Grand Theory Essays (Examples)

View Full Essay

Grand or Mid Range Theory

Words: 3055 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90388700

Range Theory


Middle Range Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness

Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.

History of Theory Development in Nursing

The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described the theories focused on the overall nursing practices. Many nursing theory conferences were organized and held by the nurses to discuss the use of these theories in research and practice. The key theorists presented the methods and ways of practically applying these conceptual frameworks in the practical settings.

Some of…… [Read More]


Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic

Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.

Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.

Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.
View Full Essay

Interpersonal Relationship Theory

Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39696996

Grand Theory in Nursing

Nursing theory

Classification of nursing theories

Nursing theories are classified into there broad categories. These theories are grand theories, middle-range theories and situation specific theories. Grand nursing theories are very broad in scope and present general propositions and concepts in the nursing discipline. The theories at this level give both a reflection and provide insights that are useful in the nursing practice but they are not designed to be used as empirical testing tools. This gives a limit to the grand theories when it comes to giving directions, explanations and predictions of nursing in specific situations. The grand theories have the intention of being pertinent to all instances in the field of nursing. One such Grand theory as will be used in the context of this paper is the interpersonal theory whose main theorist or proponent behind it is Hildegard E. Peplau.

Second are the Mid-range theories which have a narrower scope as compared to grand theories. They are often used to bridge the gap that exists between grand theories and the actual nursing practice. They are only concerned with a specific area of interest within the discipline of nursing. They give propositions and concepts at…… [Read More]


Antipuesto, J.(2008). Nursing Theory and Theorists. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from 

Olin, J.(2011). 7 Nursing Theories to Practice By. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from

Habel, M. (2010).Nursing Theory. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from

Shakeel, J. (2010). Theories of Nursing. Retrieved September 1, 2014 from
View Full Essay

Grand Strategy and Theory There

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83503880

With the widening of economic interdependence and spread of democratic norms, liberalism envisions a slow journey away from the realists' vision. Liberalists do not view a state as a single actor in war, but rather as a coalition of coalitions that is representing different individuals and groups. Limitations of state power, rule of law, transparency of democratic and government processes will make it easier for the sustenance of international cooperation.

In terms of security, liberalists differ from realists as they not only view it in military terms, but also as the promotion and protection of individual rights. In the fight on terrorism, the liberal approach would emphasize on application of legal instruments instead of military force. The liberal approach to the United States war on terrorism would involve issues like organized crime and its potential for creating terrorists.

This would be in contrast to the realist approach of force on the state where terrorists come from. Analyzing organized crime would allow for the discovery of links between terrorism and organized crime. This liberal approach would reduce the use of force and instead push for the investigation of how terrorists are crossing borders and the influence they have on other criminals.…… [Read More]


Drezner, Daniel W. "Does Obama Have a Grand Strategy? Why We Need Doctrines in
View Full Essay

Grand Jury Needed

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23664261

Grand Jury: Needed or Not?

The United States is the only common law jurisdiction in the world that still uses the grand jury for purposes of screening criminal indictments. The grand jury issues an indictment for crime only if based on the evidence that has been presented it finds that there is a probable cause for one to believe that a crime has been committed by the suspect .this is unlike a petit jury that only resolves a specific type of criminal or civil cases, a grand jury serves as a group for a particular period of time in all or many cases that come up in the jurisdiction which is under the supervision of the federal; state attorney, a court district attorney or even a state general attorney and listens to the evidence without having suspect or person of interest being involved in the proceedings (Leipold, 2005).

The question that arises is whether the grand jury system should be abolished, reformed or retained as currently as it is. The grand jury is in place to ensure that innocent people are protected and given a fair trial and the federal law there is a grand jury clause which states…… [Read More]


Leipold, A.D., (2005). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from 

Farlex, Inc., (2014). Grand Jury. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from
View Full Essay

Grand Juries the Purpose of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77304092

Moreover, because of the secrecy surrounding the grand jury system, there is a very real concern that a defendant may not have the opportunity to actually confront his accusers. While improper evidence may not come in at trial, it is a fallacy to assume that simply protecting someone from conviction is protecting him or her from all of the possible negative effects of an improper indictment. The very real time, expense, and risk of trial means that even an actually innocent person who is indicted may consider a plea bargain rather than face the risk of trial.

While there is some merit to the idea that grand juries listen to prosecutors, individual grand juries behave in different manners. Some of them simply act as rubber stamps for prosecutors, while other grand juries more carefully consider the charges before them. However, the secrecy surrounding the proceedings makes it difficult to know the details surrounding a particular grand jury. Therefore, while the criticism may not appropriately apply to every grand jury, there certainly appears to be merit in the criticism.

Trial Continuances

1. There are a number of reasons that a defendant may seek several continuances. First, the defense may need more…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Range Theory Nursing If Accepts Premise Grand

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24736764

range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge .

There is an emphasis at present on the development and use of mid-range theory in nursing. If one accepts the premise that grand theories of nursing are no longer necessary, what are the implications for nursing education, practice, and research?

Nursing theories can be classified in many different ways, but one of the most common methods is to group them into grand and middle range theories. A grand theory "provides a conceptual framework under which the key concepts and principles of the discipline can be identified," while, in contrast, a "middle range theory is more precise and only analyzes a particular situation with a limited number of variables" (Nursing theories: An overview, 2011, Nursing Theories). Mid-range theories of nursing do not attempt to define what 'nursing' is as a concept in a universal fashion. Rather they tend to give more practical, hands-on guidelines for nurses in the field dealing with specific medical issues, spanning from eldercare to obesity prevention.

Nursing as a profession takes many different forms -- the duties of a nurse…… [Read More]


Entry-to-practice competencies. (2011). College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta.

Retrieved September 25, 2011 at

Is nursing theory important? (2099). All Nurses. Retrieved September 25, 2011 at

Kennedy, Shawn. (2009). New nurses face reality shock in hospital setting. AJN.
View Full Essay

Middle Range Theory

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92092960

Range Nursing Theory

A clinical nurse is generally involved with specialized research; for example, a clinical nurse specializing in oncology would likely be heavily involved in the treatment of patients with cancer, according to Andrea Santiago. That clinical nurse specialist (CNS) working with cancer patients may also create helpful protocols or other strategies to improve the delivery of services in a hospital (Santiago, 2013). This paper delves into the reasons why the CNS can (and will) benefit from the use of the middle range theory.

What are middle range theories?

Judy Davidson (RN, DNP, CNS) explains that middle range theories are designed to "guide practice" for nurses (including clinical nurse specialists) and are "more focused than grand theories" because they zero in on a "single aspect of practice" and are not as general as grand theories (Davidson, 2010, p. 28). Moreover, because grand theories only offer a framework in terms of descriptions and prescribing within the nursing practice -- and middle range theories are "directly applicable to patient care and more prescriptive" -- middle range theories are easier to test (Davidson, 29).

Why would a CNS embrace the middle range theory?

The middle range theory has proven to be useful…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andershed, Birgitta, and Olsson, Kristina. (2009). Review of research related to Kristin

Swanson's middle-range theory of caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23(3),


Davidson, Judy E. (2010). Facilitated Sensemaking: A Strategy and New Middle-Range Theory
View Full Essay

Medical Theory Ever Since the

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24024442

As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort are significant indicators that are given by the patients, are altered by the kind of nursing care being given to the patient and are associated with the health care system and its integrity. For example, this theory is particularly very significant for application by nurses that interact with the patients…… [Read More]


Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.

Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.

Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.

Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.
View Full Essay

Nursing Theory Imogene King

Words: 7913 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41921604

Nursing Theory Analysis

Theory-based nursing is the phenomenon that has been researched much during the past two decades. Nursing theory has become the foundation for nursing practice with its own knowledge base. The current paper is an analysis of King's theory of goal attainment. King acquired her goal attainment theory model from an interpersonal system and a behavioral science. The nurse and patient communicate to achieve a common goal of patient satisfaction and better health outcomes. To achieve this goal, there is a need for nurses to explore patients' perceptions and expectations. It has been found in research that patients' satisfaction with healthcare is strongly linked to their satisfaction with nursing care. King attained that if the nurse is aware of patients' expectations of care that they can achieve the goal of patients' satisfaction. This theory is also applicable in the nursing education program for those nursing students having poor academic performance and for those at-risk students. Students and mentors can communicate to achieve the shared goal of student's academic improvement.

I. Examination of the origins of nursing theory

Modern nursing practice officially started from Nightingale and she also described that nursing knowledge and medical knowledge are different disciplines. Nursing…… [Read More]


Abramowitz, S., Cote, A.A., & Berry, E. (1987). Analyzing patient satisfaction: a multianalytic approach. QRB. Quality Review Bullenin, 4, 122-130.

Ahmad, M.M., & Alasad, J.A. (2004, October). Predictors of patients' experiences of nursing care in medical-surgical wards. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 10(5), 235-241.

American Nurses Association . (2005). Utilization guide for the ANA principles for nurse staffing (). Retrieved from Nursing World Organization website:

American Nurses Association. (1983). Standards of school nursing practice. In Standards of school nursing practice (p. 3).Scarborough, MD: National Association of School Nurses
View Full Essay

Watson's Nursing Caring Theory the

Words: 3295 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16302880

Jean Watson and in reality "belonging becomes an ethic in itself and guides how we sustain our being in the world." Dr. Watson emphasizes the fact that the practices of nursing have experienced evolution and this has allowed certain distortions in the nursing practices. Dr. Watson brings to attention 'Palmer's epistemology as ethics' yet the epistemology, in the view of Palmer to be 'informed by cosmology' has great power in that it may either "form of deform the human soul" and thereby also form or deform the nurse's "way of being/becoming more human and humane (Palmer 1993; as cited by Watson, 2005)

III. Brief Analysis of Watson's Caring Mode

The model of caring in nursing model as proposed by Dr. Jean Watson is one that is fairly simplistic in nature that has as its key concepts the factors of love, kindness and empathy. In making an identification of the applications of Dr. Watson's model the work of Chantal (nd) is reviewed in which Chantel relates that the application of Watson's Caring in Nursing Model may be through interaction with the patient by asking pertinent questions that will engage the patient while at the same time convey to them that the…… [Read More]


Levinas, E. (2000) Totality and Infinity. Pittsburgh, PA; Duqesne University Press (Original work published in 1969)

Fawcett, Jacqueline (2005) Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and Theories. Davis Company, Philadelphia. Online available at

Watson, J. (2005b) What, May I Ask is Happening to Nursing Knowledge and Professional Practices? What is Nursing Thinking at this Turn in Human History? Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14.

Palmer, P. (1987). Community, conflict and ways of knowing. Magazine for Higher Learning, 19, 20-25.
View Full Essay

Role of Theory and Philosophy

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70782494

nursing is both a discipline and a profession

All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.

Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)

The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing

Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field of nursing's inquiry. There is a need to articulate the nature and characteristics of philosophical inquiry for researchers new to this perspective. We begin by addressing a common question that surfaces when one begins a work that is philosophical in nature, how does one differentiate between nursing philosophy and nursing…… [Read More]


Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.

Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.

Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson. (2008). Understanding Philosophical Inquiry in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 115-121.

Dr Sharon L. Van Sell, Ioannis a Kalofissudis. (2002). A Complexity Nursing Theory.
View Full Essay

Grounded Theory Examining a Specific

Words: 2659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25228765

Still, they published their theory in a coauthored work and there were not large differences in the overall theory at this point (Hart & Gregor 2005).

As the two scholars' careers diverged, however, they continued to develop their thinking on grounded theory independently from each other. What has become known as the Glaserian approach (developed, of course, by Barney Glaser) stresses the non-prescriptive nature of inquiries that occur utilizing grounded theory, with much broader categories of conceptualizations inherent to this version of the theory (Hart & Gregor 2005). Glaser also asserted that rigorous verification methods, such as might be more typical in the traditional scientific method, were suitably applied only to a very few of the central theoretical hypotheses that developed in the course of a grounded theory inquiry, which was another aspect of the Glaserian grounded theory that makes it more open to adjustment from the observations themselves and an incredibly non-prescriptive research method (Manteuffel 2009).

The Straussian mode of conducting grounded theory research -- the theory that Strauss developed along with other collaborators later in is own academic career -- is much more rigid in its method of coding categories as they arise through observation, and also asserts…… [Read More]


Borgatti, S. (2010). "Introduction to grounded theory." Accessed 6 November 2010. 

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: a practical guide. London: Sage.

Dick, B. (2005). "Grounded theory: a thumbnail sketch." Accessed 6 November 2010.

Hart, D. & Gregor, S. (2005). Information systems foundations constructing and criticizing. Accessed 6 November 2010.
View Full Essay

Orem S Self Care Theory and the Movie Awakenings

Words: 1615 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59906186

Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory

There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Orem's self-care deficit theory. This theory is predicated a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problems is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action. The movie Awakenings can be used as an example of how this can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions.

Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory

Dorothea Orem was a staff nurse, and later moved onto educational positions within nursing. She developed her concept of self-care deficit theory to explain nursing in terms of a key interpersonal relationship between nurse and patient, where the nurse helps the patient to take care of him/herself. The underlying assumptions are that the patient is a distinct individual, and should be self-reliant. It is insufficient for a patient to simply rely on medical professionals for their health. The patient should have knowledge of his/her own health problems, and understand what they can do to address those. Understanding the issues helps the patient with self-care. Orem believed that self-care or dependent-care are learned behaviors,…… [Read More]

References (2016). Nursing theories: Dorothea Orem's Self-care deficit theory. Nursing Retrieved April 7, 2016 from

Parkes, W., Lasker, L. & Marshall, P. (1990) Awakenings (motion picture) United States: Lasker/Parkes Productions/Columbia Pictures.

Rhodes, V., Watson, P., Hanson, B. (1988) Patients' descriptions of the influence of tiredness and weakness on self-care abilities. Cancer Nursing. Vol. 11 (3) 186-194
View Full Essay

Orem S Self Care Theory and the Movie Awakenings

Words: 1873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29533031

Nursing Theory

Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory to Awakenings

There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT). This theory has established a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problem is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action (, 2012). The movie Awakenings (Parkes, Lasker & Marshall, 1990) can be used as an example of how this theory can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions. The focus here will be on the scene where the patients awakened. Dr. Sayer was present, as was the nurse manager and a staff nurse. At this point, there is a transition in the type of care that needs to be provided to the patients from wholly compensatory to partially compensatory.


All individuals need to take care of themselves in one way or the other, depending on their need at any point in time. There will be instances when the assistance that is required is beyond that of the family members or the lay caregivers within the society, thereby requiring…… [Read More]

References (2012). Nursing theories: Dorothea Orem's Self-care deficit theory. Nursing Retrieved April 7, 2016 from

Geyer, N., Mogotlane, S. M., & Young, A. (2009). Juta's manual of nursing. Lansdowne, SA: Juta.

Parkes, W. (Producer), Lasker, L. (Producer) & Marshall, P. (Director). (1990). Awakenings (motion picture) United States: Lasker/Parkes Productions/Columbia Pictures

Rice, R. (2006). Home care nursing practice: Concepts and application. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
View Full Essay

Grand Strategy Liberalism and How

Words: 1893 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46507194

Consistency, coupled by approval generates legitimacy. A government system is only legitimate if it receives the support of plural citizens. Therefore, a good example is Hosni Mubarak's one party, which was illegitimate. Any policy enjoying the majority approval of the citizens is said to be a legitimate policy. In this context, the United States invasion into Iraq has been perceived as illegitimate. This is not because many citizens of Iraq disapproved the policy but also due to the fact that majority of the Arabs recorded substantial support. As the global military utility continues to decline, a country perceived as consistent and legitimate will encounter minimal resistance from the new Arab world while the U.S. continues to execute its policies.

The occurrence of the Second World War is reflected from the relations between the American grand strategy and the initial existence of the realism, constructivism, and liberalism. Moreover, it is evident from the factors of production that there are many features of performance that have to be used in accordance to the set standards in the society. The grand strategy failed to explore more of the liberal and constructive ideas that were used in the past. Nonetheless, the entire aspects of…… [Read More]

Reference List

Betts, Richard K. Is Strategy an Illusion?

International Security 25, no. 2 (2000): 5-50.

Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons, 2012.

Gray, Colin. Why Strategy is Difficult. Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1999, 6-12.
View Full Essay

Theory About Something but Not Many People

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23534994

theory about something, but not many people realize exactly what defines a theory. While there are as many definitions of a "theory," "generally speaking, a theory is an abstract system of concepts with indications of the relationships among these concepts that help us understand a phenomenon." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") When discussing a theory, it is important to understand that the application of a theory is dependent upon the level of generality. For instance, a theory about communications can apply to the all humans in general, or a specific group of people, or just very specific people in specific circumstances. But whether the theory is "Grand," "Mid-Level," or "Narrow," it must contain a number of specific goals which "can include explanation, understanding, prediction, and social change…." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Theories attempt to explain certain phenomena, then based on patterns recognized by the theory, predict something, and finally can cause social change based on the theory.

Because of this definition, theory, which may be an abstract idea, can be used to explain and understand concrete experiences. Furthermore, they not only allow for predictions about phenomena, but the ability to cause change in that phenomena. Therefore, human experience is often interpreted by whatever…… [Read More]


"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida

State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-
View Full Essay

Theory of Nursing

Words: 2135 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88861122

Nursing Theory

One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The health status, compliance and satisfaction of a patient are greatly impacted by the bedside manner of the provider and how that manner is perceived by the patient. In order to provide effective patient care it is very important for the Advanced Practice Nurses (APN) to have an effective bedside manner.…… [Read More]


Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from website:

Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).

Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.

McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
View Full Essay

Theories of Criminal Justice

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73487615


Criminal Justice System

Crime and the law

Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person go free because the evidence against him or her was extracted in an illegal fashion to uphold constitutional principles: this is not necessarily moral but it is required to preserve individual liberties.

The American justice system is made up of police, courts, and corrections components (Schmalleger 2015:14). The criminal justice…… [Read More]


Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th

ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:

Curriculum Technology.
View Full Essay

Nursing Theory Middle Range Theory

Words: 2277 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98474698

The respondents who step out to be part of the research process should be protected from any unwanted intrusion or any other form of personal or group harassment (Smith & Liehr, 2008).

It is formal to have and conduct nursing research according to the set ethical frameworks where the entire review of the proposal will be undertaken. Whether to be undertaken by the staff or students, this research should be subjected to ethical approvals, which will make sure that the research, proposal is directed at serving the nursing school dream and intentions. Using the Middle range theory, the nursing problems and challenges will be solved in various ways as follows (Smith & Liehr, 2003).

All the nursing researchers and educators, being the staff members, must have respect upon the dignity, interests, and rights of the nursing students and other staff members related and participating in practical and theoretical learning.

Any relevant legislation within the nursing school must provide guidelines on the study of the middle range theory where the research process is conducted within and outside the school.

Informed consent should rule the aspirations and intentions of the nursing research process and individuals

The students and the nursing school principal…… [Read More]


Basford, L., & Slevin, O. (2003). Theory and practice of nursing: An integrated approach to patient care. Cheltenham, U.K: Nelson Thornes.

Fitzpatrick, J.J., & Kazer, M.W. (2012). Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York:

Springer Pub.

Meleis, a.I. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters
View Full Essay

Christian Personal Christian Theory of

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17212565

Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.

Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan wishes us have this for others so we will not and forgive them just as God would like us to. This will also reason a lot of people to feel much better because then they will not have to carry grudges any longer. Rebellion vs. submission is basically just saying…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .

Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .

Anderson, T.N. (1990). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings and Habitual Sins. . Boston: House Publishers, Inc.

Backus, W.C. (1980). Telling Yourself the Truth: Find Your Way Out of Depression, Anxiety, Fear, Anger and Other Common Problems by Applying the Priciples of Misbelief Therapy . Grand Rapids: Bethany Publishing Group.
View Full Essay

Nursing Theory Discuss Several Aspects of Professional

Words: 3198 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38976507

Nursing Theory

"Discuss several aspects of professional communication as it relates to the use of language in terms of form (e.g., clarity, accuracy) and content (culture and/or ethics)." (Question, 2014, p1).

Communication is the reciprocal process where messages are received and sent between two or more individuals. Communication involves exchange of ideas, or opinion, which could be in form oral or written form. On the other hand, communication involves a series of information or message that people send out or receive using senses such as touching, seeing and hearing. However, professional communication is a basic tool in the professional practice, and a professional communication is a formal relationship that must follow certain rules and norms in order to make it more impressive and readable by another person. Typically, quality of communication is very critical in enhancing clarity and accuracy of communication system. While the professional communication system is generally based on the organization culture and ethics, however, the content of professional communication must be simple, clear and written in formal language to enhance clarity and quality of the communication.

Professional communication is very critical in a healthcare profession because it enhances safe and effective healthcare delivery. While communication is a…… [Read More]


Alligood M.R, Tomey, A.M. (2002). Nursing Theory: Utilization & Application .(3rd ed). Missouri: Elsevier Mosby Publications.

AMN Healthcare Education (2012).Professional Communication: Speak Up, Speak Well. AMN Healthcare Education Services.

Butts, J.B (2008). Ethics in Professional Nursing Practice. Chicago, Jones & Bartlett .

Croyle, R.T. (2005). Theory at a Glance: Application to Health Promotion and Health Behavior (Second Edition). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
View Full Essay

String Theory the Fundamental Forces

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81433491

This implies we live in a universe "in which six of the space dimensions have been collapsed or curled up in themselves." (Tipler 650). Since all of these dimensions are believed to be of the order of the Planck length they cannot be seen by any common experimental procedures currently in practice today.

Despite the attractiveness of string theory its utilization of large numbers of space dimensions raises many important questions regarding the formation of the universe, and questions about the possibility of ever verifying it in the lab. Considering the fact that many aspects of physics depend upon the existence of only three spatial dimensions, this might suggest that "three" is a deep principle within nature. Somehow, physics might demand that three dimensions of space grow infinitely while the others collapse on themselves; then again, the creation of our universe may have been utterly accidental in its outcome.

Clearly, experimental evidence would be highly desirable. One of the proposed "best" ways to demonstrate the validity of string theory is to observe proton decay -- which is a prediction associated with messenger particles (Davies 258). Yet this, even by mathematical predictions, is an extremely rare occurrence and has never been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrow, John D. The Origin of the Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Calle, Carlos I. Superstrings and Other Things. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics, 2001.

Davies, Paul and John Gribbin. The Matter Myth. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

Filkin, David. Stephen Hawking's Universe. New York: Perseus, 1997.
View Full Essay

Clinical Theory Practice of the

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13460142

Concisely, Comfort results when an individual keeps of negative or unhealthy living and sticks to positive and healthy living. Comfort has been associated with positive institutional outcomes that include patient satisfaction. The outcome of Comfort is therefore one of the most important indicator of measuring success in nursing practice particularly for patients and families going through some tough or stressful healthcare conditions.

Benefits of the Comfort theory to the Clinical Nurses of the 21st Century

Comfort theory is an important theory that is applicable to the 21st Century clinical practice because of its many inherent benefits or advantages. This theory defines the working environment for healthcare practitioners while at the same time it charts the direction for improving the services offered by the clinical nurses. The universality of the language and concepts used in presenting the theory also promotes its wide acceptance. The simplicity of the tenets of the Comfort theory ensures that all persons, regardless of their academic background can understand and apply it (Kolcaba, 1994).

Additionally, the Comfort theory sets the bar used to measure the quality service offered by clinical nurses of the 21st Century. The theory plays an integral role in informing researches aimed at improving…… [Read More]


Kolcaba, K. (2003) Comfort Theory and Practice: A Vision for Holistic Health Care and Kolcaba, K.Y. (1994). A theory of holistic Comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(6), 1178-1184.

Kolcaba, K., & DiMarco, M.A. (2005). Comfort Theory and its application to pediatric nursing. Pediatric Nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Magyrary, D. (2002) Positive mental health: a turn of the century perspective. Issues of Mental Health Nursing, 23, 331-349

Malinowski, a., & Stamler, L.L. (2002). Comfort: exploration of the concept in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 599-606.
View Full Essay

Interior Design and Theories Architects Everywhere Have

Words: 1648 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54758560

Interior Design and Theories

"Architects everywhere have recognized the need of… a tool which may be put in the hands of creators of form, with the simple aim… of making the bad difficult and the good easy" (Corbusier).

Interior Design is considered to be a multi-faced art where an array of different arts and projects come together to turn a given space into an effective setting for the required purpose. In the past, the interiors of a building were put together instinctively. The development of society and complex architecture has contributed to the contemporary profession of interior designing. Today, many architects also work as interior designers to give the inside of a building a functional design that conforms to the theme of the entire structure.

Usually seen as a secondary to architecture, interior designing often involves a combination of architecture, industrial design, engineering and even craftsmanship to shape together a space for use. It implies more of an emphasis on the planning and effective use of space along with giving thought towards the technical issues such as lighting, temperature, acoustics etc. Behind the exterior as well as the interior design of a structure, is a theory involved with a relevant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corbusier, Le. The Modulor. Foreword of 2nd Edition, n.d.

Kulahcioglu, Can. "History and Theory of Interior Architecture." n.d.

The Center for Palladian Studies in America, Inc.,. "Palladio and English-American Palladianism.." (n.d.).

Vitruve. Book 1. Preface, trans. Morgan.
View Full Essay

Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation Any Theory

Words: 2664 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53620833

Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation

Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.

Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides the same opportunity. However, proponents of the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation argue that reading and studying the Bible provides an even richer opportunity -- that of engaging in interactive communication -- a conversation -- with God. The Scripture communicates in particular ways, according to this theory, and readers have…… [Read More]


Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.

Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.

Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved

Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
View Full Essay

Truth Concise Summary of Theory Christian Counseling

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61375719


Concise Summary of Theory

Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.

The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.

Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling Yourself the Truth addresses "misbelief" therapy for a Christian foundation for personal happiness. Both these books address the need for change as the basis for counseling. After all, clients seek counselors when something in life is uncomfortable or painful. Christian counseling brings the person to a place of wholeness and…… [Read More]


Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
View Full Essay

Conceptual Framework for Studying HIV in the US and Canada

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59617741


Introduction of the Framework

The conceptual framework used in the article is the Grand theory framework. The idea of using grand theory in this article is based on the aspect of the set of abstract ideas that together bring about a broad statement concerning human beings, the health, nursing, and the environment. Grand theory represents a broader scope of ideas in carrying out any form of study. The theory encompasses some concepts together with propositions with less abstract nature and generality unlike the concepts and propositions linked with the conceptual model. Nonetheless, even with such a perception, the model has not involved more concrete propositions and concepts like the middle-range theory (Olivia et al., 2013). The theory has been used by the study in this article in place of a conceptual model, which serves as a guide for carrying out research.

The article titled "Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities," explores the need to identify examples of how epistemological studies and research has been induced in the process of reducing health disparities, especially the giving and treatment of patient minorities with HIV. The study is done in the United States of America, New…… [Read More]


In Smith, M. C., & In Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories & nursing practice. New York: Routledge

Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2016). Advancing your career: Concepts of professional nursing. New York: Routledge

Olivia Carter-Pokras, Tabatha Offutt-Powell, Jay S. Kaufman, Wayne Giles, and Vickie Mays. (2013). Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities. Ann Epidemiol. 2012 Jun; 22(6): 446-455. Doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.04.018

Smith, M. J., & Liehr, P. R. (2014). Middle range theory for nursing. New York: Springer.
View Full Essay

Nursing Theory Applications in Nursing Theory and

Words: 4440 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78758413

Nursing Theory

Applications in Nursing

Nursing Theory and its Applications

In this paper, we will assess a grand nursing theory namely the Humanistic Model. First let's have a brief introduction regarding this theory. The nursing theories either grand or middle range give organization in expressing statements which are related to questions in the field of nursing. It also gives nurses the opportunity in describing, predicting, explaining and controlling different sorts of activities which are relative to their daily practice. Nursing theories regarding the humanistic model believe on the phenomena that patients hold the key potential in self-actualization which can be used in many healthy as well as creative ways. Here, the focus of the humanists lie in the belief that nursing care is basically two-way interaction which occurs between patients and the nurse, the outcomes of this relation are influenced by both of their actions.

Firstly, let's have a look on some of the important phases in the study of overall nursing. "A nurse should always have broad understanding of its own viewpoints, this helps in making more sense and adding more meanings to its overall experience." (Williams, 2000). Nurses should also be more open to new and many different…… [Read More]


McKenna, H. (1997). Nursing Theories and Models. London: Routledge.

Kelly, Y. (2002). The Nursing Experience. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Daly, J. (2005). Professional Nursing. New York: Springer.

Traynor, M. (1999). Managerialism and Nursing. London: Routledge.
View Full Essay

Orem's Theory of Self-Care Deficit

Words: 3089 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90083470

In reaction, diabetes research looks into pharmacological options and changes in lifestyle to contain the trend. Recent findings point to the need for healthcare professionals to empower diabetes sufferers to take recourse in self-management as the best option at the moment (Kumar).

The purposefulness of a plan and its implementation in assisting a client with diabetes helped fill in her self-care deficit (Kumar 2007). The interpersonal relationship between a nurse and her client minimizes the stress experienced by the latter and her family. This enables the client or patient and her family to act more responsibly in health matters. An assessment and plan of care may use Orem's client-related concepts -- of self-care, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand and self-care deficit --, the concepts of nursing agency and nursing system and the basic conditioning factors. Integrating these concepts into other theories on health promotion and family systems may guide effective health assessment, health outcomes and nursing interventions (Kumar).

The particular goal of managing chronic diabetes is self-care (Kumar 2007). Orem's theory provides direction to the diabetes educator in guiding the client in self-management. A recent study found that theory-based nursing care and standardized nursing language reduced a client's self-care deficit…… [Read More]


Aldridge, V. (2005). Self-monitoring of blood, glucose invaluable in managing diabetes. 3 pages. Journal of Diabetes Nursing: SB Communications. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at;col1

Aliha, J.M., et al. (2006). Relation between self-care behavior and self-care needs in patients with heart failure.2 pages. Southern African Journal of Critical Care: South African Medical Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at;col1

Bruce, E., et al. (2008). Dorothea Orem's theory of self-care. 38 pages. SlideShare, Inc. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at 

Cook, a., et al. (2006). Self-care needs of caregivers dealing with stroke. 9 pages.
View Full Essay

Ethics Position - Nae Grand

Words: 2346 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17244654

The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).

Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in Western countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and it is maybe for that reason not astonishing that, even with no CDM, the chief importance for Western nuclear companies at present seems to be export orders, with the developing world being an apparent objective (Nohrstedt, 2008).

Disclosure to Public

This highlights the problem of the role of nuclear power,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Martin, M.W. And Schinzinger, R. Ethics in Engineering, 2d Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.

Brantley, C.J. Survey of Ethics Code Provisions by Subject-Matter Area, American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, D.C., 2009.

Doyle, Thomas E. The Moral Implications of the Subversion of the Nonproliferation Treaty Regime, Ethics and Global Politics 2, no. 2. 2009.

Ferguson, Charles D. The Long Road to Zero: Overcoming the Obstacles to a Nuclear-Free World, Foreign Affairs 89, no. 1. January/February 2010.
View Full Essay

Nursing Theory The Nursing Field Is a

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12270682

Nursing Theory:

The nursing field is a practice discipline where the learning of students incorporates the capability to apply theory during the provision of care to patients. However, the use of theory in nursing practice requires an understanding of the abstract and the mechanism of applying the abstract to practice. Therefore, the use of theory in nursing practice is not only a challenging but also appropriate experience in developing new nursing programs. One of the major goals of planning for a new undergraduate nursing program is to develop way with which the nursing students can establish care practices that focus on the human reaction to illness.

Since theory is an important aspect of educational programs in nursing, the new undergraduate nursing program will incorporate middle-range theory into the curriculum. Middle range theory can be described as a series of related ideas that are directed towards a restricted dimension of the reality of nursing (Smith & Liehr, 2008). The theories consist of concepts and proposed relationships among the ideas than can be revealed in a model. Generally, these theories are developed and flourish at the connection of practice and research in order to provide directions for daily practice and scholarly research.…… [Read More]


Carpenter, R. (2010, February). Using Story Theory to Create an Innovative Honors Level

Nursing Course. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(1), 28-32.

McMahon, M.A. & Christopher, K.A. (2011, April). Toward a Mid-range Theory of Nursing

Presence. Nursing Forum, 46(2), 71-82.
View Full Essay

Cyndi Banks' Criminal Justice Ethics Theory and

Words: 1049 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24300420

Cyndi Banks' Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice

No serious-minded individual over the age of twelve actually thinks that justice and ethical issues involved in criminality are purely black-and-white or clear-cut issues of good and bad. The first chapters of Cyndi Banks' (2008) Criminal Justice Ethics, however, make it clear that the issues of right and wrong in the criminal justice system are far more complex, specific, and subtle than one might have guessed, even when grand and overarching principles serve as the ultimate source for the ethical considerations in a criminal justice case. Especially when supplemented by additional research regarding the workings of the criminal justice system and the application of ethics in cranial justice decisions and policies, the first chapters of this book have a profound effect in shaping an awareness of such considerations.

The Importance of Ethics

One of the most profound impacts the first chapter of Banks' (2008) book has on the reader is in breaking down the different ways of understanding ethics, some of which are at least in part mutually exclusive. Ethical absolutism doesn't take into account differences in cultural values or perspectives, and yet it is easy to see that there are significant…… [Read More]


Banks, C. (2008). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chin, G. (2002). Race, the War on Drugs, and the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction. Journal of Gender, Race, & Justice 6: 253.

Easton, M., Den Boer, M., Janssens, J. Moelker, R. & Vanderbeken, T. (2010). Blurring Police and Military Roles. Berlin: Hogent.
View Full Essay

Personality Theory of Elvis Presley

Words: 1746 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80938072

One that is in love will only recognize the good object of their love, and typically for a while at least be not capable or extremely reluctant to recognize the rest. This occurrence is called splitting, and is measured a much undeveloped defense instrument (19 Borderline Personality Disorder: A Theory of Borderlines, 2010).

Splitting seems to be the major defense apparatus of the borderline. A borderline sees others in expressions of black and white or as good or bad. The major difficulty in treatment of borderlines is to manage their impractical visions of other people and in their efforts to generate self satisfying predictions to make everything else fit with their insights. If a borderline thinks one as a superior object, they will go to immense actions in supplying circumstances or accepting this outlook (19 Borderline Personality Disorder: A Theory of Borderlines, 2010).… [Read More]


19 Borderline Personality Disorder: A Theory of Borderlines. (2010). Retrieved November 24,

2010, from Web site:

Carl Jung. (2006). Retrieved November 24, 2010, from Web site:
View Full Essay

Miller Evolution Miller's Theory of

Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28820253

As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.

Chapter 6: The World That Knew We Were Coming

Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in other specific, illustrating that the patterns which anti-evolutionists refuse in relation to humanity are yet observable elsewhere throughout the organic world. A review in this chapter of the evolutionary adaptation of Australia's marsupials denotes as much, indicating of both Australia and elsewhere, "although evolution found its way to all those…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).

Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.
View Full Essay

Magic Bullet Theory

Words: 3545 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74196382

magic bullet theory" -- sometimes called the hypodermic needle theory -- holds that when recipients of broadcasted information are separated from one another they are extremely susceptible to the messages that they are receiving; theses messages can drastically influence their opinions as well as their perceptions of reality. "Agenda setting scholars corroborate the fact that our dependence on the media for news and information has shaped and reinforced our perceptions of the world around us. The mass media continue to set the news agenda for dominant events, issues and policies that subsequently become popular in our social discourse."

It is a theory regarding the nature by which information influences its receivers and is generally only accurate under a specific set of circumstances. Overall, the magic bullet theory cannot be utilized as a comprehensive model for the mass media because it ignores a number of characteristics inherent to human nature. The term itself actually originates from the middle of the nineteenth century, and generally refers to medical treatments:

"Historically, and particularly in the 19th Century, a medical cure in the form of a pill or injection has been referred to as a 'Magic Bullet.' This usage derives from an imperfect knowledge…… [Read More]


1. Alozie, Emmanuel C. (2003). Global Media Journal, volume 2, issue 5.

2. Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.

3. Gehman, Gary L. (1999). "About Magic Bullet Communications." Magic Bullet Communications, Oct. 10.

4. Holtzman, Linda. (2000). Media Messages. New York: M.E. Sharp.
View Full Essay

Thomas Kuhn's Paradigm Theory

Words: 2840 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67219198

Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) was an American scientist, historian and philosopher who wrote a controversial book in 1962 called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn was born in Cincinnati, Ohio and from an early age expressed interest in science, particularly physics; obtaining his BS degree in physics from Harvard in 1943. He stayed at Harvard for his MS and PhD, and credits the period of the late 1940s in helping him develop his views on the history and philosophy of science. He taught at Berkeley until 1964, and then moved to Princeton from 1964 to 1979, moving to MIT until 1991. Kuhn died in 1996 from lung cancer, but left a long tradition of scientific articles, books and student input (Fuller, 2000)

This book introduced the term "paradigm shift" and made several claims surrounding the manner in which we understand scientific knowledge, process that knowledge, and use that knowledge to come up with new ideas and approaches to problems. The overall thesis of the book is that periodically, science undergoes paradigm shifts that are punctuated in structure. Instead of science progressing in a linear fashion -- e.g. one small step leading to an improvement and other step, etc., the paradigm shifts…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains. (2011, June). Retrieved from 

Fuller, S. (2000). ThomasKuhn: A Philosophical History From Our Time.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Gould, S. (2007, March). Puntuated Equilibrium. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Understanding Nursing Theory

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65561219

Nursing Theory -- Roy Adaptation Model

The Roy Adaptation Model is one of the most commonly cited and used options when it comes to nursing theories. It has been in existence since 1976, and has had a number of years to be adjusted and changed to work with the adjustments that have occurred in the field of nursing over time (Alligood, 2011). Being able to adapt and change is a very important part of nursing, because all patients are different. Additionally, treatments and medications change rapidly, and that can be difficult to keep up with if a nurse is not focused on adapting his or her style and beliefs to the changing nature of medicine. Here, the importance of nursing theory will be explored, along with the key points that are used in the Roy Adaptation Model. The views and ideas that the model provides when it comes to nursing leadership will be addressed, too, because nurses must often work as leaders and make quick decisions that can affect their patients and other members of the medical team.

The Importance of Nursing Theory

There is great value in nursing theory in general, and that is the case no matter what…… [Read More]


Alligood, M.R. (2011). The power of theoretical knowledge. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 304-305.

Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2013). Essentials of nursing research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Roy, C. (2011). Extending the Roy adaptation model to meet changing global needs. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 345-351.

Roy, C. (2011). Research based on the Roy Adaptation Model last 25 years. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 312-320.
View Full Essay

Organization Development and Complexity Theory

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27582047

Businesses constantly face the need to update, the need to innovate. With these businesses come its leaders who feel the same bombardment at all levels. The speed at which change arises causes the lifecycles of typical businesses and the products they sell to last just a short time unless they learn to successfully adapt. As Keen (2000), explains: "Change is seen as necessary merely to survive; transformation is required to thrive and a constant need for reinvention is needed to secure long-term success (Keene, 2000, p. 15). In order to meet those demands, sometimes businesses may use a method or theory to help them.

Complexity science is a recently examined field of study. It is fast-growing, in use across all dimensions of business. Complexity science is a term typically used to signify an increasing body of interdisciplinary studies about the structure, behaviour and dynamics of change in a particular category of complex systems known as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) (Wegener, 2010, p. 225). CASs are open, evolutionary systems in which the components are dynamic, self-organizing, and strongly interrelated. (Sanders, 2008, p. 275)

Complexity science and complexity theory offers one, in this case a business, a chance to view issues within…… [Read More]


Anderson, P. (1999). Perspective: Complexity Theory and Organization Science. Organization Science, 10(3). doi:10.1287/orsc.10.3.216

Dolan, S.L., Garcia, S., & Auerbach, A. (2003). Understanding and Managing Chaos in Organisations. International Journal of Management, 20(1), 23-37.

Griffin, D., Shaw, P., & Stacey, R. (1999). Knowing and Acting in Conditions of Uncertainty: A Complexity Perspective. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 12(3), 295-310. doi:10.1023/A:1022403802302

Keene, A. (2000). Complexity theory: the changing role of leadership. Industrial and Commercial Training, 32(1), 15-18.
View Full Essay

Labor Econ the Theory of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48080519

The intersection determines the amount of investment in education / productivity factors by all individuals and institutions.

The major criticisms to the Neoclassical model come from the assumption competition holds, namely that individuals act to maximize profit in all scenarios; factor mobility is unlimited; marginal returns to labor don't increase with wage rates, and other simplifications which rarely hold true in the workforce. Nor are all workers the same to the firm (discrimination), and workers' productivity and labor supply decisions change at different wage levels. Then we have to consider frictional unemployment; information asymmetry; product substitution; any number of real constraints that complicate the pure "Marginal Demand for Labor" theory (Kaufman & Hotchkiss, 2000, p. 31).… [Read More]

The main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory where institution effects went ignored (New School n.d.). The more sociological approach recognizes 'market failures' of discrimination, collective bargaining and incorporation. Evidence surrounds us today in the form of monopolistic energy provision, embedded in every price on every shelf including wages, for example. One criticism on an Institutional line would be the persistence of poverty. If poverty is unwanted, either we allow poverty to persist, it is necessary for Neoclassical models to hold, or the model is flawed. The Institutional thread leads eventually via the London School to the modern "Post-Keynesian," "Behavioral," "Environmental," and other heterodox schools.

Comparing share of population to share of workforce for groups with a particular characteristic reveals discrimination if a group is underrepresented in a firm or industry. or, we identify where a category is overrepresented in the total labor market relative to other workers. If productivity is the same between groups, lower wages must be explained somehow. The heterodox perspective recognizes potential effects within the market, and before workers apply for a job. Some workers are less competitive than others before they apply, education being a common reason, which depends on access outside the workplace. Market discrimination enters the realm of individual aversion to classes of workers by the employer or other workers, usually over ethnicity, religion or gender, but any reason can provide empirical evidence if wage differentials persist.

Prejudice is real, and it results in lower wages for minorities (Kaufman & Hotchkiss 2000, p. 469). In the aggregate, equally
View Full Essay

Supercontinent Theory the Physical Geology of the

Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10576083

Supercontinent Theory

The physical geology of the earth consists of a Core (inner and outer), the mantle, the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The lithosphere is the crust and upper mantle of the earth that is the hard and rigid layer in which humans live. This portion of the earth reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through erosion and weathering, resulting in the soil forming process (Johnson, 2006). These layers of the earth are constantly in motion, giving us the Plate Tectonics, or Continental Drift, theory. Briefly, the theory states that the continents move across the molten plate of the earth -- drifting over time based on the rotation of the earth. The early evidence for this, of course, was that the eastern part of South America and Western Part of Africa fit together quite well. However, studies after 1958 show that there are three major reasons why the "drift" theory is likely incorrect: 1) floating masses on a rotating ball tend to collect at the equator and remain there; 2) masses floating like icebergs should be in balance with gravity and buoyancy whereas measurements show this is not the case, and; 3) why were some parts of the Earth…… [Read More]


Frankel, H. (2012). The Continental Drift Controversy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, R. (2006). Plate Tectonics -- Great Ideas in Science. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Company.

United States Geological Society. (2009). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Big Bang vs Six-Day Creation Theory

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46062392

Big Bang vs. Six-Day Creation Theory

Man knows that the universe exists; however, his curiosity has not allowed him to dwell on this knowledge alone. Throughout his brief history on this planet, man has struggled to understand his "place in this universe, and furthermore, the place of the universe itself" (LaRocco & Rothstein, n.d.). For ages, he has attempted to find answers on the age of the universe, as well as on the origins of matter and the greater universe. In his quest, man has moved from the mystical beginnings of earth's origin to the development of scientific theories, some of which have only made the subject more complex and intriguing. Man's continued interest in the subject has led to the emergence of two cadres of creationists - the young earth creationists, who posit that earth was created by a supernatural being, over a span of six days, thousands of years ago; and the old earth creationists, who hold that the universe resulted from a great chaotic explosion that occurred millions of years ago.

Old-Earth View: The Big Bang

More than five billion years ago, a chaotic explosion referred to as the Big Bang hit the 10-20 billion-year embryonic universe,…… [Read More]


Dean, D. (2003). Is the Truth Out There: A Journey through Critical Thinking that Spans Man's History, Origin, and Place in the Universe. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.

Landgraf, K. (2011). No Bones about It: The Truth about Fossils and Other Science Myths. Mustang, Oklahoma: Tate Publishing

LaRocco, C. & Rothstein, B. (n.d.). The Big Bang: It Sure was Big. University of Michigan. Retrieved 23 June 2014 from 

Taylor, B. (2008). The Late Great Ape Debate. Santa Rosa, CA: Standard Publishing.
View Full Essay

Biological Theories of Youth Crime

Words: 956 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81963374

" (Magrid and McKelvey, 1990).

Although some analysts still toss around the question of nature vs. nurture, current research seems to be edging out nature and placing much more emphasis on nurture. Another notable expert who agrees with the author's premise is Benjamin B. Wolman. Wolman explores the foundations of deviant behavior in his widely-read book, "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide," and emphasizes nurture almost to the exclusion of nature, in explaining why sociopaths are more and more prevalent in our society. According to Wolman, "the way that parents rear their children can be crucial. Parental rejection can adversely affect their children's self-confidence and self-reliance. Undeniably, these children will feel neglected and unwanted if their parents are not affectionate and considerate. These children cannot however behave aggressively toward their parents as they fear that they might retaliate. Instead, they behave aggressively toward weak people who are unable to fight back."

The opinions of the experts ring true. A look back over the past two or three decades highlights a vivid timeline of events leading up to today's crisis. Until the late 80s-early 90s, it was most acceptable for mothers to stay home with their children. In the…… [Read More]


Karr-Morse, Robin and Wiley, Meredith S., (1999). "Ghosts from the Nursery: Tracing the Roots of Violence" (1999). Chapter 2: Grand Central: Early Brain Anatomy and Violence. Pub Group West.

Magrid, Ken & McKelvey Carole a. (1990). "High Risk Children without a Conscience." Bantam, Doubleday, Dell.

Wolman, Benjamin B. (1999). "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide." Prometheus Books.
View Full Essay

Military Theory

Words: 5275 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32003274

Military Theory: Jomini on Napoleon

The objective of this study is to use the Campaign of 1813 culminating in the battle of Leipzig and to identify and analyze both the critical points and decisive points that Antoine-Henri Jomini in his 'Principles of War' would have listed in relation to proper time and sufficient force and identify how many would be applied both positively and negatively to Napoleon's maneuvering and engaging.

Napoleon's Focus

The focus of Napoleon in the Campaign of 1813 was to launch such a mass attack on the enemy that they would be overcome and decimated. However, as this study will demonstrate, Napoleon missed chances to do just that and his poor planning and improper timing resulted in the losses of many thousands of lives that did not have to be lost. According to Jomini, the art of war is comprised by six specific parts including: (1) statesmanship in its relation to war; (2) strategy, or the art of properly directing masses upon the theater of war, either for defense or invasion; (3) grand tactics; (4) logistics, or the art of moving armies; (5) engineering -- the attack and defense of fortification; and (6) minor tactics. (Mendell and…… [Read More]


Allen, BM (1998) The Effects of Infectious Disease on Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Air Command and Staff College, Air University. Retrieved from:

Jomini on Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of Operations. [Excerpted from Antoine-Henri Jomini, The Art of War G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill, trs. (Philadelphia: Lippicott, 1892), pp. 85-92]. Retrieved from: 

Keefe, JM (1995) Napoleon's Marshals in 1813. School of Advanced Military Studies. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First Term AY 94-95. Retrieved from:

Nomura, RC (2012) Issues in strategic thought: from Clausewitz to al-Qaida. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL I. JOMINI VS. CLAUSEWITZ December 2012. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Elusive Theory of Everything the

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42901217

Interestingly enough, though, what is it that is so aesthetically pleasing that we want there to be a single theory of everything -- why does everything need to be explained in one fell swoop? This idea of a Theory of Everything is becoming more philiosophical than scientific. Aristotle and Plato were unsuccesful in their attempt to make a theory work, and Hawking said, in A Brief History of Time, that even if we had a Theory of Everything, it would necessarily be a large set of equations. "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"(Hawking in Fletcher, 2008, 196).

Now, though, Hawking has revised his views. In the new book, The Grand Design, Hawking and Mlodinow (Caltech physicist) argue that it is a set of equations that will, indeed, tie theories together, but that a final theory may never have a unique set of equations. While a network of mathematical connections links strong theory into one huge, overachieving, and quite robust theory (the M-Theory), philosophers might argue that it is network and relationship, much like the human neural network, that actually constitues the theory (Hawking and Mlodinow, 2010).


Fletcher, A.…… [Read More]


Fletcher, A. (2008). Life, the Universe and Everything: Investigating God and the New Physics. Denver, CO: Lulu Publishers.

Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010, September 27). The Elusive Theory of Everything. Retrieved October 2010, from Scientific American:

Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010). The Grand Design. New York: Bantam.

Pais, A. (1982). Subtle is the Lord.... The Science and Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Equity Theory of Motivation the

Words: 4137 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28331334

Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she received a Master of Science in management.

Professionally speaking, Fiorina occupied various secretarial positions; she was also a teacher of English in Italy and a receptionist. Her fruitful career began in 1980 when she joined at&T, where after various positions, came to be the company's Senior Vice President. In 1999 she joined Hewlett-Packard as Chief Executive Officer, but was forced to leave in 2005. After her departure from HP, Fiorina engaged in personal and political actions, such as the edition of her book Tough Choices: A Memoir, or campaigning with presidential candidate John McCain (Jacoby, 2008).

Carly Fiorina possesses numerous skills which qualify her for the leader's position. First of all, she has extensive knowledge and expertise, backed by a high education and various personal traits, such as confidence, power of conviction, determination and perseverance. All these make up for traits which qualify her as a "Great Man" (based on the Great Man theories which argue that a leader is born, not made). Then, relative to the contingency…… [Read More]


Adams, K., 2009, McLaren Boss Retires, Classic and Performance Car, accessed on January 21, 2009

Williams, R., December 22, 2007, Why Mosley is Happy with the Season that Had Everything, the Guardian

Wolff, a., June 12, 2007, 'Better than Sex' That's how Formula One Phenomenon Lewis Hamilton Described Winning His First Pole, Sports Illustrated

2007, the FIA's McLaren-Monaco Statement in Full, Formula 1 Website, accessed on January 21, 2009
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91391740

Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory

British Crime Survey (BCS) Review

The survey I reviewed is from primary research that provided a transcript for an interview, presumably to use in a face-to-face interview -- there are directions for showing cards to the respondents that give them a change to read response options and choices. Demographic data was collected at the beginning of the survey either to act as a screener or because it is essential to the data collection -- having this information at the start of the survey ensures that the interview will not conclude or be aborted without collecting this information. Demographic data tends to be categorized, which provides quantitative data analysis capability. A fairly consistent use of a 5-point Likert scale is used to record participants' responses. In other places, respondents are asked to choose from a list of distinct responses or simply answer yes or no. Where multiple choices are provided, the options are clear and distinct from one another, an attribute that contributes to content validity. In addition, the same question is asked in different ways across the survey -- which is quite lengthy -- thereby adding a measure of reliability. The cover letter…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Environmental Theory and Emancipatory Knowledge

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395592

Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. (Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended up at the Kaiserswerth Institution on the Rhine in Germany and Nightingale was asked by Pastor Theodore Fliedner to write a pamphlet about Kaiserswerth. In 1851 Nightingale studied for three months at Kaiserswerth, after her father sent her 500 pound for her studies, later she opened her own nursing establishment…… [Read More]

(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).

Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).

The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
View Full Essay

Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory When Socrates'

Words: 4276 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12580038

Certainly, rhetoric lends itself to the discovery of truth, as truth (Aristotle suggests) always makes more intuitive and intellectual sense compared to falsehood, and so equally talented rhetoricians will be more convincing sharing the truth than sharing falsehood. However, critics have pointed out that there is so "tension between Aristotle's epistemological optimism and his attempt to come to terms with rhetoric as a culturally and contextually specific social institution.... [as Aristotle says] scientific discourse is concerned with instruction, but in the case of [certain audiences] instruction is impossible; our proofs and arguments must rest on generally accepted principles... rhetoric [is] something separate from and inferior to scientific and ethical deliberation." (Haskins, 2004, 13-14)

Aristotle's historical effect on rhetoric and its continued fallout

It may seem self-evident that arguments today would be based as much on logic and the greater good than on past authority and religious dogma. However, such an outcome was hardly assured in the Western world. For many decades, after the fall of Rome to barbarian hordes and the fracturing of desolated European culture into feudal holes, there was very little political debate whatsoever, and most discussions were based entirely on force of arms or force of faith.…… [Read More]


Abizadeh, Arash. (2002) "The passions of the wise: phronesis, rhetoric, and Aristotle's passionate practical deliberation." The Review of Metaphysics, v56 i2 p267(30)

GaleGroup Database]

Aristotle. (350 BCE) Rhetoric. Trans. Rhys Roberts. [MIT Classics Archive Database]

Haskins, Ekaterina V. (2004) "Endoxa, Epistemological Optimism, and Aristotle's Rhetorical Project" Philosophy and Rhetoric - Volume 37, Number 1, pp. 1-20. [Muse Project Database]