Great Awakening Essays (Examples)

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Great War the United States After the

Words: 1130 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43814515

Great War

The United States after the Great War

World War I, also known as the Great War, officially came to an end in 1918 and reshaped the country in a variety of ways. One of the most immediate changes was the way the world perceived the United States. Before the war, most of the country and its leaders preferred an isolationist stance to any international conflict. In 1914 the U.S. had only a small army and a pitiful navy, yet as the war progressed many Americans began to disapprove of the German's use of submarines to sink neutral ships such as the infamous sinking of the Lusitania (Hickman). However, it is interesting to note that the German's were actually correct in their assertion that the Lusitania was being used to carry military ammunition, as divers have recently uncovered from the wreckage, which did actually make the ship a legitimate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnesen, E. "Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America' by Cameron McWhirter." 18 November 2011. Chicago Tribune. Web. 27 October 2012.

Greenhill, S. "Secret of the Lusitania: Arms find challenges Allied claims it was solely a passenger ship." 19 December 2008. Mail Online. Web. 27 October 2012.

Hickman, K. "World War I: Sinking of the Lusitania." N.d. Military History. Web. 27 October 2012.

Kaldor, N. "Inflation and Recession in the World Economy." The Economic Journal (1976): 703-714. Web.
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Great War Social Technological Changes of the 1920s

Words: 2912 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1363907

Gender and Sex after World War I

We usually assume that great changes in American sexual behavior began just after World War I; however, Maurer (1976) argues that there was foreshadowing as far back as the 19th century. The woman's rights movement, a tendency to violate sexual taboos (called free love), and a preoccupation with blander forms of Marxism dramatically came together in the United States at the end of the war. When The Great War was over and the men came home, they found a different world in the making. For one thing, women finally got the vote after a nearly 100-year struggle. Social change was everywhere, not the least of which were modified sexual mores and new ideas about sex.

The 1920s were a time of great optimism. There was a general belief that sociology and psychology were going to the make the world a better place. Now…… [Read More]

References

Devices and Desires web site. A history of contraceptives in America: http://womenshealth.about.com/cs/birthcontrol/a/deviceanddesire_2.htm

Doan, L. (1998). Passing fashions: Reading female masculinities in the 1920s. Feminist Studies, 24 (3), 663-700.

Grant, J. (2004). A "real boy" and not a sissy: Gender, childhood, and masculinity, 1890-1940. Journal of Social History, 37 (4) 829-851.

Haag, P.S. (1992). In search of 'the real thing': Ideologies of love, modern romance, and women's sexual subjectivity in the United States, 1920-40. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 2 (4), 547-577.
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Dogan's Great Doubt

Words: 491 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26423527

Dogen's Great Doubt

Both exoteric and esoteric Buddhism teach the primal Buddha-nature [or harma-nature] and the original self-awakening of all sentient beings. If this is the case, why have the buddhas of all ages had to awaken the longing for and seek enlightenment by engaging in ascetic practice? [Masao Abe, A Study of Dogen, 19]

How did Dogen's "Great Doubt" influence his approach to the philosophy and practice of Zen? How is this approach reflected in his conception of zazen (seated meditation) as "just sitting" (shikan taza)? Contrast Dogen's "just sitting" with the koan style of zazen that developed in the Rinzai school of Zen.

To understand his primal Buddha-nature, the Buddha of all ages paradoxically had to stand outside of the material world of suffering. Through meditation, he was able to break within himself the chain of infinite actions or desires that make up the material world. Dogen's great…… [Read More]

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Falls Great Falls One Form

Words: 2238 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39207509

The 1960's saw the rise of the feminist movement and the demand of equal rights for women. Suddenly women were faced with an array of new possibilities outside the traditional role of housewife and mother. Many women left the home to take jobs, get educations, and fulfill other dreams; and Jackie's mother was one of those. But the liberation of women from the traditional role of wife and mother meant harm to the traditional family unit, and sometimes that harm could be quite enormous. While many women decided that a wife and mother could also have a job, get an education, etc., others decided that the family was too much of a burden for them.

It was Jack Russell who was forced to make the decision for his wife; she was no longer part of the family. While she could not bring herself to make the final break and live…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kittredge, William, and Allen Morris Jones. The Best of Montana's Short Fiction.

Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2004. Print.
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Papyri Awakening Osiris The Egyptian Book of

Words: 3588 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64486597

Papyri

Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead

The Egyptian Book of the Dead is a western title for an ancient collection of Egyptian manuscripts, the majority of which were funerary in nature. These collected writings have also been referred to as the Egyptian Bible or identified by the names of the scribes who penned them. The Papyrus of Ani comprises the most significant contribution to these texts, though there are some other minor sources which are often included. In the original languages, these works were more accurately entitled the Books of Coming Forth By Day. One of the greatest challenges to English-language speakers when confronting all the great scriptures is the language gap. Unless one has the time and inclination to learn Arabic, Hindi, Hebrew, Greek -- or in this case, Egyptian Heiroglyphs -- it becomes necessary to read the scriptures in translation. The farther removed one's own…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budge, E.A. Wallis et al. (Trans.) The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani.  http://www.touregypt.net/bkofdead.htm 

Ellis, Normandi (Trans.). Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988.

Seawright, Caroline. "The Book of the Dead" Tour Egypt Feature. http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/bod.htm

Sophia Society for Philosophy. "Genetico-cognitive features of the ante-rational mind." Sophia Society for Philosophy. http://www.maat.sofiatopia.org/cognition.htm
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New Earth Awakening to a

Words: 794 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10996615

We must be willing to fail, to falter, to suffer, in order to become greater versions of ourselves. Sometimes, being shown lesser versions of ourselves can be the key to this personal evolution.

And perhaps most importantly, we must recognize that this personal evolution does not occur in a vacuum. To the contrary, we improve ourselves only if we improve the value we represent for the whole of humanity, in whatever modest capacity this may be possible. Here, we are driven by the idea that "a human being is a part of a whole, called by us the 'universe', a part limited in time and space."

This is perhaps the unifying principle in our discussion. The openness which is a recurrent theme here denotes especially the imperative to remain open to one's fellow man. Nothing that we do occurs independently of the needs and wishes of family, friends, communities, societies,…… [Read More]

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Bartolome De Las Casas Great

Words: 1410 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34770660

The author continues, "His views were so radical and would involve such a change of heart of the part of the hearers, that he knew he had to make these ideas palatable to the practical-minded and profit-oriented" (Vickery, 2006, p. 75). Thus, the priest understood what he was up against and attempted to sway his listeners with things that would appeal to their ideas and ideals. He was wise beyond his years, and he enjoyed everything from ridicule to censure because of it, but that did not stop him from truly believing in his cause and in the rights of his fellow human beings.

It is important to note that throughout his life, Las Casas did not lose his faith in God, even when his attempts to stop brutalization of the natives did not work. His faith did not falter, but his faith in humankind did. He joined the Dominican…… [Read More]

Bibliography section clearly indicate, and the addition of some period drawings gives the book a little more credence, somehow. It is clear the author has a great understanding of Las Casas and his reasoning, and that comes across in the book, as well. The book belongs on the bookshelf of anyone who is interested in early Spanish history, the Catholic Church, and the history of exploration and discovery, and it shows that although the conquistadors were often cruel and harsh with the Native Americans, there were at least some Spanish citizens who fought for the rights and dignities of these native people.

In conclusion, this is a fascinating look into the life of an early humanitarian and prophet, and it almost makes Las Casas come alive in the mind of the reader. Las Casas was a reformer at a time when reform was not popular, but he was a man that stood by his convictions and fought for the rights of others for most of his adult life. He also never stopped trying to influence the crown to act accordingly with the native peoples, and later with African slaves. He was a man who lived by his convictions, shared them with others, and was never afraid to speak his mind. The author ends the book with this statement, "In this he was without equal and served as an example for all who seek to reconcile humanity with God" (Vickery, 2006, p. 157). The author may be a little too close to his subject for real objectivity, but he does paint a compelling portrait of this early humanitarian.

References

Vickery, P.S. Bartolome de las Casas: Great prophet of the Americas. New York: Paulist Press, 2006.
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1904 Revival Beginning in Wales

Words: 2237 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84149149



Analysis

The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.

What I have learned

Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.

The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500

Summary

Corruption of the church lowered…… [Read More]

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Principal Intellectual Movements Anglo-American Colonies Eighteenth Century

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5410188

Principal intellectual movements Anglo-American colonies eighteenth century: Great Awakening Enlightenment." You sources relevant paper. Use Reich's Colonial America reference research report if draw material source assigned, footnotes book, article,

The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment:

Wrestling for the souls and the minds of colonial settlers in the Americas

The colonial period in the Americas was a time of intense intellectual ferment. Two seemingly contradictory intellectual movements arose: that of the Great Awakening and the American Enlightenment. The Great Awakening was a period of religious revivalism that arose within the New England and Mid-Atlantic colonies. The American version of the Enlightenment, a movement which began in Europe, was characterized by intellectual curiosity and a belief in the need for rationalism over superstition when governing human affairs. Both of these conceptions of the 'human' shaped the future, evolving history of America.

While many of the American colonies were founded by people fleeing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. December 17, 2010

http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html

Hooker, Richard. "The American Enlightenment." World Civilizations. Updated June 6, 1999.

December 17, 2010
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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)

Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Ditmire, Susan. "Cape May County." usgennet.org. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/county/capemay/Jarena.htm  (accessed May 2, 2013). (primary source)
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Republicanism the Rise of Republicanism

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69429893

Intellectual development is reflected in the creation, development and eventual preference for a specific type of government or representation in the society. Consequently, this period of intellectual development helped promote the freedom and social order, as more forms of representation and governance were developed and implemented in American society. Republicanism's eventual dominance over other governments and political ideologies, however, reflects the society's need to preserve and champion their individual freedoms and at the same time, maintain social order despite people's political differences and beliefs.

The Great Awakening emerged as an ideology, a religious movement that embodied social order and served as a precursor to the American Revolution (declared in the late 18th century). This revivalist religious movement in American history paved the way for an "open and undisguised Unitarianism" among different Christian sects and churches in America. While there was still diversity among churches and sects, the Great Awakening improved…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Castiglione, D. (2002). "Republicanism and its Legacy." European Journal of Political Theory, Vol. 4, No. 4.

Goodman, J. (2005). "What is classical liberalism?" National Center for Policy Analysis. Available at: http://www.ncpa.org/pub/what-is-classical-liberalism

Pettit, P. (1997). Republicanism: a theory of freedom and government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Philp, M. (2004). "Enlightenment, Republicanism and Radicalism." In the Enlightenment World. NY: Routledge.
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American Church History

Words: 2099 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28173692

Great Awakening: The Beginning of Evangelicalism

The evangelicals started a new movement in the 1950s called new evangelicalism with a basis on human experiences that downplayed the role of doctrine and turned back on external church relations which in a way made it hard to differentiate evangelicalism from the mainstream Christendom. This movement has experienced several transformations since the Reformation from pietistic evangelism, fundamentalist evangelism, and classic evangelism to the more modern form known as evangelistic fundamentalism. Within the movement, the emergent church is increasingly growing to influence the postmodern culture. By advocating for diversity and pluralism, postmodernism in no way lays claim to any absolute principles in the new cultural dispensation. And so the new church primarily focuses on the younger generation. By attempting to reverse the church to the practices of the middle ages, it can only be possible to take a critical look at the spokespeople because…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1 Pettegrew, Larry D. "Evangelicism, Paradigms, and the Emerging Church." The Master's Seminary Journal, 2006: pp 159-175.

2 Gary Dorrien, The Remaking of Evangelical Theology (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox, 1998) pp 2-3.

3 Clark Pinnock, Most Moved Mover (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001) p 110.

4 Minkema, Kenneth J. "Jonathan Edwards in the Twentieth Century." Journal of the evangelical theological society, 2004: pp 659-87.
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1163 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Federalist Papers, the U.S. Constitution was ratified in the late 1780's by the original 13 states. But this new nation would experience a myriad of other changes by the turn of the century. With a new political system, westward expansionism and manifest destiny would guide the new American spirit. Of the most significant transformations on the American landscape of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were the parallel phenomena of the Industrial Revolution and the Second Great Awakening. One an unbridled attempt to expand the material world, the other a fanatical endeavor to revive religious sentiment, these movements were uniquely positioned in time. They would also pull the American psyche in two opposing directions.

The Second Great Awakening was a never-before seen Protestant revival movement that swept through the new nation. Preachers sought converts and converts sought church membership in record numbers. On the other side of the equation,…… [Read More]

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Kingdom of Matthias Market Revolution

Words: 1498 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75106214

Kingdom of Matthias

In the early nineteenth-century America went through a phase of religious revival with many people turning to the religious beliefs in Christendom following the religious instability that took place in the seventeenth-century in England for the reformation of Christians and the community. The most notable event amongst all the momentous events was called the Second Great Awakening, which lasted one year and began in 1830. This year holds a lot of history for a country like America because it was the same year that Americans reached the highest level of consumption of alcoholic drinks, with an average of four gallons per person. This was not only the highest for all the years of American history but also one of the highest in the world. It was in the year that came to be known as 'the spirit-soaked year' when the evangelical preacher Charles Grandison Finney came to…… [Read More]

In this in-depth research, Paul Johnson takes the opportunity to explain and use a small and unknown event to depict an interesting event from an interesting perspective on the city of New York. There are several incidents used to signify the issues of sexual corruption to radical doctrinal innovations. The Burned-Over district in the city of New York, served as the platform for the many religious movements such as Mormonism, Adventism, Christian Scientists, however there are numerous smaller religions and even noteworthy political movements such as Antimasonry that did not leave their mark on American soil to exist till today.

This book is also based on the story of one of those movements. The story begins by introducing Matthias to Kirtland as he goes to visit the Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith. Although, his visit took place close to the end of the book, or better put close to the end of Matthias's activity of fooling his followers, his ideas were obviously cheated from many of the ideas of Joseph Smith. Even the practice of the washing of feet common to both the followers of Joseph Smith and Ellen White was also used by Matthias for his followers. He believed that the truth of the Gospel had come to the earth following the demise of Christ for another Mormon belief. Another feature common to Smith was the possession of a sword which he claimed was ancient similar to Smith's sword of Laban, as well as naming the Priesthood after the order of Melchezidek. His mentor Mordecai Noah, taught him that the Indians belonged to a branch of the Israelites, as found in the Book of Mormon. These ideas were known before 1830 when Matthias began his practice in the name of religion.

The book doesn't only contain horrid tales about his activities but also contains humorous parts of this periods history is the moments that connect to Matthias' enemies trying to shave off his beard. Johnson did a marvelous job at condensing the most relevant information in this short book. The Kingdom of Matthias is a humorous book and serves as an interesting read for those interested in this period of American religious history.
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American Colonialism Opportunity in Colonial

Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54310205

William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's Royal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,

Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.

Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…… [Read More]

References

Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.

Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.

Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
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Joseph Smith and the Book

Words: 6695 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24061704

On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).

At Joseph's death, Brigham Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bowman, Robert N., ed. Mormonism. Christian Research Journal, 1989. http://www.mustardseed.net/html/tomormonism.html

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith: a Prophet of God. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2004. http://www.lds.org/library/display/0,4945,104-1-3-2,00.html

Griffith, Michael T. The Book of Mormon - Ancient or Modern? Could Joseph Smith Have Written the Nephrite Record? Refuting the Critics: Evidence of the Book of Mormons in Authenticity. Horizon Publishers, 1993. http://ourworld.cs.com/mikegriffith1/id108.htm

Institute for Religious Research. Translation or Divination? Mormons in Transition. Institute for Religious Research, 1999. http://www.irr.org/mit/divination.html
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Hawthorne Hooper Suddenly Dons a Mysterious Black

Words: 1343 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72828098

Hawthorne

Hooper suddenly dons a mysterious black veil "which entirely concealed his features, except the mouth and chin, but probably did not intercept his sight, further than to give a darkened aspect to all living and inanimate things," (Hawthorne). This "gloomy" veil is the central symbol of Hawthorne's short story, "The Minister's Black Veil." As with other Hawthorne stories, "The Minister's Black Veil" offers a poignant critique against hyper-religiosity in ultra-Puritan New England. Hawthorne shows that a Christian obsession with the theme of sin has been taken to an extreme, evident in Hooper's mentally deranged methodology. By wearing the veil continuously in her personal and public affairs, Hooper alienates himself from those who care about him, including the community members who used to count on him. On the other hand, guilt-ridden members of the community view Hooper's veil as a sign that the minister is ultra-pious and therefore capable of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carnochan, W.B. "The Minister's Black Veil": Symbol, Meaning, and the Context of Hawthorne's Art." Nineteenth-Century Fiction. Vol. 24, No. 2 (Sep., 1969), pp. 182-192

Colacurcio, Michael J. "Parson Hooper's Power of Blackness: Sin and Self in "The Minister's Black Veil" Prospects. Vol. 5. Oct 1980.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil." Retrieved online:  http://www.eldritchpress.org/nh/mbv.html 

Newberry, Frederick. "The Biblical Veil: Sources and Typology in Hawthorne's 'The Minister's Black Veil,'" Texas Studies in Literature and Language. Vol. 31, No. 2, Nineteenth-Century Fiction (SUMMER 1989), pp. 169-195
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Kingdom of Matthias

Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33190799

Kingdom of Matthias. There are three references used for this paper.

From the Quakers to the Great Awakening to Nat Turner, we have examined numerous variations of where a belief in the 'inner light' or the 'priesthood of all believers' could lead. It is important to examine the cult of Matthias to understand why he was popular, the factors which could have led to his revelations, the social and religious climates and the needs of his followers. It is also important to explore whether the cult was due to the transhistorical appeal or if it offers deeper lessons about early American religious experiences.

Matthias

Robert Matthews was "a carpenter from upstate New York who, after a lifetime of finding God everywhere and economic success nowhere, rode his half-starved horse into Manhattan in 1832, proclaiming his own divinity. He presented himself as not a Christian at all, but as Matthias, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Lee Rust. "The Kingdom of Matthias." The New Republic. (1994): 17 October.

Johnson, Michael P. "The Kingdom of Matthias: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19th-Century

America" The Nation. (1994): 14 November.

(The Matthias Delusion. (Accessed 27 November, 2004).
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Colonial Development the Progression of

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4889719



However, at the same time the onset of what many scholars regard as the first truly national event within the history of the fledgling United States of America took place throughout the 1740's, and indicated that the traditional religious beliefs that mandated a strict following of God would not so easily be overturned. The Great Awakening largely begin when George Whitefield, an Oxford-trained Anglican minster who came to Georgia in 1738, began touring through the lands pronouncing that people had limited time to repent before they were consumed by the fires of hell. This perspective certainly adhered to that which was shared by many of the pilgrims and puritans who initially began the colonies in the 17th century. Jonathan Edwards was another influential factor in this movement, and delivered a number of influential sermons during the early years of the 1740s in which he claimed damnation awaited anyone who would…… [Read More]

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Religion Colonial Society

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15554600

religion shaped development of colonial society in 1740s New England, Chesapeake, and the Mid-Atlantic. Religion shaped development in these areas in a wide variety of ways, and the most important religious development during this time was the "Great Awakening." The "Great Awakening" was an important event in American history and religious history. It was the first real step away from the organized, strict religions that had followed the settlers here from England.

The "father" of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He wrote a sermon called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which became very famous. A religious historian writes, "In that sermon he used the image of a spider dangling by a web over a hot fire to describe the human predicament. His point was that at any moment, our hold on life could break and we'd be plunged into fires of eternal damnation" (Matthews). While many…… [Read More]

References

Goen, C.C. Revivalism and Separatism in New England, 1740-1800: Strict Congregationalists and Separate Baptists in the Great Awakening. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1962.

Matthews, Terry. "The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. 1996. 20 Sept. 2005.

< http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html >
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Jesus' Teachings Prayer & Christian Life He

Words: 35411 Length: 109 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95862373

Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life

"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]

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Colonial Culture Before the American Revolution the

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73393041

Colonial Culture Before the American Revolution

The Great Awakening and Religious Change

The Impact of Education

When discussing causes of the American Revolution, most historians cite growing taxation, lack of representation in the national government, attempts by the King and Parliament to curb the power of colonial legislatures, and restrictions on trade as some of the primary causes. Often ignored as a cause are the changes in American colonial society that occurred in the decades before the revolution. Americans began to develop a cultural identity separate from that of Great Britain. Attitudes toward religion underwent sweeping modifications as a result of the Great Awakening. Landed aristocracy was unable to dominate society in the same way that it did in England. Education became more prevalent. New ideas concerning the nature and rights of people were debated and gradually accepted. All of these factors played a part in propelling Americans toward independence.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Canada, Mark. "Journalism." Colonial America: 1607-1783. n.d. 25 February 2003 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/news/.

Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography and Other Writings. Ed. L. Jessie Lemisch.

New York: Nal Penguin, Inc., 1961.

Heyrman, Christine Leigh. "The First Great Awakening." October 2000. National
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National Period American History Technically

Words: 1347 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44920961

The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.

The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…… [Read More]

References:

Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd

edition, 2002.

Geiter, Mary K., & Speck, W.A. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown.

Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
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Emily Dickenson Notoriously Reclusive Even

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80053453

Purple is the color of dusk and twilight, a time in-between day and night, night and day. As such, purple symbolizes transition and transformation. Color is often a mystical symbol for Dickinson in her poetry. Silver and gold make frequent appearances; Dickinson writes about "An everywhere of silver," whereas gold is used in relation to sunlight in "Nature, the gentlest mother." In "Nature rarer uses yellow," Dickinson admires the sparing use of the hue in the natural world. For Dickinson, each color conveys a mood or meaning; its appearance in nature is never arbitrary. Her liberal use of color imagery suggests a deep contemplation of color as an interface between the mundane and mystical worlds.

Spiritual themes in the poetry of Emily Dickinson usually centers on religious awakenings, revivalism, and on personal relationships with God. In "Will there really be a morning?" The narrator is a "little pilgrim" crying out…… [Read More]

Works Cited

All poems retrieved from Dickenson, Emily. "The Complete Poems." Online at Bartleby.com. Retrieved July 2, 2008 at  http://www.bartleby.com/113/ 

Emily Dickinson." Biography from Poets.org. Retrieved July 2, 2008 at http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/155

Emily Dickinson." Retrieved July 2, 2008 at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson
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Douglas Sweeney's Book The American Evangelical Story History of the Movement

Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94600926

American Evangelical Story" Douglas a. Sweeney. I a paragraph summary chapter.

"The American Evangelical Story: A History of the Movement" - review

Douglas Sweeney's book "The American Evangelical Story: A History of the Movement" provides an elaborate description of the evangelical movement in the U.S. And how it started. The first chapter is intended to have readers gain a more complex understanding of the concept of evangelicalism in the U.S. Sweeney attempts to enable readers to realize that it would be difficult and almost impossible to consider a simple definition while relating to the movement. He actually acknowledges the fact that his experience somewhat limits him in providing the perfect explanation of evangelical traditions in the U.S. "Evangelicals comprise a movement that is rooted in classical Christian orthodoxy, shaped by a largely Protestant understanding of the gospel, and distinguished by other such movements by an eighteenth-century twist." (Sweeney 2005, p.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Sweeney, D.A. (2005). The American Evangelical Story: A History of the Movement. Baker Academic.
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Jacksonian Democracy Second Party System Evangelical Religion Capitalism

Words: 2701 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7778978

Jacksonian Democracy

What it meant for white men, as well as for women, blacks, and Indians

Jacksonian Democracy became prevalent during the 1830's and helped to shape the theory of majority rule in America. According to the essay, entitled "The Origins of Jacksonian Democracy" the main staples of Jacksonian democracy involved the concept of public interest and property ownership as the foundation of citizenship. Under the Jacksonian Democracy, only property owners had an interest in protecting the rights of other property owners. (The Origins of Jacksonian Democracy) The Jacksonian democracy had different ramifications for the various people groups in America.(The Origins of Jacksonian Democracy)

For White men the Jacksonian democracy meant that they could possess full citizenship in America. Indeed, White American benefited from the Jacksonian democracy. For instance, the essay explains that during the Jackson era White men were granted universal suffrage and also had the power of upward…… [Read More]

references were essays sent by the customer
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Spoils System Was Part of the Jackson

Words: 1898 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26199933

Spoils System was part of the Jackson administration's method of job placements. Because Jackson was heavily opposed to the officeholders in the federal government, his first act once sworn into presidential office was to fire those he believed to be part of a "self-serving bureaucracy" and to reward his supporters by hiring them into office. The system was a form of patronage in the 1830s, and Jackson managed to remove at least one-fifth of the federal officeholders.

The Nullification Crisis

The controversy over the act of nullification -- in which a state can declare a law unconstitutional -- heightened during Jackson's presidency in 1832. South Carolina erupted angrily after the passing of a tariff bill that barely lowered the tariffs issued in 1828 and 1832. Because Jackson was heavily opposed to the process of nullification, he proposed to pass a bill on using the military as a forceful solution to…… [Read More]

Resources

"Lyman Beecher's Sermons on Intemperance (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .

"The Liquor Dealer's Rights' (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .

"The Monster, or, the Curse and the Cure of the Strong Drink (Excerpts) (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .

"News Article Describing Veto of a New York Temperance Bill (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .
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Marbury v Madison Was a Case Between

Words: 1510 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84488844

Marbury v. Madison was a case between William Marbury and James Madison in 1803, which sparked one of the most important decisions made in American history. The case itself has actually enabled the Supreme Court to declare an act of law unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison also further established the idea of judicial review within the United States, allowing the courts some power in nullifying the decisions of one branch of government. It allowed for the U.S. form of "checks and balances" in the government.

Battle of Saratoga

The battle that took place in Saratoga at 1777 was a major patriotic victory during the American Revolutionary War. Commander John Burgoyne surrendered in October 17, 1777, after having been surrounded by General Horatio Gates. This was not only a British defeat, but it also indicated the general setbacks for the Iroquois leaders who sided with the British army. The Iroquois Confederacy was…… [Read More]

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Early American History Gender Race Class and Civic Society

Words: 970 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47459021

John Winthrop, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, "had charged the English settlers in New England with a special and unique Providential mission," (Scott, n.d., p. 1). The belief that Anglo-Saxon settlers were blessed by God and entitled to political and economic sovereignty over the American continent would become known as Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny refers mainly to the philosophy motivating territorial expansion, but also coincided with religious ideology prevalent in the United States during the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening. Moreover, Manifest Destiny is related to other American values including those of "rugged individualism" and "domination over the wilderness," (Tveskov & Cohen, 2015, p. 191). Manifest Destiny was also a racist philosophy, as it is characterized specifically by the perception of Anglo-Saxons as "separate, innately superior people who were destined to bring good government, commercial prosperity, and Christianity to the American continents and the world," (Horsman, 1981,…… [Read More]

References

Horsman, R. (1981). Race and Manifest Destiny. Harvard College.

"Manifest Destiny," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/prelude/md_introduction.html 

"Manifest Destiny - The Philosophy That Created A Nation," (n.d.). American History. Retrieved online: http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/essays/1801-1900/manifest-destiny/manifest-destiny-the-philosophy-that-created-a-nation.php

Pratt, J.W. (1927). The origin of "Manifest Destiny." The American Historical Review 32(4), 795-798.
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What Is Mormonism How Did it Start and How Does it Compare to Catholicism

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23890796

Mormonism was founded by Joseph Smith in the early 19th century in New York. Its formal name is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. During the Second Great Awakening (a Protestant movement in America in the early 1800s), Smith generated and drew support for his vision of America's privileged place in the history of Christianity. Smith's vision was rooted in the reformist movement of the Great Awakening and the doctrines that Smith taught were of the Romantic spirit that fueled the Awakening, attracting many people of the time who looked forward to the return of Christ to the world as foretold in the New Testament (Smith, 2004). The new message that Smith gave to his followers was that "on the morning of the 22nd of September 1827 the Angel of the Lord delivered" to him "a series of records of the aboriginal inhabitants of North America" -- records…… [Read More]

References

Bushman, C. (2006). Contemporary Mormonism: Latter-Day Saints in Modern

America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Jackson, A. (2012). The Mormon Faith of Mitt Romney: What Latter-Day Saints Teach

and Practice. UT: Kudu.
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Human Being and How They

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59093002



Much of the nature of the widespread use of alcohol at this time is cited by the author, who also notes the high rate of alcoholism among slaves, the way women drank in private so their family would not know, the relationship of alcohol use to social position, and so on. Drinking was only one factor marking social divisions, and it as one of the few that could be controlled. Rorabaugh emphasizes the nature of the problem, or at least one possibility for its nature, with his sub-title "An American Tradition," suggesting that being drunk is somehow an American tradition and that the subject needs to be approached form that standpoint.

Rorabugh writes well, as does Johnson, and both books are readable and make coherent arguments that are fully referenced and well reasoned. Both books deal with a segment of the larger American social order, and both books contain controversial…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Johnson, Paul E. The Kingdom of Matthias. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 199

Rorabaugh, W.J. The Alcoholic Republic, New York: Oxford, 1979.

Trahair, Richard C.S. Utopias and Utopians: An Historical Dictionary. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Richard C.S. Trahair, Utopias and Utopians: An Historical Dictionary (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999), 219.
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Civil War Prior to Discussing

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86466541

Instead of being a source of "organized social power" (Elkins 28) the church had "undergone a relentless process of fragmentation." People were religious, but Elkins asserts that people were seeking "individual satisfaction" rather than building "institutional needs." Elkins (150) delves into the Transcendentalists' view of the church, which was very cynical; "the church as an institution was corrupt..." The two author views are radically different one from the other.

SLAVES & MASTERS: Elkins explains that Southerners had "...a paternal affection of the good master for his blacks" and there were "warm sentiments" in southern Society for "faithful slave" (Elkins 61). However, on page 57 Elkins reports a case where a Virginia Judge in 1827 declined to punish the master who had cruelly battered his slave. Slaves had no legal rights and hence masters could take total control over their lives. Elkins does assert that a master could not kill his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elkins, Stanley M. (1968). Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life.

Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

McPherson, James M. (1982). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York:

Alfred a. Knopf.
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Intellectual and Philosophical Roots of

Words: 3994 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71512854

In order to gain insight into these it is necessary that they all be combined into one.

6) Miller states the rule that visions are always mentioned as being 'visions'.

7) the rule relating to determine when a word is used literally or physically and states that if the word makes good sense as it stands, and does not violence to the simple laws of nature, then it must be understood literally, if not, figuratively.";

8) Figures always have a figurative meaning, and are used much in prophecy to represent future things, times and events -- such as mountains, meaning governments, 9) to learn the meaning of a figure, trace the word through your Bible, and where you find it explained, substitute the explanation for the word used; and if it makes good sense, you need not look further; if not, look again;

10) Figures sometimes have two or more…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Andrews, Allan. R. (2007)a Journalist's Online Glossary of Religion.

Joshua V. Himes (1842) on the Cleansing of the Sanctuary by William Miller Boston. Development of SDA Theology - Department of Theology, Newbold College. Online available at  http://www.bics410.szm.com/l13/miller/index.htm 

McCook, Matt (2005) Aliens in the World: Sectarians, Secularism and the Second Great Awakening. 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-08/unrestricted/McCook_Dissertation.pdf

Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh day Adventists: Message and Mission (1977); ES Gaustad, ed., the Rise of Adventism (1975); AA Hoekema, Seventh-day Adventism (1974); G. Land, ed., Adventism in America (1986); RL Numbers and JM Butler, eds., the Disappointed (1987); E. Sandeen, the Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism, 1800-1930 (1970).
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American Revolution Production of Staple

Words: 2801 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79109

But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).

Religion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in Rochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.

In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and Rochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…… [Read More]

References

Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997

Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.

McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
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Religion More Than a Word

Words: 3223 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18229038

And bee it also Enacted by the Authority and with the advise and assent aforesaid that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth use or utter any reproachfull words or Speeches concerning blessed Virgin Marv the Mother of Our Saviour or the holy Apostles or Evangelists or any of them shall in such case for the first offence forfeit to the said Lord Proprietary and his heirs Lords and Proprietaries of this Province the sume of five pound Sterling or the value thereof to be Levyed on the goods and chattells of every such person soe offending, but in case such Offender or Offenders, shall not then have goods and chattells sufficient for the satisfying of such forfeiture, or that the same bee not otherwise speedily satisfyed that then such Offender or Offenders Shall be publiquely whipt and bee imprisoned during the pleasure, of the Lord Proprietary or the Lieut.…… [Read More]

Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445657

Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445659.

A www.geocities.com/lawandabrewer_uncp"Brewer, Jaques, Jones, and King. (2001). 23 Sept 2007 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/religion.htm.

Crossing the Ocean to Keep the Faith: The Puritans. (2007) Library of Congress. 23 Sept 2007  http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html .

Friedrich Von Schlegel (1772-1829), German philosopher. Idea 14 in Selected Ideas (1799-1800), Franklin, Benjamin. His Autobiography. Vol. I, Part 1. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/1/1/.23 Sept 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/1/1/4.html.
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Dawn of American Enlightenment Started

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89104035



Benjamin Franklin termed himself a pragmatic deist. He believes "there is one Supreme must perfect being," however that this being is distant, and that it is not necessary to build a personal relationship with such a supreme God. He concluded that it was useful and correct to believe that a faith in God should inform our daily actions. However, he did not believe in sectarian dogma, burning spirituality or deep soul searching as a part of religion (Lopez, 87). Franklin's religious views are important in the shaping of his Enlightenment philosophy. His approach to religion drew from reason and careful reflection, he did not believe in the "frivolity" of emotional thought and connectivity, but instead focused on the pragmatic understanding of the divine. His conclusion after careful reason formulates a "Supreme Being that can be manifest in various ways, depending on the needs of different worshipers" (Lopez, 88). In contrast…… [Read More]

Fiering, Norman. 1981. Jonathan Edwards's Moral Thought and Its British Context. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Buxbaum, M.H., Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin (1987)

Lopez, Claude-Anne, and Herbert, E.W., the Private Franklin (1975)
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Building Reasons Events for the

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31248634



Reason 4: The Great Awakening awakened old cultural reminders of the reasons that the Puritans had left England, and the state-run Church of England, to found the colonies long ago.

Reason 5: England was making 'noise' about abolishing the slave trade, which the Southern colonists were profoundly opposed to, as they believed this would mark the end of their agriculturally-based way of life.

Reason 6: The rise of individualism, inspired partly by the Awakening and also the increased popularity of the philosophy of John Locke, was another contribution to the growing sense of discontent amongst the colonists.

All of these factors contributed to the rebellion. However, the old cliche about the drive of 'no taxation without representation' continues to be valid. Of all of the reasons, Reason 3 seems to be the driving factor, because it struck at the heart of conflicts over American government as well as American economic…… [Read More]

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Millennialism in America Charismatic Prophets

Words: 2145 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19661186

For Jehovah's Witnesses, that millennium was supposed to begin already, first in 1914, and later in 1975 (Brom 2004). The year 2000 brought to light the fear and fiction surrounding Y2K and the numerical millennium, but the return of Christ had yet to take place. "As the millennium approaches, self-styled messiahs like David Koresh and Marshall Applewhite have flourished, teaching impending doom with doctrines cobbled from Christianity, millennialism and even science fiction," (Washington Post Staff 1997).

A new date of spiritual revolution has now been set, embraced by many members of New Age millennial movements: 2012. The year 2012 has been selected because of its connection with the Mayan calendar, which is embraced by many New Age individuals. However, the generic New Age brands of millennialism often lack the presence of a charismatic prophet. The New Age movement is therefore qualitatively different from that of other millennial movements that draw…… [Read More]

References

Brom, Robert H.

2004. History of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Catholic Answers. Retrieved online:  http://www.catholic.com/tracts/history-of-the-jehovahs-witnesses 

Hatch, Nathan O.

1974 The origins of civil millennialism in America: New England clergymen, war with France, and the Revolution. The William and Mary Quarterly 31(3): 407-430.
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War Imagine Living in 18th Century America

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41151585

War

Imagine living in 18th Century America. What would a person encounter during that time period? Would the diverse social and political backgrounds impact a person positively or negatively during this era? Can a person prepare for what may occur with the upcoming Seven Years War? How would the outcomes of this war affect America in general? One will study these issues in depth from the perspective of an individual existing in the past.

During the 18th Century, I experienced a number of things that are worth mentioning. I went to the south at one time and noticed that slavery is an issue. Many of these individuals are poor, and a select few became land owners despite becoming exposed to various diseases. When I saw this I was devastated and wanted to help each person but I could not. However, these people after fifty years of service were promised their…… [Read More]

References

Bailyn, Bernard. To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities Of the American

Founders (Knopf, 2002), 185p.

HistoryKing. (2011). The social classes in 18th century colonial america. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from History King: http://www.historyking.com/American-History/The-Social-Classes-In-18th-Century-Colonial-America.html.

University of Southern Mississippi. (2011). Seven years war. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from University of Southern Mississippi: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:wvJvJ2QbbaIJ:ocean.otr.usm.edu/~w416373/HIS%2520360/HIS%2520360%2520Lsn%25204%2520Seven%2520Years%2520War.ppt+seven+years+war+outcomes&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8az8UYbRUpHVHP_TzWTpeTtDvq1m5BPG-RFmHHgEmQzzbC.
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Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin Were Both

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48422102

Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin were both prominent leaders in colonial America who were dedicated to hard work and a belief in the basic goodness of all men. Sharing in these basic concepts they went about making a major contribution to society but did so in different ways.

The personalities of Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin could not have been any different. Edwards was a strict Calvinist who was serious and reserved while Franklin was a Deist whose warmth and gregarious personality was legendary. Taking different views in many ways to life they still adhered to their basic beliefs that there was no substitute for hard work.

As a Deist, Franklin believed that every life situation could be resolved through the use of reason. Franklin's writings on life and his extensive work in the areas of philosophy and science are evidence of his basic attitude toward life. Edwards, meanwhile, believed…… [Read More]

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Polly Was Pregnant Again I

Words: 1760 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37498921



[Read More]

References

Brauer, J.C. (1954). The Nature of English Puritanism: Three Interpretations." Church History. 23 (2): 99-108.

Coon, D. (1976). Eliza Lucas Pinckney and the Reintroduction of Indigo Culture in South Carolina. The Journal of Southern History. 42 (1): 61-76.

Daniels, B.C. (1991). "Did the Puritans Have Fun? Leisure, Recreation, and the Concept of Fun in Early New England." Journal of American Studies. 25 (1) 7-22.

Governors of Massachussettes. (1768). "Massachusetts Circular Letter to the Colonial Legislatures." Yale University's Avalon Project. Retrieved from  http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/mass_circ_let_1768.asp
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Slavery Is a Dark Stain

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38197560

The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.

In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. While the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alvarez, Carlos. "Antislavery Movement: American Colonization Society." Online at http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/slavery/anti-slavery_movement/acs.htm.

Becker, Eddie. "Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism." 1999. Online at http://innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html.

Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period." African-American Odyssey. Online at  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart2.html .

History of Slavery in the United States." Wikipedia.com. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_the_United_States.
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Neoclassical Lit Neoclassicism Is Immediately Apparent in

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4973270

Neoclassical Lit

Neoclassicism is immediately apparent in the visual arts and in architecture. In literature, neoclassicism entailed the revival of Classical Greek ethics, philosophy, and political ideals. Neoclassical literature sometimes drew on direct allusions to ancient Greece and Rome, using imagery of elements like statuary of gods. Because Reason fared prominently in the literature of ancient Greece, Reason also became a hallmark of neoclassical American writing. Thus, neoclassicism was an integral part of Enlightenment writing and literature.

One of the ways neoclassicism became a part of the American literary quilt was via the revival of original Greek and Roman texts. Insight into the roots of classical thought allowed American writers to apply ancient principles to their modern needs and concerns. Therefore, Greek concepts of reason, democracy, and ethics became fused with the American sense of liberty. A Christian perspective prevented the neoclassical writers to do away with God entirely, but…… [Read More]

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Americans Have Always Been Hesitant

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35809941

Kerr's management strategy on campus only emboldened the New Left.

In addition to the Free Speech movement, the New Left included other student organizations including Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress on Racial Equality (CORE), and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The former focused on the antiwar efforts to end the Vietnam conflict, placing the students in direct conflict with many of America's most powerful institutions and organizations. Sit-ins, and other non-violent protest tactics were used to gain media coverage as well as to effect real change. The increasing awareness of how the War in Vietnam was proceeding caused the New Left to grow dramatically, providing a credible opposition to the Department of Defense. As Zinn points out, an increasingly large proportion of Americans ceased affiliating with either the Democratic or Republican parties, expressing opposition to the core institutions of government that led to injustices like those being…… [Read More]

References

Foner, E, 2011. Give Me Liberty! Norton.

"The free-speech fight that shaped the New Left." Workers' Liberty. Retrieved online:  http://www.workersliberty.org/story/2008/02/09/free-speech-fight-shaped-new-left 

Heilbrun, J., 1997. "The New Democrats. New Republic. Retrieved online: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/93596/democratic-leadership-council-al-from#

Kinzer, S. Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change. New York: Henry Holt.
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Christian Knows the Earliest Verses in the

Words: 2342 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75618331

Christian knows the earliest verses in the Bible. The Book of Genesis proclaims powerfully, that man was created in the image of God. We are also told that Man was created so that he could hold "dominion" over all of other God's creation. Yet, soon after, there was the Fall. And God cast Man out of the Garden of Eden to suffer on earth burdened by the pains of the Original Sin. Through Christ's advent and resurrection, we are informed that Christ was also the image of God and also in the image of Man; and, that we have a way out from our sinful ways. The doctrine of the Image of God emerges as a powerful mandate for good Christian Living. The rewards are eternal salvation and the restoration to how we were originally created. As the book of Revelations relates, the consequences of not doing so would consign…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, W.H. (1991). In the image of God: a biblical view of humanity. Chicago: Moody Press.

Edwards, R.B. (1972). Reason and religion; an introduction to the philosophy of religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Kazantzakis, N. (1960). The last temptation of Christ. New York,: Simon and Schuster.

Masson, R. (1982). The Pedagogy of God's image: essays on symbol and the religious imagination. Chico, CA: Scholars Press.
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A concise Analysis of role of Isaac Backus

Words: 1482 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31801817

Isaac Backus Role in Shaping of the Southern Baptist Religion in the Early American Colonies

Only a few Baptists were present in colonial America but their number was highest in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island because of the freedoms in those places. Baptists were greatly despised in nearly all regions but mainly in New England. Luckily for the Baptists present in America, they actually gained more from the Great Awakening compared to other denominations. Isaac Backus[footnoteRef:1], a young New Light Congregationalist minister, was among their very first converts from New England Congregationalism back in 1751. Over the eighteenth century, Baptists started to grow and thrive among the rich religious maltreatment and harassment which was still evident in the majority of the colonies- particularly Massachusetts. Through speeches, tracts, petitions, and protests, Isaac Backus (1724-1806) headed the quest of religious freedom during the chaotic era of the American Revolution.[footnoteRef:2] [1: Michael Williams. "Brief…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ascol, Thomas K. From the Protestant Reformation to the Southern Baptist Convention: What Hath Geneva to Do with Nashville? Founders Press, 2013.

Carwardine, Richard. "Baptists and the Shaping of America." Accessed October 4, 2016.http://biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/bq/35-4_158.pdf.

Davis, Derek H. "Baptists and the American Tradition of Religious Liberty. "PERSPECTIVES IN RELIGIOUS STUDIES 33, no. 1 (2006): 5-7

Derek H. Davis, Religion and the Continental Congress, 1774-1789: Contributions to Original Intent (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 125-28.
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Schulman & Dumenil Comparison Contrast of

Words: 2015 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23451441

Schulman illustrates this by reference to Bob Dylan's lyrics, whose images (such as Isis) evoke the spiritual quests of the New Age mysticism and whose outlaw heroes voice an angry suspicion again established institutional authority (Schulman, 147). The same hostility to mainstream values was repeated in iconoclastic directors such as Cassavetes and Scorsese. One sees as well that the 1970s critiques of religion were not based on evolutionary science as in Dumenil's portrait. They were grounded in psychology. Nor does Schulman describe a mass secularization to the extent it happened in the 1920s. Rather, there seemed to be a return to and reinvigoration of religion in the 1970s.

The 1970s had another element not present in the 1920s. The New Age movement presented a new image of maleness. It sought to explore masculinity perhaps in a way that the 1920s explored femininity. Men's groups, forums, and retreats spread. Robert Bly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dumenil, Lynn. The Modern Temper: American Culture and Society in the 1920s. New York: Hill and Wang, 1995.

Schulman, Bruce J. The Seventies: The Great Shift in American Culture, Society, and Politics. New York: The Free Press, 2001.
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People in The Starving Time

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At this point a strong conflict occurs between their own beliefs. On the one hand they believe that they are doing a good thing. The ethic dimension of their actions derives mainly from the approval that god gives them. On the other hand everything in the new land is against them.

Therefore they reach the conclusion that god is not with them and they do not have his approval. Only two possible explanations come to mind. One is that god is not completely good, but can show himself as completely lacking mercy. The other one is that god is good and wise and those who are making a mistake are themselves. The latter hypothesis is the more acceptable one.

God is omniscient and omnipotent. The famine and all the other negative things that are happening to them are nothing else but a proof that what they were doing was not…… [Read More]

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Rhetorical Purpose in the Works

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Henry uses stirring words about the value of liberty, but he also attempts to win over people who are uncertain if revolution is the correct path: "I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past," he states, and notes a real-life event in his persuasive efforts, namely England's lack of consideration of the colonialist's recent petition, comparing England's action to the false kiss of Judas on Christ's cheek.

While Edwards and Henry's speeches were oral, and delivered in theological and political settings, Emerson's "Nature" is a written essay. While all writers use metaphors, Emerson makes use of much more elaborate metaphors, because his work is designed to be read over a long period of time, not hold the listener's attention for a short period of time. Emerson also calls upon images of liberty and faith, but his images focus on the individual reader and Emerson's…… [Read More]

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Nathaniel Hawthorne Was Born in

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Given that slavery and sexism were still pervasive realities in American society in the middle of the nineteenth century, the Scarlet Letter borders on being a radical work.

Hawthorne also reveals how religion had pervaded Massachusetts Bay society to the extent that public laws reflected Christianity. The idea that Church and State should be separate did not emerge until much later in American consciousness, and by the time Hawthorne wrote the Scarlet Letter in 1850 the nation had been fully formed and founded on principles far different than those upon which the Massachusetts Bay Colony was: namely, religious plurality was protected in the Constitution. In spite of that, women had few rights in public society. Women were prohibited from voting or holding public office. Adultery and sexual freedom remained taboo, as was homosexuality and mixed-race relations.

The Scarlet Letter would have been received differently by different groups of people and…… [Read More]

Hawthorne also reveals how religion had pervaded Massachusetts Bay society to the extent that public laws reflected Christianity. The idea that Church and State should be separate did not emerge until much later in American consciousness, and by the time Hawthorne wrote the Scarlet Letter in 1850 the nation had been fully formed and founded on principles far different than those upon which the Massachusetts Bay Colony was: namely, religious plurality was protected in the Constitution. In spite of that, women had few rights in public society. Women were prohibited from voting or holding public office. Adultery and sexual freedom remained taboo, as was homosexuality and mixed-race relations.

The Scarlet Letter would have been received differently by different groups of people and individuals in 1850 America. Few people of color were able to read at the time and so the book would have been read mainly by whites who could afford a decent education. The book also spoke far more to a New England audience than to a southern one because of its being set in Boston. Still, the issues Hawthorn addresses are universal among all Americans. Most of the American population in 1850 were self-described Christians. Social norms were conservative, almost as conservative as they were in the seventeenth century, when the novel was set. Puritanical settlements had long since morphed into more mercenary outposts in New England, but Hawthorne must have noticed widespread conservatism in the first and second Great Awakenings: eras of Christian evangelism in America. Evangelism usually constituted a reaction toward perceived breakdowns in morality. Those breakdowns might have meant only the transformation of social norms into those more realistic and egalitarian but conservatives by definition cling to their traditions vehemently. Hawthorne's book speaks to those who can identify with the protagonist and/or with Dimmesdale. Hester's husband Roger Chillingworth is depicted as an almost one-dimensional character consumed by the desire for revenge. Chillingworth's name is as icy as his heart; the author therefore suggests that true love and marriage have nothing to do with one another.

Individuals who believe that adulterers should be shunned like Hester Prynne and Arthur Dimmesdale were might react to Hawthorne's work differently than most readers. Religious conservatives might take offense that the author injected a healthy dose of moral relativism into the book. Although the Scarlet Letter must have irked many a Christian in its time and possibly our own, the novel stands out as being eerily relevant two centuries after it was written.
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Charlotte North Carolina City Profile

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These highways provide a way through several other Southern states and far into the North East as well. A new highway is currently under construction in the expanding city. Construction on the I-485 began around the turn of the Twenty-First Century, and is planned to be completed within the next five years. The city has also invested large sums of money and energy into the completion and maintenance of the rail line system called the Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS). This is a state of the art light rail which feeds into various parts of the city. The local city airport is a major international hub, and one of the largest international airports in the Southern region. Charlotte/Douglas International Airport oversees arrivals and departures from all over the world. This complex transit system has opened up Charlotte not only to other areas of the South, but to the rest of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Christie, Les. (June 2007). "The Fastest Growing U.S. Cities: From the Empire State to the Lone Star State - the cities that are growing the most." CNN Money.  http://money.cnn.com/2007/06/27/real_estate/fastest_growing_cities/ 

CrimeInCharlotte.com. (2006). "2006 Crime Statistics." http://www.crimeincharlotte.com/2006/12/2006-crime-statistics.html

The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Story. (2002). "History Timeline." http://www.cmstory.org/

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). "Charlotte North Carolina Quick Facts," http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/37/3712000.html
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Worldviews of Americans in the

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The Puritans and early 19th century Americans also tended towards a pessimistic view of the world: the physical body and the physical universe were perceived as being inherently evil in conjunction with the concept of original sin. Death was therefore viewed as liberating. Because of westward expansion, 19th Century Americans cultivated more utopian visions and were generally more hopeful about the future of the United States. Furthermore, the Puritans lived outside the confines of the nation-state so their attitudes toward human life and politics differed from that of 19th century Americans.

Ethics in Puritan New England and in early 19th century America were rooted in Christian beliefs. The Puritans laid the foundations for a normative ethics that closely followed the Biblical commandments. 19th century Americans would conveniently override Biblical ethos when it came to the treatment of slaves and Native Americans and therefore both Puritans and early 19th century Americans…… [Read More]

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Mozart's Operas an Analysis of

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Schikaneder was both an actor and a producer in Vienna for a playhouse that traditionally catered to "lowbrow" audiences (Loomis 2). Mozart's brand of comedy was just the thing for Schikaneder's theater. But "lowbrow" was merely one aspect of Mozart's comedic ventures: they could be equally stunning, poised, high-minded, honest, and full of common sense at the same time. Like the man, they resembled a mystery that could not be summed up with any one category or label: they were nothing less than unique and stellar expressions of a culture that emerged out of the Baroque and into a highly uncertain future. Mozart's Magic Flute would prove to be more than just "low comedy" -- it would be a magical tour de force (with one of the most famous arias of all-time) and a compelling reminder of the enchanting power of musical melody and the harmony between melody and nature,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barbers, David W. Bach, Beethoven, and the Boys. Toronto, Canada: Sound and Vision, 1986.

Cairns, David. Mozart and His Operas. Los Angeles, CA: University of California

Press, 2006.

Heartz, Daniel. Mozart's Operas. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press,
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Marketing in a Less Developed Country

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Marketing in a Less Developed Country

A less developed country is that country with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of less than 2% of global trade in goods relative to other countries. Less developed countries are characterized by little industry and sometimes a comparatively high dependence on foreign aid. These countries are grouped as the poorest and weakest market economies and consist of more than 880 million people. They rely heavily on exports of agricultural products whose prices keep on fluctuating fetching low price in the international market while they import most of the industrial and manufactured goods from developed countries a reason for continued balance of payment deficits, resulting into high debt burdens which have kept them as beggars' in the international community thus a continuous vicious cycle of poverty (UN-OHRLLS, 2011).

Less developed countries are also characterized by low level of socio-economic development with weak human and institutional…… [Read More]

References

C. Samuel Craig and Susan P. Douglas, (1999).Conducting international Marketing Research in the 21st century. Retrieved on Nov 23, 2011 from  http://people.stern.nyu.edu/sdouglas/rpubs/imr.html 

Food and Agricultural Organization, (2011).Global agricultural marketing management.

Retrieved on Nov 23, 2011 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/W5973E/w5973e02.htm

Leslie M. Dawson, (2011). Marketing to Less Developed Countries. Retrieved on Nov 23, 2011
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American Revolution Slavery in the United Stated

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American Revolution

Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.

This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained. Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…… [Read More]

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Abigail Adams in a Thorough

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The manner in which she coped with the travails of traveling overseas in a time far before airplanes underscores the strength of character of this remarkable woman. The trip also marked the first time she had been away from her children for any length of time, solidifying her independence and contributing to her overall psychological development. Furthermore, Akers notes how Abigail was able to analyze, criticize, and incorporate ideas, concepts, trends, styles, and material objects from the Old World. "Her confidence in herself as a person had been bolstered by the many opportunities to test her mind and values in the intellectual and social capital of Europe," (91). Furthermore, based on her letters, Akers infers that her trip abroad strengthened her already deep affection for America, the new nation she watched being born and growing with the help of her husband. Her travel abroad also indicated to Abigail how the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, Charles W. Abigail Adams: An American Woman. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.
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Enlightenment on American Culture and

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Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baumgarten, Linda. (2002). What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America: The Colonial Williamsburg Collection. New Haven, CT: Yale University

Press.

Bilhartz, Terry D., and Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States, Volume 1. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Crunden, Robert Morse. (1996). A Brief History of American Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E.
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South and the North of the 19th Century

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South and the North of the 19th Century

Dear Trevor,

As I write this, I can hear faint yells and cheers through my window. Somewhere, the city of Charleston still celebrates. You'll have heard why by the time my letter arrives. Secession. It was no secret that it would happen when Lincoln, that great ape, was elected. As many years as we've been on the receiving end of Yankee insults and "compromises," I wonder why we took so long.

You and I have talked about our peculiar institution, and I know you disapprove, but then, you have not been around Negroes. They are not our equals. They need us to care for them and direct them, and we need them to work the fields and keep our farms and plantations running. There is no immorality, no terrible sin. Merely an advantageous arrangement for both sides. But the Yankees don't see…… [Read More]

References

Catton, B. (1961). The coming fury, volume one. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.

Naden, C.J. & Blue, R. (2000). Why fight? The causes of the American Civil War. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Publishers.
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Non-Denominational Religions the New Facility

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" Therefore, the Second Coming and the Rapture are coincidental events, both of which have to do with Christ returning to Earth. The Rapture specifically refers to what happens to human beings. Once Christ returns, the "thousand-year reign" on Earth begins. According to the FFM website, "Jesus Christ will one day return to bring believers home to Heaven and will reign with them over the Earth for 1,000 years." The thousand-year reign has scriptural origin, and is also called the Millennial Reign of Jesus. A "new heaven and earth," ostensibly a holier and happier one, will result from the Second Coming.

Speaking in tongues is a phenomenon that occasionally accompanies the baptism rite. Many Protestant and evangelical groups encourage speaking in tongues as proof of one's salvation during baptism (Robinson 2005). More formally known as "glossolalia," speaking in tongues is considered to be a supernatural manifestation of the glory of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'History." Faith Fellowship Ministries.org.< http://www.faithfellowshipministries.org/history.html>.

Interview material.

"Our Beliefs." < http://www.ffmwoc.org/FFM3/Beliefs.html>.

Robinson, B.A. (2005). "Comparing the Beliefs of Roman Catholics and Conservative Protestants." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: Religious Tolerance.org.<  http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_capr.htm >.
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England Had by Late 1600s

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Moreover, the Quakers turned down New England's request for assistance during the New England-Indian Wars.

The colonists set up an agricultural economy where they grew their own food like corn and wheat. The cattle they raised gave them meat, milk, and butter. They also kept chicken and sheep. The colonists who settled in Pennsylvania came for religious reasons. They wanted religious freedom. Penn branded the Catholic Church as a "Whore of Babylon" and Puritans as "hypocrites and revelers in God." After Penn had written "The Sandy Foundation Shaken" the Bishop of London ordered that he be imprisoned until he recanted his written statements (Anonymous, 2012).

African slaves in the southern colonies like the South and North Carolina worked in the rice field. Some had good knowledge of rice growing having come from rice growing regions in West Africa. by, 1708, majority of people of living in the rice growing regions…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2012). Colonial Settlement 1587-1770. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://www.rc255.will.k12.il.us/rcms255/textbooks/documents/chap03_001.pdf

Burke, H. (2012). Slavery in Virginia. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from  http://henryburke1010.tripod.com/id4.html 

Rothbard, M.N. (1999). Conceived in Liberty. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.
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Protestant Reformation Occurred as a Reaction to

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Protestant Reformation occurred as a reaction to the increasing encroachment of the Catholic Church on the political, social, and economic affairs of Europeans. Although the Protestant Reformation had a strong theological and doctrinal component, it would evolve into a major turning point in history that transcended religion. The Protestant Reformation was essentially a protest made in order to reform the heart of Christianity.

It began when Martin Luther nailed 95 theses, or statements, on the door of a Church in Wittenberg, Germany. These assertions held in part that the Pope did not have absolute authority over interpreting the will or word of God. People -- ordinary believers -- could read the Bible and therefore interpret the Truth for themselves. Moreover, Luther "maintained that justification (salvation) was granted by faith alone; good works and the sacraments were not necessary in order to be saved," ("Protestant Reformation," n.d.). The Protestant doctrine that…… [Read More]

References

Kirsch, J.P. (1911). The Reformation. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved November 17, 2012 from New Advent:  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12700b.htm 

"Protestant Reformation," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1136.html
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American Religious History Defining Fundamentalism and Liberalism

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American Religious History

Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. While present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.

Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.
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Assigned Readings

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American Literature

Listen to Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God preached. Discuss in the discussion group.

Jonathan Edwards gives us a perfect example of the Calvinist beliefs of the Puritan settlers in early New England. Edwards studied theology at Yale University -- where today there is still a dormitory named after him -- but then became a noteworthy preacher in the Great Awakening, which exhorted an entire generation to renew their Christian faith. Edwards' skill in preaching lies in using literary imagery to get across abstract theological concepts. Calvinist theology believes in "total depravity" -- in other words, because of Adam and Eve eating the apple, human beings are fallen, and stained with "original sin." The most memorable image in Edwards' sermon -- the image of the spider being held over a fiery pit -- is meant to be a metaphor to enable the listener to imagine how…… [Read More]

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Wit Film 2001

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Wit

A made-for-television movie, Wit addresses issues related to terminal illness, death, and dying. Emma Thompson plays Vivian Bearing, a professor of literature enraptured with erudite poetry like that of John Donne. When she is diagnosed with ovarian cancer, Bearing's life changes dramatically. At first, Bearing goes the traditional route of succumbing to paternalistic medicine's approach to treatment. She obeys her doctor's orders, goes through chemotherapy, and generally struggles with the idea that she has an illness. A precocious woman, Bearing flashes back to a series of events in her life that place her personality and value system into perspective. Ultimately, Bearing comes to terms with the core essence of life as she goes through the stages of dying. She realizes that caring and compassion trump personal, intellectual, and career achievements.

The people who do and do not visit her in the hospital teach her about quality of life. Issues…… [Read More]