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Great Awakening in America
The Great Awakenings refer to several waves of interest in religion in America. These waves have coincided with increases in economic prosperity and materialism that have caused people to view religion with less interest. It began in the 1930s as disunited attempts at religious revival and in the 1940s had matured into "the remarkable Revival of Religion" (Lambert, p. 6). During the 1740 sThe Great Awakenings aimed at inspiring people to perceive religion as a source of emotional energy and not as a set of rituals and practices. The social and economic problems faced by twenty-first century American society necessitate a similar movement that can create a sense of community in a religiously and ethnically diverse society.
During the early decades of the eighteenth century, the British colonies in America were evolving from their beginnings in the sixteenth century. Trade in slaves, sugar, tobacco and manufactured…… [Read More]
Using Tennents' strategy, the clergymen of Presbyterian, Puritan and Baptist churches were conducting revivals in their regions by the 1740s. Preachers such as Jonathan Edwards stirred up flamboyant and terrifying images of the absolute corruption of the human nature in their emotionally charged sermons. These preachers also described the terrors awaiting the unrepentant in hell in their powerful sermons.
Some of the converts from the early revivals in the northern colonies were inspired to become missionaries to the southern region of America. The great awakening continued to spread in the late 1740s when Presbyterian preachers from New York and New Jersey started proselytizing in the Virginia Piedmont. It also spread to central North Carolina and the surrounding colonies by the 1750s when some members of the Separate Baptists moved from New England. Notably, 10% of all southern churchgoers were evangelical converts by the eve of the American Revolution.
There were…… [Read More]
The Battle over Political Influence: Dominance of the 'New Lights' (Evangelist) Movement in the Great Awakening
After the England colonies have established themselves in their newfound territory, New England, they started establishing a new society that will be governed under the Puritanist moral code. This is vital in understanding New England society, whose step towards self-governance is implementing laws and norms in the society adherent to the teachings of Puritanism, the prevailing religion not only in the colonies, but in England (their mother country) as well.
The development of a "theocratic society" in New England is accompanied with the leaders' preoccupation in implementing this kind of society by "were worrying less about conversion and more about improving society based on their moralistic beliefs" (Findling 2). Thus, with this objective in mind, leaders of the New England society encouraged the religious revival popularly known as the "Great Awakening," identified…… [Read More]
great awakening was a religious revival that swept across America in the 1730s to 1740s that saw the restructuring of the society in general within America. For the very first time, this religious revival managed to bring the Native Americans and the blacks into the organized churches as opposed to the prior diverse ways of their worship to their various gods. It also brought the new colonialists into the church to share worship place with the Native Americans and blacks. This was also the very initial time that the religious revival led people to develop interest in education and hence universities like Princeton university and Brown University were established.
In the 1700s, the puritan church had lost its grip on the congregation and the society at large and the membership in the churches was on the decline. The puritan church had a lot of restrictive laws and measure like using…… [Read More]
Great Awakening and the Enlightenment
The Great Awakening, was not, as many believe a continuous spiritual awakening or revival in colonial America, instead it was a several revivals in a variety of locations (Matthews). However, The Great Awakening is an appropriate name. The new Americans had found their lives much different from their lives in England. In England the communities were compact, but in America people lived in great expanses of land. Because people had to fend for themselves, any type of authority -- governmental or ecclesiastical -- was met with resistance (Matthews). This and the fact that church was simply not easy to get to caused people to be "spiritually asleep."
The Great Awakening began with Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758). Initially the movement broke out in Northampton, Massachusetts in 1733 when Edwards preached to the youth of his church about the great sin of bundling. Bundling was a custom where…… [Read More]
The multitudes of all sects and denominations that attended his sermons were enormous, and it was matter of speculation to me, who was one of the number, to observe the extraordinary influence of his oratory on his hearers (rannan 1998).
Franklin, a signatory of the Declaration of Independence and a true Democrat, saw both Whitefield's democratic tendencies and the threat that he posed to the Established Church. He noted that "some of Mr. Whitefield's enemies affected to suppose that he would apply those collections (of money) to his own private emolument...," but Franklin would have none of it.
The established Puritan churches in Massachusetts had assumed the role of the official churches of Europe, asserting that they represented God in the matters of government. Like modern-day theology-based governments, they believed that God's laws, interpreted through the Puritan church, were also the laws for the community. In 1635, the Reverend John…… [Read More]
This is more of a religious awakening that was experienced within the American colonies from the 1730s to the 1770s leading to the independence period. It was a revitalization of the religious groupings and religious movements particularly among American colonies. The movement in America was not in isolation but part of a much wider mass movement that was taking place on the other areas like England, Germany and Scotland (Christine L.H., 2013).
Notably this was a movement that was to counter the earlier movement known as the Age of Enlighten which was notable by the rebellious approach to religion and questioning the concept of Christianity among other religions and replacing such religious arguments with logic and science. The Great Awakening was therefore an Age of Faith that rose to counter the logic and scientific view of religion and in the process reaffirms the centrality of religion in the…… [Read More]
This third wave has built up from more diverse and exotic sources than the first two, from therapeutic movements as well as overtly religious movements, from hippies and students of "psi phenomena" and Flying Saucerites as well as charismatic Christians. But other than that, what will historians say about it?" (p. 17)
Wolfe was certain historians could not possibly find anything positive to say about this trend. He cited some studies that had described the first two awakenings in positive terms but became even more certain that the third awakening is nothing but a seriously damaging movement.
The description of third awakening given by the author is seriously though provoking as well. It mockingly refers to the birth of a new quasi-religious worship of the self in the Me Decade of the 1960s that parallels in intensity Jonathan Edwards's era in the 1740s and what historians call the Second Great…… [Read More]
Indeed, the Eastern awakening caused groups and societies to spring up that were characterized by their desire to do missionary work in the United States ("Second Great").
In the Appalachian region, however, the antecedent of the Second Great Awakening was the first and other revivals that had occurred since then. The tone taken in this region was the same evangelistic, camp meeting gospel preached at such events in the past, complete with emotional fervor. Indeed, it was this region that gave rise to newfound strength for Methodists and Baptists, whose popularity ever since can be credited to this period in history and its spiritual events. Thus, the Second Great Awakening was an important part of American History in which denominations were formed and strengthened and the social working religion was formed.
"Second Great Awakening: Religious Revival Movement Had Profound Impact in U.S."
America.Gov. 5 April 2008. 26 July…… [Read More]
One of the founding concepts for the country was ignored completely by the tens of thousands of preachers sweeping the country. This reneging of a fundamental right to practice religion as an individual saw fit, resulted in increased control without representation for the average citizen.
Only a few decades earlier, Americans had fought and died for the principle centering on someone having control over the country, without the country having any say in the matter whatsoever. The Second Great Awakening was very much the same. This religious tyranny insisted that citizens worship in the way they felt was appropriate and the average citizen had no input. All of this was in addition to a general sense of hypocrisy of the movement.
Preachers during the Second Great Awakening gave sermons against a market society. Wealth and greed were selfish, according to their beliefs. Yet, it was this same wealth and greed…… [Read More]
Another type of church came into light in this era was the African Methodist Episcopal church (or AME Church founded by a slave Richard Allen in 1810. It provided relief and comfort to slaves and thus was accepted largely by slaves.
Another figure of these times was, Mother Ann Lee, was claimed to be the reincarnation of Christ. She founded the Shakers which was successful in Europe, but extremely popular in America. John Humphrey Noyes, who founded the Oneida Community strongly, rejected the celibacy of Mother Lee who claimed to live a celibate lifestyle. He introduced the idea of "complex marriages" in which, unlike the traditional marriages, everyone was married to everyone. Another church known as Mormon Church was established whose founder Joseph Smith claimed to guide by an angel Moronic.
hen there was another group of people -the Millenarians who believed that in return of Christ by the year…… [Read More]
The United States after the Great ar
orld ar I, also known as the Great ar, officially came to an end in 1918 and reshaped the country in a variety of ways. One of the most immediate changes was the way the world perceived the United States. Before the war, most of the country and its leaders preferred an isolationist stance to any international conflict. In 1914 the U.S. had only a small army and a pitiful navy, yet as the war progressed many Americans began to disapprove of the German's use of submarines to sink neutral ships such as the infamous sinking of the Lusitania (Hickman). However, it is interesting to note that the German's were actually correct in their assertion that the Lusitania was being used to carry military ammunition, as divers have recently uncovered from the wreckage, which did actually make the ship a legitimate…… [Read More]
Dogen's Great Doubt
Both exoteric and esoteric Buddhism teach the primal Buddha-nature [or harma-nature] and the original self-awakening of all sentient beings. If this is the case, why have the buddhas of all ages had to awaken the longing for and seek enlightenment by engaging in ascetic practice? [Masao Abe, A Study of Dogen, 19]
How did Dogen's "Great Doubt" influence his approach to the philosophy and practice of Zen? How is this approach reflected in his conception of zazen (seated meditation) as "just sitting" (shikan taza)? Contrast Dogen's "just sitting" with the koan style of zazen that developed in the Rinzai school of Zen.
To understand his primal Buddha-nature, the Buddha of all ages paradoxically had to stand outside of the material world of suffering. Through meditation, he was able to break within himself the chain of infinite actions or desires that make up the material world. Dogen's great…… [Read More]
The 1960's saw the rise of the feminist movement and the demand of equal rights for women. Suddenly women were faced with an array of new possibilities outside the traditional role of housewife and mother. Many women left the home to take jobs, get educations, and fulfill other dreams; and Jackie's mother was one of those. But the liberation of women from the traditional role of wife and mother meant harm to the traditional family unit, and sometimes that harm could be quite enormous. hile many women decided that a wife and mother could also have a job, get an education, etc., others decided that the family was too much of a burden for them.
It was Jack Russell who was forced to make the decision for his wife; she was no longer part of the family. hile she could not bring herself to make the final break and live…… [Read More]
Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian ook of the Dead
The Egyptian ook of the Dead is a western title for an ancient collection of Egyptian manuscripts, the majority of which were funerary in nature. These collected writings have also been referred to as the Egyptian ible or identified by the names of the scribes who penned them. The Papyrus of Ani comprises the most significant contribution to these texts, though there are some other minor sources which are often included. In the original languages, these works were more accurately entitled the ooks of Coming Forth y Day. One of the greatest challenges to English-language speakers when confronting all the great scriptures is the language gap. Unless one has the time and inclination to learn Arabic, Hindi, Hebrew, Greek -- or in this case, Egyptian Heiroglyphs -- it becomes necessary to read the scriptures in translation. The farther removed one's own…… [Read More]
We must be willing to fail, to falter, to suffer, in order to become greater versions of ourselves. Sometimes, being shown lesser versions of ourselves can be the key to this personal evolution.
And perhaps most importantly, we must recognize that this personal evolution does not occur in a vacuum. To the contrary, we improve ourselves only if we improve the value we represent for the whole of humanity, in whatever modest capacity this may be possible. Here, we are driven by the idea that "a human being is a part of a whole, called by us the 'universe', a part limited in time and space."
This is perhaps the unifying principle in our discussion. The openness which is a recurrent theme here denotes especially the imperative to remain open to one's fellow man. Nothing that we do occurs independently of the needs and wishes of family, friends, communities, societies,…… [Read More]
The author continues, "His views were so radical and would involve such a change of heart of the part of the hearers, that he knew he had to make these ideas palatable to the practical-minded and profit-oriented" (Vickery, 2006, p. 75). Thus, the priest understood what he was up against and attempted to sway his listeners with things that would appeal to their ideas and ideals. He was wise beyond his years, and he enjoyed everything from ridicule to censure because of it, but that did not stop him from truly believing in his cause and in the rights of his fellow human beings.
It is important to note that throughout his life, Las Casas did not lose his faith in God, even when his attempts to stop brutalization of the natives did not work. His faith did not falter, but his faith in humankind did. He joined the Dominican…… [Read More]
The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.
What I have learned
Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.
The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500
Corruption of the church lowered…… [Read More]
religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.
Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.
In 1787…… [Read More]
Intellectual development is reflected in the creation, development and eventual preference for a specific type of government or representation in the society. Consequently, this period of intellectual development helped promote the freedom and social order, as more forms of representation and governance were developed and implemented in American society. Republicanism's eventual dominance over other governments and political ideologies, however, reflects the society's need to preserve and champion their individual freedoms and at the same time, maintain social order despite people's political differences and beliefs.
The Great Awakening emerged as an ideology, a religious movement that embodied social order and served as a precursor to the American Revolution (declared in the late 18th century). This revivalist religious movement in American history paved the way for an "open and undisguised Unitarianism" among different Christian sects and churches in America. While there was still diversity among churches and sects, the Great Awakening improved…… [Read More]
Great Awakening: The eginning of Evangelicalism
The evangelicals started a new movement in the 1950s called new evangelicalism with a basis on human experiences that downplayed the role of doctrine and turned back on external church relations which in a way made it hard to differentiate evangelicalism from the mainstream Christendom. This movement has experienced several transformations since the Reformation from pietistic evangelism, fundamentalist evangelism, and classic evangelism to the more modern form known as evangelistic fundamentalism. Within the movement, the emergent church is increasingly growing to influence the postmodern culture. y advocating for diversity and pluralism, postmodernism in no way lays claim to any absolute principles in the new cultural dispensation. And so the new church primarily focuses on the younger generation. y attempting to reverse the church to the practices of the middle ages, it can only be possible to take a critical look at the spokespeople because…… [Read More]
William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,
Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.
Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…… [Read More]
Federalist Papers, the U.S. Constitution was ratified in the late 1780's by the original 13 states. But this new nation would experience a myriad of other changes by the turn of the century. With a new political system, westward expansionism and manifest destiny would guide the new American spirit. Of the most significant transformations on the American landscape of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were the parallel phenomena of the Industrial Revolution and the Second Great Awakening. One an unbridled attempt to expand the material world, the other a fanatical endeavor to revive religious sentiment, these movements were uniquely positioned in time. They would also pull the American psyche in two opposing directions.
The Second Great Awakening was a never-before seen Protestant revival movement that swept through the new nation. Preachers sought converts and converts sought church membership in record numbers. On the other side of the equation,…… [Read More]
Kingdom of Matthias
n the early nineteenth-century America went through a phase of religious revival with many people turning to the religious beliefs in Christendom following the religious instability that took place in the seventeenth-century in England for the reformation of Christians and the community. The most notable event amongst all the momentous events was called the Second Great Awakening, which lasted one year and began in 1830. This year holds a lot of history for a country like America because it was the same year that Americans reached the highest level of consumption of alcoholic drinks, with an average of four gallons per person. This was not only the highest for all the years of American history but also one of the highest in the world. t was in the year that came to be known as 'the spirit-soaked year' when the evangelical preacher Charles Grandison Finney came to…… [Read More]
On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).
At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…… [Read More]
Hooper suddenly dons a mysterious black veil "which entirely concealed his features, except the mouth and chin, but probably did not intercept his sight, further than to give a darkened aspect to all living and inanimate things," (Hawthorne). This "gloomy" veil is the central symbol of Hawthorne's short story, "The Minister's Black Veil." As with other Hawthorne stories, "The Minister's Black Veil" offers a poignant critique against hyper-religiosity in ultra-Puritan New England. Hawthorne shows that a Christian obsession with the theme of sin has been taken to an extreme, evident in Hooper's mentally deranged methodology. By wearing the veil continuously in her personal and public affairs, Hooper alienates himself from those who care about him, including the community members who used to count on him. On the other hand, guilt-ridden members of the community view Hooper's veil as a sign that the minister is ultra-pious and therefore capable of…… [Read More]
Kingdom of Matthias. There are three references used for this paper.
From the Quakers to the Great Awakening to Nat Turner, we have examined numerous variations of where a belief in the 'inner light' or the 'priesthood of all believers' could lead. It is important to examine the cult of Matthias to understand why he was popular, the factors which could have led to his revelations, the social and religious climates and the needs of his followers. It is also important to explore whether the cult was due to the transhistorical appeal or if it offers deeper lessons about early American religious experiences.
Robert Matthews was "a carpenter from upstate New York who, after a lifetime of finding God everywhere and economic success nowhere, rode his half-starved horse into Manhattan in 1832, proclaiming his own divinity. He presented himself as not a Christian at all, but as Matthias, the…… [Read More]
However, at the same time the onset of what many scholars regard as the first truly national event within the history of the fledgling United States of America took place throughout the 1740's, and indicated that the traditional religious beliefs that mandated a strict following of God would not so easily be overturned. The Great Awakening largely begin when George Whitefield, an Oxford-trained Anglican minster who came to Georgia in 1738, began touring through the lands pronouncing that people had limited time to repent before they were consumed by the fires of hell. This perspective certainly adhered to that which was shared by many of the pilgrims and puritans who initially began the colonies in the 17th century. Jonathan Edwards was another influential factor in this movement, and delivered a number of influential sermons during the early years of the 1740s in which he claimed damnation awaited anyone who would…… [Read More]
religion shaped development of colonial society in 1740s New England, Chesapeake, and the Mid-Atlantic. eligion shaped development in these areas in a wide variety of ways, and the most important religious development during this time was the "Great Awakening." The "Great Awakening" was an important event in American history and religious history. It was the first real step away from the organized, strict religions that had followed the settlers here from England.
The "father" of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He wrote a sermon called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which became very famous. A religious historian writes, "In that sermon he used the image of a spider dangling by a web over a hot fire to describe the human predicament. His point was that at any moment, our hold on life could break and we'd be plunged into fires of eternal damnation" (Matthews). While many…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
Colonial Culture efore the American Revolution
The Great Awakening and Religious Change
The Impact of Education
When discussing causes of the American Revolution, most historians cite growing taxation, lack of representation in the national government, attempts by the King and Parliament to curb the power of colonial legislatures, and restrictions on trade as some of the primary causes. Often ignored as a cause are the changes in American colonial society that occurred in the decades before the revolution. Americans began to develop a cultural identity separate from that of Great ritain. Attitudes toward religion underwent sweeping modifications as a result of the Great Awakening. Landed aristocracy was unable to dominate society in the same way that it did in England. Education became more prevalent. New ideas concerning the nature and rights of people were debated and gradually accepted. All of these factors played a part in propelling Americans toward independence.…… [Read More]
The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.
The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…… [Read More]
Purple is the color of dusk and twilight, a time in-between day and night, night and day. As such, purple symbolizes transition and transformation. Color is often a mystical symbol for Dickinson in her poetry. Silver and gold make frequent appearances; Dickinson writes about "An everywhere of silver," whereas gold is used in relation to sunlight in "Nature, the gentlest mother." In "Nature rarer uses yellow," Dickinson admires the sparing use of the hue in the natural world. For Dickinson, each color conveys a mood or meaning; its appearance in nature is never arbitrary. Her liberal use of color imagery suggests a deep contemplation of color as an interface between the mundane and mystical worlds.
Spiritual themes in the poetry of Emily Dickinson usually centers on religious awakenings, revivalism, and on personal relationships with God. In "ill there really be a morning?" The narrator is a "little pilgrim" crying out…… [Read More]
American Evangelical Story" Douglas a. Sweeney. I a paragraph summary chapter.
"The American Evangelical Story: A History of the Movement" - review
Douglas Sweeney's book "The American Evangelical Story: A History of the Movement" provides an elaborate description of the evangelical movement in the U.S. And how it started. The first chapter is intended to have readers gain a more complex understanding of the concept of evangelicalism in the U.S. Sweeney attempts to enable readers to realize that it would be difficult and almost impossible to consider a simple definition while relating to the movement. He actually acknowledges the fact that his experience somewhat limits him in providing the perfect explanation of evangelical traditions in the U.S. "Evangelicals comprise a movement that is rooted in classical Christian orthodoxy, shaped by a largely Protestant understanding of the gospel, and distinguished by other such movements by an eighteenth-century twist." (Sweeney 2005, p.…… [Read More]
Spoils System was part of the Jackson administration's method of job placements. Because Jackson was heavily opposed to the officeholders in the federal government, his first act once sworn into presidential office was to fire those he believed to be part of a "self-serving bureaucracy" and to reward his supporters by hiring them into office. The system was a form of patronage in the 1830s, and Jackson managed to remove at least one-fifth of the federal officeholders.
The Nullification Crisis
The controversy over the act of nullification -- in which a state can declare a law unconstitutional -- heightened during Jackson's presidency in 1832. South Carolina erupted angrily after the passing of a tariff bill that barely lowered the tariffs issued in 1828 and 1832. Because Jackson was heavily opposed to the process of nullification, he proposed to pass a bill on using the military as a forceful solution to…… [Read More]
Mormonism was founded by Joseph Smith in the early 19th century in New York. Its formal name is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. During the Second Great Awakening (a Protestant movement in America in the early 1800s), Smith generated and drew support for his vision of America's privileged place in the history of Christianity. Smith's vision was rooted in the reformist movement of the Great Awakening and the doctrines that Smith taught were of the omantic spirit that fueled the Awakening, attracting many people of the time who looked forward to the return of Christ to the world as foretold in the New Testament (Smith, 2004). The new message that Smith gave to his followers was that "on the morning of the 22nd of September 1827 the Angel of the Lord delivered" to him "a series of records of the aboriginal inhabitants of North America" -- records…… [Read More]
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…… [Read More]
Reason 4: The Great Awakening awakened old cultural reminders of the reasons that the Puritans had left England, and the state-run Church of England, to found the colonies long ago.
Reason 5: England was making 'noise' about abolishing the slave trade, which the Southern colonists were profoundly opposed to, as they believed this would mark the end of their agriculturally-based way of life.
Reason 6: The rise of individualism, inspired partly by the Awakening and also the increased popularity of the philosophy of John Locke, was another contribution to the growing sense of discontent amongst the colonists.
All of these factors contributed to the rebellion. However, the old cliche about the drive of 'no taxation without representation' continues to be valid. Of all of the reasons, Reason 3 seems to be the driving factor, because it struck at the heart of conflicts over American government as well as American economic…… [Read More]
Instead of being a source of "organized social power" (Elkins 28) the church had "undergone a relentless process of fragmentation." People were religious, but Elkins asserts that people were seeking "individual satisfaction" rather than building "institutional needs." Elkins (150) delves into the Transcendentalists' view of the church, which was very cynical; "the church as an institution was corrupt..." The two author views are radically different one from the other.
SLAVES & MASTERS: Elkins explains that Southerners had "...a paternal affection of the good master for his blacks" and there were "warm sentiments" in southern Society for "faithful slave" (Elkins 61). However, on page 57 Elkins reports a case where a Virginia Judge in 1827 declined to punish the master who had cruelly battered his slave. Slaves had no legal rights and hence masters could take total control over their lives. Elkins does assert that a master could not kill his…… [Read More]
In order to gain insight into these it is necessary that they all be combined into one.
6) Miller states the rule that visions are always mentioned as being 'visions'.
7) the rule relating to determine when a word is used literally or physically and states that if the word makes good sense as it stands, and does not violence to the simple laws of nature, then it must be understood literally, if not, figuratively.";
8) Figures always have a figurative meaning, and are used much in prophecy to represent future things, times and events -- such as mountains, meaning governments, 9) to learn the meaning of a figure, trace the word through your ible, and where you find it explained, substitute the explanation for the word used; and if it makes good sense, you need not look further; if not, look again;
10) Figures sometimes have two or more…… [Read More]
And bee it also Enacted by the Authority and with the advise and assent aforesaid that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth use or utter any reproachfull words or Speeches concerning blessed Virgin Marv the Mother of Our Saviour or the holy Apostles or Evangelists or any of them shall in such case for the first offence forfeit to the said Lord Proprietary and his heirs Lords and Proprietaries of this Province the sume of five pound Sterling or the value thereof to be Levyed on the goods and chattells of every such person soe offending, but in case such Offender or Offenders, shall not then have goods and chattells sufficient for the satisfying of such forfeiture, or that the same bee not otherwise speedily satisfyed that then such Offender or Offenders Shall be publiquely whipt and bee imprisoned during the pleasure, of the Lord Proprietary or the Lieut.…… [Read More]
Benjamin ranklin termed himself a pragmatic deist. He believes "there is one Supreme must perfect being," however that this being is distant, and that it is not necessary to build a personal relationship with such a supreme God. He concluded that it was useful and correct to believe that a faith in God should inform our daily actions. However, he did not believe in sectarian dogma, burning spirituality or deep soul searching as a part of religion (Lopez, 87). ranklin's religious views are important in the shaping of his Enlightenment philosophy. His approach to religion drew from reason and careful reflection, he did not believe in the "frivolity" of emotional thought and connectivity, but instead focused on the pragmatic understanding of the divine. His conclusion after careful reason formulates a "Supreme Being that can be manifest in various ways, depending on the needs of different worshipers" (Lopez, 88). In contrast…… [Read More]
Imagine living in 18th Century America. What would a person encounter during that time period? Would the diverse social and political backgrounds impact a person positively or negatively during this era? Can a person prepare for what may occur with the upcoming Seven Years War? How would the outcomes of this war affect America in general? One will study these issues in depth from the perspective of an individual existing in the past.
During the 18th Century, I experienced a number of things that are worth mentioning. I went to the south at one time and noticed that slavery is an issue. Many of these individuals are poor, and a select few became land owners despite becoming exposed to various diseases. When I saw this I was devastated and wanted to help each person but I could not. However, these people after fifty years of service were promised their…… [Read More]
Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin were both prominent leaders in colonial America who were dedicated to hard work and a belief in the basic goodness of all men. Sharing in these basic concepts they went about making a major contribution to society but did so in different ways.
The personalities of Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin could not have been any different. Edwards was a strict Calvinist who was serious and reserved while Franklin was a Deist whose warmth and gregarious personality was legendary. Taking different views in many ways to life they still adhered to their basic beliefs that there was no substitute for hard work.
As a Deist, Franklin believed that every life situation could be resolved through the use of reason. Franklin's writings on life and his extensive work in the areas of philosophy and science are evidence of his basic attitude toward life. Edwards, meanwhile, believed…… [Read More]
Brauer, J.C. (1954). The Nature of English Puritanism: Three Interpretations." Church History. 23 (2): 99-108.
Coon, D. (1976). Eliza Lucas Pinckney and the eintroduction of Indigo Culture in South Carolina. The Journal of Southern History. 42 (1): 61-76.
Daniels, B.C. (1991). "Did the Puritans Have Fun? Leisure, ecreation, and the Concept of Fun in Early New England." Journal of American Studies. 25 (1) 7-22.
Governors of Massachussettes. (1768). "Massachusetts Circular Letter to the Colonial Legislatures." Yale University's Avalon Project. etrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/mass_circ_let_1768.asp
Judgments and Decrees National Archives, ecords of District Courts of the United States, ecord Group 21. (1773). "Dowry Gift of Slaves: Ann Taylor vs. Thomas Hart Jr.." The National Archives Documented ights. etrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/documented-rights/exhibit/section1/detail/dowry-gift-transcript.html
Lambert, F. "I Saw the Book Talk': Slave eadings of the First Great Awakening." The Journal of Negro History Vol. 77, No. 4 (Autumn, 1992), pp. 185-198. etrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3031473?uid=3739600&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=47699031113437
Mereness, N.D.…… [Read More]
The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.
In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. hile the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been…… [Read More]
Neoclassicism is immediately apparent in the visual arts and in architecture. In literature, neoclassicism entailed the revival of Classical Greek ethics, philosophy, and political ideals. Neoclassical literature sometimes drew on direct allusions to ancient Greece and Rome, using imagery of elements like statuary of gods. Because Reason fared prominently in the literature of ancient Greece, Reason also became a hallmark of neoclassical American writing. Thus, neoclassicism was an integral part of Enlightenment writing and literature.
One of the ways neoclassicism became a part of the American literary quilt was via the revival of original Greek and Roman texts. Insight into the roots of classical thought allowed American writers to apply ancient principles to their modern needs and concerns. Therefore, Greek concepts of reason, democracy, and ethics became fused with the American sense of liberty. A Christian perspective prevented the neoclassical writers to do away with God entirely, but…… [Read More]
Kerr's management strategy on campus only emboldened the New Left.
In addition to the Free Speech movement, the New Left included other student organizations including Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress on acial Equality (COE), and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The former focused on the antiwar efforts to end the Vietnam conflict, placing the students in direct conflict with many of America's most powerful institutions and organizations. Sit-ins, and other non-violent protest tactics were used to gain media coverage as well as to effect real change. The increasing awareness of how the War in Vietnam was proceeding caused the New Left to grow dramatically, providing a credible opposition to the Department of Defense. As Zinn points out, an increasingly large proportion of Americans ceased affiliating with either the Democratic or epublican parties, expressing opposition to the core institutions of government that led to injustices like those being…… [Read More]
Christian knows the earliest verses in the ible. The ook of Genesis proclaims powerfully, that man was created in the image of God. We are also told that Man was created so that he could hold "dominion" over all of other God's creation. Yet, soon after, there was the Fall. And God cast Man out of the Garden of Eden to suffer on earth burdened by the pains of the Original Sin. Through Christ's advent and resurrection, we are informed that Christ was also the image of God and also in the image of Man; and, that we have a way out from our sinful ways. The doctrine of the Image of God emerges as a powerful mandate for good Christian Living. The rewards are eternal salvation and the restoration to how we were originally created. As the book of Revelations relates, the consequences of not doing so would consign…… [Read More]
Isaac ackus Role in Shaping of the Southern aptist Religion in the Early American Colonies
Only a few aptists were present in colonial America but their number was highest in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island because of the freedoms in those places. aptists were greatly despised in nearly all regions but mainly in New England. Luckily for the aptists present in America, they actually gained more from the Great Awakening compared to other denominations. Isaac ackus[footnoteRef:1], a young New Light Congregationalist minister, was among their very first converts from New England Congregationalism back in 1751. Over the eighteenth century, aptists started to grow and thrive among the rich religious maltreatment and harassment which was still evident in the majority of the colonies- particularly Massachusetts. Through speeches, tracts, petitions, and protests, Isaac ackus (1724-1806) headed the quest of religious freedom during the chaotic era of the American Revolution.[footnoteRef:2] [1: Michael Williams. "rief…… [Read More]
Schulman illustrates this by reference to ob Dylan's lyrics, whose images (such as Isis) evoke the spiritual quests of the New Age mysticism and whose outlaw heroes voice an angry suspicion again established institutional authority (Schulman, 147). The same hostility to mainstream values was repeated in iconoclastic directors such as Cassavetes and Scorsese. One sees as well that the 1970s critiques of religion were not based on evolutionary science as in Dumenil's portrait. They were grounded in psychology. Nor does Schulman describe a mass secularization to the extent it happened in the 1920s. Rather, there seemed to be a return to and reinvigoration of religion in the 1970s.
The 1970s had another element not present in the 1920s. The New Age movement presented a new image of maleness. It sought to explore masculinity perhaps in a way that the 1920s explored femininity. Men's groups, forums, and retreats spread. Robert ly…… [Read More]
At this point a strong conflict occurs between their own beliefs. On the one hand they believe that they are doing a good thing. The ethic dimension of their actions derives mainly from the approval that god gives them. On the other hand everything in the new land is against them.
Therefore they reach the conclusion that god is not with them and they do not have his approval. Only two possible explanations come to mind. One is that god is not completely good, but can show himself as completely lacking mercy. The other one is that god is good and wise and those who are making a mistake are themselves. The latter hypothesis is the more acceptable one.
God is omniscient and omnipotent. The famine and all the other negative things that are happening to them are nothing else but a proof that what they were doing was not…… [Read More]
Henry uses stirring words about the value of liberty, but he also attempts to win over people who are uncertain if revolution is the correct path: "I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past," he states, and notes a real-life event in his persuasive efforts, namely England's lack of consideration of the colonialist's recent petition, comparing England's action to the false kiss of Judas on Christ's cheek.
While Edwards and Henry's speeches were oral, and delivered in theological and political settings, Emerson's "Nature" is a written essay. While all writers use metaphors, Emerson makes use of much more elaborate metaphors, because his work is designed to be read over a long period of time, not hold the listener's attention for a short period of time. Emerson also calls upon images of liberty and faith, but his images focus on the individual reader and Emerson's…… [Read More]
Given that slavery and sexism were still pervasive realities in American society in the middle of the nineteenth century, the Scarlet Letter borders on being a radical work.
awthorne also reveals how religion had pervaded Massachusetts Bay society to the extent that public laws reflected Christianity. The idea that Church and State should be separate did not emerge until much later in American consciousness, and by the time awthorne wrote the Scarlet Letter in 1850 the nation had been fully formed and founded on principles far different than those upon which the Massachusetts Bay Colony was: namely, religious plurality was protected in the Constitution. In spite of that, women had few rights in public society. Women were prohibited from voting or holding public office. Adultery and sexual freedom remained taboo, as was homosexuality and mixed-race relations.
The Scarlet Letter would have been received differently by different groups of people and…… [Read More]
The Puritans and early 19th century Americans also tended towards a pessimistic view of the world: the physical body and the physical universe were perceived as being inherently evil in conjunction with the concept of original sin. Death was therefore viewed as liberating. Because of westward expansion, 19th Century Americans cultivated more utopian visions and were generally more hopeful about the future of the United States. Furthermore, the Puritans lived outside the confines of the nation-state so their attitudes toward human life and politics differed from that of 19th century Americans.
Ethics in Puritan New England and in early 19th century America were rooted in Christian beliefs. The Puritans laid the foundations for a normative ethics that closely followed the Biblical commandments. 19th century Americans would conveniently override Biblical ethos when it came to the treatment of slaves and Native Americans and therefore both Puritans and early 19th century Americans…… [Read More]
Schikaneder was both an actor and a producer in Vienna for a playhouse that traditionally catered to "lowbrow" audiences (Loomis 2). Mozart's brand of comedy was just the thing for Schikaneder's theater. But "lowbrow" was merely one aspect of Mozart's comedic ventures: they could be equally stunning, poised, high-minded, honest, and full of common sense at the same time. Like the man, they resembled a mystery that could not be summed up with any one category or label: they were nothing less than unique and stellar expressions of a culture that emerged out of the Baroque and into a highly uncertain future. Mozart's Magic Flute would prove to be more than just "low comedy" -- it would be a magical tour de force (with one of the most famous arias of all-time) and a compelling reminder of the enchanting power of musical melody and the harmony between melody and nature,…… [Read More]
Marketing in a Less Developed Country
A less developed country is that country with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of less than 2% of global trade in goods relative to other countries. Less developed countries are characterized by little industry and sometimes a comparatively high dependence on foreign aid. These countries are grouped as the poorest and weakest market economies and consist of more than 880 million people. They rely heavily on exports of agricultural products whose prices keep on fluctuating fetching low price in the international market while they import most of the industrial and manufactured goods from developed countries a reason for continued balance of payment deficits, resulting into high debt burdens which have kept them as beggars' in the international community thus a continuous vicious cycle of poverty (UN-OHLLS, 2011).
Less developed countries are also characterized by low level of socio-economic development with weak human and institutional…… [Read More]
Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.
This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained. Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…… [Read More]
The manner in which she coped with the travails of traveling overseas in a time far before airplanes underscores the strength of character of this remarkable woman. The trip also marked the first time she had been away from her children for any length of time, solidifying her independence and contributing to her overall psychological development. Furthermore, Akers notes how Abigail was able to analyze, criticize, and incorporate ideas, concepts, trends, styles, and material objects from the Old orld. "Her confidence in herself as a person had been bolstered by the many opportunities to test her mind and values in the intellectual and social capital of Europe," (91). Furthermore, based on her letters, Akers infers that her trip abroad strengthened her already deep affection for America, the new nation she watched being born and growing with the help of her husband. Her travel abroad also indicated to Abigail how the…… [Read More]
Baumgarten, Linda. (2002). hat Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America: The Colonial illiamsburg Collection. New Haven, CT: Yale University
Bilhartz, Terry D., and Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States, Volume 1. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Crunden, Robert Morse. (1996). A Brief History of American Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Fisher, John Hurt. (2001). "British and American, Continuity and Divergence" in the
Cambridge History of the English Language: English in North America, Eds. Hogg, Blake,
Algeo, Lass, and Burchfield. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grigg, John a., and Mancall, Peter C. (2008). British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. estport, CT: ABC-CLIO.
Horsman, Reginald. (1981). Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-
Saxonism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jandt, Fred Edmund (2007). An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community.…… [Read More]