specific parts including: (1) statesmanship…… [Read More]

References

Allen, BM (1998) The Effects of Infectious Disease on Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Air Command and Staff College, Air University. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA398046

Jomini on Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of Operations. [Excerpted from Antoine-Henri Jomini, The Art of War G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill, trs. (Philadelphia: Lippicott, 1892), pp. 85-92]. Retrieved from:  http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/JominiSP.html 

Keefe, JM (1995) Napoleon's Marshals in 1813. School of Advanced Military Studies. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First Term AY 94-95. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA293453

Nomura, RC (2012) Issues in strategic thought: from Clausewitz to al-Qaida. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL I. JOMINI VS. CLAUSEWITZ December 2012. Retrieved from: http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/bitstream/handle/10945/27881/12Dec_Nomura_Ryan.pdf?sequence=1
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Elusive Theory of Everything the

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42901217



Interestingly enough, though, what is it that is so aesthetically pleasing that we want there to be a single theory of everything -- why does everything need to be explained in one fell swoop? This idea of a Theory of Everything is becoming more philiosophical than scientific. Aristotle and Plato were unsuccesful in their attempt to make a theory work, and Hawking said, in A Brief History of Time, that even if we had a Theory of Everything, it would necessarily be a large set of equations. "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"(Hawking in Fletcher, 2008, 196).

Now, though, Hawking has revised his views. In the new book, The Grand Design, Hawking and Mlodinow (Caltech physicist) argue that it is a set of equations that will, indeed, tie theories together, but that a final theory may never have a…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Fletcher, A. (2008). Life, the Universe and Everything: Investigating God and the New Physics. Denver, CO: Lulu Publishers.

Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010, September 27). The Elusive Theory of Everything. Retrieved October 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-elusive-thoery-of-everything

Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010). The Grand Design. New York: Bantam.

Pais, A. (1982). Subtle is the Lord.... The Science and Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Equity Theory of Motivation the

Words: 4137 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28331334

Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she received a Master of Science in management.

Professionally speaking, Fiorina occupied various secretarial positions; she was also a teacher of English in Italy and a receptionist. Her fruitful career began in 1980 when she joined at&T, where after various positions, came to be the company's Senior Vice President. In 1999 she joined Hewlett-Packard as Chief Executive Officer, but was forced to leave in 2005. After her departure from HP, Fiorina engaged in personal and political actions, such as the edition of her book Tough Choices: A Memoir, or campaigning with presidential candidate John McCain (Jacoby, 2008).

Carly Fiorina possesses numerous skills which qualify her for the leader's position. First of all, she has extensive knowledge and expertise, backed…… [Read More]

References

Adams, K., 2009, McLaren Boss Retires, Classic and Performance Car, http://www.classicandperformancecar.com/news/octanenews/233620/ron_dennis.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009

Williams, R., December 22, 2007, Why Mosley is Happy with the Season that Had Everything, the Guardian

Wolff, a., June 12, 2007, 'Better than Sex' That's how Formula One Phenomenon Lewis Hamilton Described Winning His First Pole, Sports Illustrated

2007, the FIA's McLaren-Monaco Statement in Full, Formula 1 Website, http://www.formula1.com/news/headlines/2007/5/6178.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009
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Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91391740

Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory

British Crime Survey (BCS) Review

The survey I reviewed is from primary research that provided a transcript for an interview, presumably to use in a face-to-face interview -- there are directions for showing cards to the respondents that give them a change to read response options and choices. Demographic data was collected at the beginning of the survey either to act as a screener or because it is essential to the data collection -- having this information at the start of the survey ensures that the interview will not conclude or be aborted without collecting this information. Demographic data tends to be categorized, which provides quantitative data analysis capability. A fairly consistent use of a 5-point Likert scale is used to record participants' responses. In other places, respondents are asked to choose from a list of distinct responses or simply answer yes or…… [Read More]

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Application of Orem Nursing Theory

Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90804158

Dorothea Orem Nursing Theory

A theory is related concepts, and propositions used to guide a professional practice. Moreover, nursing theory serves as the interrelated concepts, predictive in nature, statement explanatory that assists in understanding the nursing phenomenon, which helps to explain and predict the nursing outcomes. Nursing theory is an organized body of knowledge used to explain the phenomena and supporting the nursing practice. Moreover, the nursing theory is defined as a set of definitions, concepts, assumptions, and relationships or propositions that are derived from the nursing model. However, the nursing theories consist of grand and middle-ranged theory. The middle ranged theory is the testable theory, limited in scope, limited in a variable, and used for the clinical research. More importantly, nursing theory serves as the body of knowledge that assists in carrying out the nursing research.

The objective of this study is to use the Dorothea Orem theory to…… [Read More]

Reference

Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. Retrieved May 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/

Maria, O. (2015). Application of Dorothea Orem's Theory of Self-Care to the Elderly Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal 41(5): 495-498.

Roussel, L. (2013). Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators, Sixth Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Wong, C. L., Ip, W. Y., Choi, K. C., & Lam, L. W. (2015). Examining Self-Care Behaviors and Their Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls With Dysmenorrhea: An Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(3), 219-227. doi:10.1111/jnu.12134
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Environmental Theory and Emancipatory Knowledge

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395592

Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…… [Read More]

(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).

Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).

The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
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Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory When Socrates'

Words: 4276 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12580038

Certainly, rhetoric lends itself to the discovery of truth, as truth (Aristotle suggests) always makes more intuitive and intellectual sense compared to falsehood, and so equally talented rhetoricians will be more convincing sharing the truth than sharing falsehood. However, critics have pointed out that there is so "tension between Aristotle's epistemological optimism and his attempt to come to terms with rhetoric as a culturally and contextually specific social institution.... [as Aristotle says] scientific discourse is concerned with instruction, but in the case of [certain audiences] instruction is impossible; our proofs and arguments must rest on generally accepted principles... rhetoric [is] something separate from and inferior to scientific and ethical deliberation." (Haskins, 2004, 13-14)

Aristotle's historical effect on rhetoric and its continued fallout

It may seem self-evident that arguments today would be based as much on logic and the greater good than on past authority and religious dogma. However, such an…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abizadeh, Arash. (2002) "The passions of the wise: phronesis, rhetoric, and Aristotle's passionate practical deliberation." The Review of Metaphysics, v56 i2 p267(30)

GaleGroup Database]

Aristotle. (350 BCE) Rhetoric. Trans. Rhys Roberts. [MIT Classics Archive Database]

Haskins, Ekaterina V. (2004) "Endoxa, Epistemological Optimism, and Aristotle's Rhetorical Project" Philosophy and Rhetoric - Volume 37, Number 1, pp. 1-20. [Muse Project Database]
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A concise Analysis of Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Words: 1596 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93496749

MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |

Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Moral Development

Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).

Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development

Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/

Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
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Examine How the Dialogue Between Theory and Praxis Has Changed Since the 60's

Words: 1840 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84989718

dialogue between theory and praxis has changed since the 60s.

Dialogue between Theory and Praxis since the 1960s

Jeff Koons is among the most controversial and intriguing artists to have emerged in the past decade. Like Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol before him, he is concerned with the transformation of everyday objects into art and takes such post-modern issues as high and low culture, context, and commodification of art as the central focus of his work (erger 1995).

From the November / December issue of At the Modern, the publication of the San Francisco MoMA, "It's the most important visual arts exhibition in San Francisco this year" (The San Francisco Examiner 1992).

Jeff Koons, the self-proclaimed "most written-about artist in the world," now headlining at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, has indubitably attained a certain "star" status. However, the Koons phenomenon - Koons himself, his objects, and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, J. Ways of Seeing. New York: Viking Books, 1995.

Burger, P. "Avant-garde." Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. 185-189.

Debord, G. The Society of the Spectacle. Zone Books, 1994.

Marcus, G. Lipstick Traces. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.
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Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Words: 2584 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20694471

The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.

Implication of the policy

The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…… [Read More]

Reference

Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd

Edition). Long Grove

Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,

NY: Prentice Hall
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Cultural Dimension Theory One of

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31126435



Schwartz Values -- Conformity

Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence

Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.

Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.

EFEENCES

Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf

Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds

Metropolitan University. Cited in:

http://www.aiec.idp.com/pdf/Killick,%20David.pdf

Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from:  http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf 

Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
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Expectancy theory done the right way

Words: 1219 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89227195

Motivational theories certainly have their time and place. Beyond that, they probably work better for some people than others and the situation and context is obviously relevant. What motivates people obviously depends on their feelings, preference, environment and reactions to what is happening around them. Even so, there are several theories that will be reviewed in this report and they shall be reacted to in terms of how effective they might or could be. Beyond that, there will be a number of examples personal to the author and what has been experienced by that person. To be sure, not all motivational ploys work in all situations and the person doing the motivating and what they bring to the table in terms of experience and reputation certainly matters a great deal in the grand scheme of things. While some motivational theories are generally effective, assuming that this could or would be…… [Read More]

References

Benson, D. (2015). The five fundamental tasks of a transformational leader. Physician

Leadership Journal, 2(5), 58 -- 62. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.

libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=oran95108&v=2.1&

it=r&id=GALE%7CA431445071&asid=e5932b254c6458cfd8952d03cf09a2e6
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Economics Goods Returns & Applied Theory Economics

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1459563

Economics: Goods, eturns, & Applied Theory

Economics

There are a variety of good available on the market. Different goods serve different functions within a society's economy. In this brief paper, two types of goods will be discussed: normal goods and inferior goods. The paper will also make mention of the law of diminishing returns and will provide examples of each of the three topics. Finally, drawing directly from contemporary news, the paper will reflect upon an economic issue relating it to concepts recently acquired through the course content.

Contemporary News in Economics: Goods, eturns, & Applied Theory

As the market improves and more people generate greater quantities of income, there are certain products that people demand more because of the increase in their incomes. These are the items that are popular and that many people desire yet the price is just out of their economic means. Once these people generate…… [Read More]

References:

Vega, T. (2012) Substantial Growth in Ads Is on the Way to FaceBook. The New York Times, Available from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/01/business/media/facebook-paves-way-for-huge-growth-in-advertising.html?ref=technology. 2012 February 29.
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Application Theory to Research on Nursing Handoff

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31613420

Nursing Handoff Communication

The delivery of patient care services is usually characterized by the involvement of various professionals in the healthcare team, especially nurses. In most cases, the delivery of care to patients involves various nurses with different functions at different stages in this process. Given the nature of their work, nurses transfer responsibility and authority of care to other nurses to help ensure continuity of care and promote patient safety. This implies that medical communication and competence plays an important role in the transfer of authority and responsibility of care from one nurse to another. This is primarily because nursing handoffs involves medical communication, which must be effective in order to enhance patient safety through ensuring continuity of care.

The theoretical framework for conducting this study on nursing handoffs is communication competence and medical communication behaviors. To this extent, the researcher assumes that nurses possess medical communication competence that…… [Read More]

References

Delrue, K.S. (2013, April). An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Nursing Handover Process for Emergency Department Admissions. Retrieved from Grand Valley State University website: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=dissertations

Streeter, A.C.R. (2010). What Nurses Say: Communication Behaviors Associated with the Competent Nursing Handoff. Retrieved from University of Kentucky website: http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=gradschool_diss
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Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Nursing Can Be

Words: 4161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25325887

Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:

Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.

Grand Nursing Theory:

There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…… [Read More]

References:

American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.

Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes

Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.

"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
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Unitary Human Beings an Examination

Words: 2710 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76639135

The holistic view of the human being (i.e. The patient) and the environment is in some ways an echo of the holistic nature of the theory itself, which quite consciously and explicitly attempted to develop a theory appropriate to all aspects and situations of nursing. Because the Science of Unitary Human Beings was developed essentially from the ground up in such a conscious and comprehensive manner, it would be practically impossible for internal inconsistencies to exist.

Theoretical Significance

Just as the scope of ogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings is difficult to overstate, it is equally difficult to overestimate the impact that this theory has had on the field of nursing. Its contributions to both nursing practice and scholarship have been enormous, and as the theory continues to evolve and develop under the guidance of new scholars and practitioners its significance only grows (Butcher 2008). ogers was not the first…… [Read More]

References

Butcher, H. (2008). "Progress in the explanatory power of the science of unitary human beings." Visions, 15(2), pp. 23-36.

Farren, a. (2009). "An oncology case study demonstrating the use of Roger's science of the unitary human being and standardized nursing language." International journal of nursing terminologies and classifications 20(1), pp. 34-9.

Kim, T. (2008). "Science of unitary human beings: An update on research." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 294-99.

Malinski, V. (2008). "Research diversity from the perspective of the science of unitary human beings." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 291-3.
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Post-Structuralism and Film the Objective

Words: 1265 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55737041

" (Barrat, nd) This view however, is not without its challenges. For example, there is a risk that the film will be examined "from the top-down, interpreting the film so that it fits into the general theoretical framework, and thus ignoring an analysis of the film's specific qualities." (Barrat, nd) in addition, it is reported that this theory is itself questionable in terms of its validity. During the 1980s, it is reported, "a new type of film scholarship emerged." (Barrat, nd) Over the past two decades, there have been two post-theoretical approaches to film: (1) neo-formalism/historical poetics; and (2) historical context. (Barrat, nd)

Classical Hollywood cinema is called the stylistic norm where there is classical narration focused on characters that are goal-oriented with a continual system of editing. These norms are held to be "against the historical conditions of the film's production and exhibition. There are various conditions for example…… [Read More]

References

Barrat, D. (nd) Post-Theory, Neo-Formalism and Cognitivism.

Burgoyne JR and Flitterman-Lewis, S. (1992) New Vocabularies in Film Semiotics; Structuralism and Post Structuralism and Beyond. Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc.

Interrogating Language Codes (nd) Poststructuralist/deconstructivist Theory. Retrieved from:   http://www.tc.umn.edu/~rbeach/teachingmedia/module4/5.htm  

Solanas, F. And Getino. O (2012) Towards a Third Cinema. Retrieved from:   http://documentaryisneverneutral.com/words/camasgun.html
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Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Allows Nursing Students Into

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 945156

Evidence-based nursing practice allows nursing students into developing an understanding of evaluation methods for healthcare research and integrating their findings into practice for he improvement of their practice, education and management of nursing practice. It is a learning method, which introduces nursing students into the process of using evidence in their practice. The nursing practice and handling of patients demand the best practices from nurses (Williams, & Wilkins, 2008). These are achievable through research and the research findings must be availed to nurses for use in their daily practices. However, the challenge of such results is that nurses and nursing students do not easily understand the terminologies used in researches, on most occasions (American Psychological Association, 2009). Therefore, it is important making sure that nurses and students gain adequate knowledge for understanding and critically appraising research for the identification of the best practices found within researches.

For the success of…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Ed.). Washington, D.C

Cronin, P., Coughlan, M., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. Mark Allen Publishing Ltd. British Journal of Nursing, Vol. 16, No 11

Griffin, R.A., Polit, D. R, & Byrne, M.W. (2007). Nurse characteristics and inferences about children's pain. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Williams, L. & Wilkins. (2008). Wolters Kluwer Health.
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Theoretical Foundations of Nursing First Half

Words: 2037 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10078501

diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).

Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…… [Read More]

References

Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved:  http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html 

Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:

http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html

Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
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Maslow's Hierarchy

Words: 2108 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48609101

Nursing

In the pantheon of nursing theories, borrowed theories are those that derive from other disciplines and have been adapted to the nursing context. Many such borrowed theories come from the different social sciences, such as psychology or sociology, because they directly reflect critical issues in care such as human nature and the role of human interactions in well-being. One could apply religious theories to care for religious people, and it is possible even to consider things like motivational theories as well, if the nurse is trying to motivate the patient (for example, to change behavior as a means of changing health outcomes). Borrowed theories have perhaps received less study than either grand theories or mid-level theories, but they are nevertheless an important source of insight for the nursing educator, and it is important to understand the theory, where it comes from, and how it has been adapted to apply…… [Read More]

Villarruel, A., Bishop, T., Simpson, E., Jemmott, L. & Fawcett, J. (2001). Borrowed theories, shared theories and the advancement of nursing knowledge. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 14 (2) 158-163.

Zalenski, R. & Raspa, R. (2006). Maslow's hierarchy of needs: A framework for achieving human potential in hospice. Journal of Palliative Medicine. Vol. 9 (5) 1120-1127.

Zhan, L. (2000). Cognitive adaptation and self-consistency in hearing-impaired older persons: Testing Roy's adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 13 (2) 158-165.
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Disclosure This Report Represents a

Words: 2798 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82296265

isk analysis in disclosure cases also demonstrates that disclosure hazards are events that organizations repeat in cyclic patterns. Thus, to prevent violations and to accurately estimate the probability of an unauthorized disclosure, there are many opportunities to measure the abuses just as there are many opportunities to discover abuse on pregnant women.

Breaking the pattern of violence on pregnant women without help is very difficult and leaving home is not always a feasible or safe alternative. The high number of domestic murders for pregnant women demonstrates that leaving an abuser can be fatal. The abused is usually the only one in the world who truly knows if and when to go but that may be a time that is too late. But addressing the needs of the abused in regard to the HIPAA rules is possible.

Identify Antecedents And Consequences

Although pregnant and recently pregnant women are far more likely…… [Read More]

References

Domestic Violence in the United States. National Domestic Hotline. Retrieved on 21 Jan. 2005, from http://pages.ivillage.com/debi_1111/id30.html.

March of Dimes. (2000). Substance Abuse by Pregnancy Status. Retrieved January 21, 2005, at http://www.modimes.org/aboutus/1521.asp

McKenna, H.P. (1997). Nursing Models and Theories p. 144-146. London: Routledge.

Moller-Okin, Susan. (1999) "Is Multiculturalism Bad For Women?" In Okin et al., Is Multiculturalism Bad For Women? Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp 9-24
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Integration of Participatory Development and

Words: 3931 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28020840

" (Health Care System, Canada, 2007)

V. THEORETICAL ASIS of OREM'S SELF-CARE MODEL

Social Learning Theory was developed by andura (1987, 1986) who held that behavior results from the individual's personal and environmental factors. It was stated in findings of a study reported by Hyndman et al. (1993) that there is a need to change the individual's environment in order to encourage positive health behavior and that there is a need to correct misperceptions about health. Training and development of skills is necessary in creation of new behaviors and in approaching solutions as well as are role models and self-efficacy. In Orem's conceptualization of health "the concept of wholeness, soundness and well-being are closely integrated." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Orem's definition of health includes "...psychological, interpersonal and social aspects of living as well as the commonly emphasized physical aspects." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Well-being has been associated with health in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goodwin, Marianne (1990) Is it Feasible for the Nursing Division at St. Vincent's Hospital to Adopt Dorothea Orem's Model of Nursing? Contents for the 1990 Nursing Monograph. Online available at http://www.ciap.health.nsw.gov.au/hospolic/stvincents/1990/a06.html

Hanucharurnkul, S. (2006) Nursing Knowledge Development: An Update. Online available at http://www.ra.mahidol.ac.th/rar/infor_research_rama/Annual%20Absrtract/MeetThai2006.pdf

Keeratiyutawong, P.; Hanucharurnkul, S.; Panpakdee, O.; and Melkus, G. (2006) a Self-Management Program for Improving Knowledge, Self-Care, Activities, Quality of Life, and Glycosylated HbA1c Among Thai Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Online available at http://www.ra.mahidol.ac.th/rar/infor_research_rama/Annual%20Absrtract/MeetThai2006.pdf

Zuyderduin, Johanna Regina (2004) the Buddy System of Care and Support for and by Women Living with HIV / AIDS in Botswana. University of South Africa. Online available at http://etd.unisa.ac.za/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-05/unrestricted/00thesis.pdf
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Natural Systems Model 'Mayo and

Words: 1972 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26067549

(1958: 191) (Scott, 2003, p.50) Simon states that a hierarchy of goals is established in which each level is "...considered as an end relative to the levels below it and as a means relative to the levels above it. Through the hierarchical structure of ends, behavior attains integration and consistency, for each member of a set of behavior alternatives is then weighted in terms of a comprehensive scale of values -- the "ultimate" ends. (Simon, 1997: 74) "In addition to simplifying decisions for participants in all these ways, organizations also support participants in the decisions they are expected to make.

WEER'S THEORY of UREAUCRACY

DESCRIPTION of THEORY

Scott (2003) notes that it was observed by Collins (1986) that there is nothing "...known in the field of organizations, perhaps in all sociology, than Weber's model of bureaucracy. It also happens that there is no more complete misunderstanding of a major sociological…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Scott, W. Richard (2003) Organizations; Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
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Factors Affecting the Retention of Students in Community Colleges

Words: 3592 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2622452

Education - Theory

Addressing etention Issues in Community CollegesUsing Transition and Ecological/Environment Theory

Many community colleges face serious retention issues that affect student performance, persistence, and learning. The rationale employed in identifying alternative assessments involves overriding standardized test validities and predictive reliability issues. However, there are concerns regarding the derived holistic understanding among student outcomes. The goal of providing college educators through alternative supplemental approaches facilitate standardized testing of various evaluative measures as introduced. The issues of student self-assessment and social and value-added assessments, evaluations, and personal growth portfolios within community colleges had increased. The design suggests an institution of the writing and implementation of parallel outcomes in the studies are linked to different fundamental questions serving as subjects of confirm relevance to campus dynamics and student success.

The levels involved in making the students leave or stay are informative points on student engagement. This includes social and academic connection…… [Read More]

References

Braxton, J.M., & Doyle, W.R. (2013). Rethinking College Student Retention. New York: John Wiley & Sons,

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. International Encyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, 2nd ed., 131-214.

Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

Forney, E., & DiBrito, G. (1998).Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. pp. 111-114.
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Human Resources Management Practices in the Global

Words: 3848 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15355759

Human Resources Management Practices in the Global Environment & Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS)

The objective of this study is the examine Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) as it relates to Human Resources Management practices in the Global Environment. Toward this end, this work in writing will examine the literature in this area of study.

Globalization, in the work of Husain (2010), is reported as symbolizing "the structural making of the world characterized by the free flow of technology and human resources across national boundaries presenting an ever-changing and competitive business environment." (p.1) Husain defines globalization as "the ongoing economic, technological, social, and political integration of the world that begin after the Second World War." (2010, p.1) Husain argues that a large base of evidence indicates that "changes taking place in the global business environment are often not accompanied by complimentary changes in human resources management practices whereby the failure…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Mayfield, M.; Mayfield, J. And Lunce, S. (2003) Human Resource Information Systems: A Review and Model Development. Entrepreneur. 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/110733614.html

Mayfield, Mayfield and Lunce (2003) present a HRIS model with the primary goal of providing a comprehensive framework that supports HRIS research.

2. Foss, N.J. And Mahoney, J.T. reports that knowledge governance "is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management." These authors state that knowledge governance "represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management and theories of the firm."

3. Kourik, J.L. And Maher, P.E. (2008) Does Practice Reflect Theory? An Exploratory Study of a Successful Knowledge Management System. International journal of Human and Social Sciences. Vol. 3, Issue 4. Retrieved from: http://www.waset.org/journals/ijhss/v3/v3-4-35.pdf -Kourik and Maher (2008) investigate the link between theory and practice and state that a Knowledge Management System (KMS) that is successfully implemented is one that had as its design the capacity to manage curricular knowledge in a distributed university environment. Findings stated "indicate substantial correspondence between the successful KMS and the theory-based framework providing provisional confirmation for the framework while suggesting factors that contributed to the system's success." (Kourik and Maher, 2008, p. 1)
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Values and Ideals in Nursing Program Philosophy

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87429594

Nursing Program Philosophy

The values and ideals that go into a nursing program philosophy should be universal in nature, for the reason that nurses are of the community and serve the community. This may seem to complicate the issue of developing such a philosophy but ultimately it should simplify it. The issue of the truth is a non-issue, however. There is only one truth -- facts are facts. The idea that different people can experience different truths is false -- they can experience different opinions, their interpretation of the truth colored by various biases, but there is no reason why credence should be given to people's bias-laden versions of reality. Objective truth is supported by fact, period, and is not changeable by any individual.

But values and ideals are quite different between people. Values and ideals arise from individual experiences, cultural influences and a variety of other factors. Values and…… [Read More]

References

Leininger, M. & McFarland, M. (2008) Culture care diversity and universality: A worldwide nursing theory. Jones and Bartlett Publishers: Sudbury, MA

Lutz, B. & Bowers, B. (2000) Patient-centered care: Understanding its interpretation and implementation in health care. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice. Vol. 14 (2) 183-187.
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Robert Merton This Is a

Words: 2713 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59312888

And it is those negative consequences that could, in the long-term, create alterations in those original basic values. Finally, there is Merton's self-defeating prophecy. Worry about being afraid of some consequence motivates people to take action before the problem exists. The non-occurrence of that problem they acted against, is not anticipated as a possibility.

It is interesting to note here that it is not improbable that the reader of this can place himself or herself in several of these situations and, therefore, see the accuracy, and the depth and complexity of Merton's postulations and conclusions.

Manifest and latent functions were first defined by Merton for the science of sociology. He was attempting to focus on the conceptual practices employed in a functional analysis. Functional analysis is the study of the individual elements of a functioning societal structure such as its customs, traditions and institutions. As Herbert Spencer, a 19th century…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, P.L. Excerptom Invitation to Sociology. New York: Doubleday, 1963.

Calhoun, C. "Robert K. Merton Remembered." March 2003. asanet.org. 27 January 2010 .

Crothers, Charles. Robert K. Merton. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, 1987.

Hollander, J. "Renowned Columbia Sociologist and Nationsl Medal of Science Winner Robert K. Merton Dies at 92." 25 February 2003. Columbia University News. 27 January 2010 .
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Organizational Change the Role of

Words: 2400 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85673631



The larger social implications of successful human resources development practices and perspectives have not been lost on researchers in the area, either. Altering human resource management practices to better address labor issues faced by non-management employees both ithin the organization and in their lives at large creates both a more satisfied and a more productive orkforce and can also lead to reduced levels of underemployment and improve the general quality of life of orkers (Worrall et al. 2010). Thus increasing profitability through human resource development also creates benefits for society at large.

The ide array of different approaches, both theoretical and methodological, that have been brought to bear on an understanding of human resource development and its role in overall organizational development and adaptability provide both specific instances of mechanisms and practices that can be utilized for such development, as ell as a general understanding of the role of human…… [Read More]

works cited, could also bear some solidification. As knowledge becomes more certain through repeated observation, recommendations and understandings will also become more concrete. It is hoped that this review provides one step towards this goal of more comprehensive and concrete understandings.

References

Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (2009). "Framing Change." OD practitioner 41(1), pp. 25-31.

Curran, C. (2009). "Taking an Organization to the Next Level." OD practitioner 41(4), pp. 12-7.

Haslinda, a. (2009). "Outcomes of Human Resource Development Interventions. Journal of social sciences 5(1), pp. 25-32.
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Sigmund Freud to the Science

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65632482

In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm, a perspective that holds a vision of people as at their core driven by dynamic forces in their unconscious minds" (2005, p. 3).

Freud's influence on psychoanalytic thought, though, required some time to take hold and many of his methods were rejected outright by the contemporary medical establishment, particularly in the United States. For example, following Freud's only trip to North America in 1909, one psychiatrist believed that, "Many patients were psychotically disturbed and deemed to be beyond the reach of Freud's intellectual 'talk therapy'" (Beam, 2001, p. 94). Not only did others think that Freud's methods were not appropriate for some patients, Freud himself acknowledged their limitations. In fact, Beam points out as well that, "Freud himself thought most schizophrenics…… [Read More]

References

Beam, A. (2001). Gracefully insane: The rise and fall of America's premier mental hospital.

New York: Public Affairs.

Cherry, K. (2010). Freud's patients and therapy. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/ig/Sigmund-Freud-Photobiography/Freud-s-Patients-and-Therapy.htm.

Demorest, A. (2005). Psychology's grand theorists: How personal experiences shaped professional ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Detection Historical Methods After the

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92224736

This is why Lytle and Davidson use first-hand narratives as only one piece of evidence. They are always quick contextualize personal narratives with hard, cold facts, like the evident death toll of the early colony, which they attribute to a failure to plant crops like corn for food. Settlers were foolishly determined to leave land and time open to cultivate the cash crop of tobacco. Laws forcing men to plant food suggest, according to the historians, that the settlers lacked a sense of what was necessary to survive times of scarcity during the winter -- and 3,000 of them died as a result. Statistics and primary source documents such as laws, records of immigration and even botanical information about the labor-intensive nature of farming tobacco vs. corn are required to fully flesh out a picture of what life was like and to solve the mystery of why the death toll…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davidson & Lytle. After the Fact. New York: McGraw/Hill, 1999.

Nash, Gary. American People. New York: Wesley: Addison, 2000.
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A concise Analysis of Madeleine Leineger

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52985189

Madeleine Leineger

Madeleine Leininger's place of birth was Sutton, Nebraska. She earned her Ph.D. in social and cultural anthropology in 1965, from Washington University, Seattle. In her initial years of working, she was a nurse. This was where she gained insight on how important it is to care. Frequent appreciative statements from care patients inspired her to center her attention on care; she realized that 'caring' is a fundamental part of nursing. In the 50s, she worked in a guidance home for children. Madeline discovered that the recurrent habits among children seemed to have been inspired by culture. She stated that nurses had no knowledge about care and culture, and this led to their ignorance on the numerous components needed in caring for patients to support healing, wellness and compliance. This knowledge led to the introduction of transcultural nursing; a phenomenon and construct based on nursing care, in the 50s.…… [Read More]

References

Gil Wayne. (2014). Madeleine Leininger's Transcultural Nursing Theory. Nurseslabs.

Kathleen Sitzman MS, & Dr. Lisa Wright Eichelberger. (n.d.). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory. In Kathleen Sitzman MS, & Dr. Lisa Wright Eichelberger;, Understanding the work of Nurse THeorists (pp. 93-102). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Melanie Mcewen, & Evelyn M. Wills. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. Wolters Kluwer.