Greek And Roman Essays (Examples)

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Roman World Ancient Romans Paid

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17078294



Ancient Romans wanted to compensate for their lack of experience in the world of medicine through their dedication to keeping healthy by promoting hygiene and physical exercise. Surprisingly, the technological progress experienced by Ancient Rome did not seem to be of any importance to its people, as they were only attracted to keeping their health through any means possible. The fact that hygiene and physical exercise were interconnected when regarding people in Ancient Rome and their desire to keep healthy can be observed by looking at the way gymnasiums were built next to public baths.

Aqueducts were yet another technological advancement in Ancient Rome, but in spite of their greatness and of the fact that they provided people with fresh water and with an ingenious method of irrigating crops, most Romans were satisfied with exploiting them, and not with analyzing how they worked. There were numerous techniques Romans used with…… [Read More]

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Greek Artifacts the Civilization of

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27467730

Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).

Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.

Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp.

Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.

New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
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Roman Theatre History Theatre Has

Words: 1668 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 776966

Their plays were similar to the Greeks and many of them were just translated versions. Theatre was an instrument used by the administration to keep the public from devoting much time to the political affairs. Thus any mentioning on stage regarding the political situation or activities would have serious consequences for the author for writing it and the actor for agreeing to perform it. In addition it also served as a purpose to get away from everyday life and worries. It was a part of their life and civilization. As time passed by the theatre evolved but women were not allowed to take part in it for a very long time. With the establishment of churches and the influence of popes, women faced yet another problem in getting accepted as being part of the society. oman theatre was a major influence on the later European theatre and they learnt much…… [Read More]

References

1) Giulia De Dominicis - Article Title: The Roman Theatres in the Age of Pius VI. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 81.

2) Live Hov - Article Title: The 'Women' of the Roman Stage: As Goethe Saw Them. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 61.

3) Garret Fagan - Article Title R.C. Beacham. Power into Pageantry: Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome. Journal Title: Comparative Drama. Volume: 35. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 465+.

4) The Columbia Encyclopedia - Encyclopedia Article Title: Drama, Western. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Publisher: Columbia University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2004.
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Greek Culture

Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31403257

Anatomy of an Aesthete

The Picture of Dorian Gray and the Rise of Aestheticism

Oscar ilde's the Picture of Dorian Gray is the manifesto of Late Victorian Aestheticism.

The Late Victorian Era was characterized by numerous artistic and literary movements that were reactions to the growing industrialization and homogenization of contemporary society. As trains, telephones, and factories rushed humankind headlong to an unknown future, many of the greatest lights of the Age looked back into the Past, and to a simpler, more clearly-defined time and place; a time and place with readily-recognized rules and standards. For centuries, the Classical orld of Ancient Greece and Rome had provided a model for modern Europeans. Artists, writers, philosophers, architects -- even musicians -- let themselves be guided by what they believed to be the Classical canons of behavior and taste. Until the dawn of the Industrial Age, Europe's intellectual class entertained no illusions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, Robert. The Seduction of the Mediterranean: Writing, Art, and Homosexual Fantasy. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Beckson, Karl, ed. Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997.

Boscagli, Maurizia. Eye on the Flesh: Fashions of Masculinity in the Early Twentieth Century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.

Harris, Jose. "1 Ruskin and Social Reform." Ruskin and the Dawn of the Modern. Ed. Birch, Dinah. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 7-33.
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Greek Civilization Compare Greek Religion in the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63638750

Greek Civilization:

Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:

The different ways they believed their gods intervened.

During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.

Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.

In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…… [Read More]

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Greek and English the Ancient

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56179376

The vengeance of the gods is further underscored by the Chorus who warns that "But if any man comes striding, high and mighty, in all he says and does, no fear of justice, no reverence for the temples of the gods-let a rough doom tear him down, repay his pride, breakneck, ruinous pride!" Oedipus portrays tyranny and the people's greatest blessing becomes their worst curse.

In the last stage, Oedipus is a man who has become humbled with the pain and dejection of knowing the truth of reality as he is forced to admit his tragic destiny by the overwhelming evidence. The writer shows the sudden change in the protagonist's persona when Oedipus condemns himself by saying, "I stand revealed at last -- cursed in my birth, cursed in marriage, cursed in the lives I cut down with these hands!" (1309-1311) Oedipus's complete transformation is demonstrated when he gouged out…… [Read More]

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Greek Sculpture a Timeline of Greek Sculpture

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83902479

Greek Sculpture

A Timeline of Greek Sculpture

Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)

As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.

Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)

Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…… [Read More]

Reference List

Agony -- The Famous Group of Laocoon. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/rome-19.shtml

Haaren, J. (2000). Famous Men of Greece. Lebanon, TN: Greenleaf Press.

Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

The Farnesse Bull. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/naples-5.shtml
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Greek Culture Greek Art and

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35170500



Of course, the history of ancient Greek art is inseparable from the city of Athens, where our modern principles of democracy emerged around 400 B.C.E. And which has become the penultimate symbol of Greek culture, especially related to the Parthenon atop the Acropolis which still stands today as the quintessential icon of ancient Greek architecture. It was here in Athens that some of the finest products of Greek civilization were created by Athenians, such as Phidias, one of the greatest sculptors of all time and responsible for the creation and overall design of the Parthenon.

Also, modern-day Western society and the nation of Greece owe much to the writers who created the great Greek tragic plays, such as Aeschylus and Sophocles whose plays were "presented to eager citizens with personal obligations to the gods" (de la Croix, 2003, p. 125). In addition, we must remember to include Homer, the author…… [Read More]

References

Ancient Greek Art." (2008). Internet. Retrieved May 30, 2008 at  http://www.crystalinks.com/greekart.html .

De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey. (2003). Art Through the Ages. 10th ed.

New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc.

Martin, Thomas R. (2004). Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times.
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Greek Orthodox Church the Only

Words: 1913 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15223352

As great as it is to have one thing that everyone shares, it's even better to have more than one to relate to. I think that makes people take their faith even more seriously.

I absolutely believe that misconceptions about people's beliefs are common. Protestants believe Catholics worship idols; Christians believe pagans worship demons and dance naked in the woods; believers think atheists are horrible, immoral people. From what I remember in history, part of the reason the Catholic Church was able to pull off the Crusades was by painting the non-Christians as evildoers who ate babies. hy does it happen? Because as human beings, we want to believe that we have a good deal on the afterlife. And I also think people often just want to think of themselves as "better" than others.

To fix this, I think people should be more willing to discuss their faith with others.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A Dictionary of Orthodox Terminology - Part 2 -- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. (n.d.).

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith9152

No Author, Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches, National Council of Churches, 2000.

No Author. (1914). About Ascension Cathedral: Ascension Cathedral. Ascension Cathedral. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.groca.org/?page_id=334
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Greek After the Death of

Words: 848 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18012603

For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.

But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.

Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…… [Read More]

References

Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001

Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997

Greek
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Greek Concept to Movie Troy

Words: 962 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64147943

Greek Concept to Movie Troy

Ancient mythology as never ceased to amaze and fascinate its readers and followers. Especially Egyptian and Greek mythology, having followers everywhere; in the current times it has found a new fan, that is the movie making business, with a special interest in Greek mythology. Nothing is better than watching your favorite characters brought up to life and actually see them doing all the things we had previously only imagined them doing. One such captivating movie is 'troy' based on the Greek Trojan war starring Brad Pitt. Various Greek concepts were shed light in this movie, which will be discussed, in relation to the movie.

The first concept is Fate, since in Greek mythology fate does not just happen. The gods make things happen, in their own engineered ways, and interfere to make things happen on their own account. Then there is MOIA, which means that…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Walter Benjamin "The Task of the Translator" vol 1: 1913-1926. Marcus Bullock. Pg. 256-259

Roman Jacobson "The World of Movies, Media and Multimedia: language, history, theory" Pg. 26-266.

James Monaco "How to Read a Film" 3rd edition, Pg. 250-255.
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Roman Culture

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74625553

Roman Culture

Spartacus

The 1960 film Spartacus claims to tell the story of the famous slave revolt, also known as the Gladiator War, which terrorized Rome for years and can be pinpointed as one of the most influential causes of the eventual destruction of the Roman Republic and its descent into imperialism and tyranny. One must say "claims to be," rather than "is," in this case because the film is wildly inaccurate historically. The creators of this work were, of course, aware of its lack of historical authenticity, which is partly attributed to the artistic necessity of condensing four years of political upheaval and constant warfare into less than four hours. Indeed, condensation of time is the biggest historical inaccuracy here -- for example, many main Roman characters are rather indiscriminately condensed in time, such as Gracchus who appears to be a combination of two Gracchus brothers active fifty years…… [Read More]

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Roman Emperor Citizens One Year

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68604367

The rule of law is essential to commerce, and commerce is essential to wealth. To longer shall local chieftains and would-be kings rule over the Empire - they are all subject to me, no different from anybody else.

A call upon the soldiers. Military might is the key to our success, in establishing rule of law and expanding our borders. Your support is required for this endeavor and for it you will be rewarded handsomely. I call upon the administrators. You are the ones who will do my work, and ensure that our country is filled with peace and prosperity. I call upon the merchants and the traders. My reforms will give you the opportunity to become wealthy beyond belief. Support me, go forth and trade. Bring us the goods of the orient.

My subjects, all I ask of you is for your help. I need your support. Be peaceful,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dhammika, Ven. S. (1994). The Edicts of King Ashoka. Colorado State University.

Retrieved November 2, 2008 at  http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html 

No author. (2008). Qin Dynasty. TravelGuideChina.com. Retrieved November 2, 2008 at http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qin
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Classic Antiquities Stopping Looting of Classic Greek

Words: 2413 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56775172

Classic Antiquities

Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites

Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade is only recently being regulated and stopped. There are many problems with the methods used to stop the trade however and no one nation or regulatory body has been able to devise a solid means by which these treasures can be returned to the people who claim them as heritage. The heritage argument and the ability to return the artifacts becomes even more clouded when the items in question are found underwater. Although there has been a concerted…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AFP. "A Rich Greek Archeology Frontier Lying Underwater." Khaleej Times (2005, June 24).

Aiken, Jonathan. "Antiquities Diplomacy." The American Spectator 42.1 (2009): 58-60.

Akal, Tuncay. "Surveillance and Protection of Underwater Archaeological Sites: Sea Guard." (accessed November 2, 2012) http://www.acoustics.org/press/155th/akal.htm

Carver, Martin. "Editorial." Antiquity 82.315 (2008): 7-9.
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Egyptian Civilizations Classical Greek or

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90859767

As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.

The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting

Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…… [Read More]

References

American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm

Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/

Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1

Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
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Christianity and Its Place in the Greco Roman World

Words: 2445 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29257233

Narrative of an Episode From My Travels With Paul

As a traveling companion of Paul, I have seen a number of marvels and the way in which the Christian faith of the Apostle challenges the boundaries between cultures and societies. For example, in Greece, I have seen Paul mix and mingle with Jews, with those baptized by John (and then baptized in the spirit of Christ by Paul),[footnoteRef:1] with Romans, and with every other possible number and variety of inhabitant in the islands. Paul could relate to many because his mission and view were such that he saw himself connected to everyone, even the living and the dead. I mention these latter because even a tombstone of a young girl, depicting her innocence as she holds a dove, could elicit from Paul such reverence and appreciation and praise that you would think he had personally known that girl.[footnoteRef:2] In such…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Bear Hunt. A Mosaic at Getty Villa.

"Marble Relief with a Young Girl Holding Doves." Getty. Web. 20 Apr 2016.

New Testament. BibleHub. Web. 20 Apr 2016.

Roman Mosaics Across the Empire. Getty. Web. 20 Apr 2016.
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Karim Snoussi Christoph Korner Roman

Words: 2005 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65963980

The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.

The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.

Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association

of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.

Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
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Classical Greek Indian Civilizations Egyptian Civilization

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63746864

art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.

The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…… [Read More]

References

Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html.

Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site:  http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .

Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.

Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site:  http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/ .
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Daily Life for Greek Women

Words: 2765 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22352252

Odyssey: Daily Life for Women

When it comes to the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey is recognized as a piece of literature that was not just about gods, men, and creatures, this historical read served as a cultural example about the women and their place in society. This book, provides a wide-ranging view of the Achean's peacetime people. Throughout Odyssey, a person is able to pick up some understanding of what is appropriate or inappropriate in relationships among servant and master, father and son, guest and host, god and mortal, and--notably -- woman and ma. It is clear that the women are the ones that perform an important role in Odyssey. With that said, this essay will explore the daily life of women from the literature Odyssey.

Social customs, marriage, rights and freedoms

While Odysseus is looked at as being an interesting figure, the women persons in the Odyssey are just as…… [Read More]

References

Austin, Norman. Helen of Troy and Her Shameless Phantom. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,, 2009.

Cahill, Jane. Her Kind: Stories of Women from Greek Mythology. Peterborough, Ont: Broadview Press, 2005.

Cohen, Beth. The Distaff Side: Representing the Female in Homer's Odyssey. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

DeBois, Page. Centaurs and Amazons: Women and the Pre-history of the Great Chain of Being. Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.
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Greek on Mediterranean World Sparta

Words: 2198 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88891091

Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.

Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.

John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world

Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.

Rousseau JJ (1755) Economie ou Oeconomie (Morale et Politique). in: Diderot Det d' Alembert J, Le R (eds.) Encyclopedie au Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers, vol V, Paris, pp 337 -- 349. Quoted from the French-German edition entitled, Rousseau JJ (1977) Politische Okonomie. Edit. And transl by Schneider HP, Schneider-Pachaly B. Klostermann, Frankfurt, pp 22 -- 113. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.
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Roman in the Context of

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38723858

And an owner could set his slave free as a reward for that slave's noble service, transforming this piece of property into a human being with a touch of the hands and a few words.

Plautus depicts the absurdity of this legal reality with a humorous edge, but his humor has a great deal of societal bite. Plautus' most famous play, which provides the plot of "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum," is entitled "Pseudolous." The main character and incidentally the main character in Stephen Sondhiem's musical. Pseudolous means false or "trickster" and Pseudolous is indeed a mendacious individual. However, Pseudolous is also part of a mendacious Roman society, a society which denies him rewards equal with his intelligence and his cunning and rewards the falsely pious can't of the young man's father he is attempting to help.

Plautus deals with this issue even more explicitly…… [Read More]

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Roman View of Christianity

Words: 3297 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99361988

Roman view of Christianity

Early Christianity did not develop in isolation, but within a complex landscape already occupied by belief systems, social networks, systems of identity, and political institutions, and it is essential not to regard it 'as somehow independent, as if the church were an entity existing apart from Christians living in particular times and places. Such a treatment neglects how the history of Christianity was influenced and shaped by its cultural environment.'

Foremost among the factors making up that environment was the Roman Empire, itself an amalgam of peoples, creeds and societies. The relationship between Christianity and pagan Rome was a complex and evolving one. This paper will examine Roman hostility to Christianity during this period, and aspects of Roman criticism of Christian belief.

In the earliest period of the Christian church's existence within the Roman Empire, Christians were commonly referred to as troublemakers, offending against Roman order…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Henry Chadwick, Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).

Robert Doran, Birth of a Worldview: Early Christianity in its Jewish and Pagan Context (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995).

Mark J. Edwards, et al., eds., Apologetics in the Roman Empire: Pagans, Jews, and Christians (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).

John Helgeland, 'Christians and the Roman Army A.D. 173-337', Church History, vol. 43, no. 2 (June 1974).
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Greek Crisis

Words: 2337 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75228877

Greece Bailout

oadmap

The Greek government has faced an ongoing fiscal crisis for the past several years. ecently, for the third time, its Eurozone partners have been compelled to offer a bailout to the country. This is done to stabilize Greece's finances and to impose further measures on the Greek government to remedy the nation's budget and to ensure that there are no similar issues in future. The first part of the paper is a brief overview of the situation. The second part will outline some of the key issues that lead both to favor the bailout and to oppose it, and finally there will be analysis and a conclusion about whether or not bailing out Greece is the right thing to do. It will be argued that it is not, at least in the current form.

Background

There are several key issues at work with the Greek bailout. Greece…… [Read More]

References

BBC. (2013). IMF admits mistakes on Greece bailout. BBC. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from  http://www.bbc.com/news/business-22791248 

Bloomberg. (2012). Greek crisis timeline from Maastricht Treaty to ECB bond buying. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-09-05/greek-crisis-timeline-from-maastricht-treaty-to-ecb-bond-buying.html

Chu, B. (2012). Interview with economist Paul Krugman: Greece will leave Eurozone within 12 months. The Independent. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/interview-with-economist-paul-krugman-greece-will-leave-eurozone-within-12-months-7804753.html 

Esparza, A. (2013). Chinese investment in Greek port the biggest FDI after the crisis. Marketpulse. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from  http://www.marketpulse.com/20131127/chinese-investment-greek-port-biggest-fdi-crisis/
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Roman Emperor Caracalla Was Born

Words: 2073 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49891052

The public library in the baths of Caracalla was no exception to this (DeLaine, 1997).

Inside the bathing area itself, there were several components (DeLaine, 1997). One of these was a 183X79-foot cold room located under three 108-foot high groin vaults. There was also a double pool which was tepid, and a 115-foot diameter hot room (DeLaine, 1997). There were also two separate gyms where people could box and wrestle with one another. There was also a standard swimming pool in the north end of the complex. It was a roofless structure and had mirrors made of bronze mounted over it (DeLaine, 1997). This helped to direct sunlight into the area surrounding the pool for both beauty and warmth. The whole building was on a platform that was raised up twenty feet off of the ground. This was done in order to allow for the furnaces underneath the building and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Birley, Anthony R. (1988). Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, 2nd ed. Yale: New Haven Connecticut.

Chastagnol, Andre. (1994). Historie Auguste. Robert Laffont: Paris.

DeLaine, Janet. (1997) the Baths of Caracalla. Portsmouth, Rhode Island

Meckler, Michael. (1994). Caracalla and his late-antique biographer: A historical commentary on the Vita Caracalli in the Historia Augusta. University of Michigan.
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Greek Myths Theseus and the Minotaur and the Wasteland Motif

Words: 755 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65745647

astelands of Labyrinths, astelands of the Modern Past and Present

The wasteland of myth is a place where people have been mislead, where they dwell in a terrible half-existence, living a lie. Perhaps the most familiar modern expressions of the word 'wasteland' are those of T.S. Eliot's poem about "The asteland" and the idea of a modern, suburban 'teenage wasteland.' hen people speak about a teenage wasteland, they usually are referring to a group of disenchanted youths who have given up on their parent's values but cannot construct their own, new set of values. hen people speak of the "asteland" poem of Eliot, written during the early half of the 20th century, they are referring to Eliot's vision of modern life as a series of broken visions of past phrases, verses, and schemas of believe that no longer have a coherent form or provide moral guidance for people living today.…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Campbell, Joseph. Hero with a Thousand Faces. 1948.

"The Greek Myths: Theseus and the Minotaur & The Wasteland Motif." From The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Seventh edition. Volume 1. W.W. Norton & Co, 2001.
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Ancient Roman Religion

Words: 3936 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33196915

Roman Religion

Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ando, Clifford. The Matter of the Gods: Religion and the Roman Empire. Berkeley: University

of California Press, 2008.

Beard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price. Religions of Rome, Volume 1: A History. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 1998.
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Erotic Love Poems

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18683232

Greek & Roman

The mainstream lifestyle of the Ancient Greeks accepted that sexuality existed on a spectrum, and that sexuality was something that was fluid and not rigid or fixed. Therefore, the presence of heteroerotic and homoerotic in their poetry is no surprise. The Ancient Greeks accepted that sex with the opposite gender, the same gender, or with groups of people was normal, accepted, and at least, moderately expected. The paper will attempt to briefly note some, if any, differences among the Greek love poetry provided, specifically as those differences directly relate as to whether the poem is homoerotic or heteroerotic.

The homoerotic poetry is distinctive to this reader from the heteroerotic poetry. The homoerotic poetry repeatedly has imagery of horses. The poetry is typically written from the perspective of the older male in the affair. There are only a few homoerotic poems from the selection, yet they all include…… [Read More]

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Christianity the Roman Way Rome Exerted Tremendous

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72036816

Christianity

THE ROMAN WAY

Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…… [Read More]

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Classic Class Ancient World Sports

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64747505

Greek Sports

Sports in the ancient world evolved from the military traditions and are a reflection of the important elements of ancient life. When we consider the different elements of the ancient games, we see violence, beauty, the power of the gods and a social function, all of which are important factors in the ancient Greek games. This paper will explore the connection between sport, military and art in the ancient Greek and Roman worlds.

Sports & Military

Sporting tradition probably came from Greece, and Greek cities were surely the first to host massive sporting events on the scale of the Olympic Games. In this time, societies had strict rules with regards to the roles that people played in society. Wars and armed conflict were frequent, as a means gaining territory and power, as the Greek world was little more than a collection of loosely-tied city-states and small kingdoms. The…… [Read More]

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Art Roman Islamic and Early

Words: 2205 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14381201



The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,

Figure 3.

(Source: http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html)

This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…… [Read More]

References

Art and architecture of the Early Middle Ages. Retrieved from  http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Middle_Ages 

Art: Middle Ages. Retrieved from  http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html 

Middle Ages. Retrieved from  http://www.answers.com/topic/middle-ages 

Roman art. Retrieved from  http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/roman.html  Siddiqui E.
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Ancient Greek & Ancient Roman

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89566570

Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."

Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.… [Read More]

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Gospels Greek Text a Basis The Bible

Words: 2985 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15387708

Gospels Greek text a basis. The Bible on Luke Chapter 7: 1-10 Sample Essay Outline ( a guideline, adjust argument) ! short introduction (end statement thesis [, a summary interpretation passage]) ! body (argument support thesis) " summary passage " observations contents passage " observations literary, thematic, historical contexts " summary message original audience " explanation application context ! short conclusion (begin -stating thesis).

Jesus' healing of the Centurion's servant

The biblical text of Jesus healing a Centurion's servant is recognized for the numerous ways in which it can be interpreted and for being a significant pillar of faith in the Christian world. The story is particularly intriguing because it involves a Centurion turning to Jesus in order to get help and because it is one of the only two biblical accounts involving Christ performing a miracle meant to help Gentiles and in the presence of these people. This text…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Adam, D. "Growing in Awareness." (Kevin Mayhew Publishers)

Dick, A.K. "THE GOD VIRUS: THE PONTIUS PILATE REPORT (complete and unabridged American version)." (Anna K. Dick)

Hawkins, J.B. "Staying One, Remaining Open: Educating Leaders for a 21st Century Church." (Church Publishing, Inc., 1 Feb 2010)

John, J. "The Meaning in the Miracles." (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004)
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Historical View of the Greek Heroic Ideal

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87791054

Greco-oman Tradition

How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?

Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…… [Read More]

References

Bowra, C.M. (1957). The Greek Experience. New York: Praeger. In Steven Kreis, History Guide (2006).

Dunkle, R. (1986). The classical origins of western culture. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College, The City University of New York.

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Gender and Greek Art Gender

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27476178



http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/35.11.3

Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.

http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm

Figure 1: Michael Lahanas

Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Figure 5: Discus thrower

Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art

James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm

Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm

"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?

"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…… [Read More]

References

"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a, b_27.16)." In Heilbrunn Timeline

of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.

November 15, 2010.

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16
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Wealthy Roman a Villa a Retreat Stresses

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97155

wealthy Roman, a villa a retreat stresses public life? I asked role villa life a wealthy Roman a definite conclusion. as a villa a retreat, a number roles. I appeal evidence drawn Roman literature, Horace Pliny, Younger.

The Roman Villa

Romans considered villas to be more than just locations where they could live on a daily basis, as these buildings served a series of other purposes. City life imposed a great deal of stress on the wealthy and intellectual members of the Roman community and thus they needed a place where they could escape colloquial duties. City streets were dirty, unwelcoming, and filmed with violence, as they practically contrasted villas and their surrounding environments. In order for a villa to satisfy its inhabitant to its maximum potential, it had to be in accordance with his personal desires, both inside and outside. Also, the scenery where the villa was located needed…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Melmoth, William, "Elegant epistles, or, a copious collection of familiar and amusing letters: selected for the improvement of young persons, and for general entertainment, from Cicero, Pliny ... And many others," Printed for Charles Dilly, 1790, New York Public Library.

Rykwert, Joseph and Schezen, Roberto From Ancient to Modern, New York: Abrams Books, 2000

"Sketches of the domestic manners and institutions of the romans," Printed for Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821, Complutense University, Madrid.
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Persecution of Early Christians Under the Roman

Words: 6839 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3738537

persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.

ome before Christianity

The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…… [Read More]

References

Badnewsaboutchristianity.com (n.d.). Christian Persecution of Heretics - Bad News About Christianity. [online] Retrieved from:  http://www.badnewsaboutchristianity.com/gbc_heretics.htm#_edn4  [Accessed: 10 Dec 2012].

Bainton, R.H. (1960). Early Christianity. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.

Fitzgerald, T. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Westport, CT: Praeger Publisher.

Hackl, . (2012). Israel Considers Drafting Its Arab Citizens . Christian Science Monitor, August 1.
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Cosmopolitan Is the Greek Word

Words: 2145 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 840360

Appiah concluded by remarking that, 'it is a pallid version of cosmopolitanism that barely deserves the name, and if we can excuse ourselves because others are shirking their responsibilities, we are barely principled' (Anthony, 2006).

Assessment of Theories

The contemporary political theorists considered cosmopolitanism as 'citizenship of the world, which is a critique of ordinary theories of political obligation, with their tendency to focus on our duties to fellow citizens, not to people elsewhere' (Patrick, 2005). The consequence of the cosmopolitanism is expected to be 'single world government with corresponding global citizenship' (Patrick, 2005). Surprisingly such aspirations have not discussed by the serious circles. The modified and renewed version of the cosmopolitanism includes 'everyone in the world in a single global web of mutual obligations' (Ulrich, 2006). However the reservations and criticism mounted against cosmopolitanism is relevant to the negligence of the 'obligations of reciprocity'; there has been consensus on…… [Read More]

References

Noah Feldman. Cosmopolitanism Law. Cambridge University Press. 2006.

Ethan J. Leib. Rooted Cosmopolitans. Policy Review. Issue: 137. 2006. Hoover Institution Press.

Luis. Political Theory of Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Case for the World State. Routledge. 2004. pp. 32-46.

Patrick Hayden. Cosmopolitan Global Politics. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2005. pp. 176-189.
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What Bacchus Meant to the Romans at Vesuvius

Words: 2054 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17462738

Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus

The wall painting of The Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus at the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii (c. 60 BC) is a work of oman art that exemplifies the oman culture in the time just before Christ -- rich, ornate, elaborate, bordering on decadence, yet with still enough refinement to see a nobility and purpose in the spiritual life. Here, in the villa of a wealthy oman's vacation home near Mt. Vesuvius (which would fatally erupt just a century later, burying under ash and avalanche the wealthy in their very lap of luxury) can be seen the Greek influence on the oman culture.

The mural depicts a number of scenes in the ite of the Cult of Bacchus across three walls within a room of the Villa, near which was a wine press, used to make wine from the local…… [Read More]

References

Dembskey, E. J. (2009). Aqua Appia. The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Retrieved from  http://www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/romappia/ >

Dionysian Mysteries. (n.d.). Hellenica. Retrieved from http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/LX/DionysianMysteries.html

Jackson, J. (n.d.). Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii. Retrieved from http://www.art-and-

archaeology.com/timelines/rome/empire/vm/villaofthemysteries.html
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Comparison of Roman Catholics and the Calvinist in the Eucharist

Words: 3060 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14143661

Eucharist in Catholicism and Calvinism

Our word "Eucharist" is derived directly from the Greek of the New Testament: etymologically, it derives from the word for grace (charis) with a prefix (eu) meaning "good" or "well," but the original Greek word "eucharistia" means, simply enough, "thanksgiving" -- like our word "thanksgiving" it is a noun that derives originally from an equivalent verb describing the action involved (i.e., the giving of thanks). The Eucharist is intended as a sort of commemoration of Christ's Last Supper. The story of the Last Supper is attested to in three of the four canonical Gospels: Matthew 26:26 -- 28; Mark 14:22 -- 24; Luke 22:17 -- 20. (John's Gospel lacks a similar account but does include relevant statements that become important to later Eucharistic practice, such as John 3:36, "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life.") Yet it is the fourth…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Web. Accessed 20 Feb 2011 at:  http://www.newadvent.org/summa/index.html 

The Holy Bible. Print.

Bouwsma, William. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988 Print.

Calvin, John. Institues of the Christian Religion. Web. Accessed 20 Feb 2011 at: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.html
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Bust of Antinous the Piece of Roman

Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53934166

Bust of Antinous

The piece of Roman art being discussed is the bust of Antinous Mondragone, which is now in the Louvre in Paris, and it came from the Mondragone villa, located in Frascati, Italy. The artist is unknown, but it is thought to have been sculpted around 130 AD. This beautiful sculpture represents much of Roman art at the time, and it represents a larger cultural context, as well.

The arts were becoming popular during this time in the Roman Republic, and sculpture was becoming increasingly popular after the Romans captured Syracuse during the Second Punic Wars and brought back much of the island's sculpture to display in Rome. Roman sculpture often copied classic Greek statutes, because the artists and people admired Greek art. The sculptures were often of Roman rulers, indicating how important they were to the culture, and how they were held up by the people as…… [Read More]

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The Roman Colosseum an Engineering Masterpiece

Words: 3695 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28772408

Engineering the oman Colosseum

While the Colosseum stands, ome shall stand; when the Colosseum falls, ome shall fall; when ome falls, the world shall fall. -- The Venerable Bede quoting an Ancient Anglo-Saxon Peasant Prophecy

Perhaps the most enduring symbol of the greatness of the oman Empire can be seen today in the ruins of the Colosseum. This massive amphitheatre is situated in the middle of modern ome near the oman Forum and has become an iconic representation of the oman Empire at its zenith. Although estimates vary, analysts believe that at least 50,000 and perhaps as many as 80,000 spectators were accommodated in its capacious dimensions and the Colosseum has become the benchmark by which all subsequent stadia have been judged. Flush with the treasures and riches of Jerusalem, the builders of the Colosseum spared no expense in its design and construction, but despite its impressive seating capacity and…… [Read More]

References

Barbi, Gulomar, "The Colosseum," The World and I, 22(9) (2007, September), 37-40.

Burn, Robert, Roman Literature in Relation to Roman Art, London: MacMillan, 1888.

"Colosseum building materials," The Colosseum [online] available: http://www.the-colosseum.net/architecture / materials_en.htm.

"Description of the Colosseum," The Colosseum [online] available http://www.the-colosseum.net / architecture/descriptio_en.htm.
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What Caused the fall of the Roman Empire

Words: 3219 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19579383

fall of the Roman Empire?

The decline and eventual fall of the Roman Empire happened in the third century. Rome had made many enemies and grew from a revered unchallenged leader of the Mediterranean to a rather weary empire surrounded by a myriad of enemies. Rome experienced a number of significant military defeats over the time. The most significant contributor to the fall of the empire though was the economic policies adopted by the emperors. The decline is noted to have started with the rule of Septimius Severus in 193 AD. The rulership engaged in excesses and spent too much on the military. The currency was debased and inflation rose to crisis levels. Further, the time of poor economic policies coincided with a time when civil wars were commonplace. Assassinations were rife. Army generals made attempts to stage coups and assume ruler ship. The soldiers often murdered the emperor when…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Primary Sources

Euggipius. The Life of St. Severinus. Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, 1913.

Ferryl, Arther. The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.

St. Jerome, trans by F. Wright. Select Letters of St. Jerome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.
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Archimedes Was a Greek Scholar Born in

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7477266

Archimedes was a Greek scholar born in 287 BCE in Syracuse, which is modern-day Sicily. His father was an astronomer, but not a very famous one, whose name was Phidias. Archimedes studied in the great ancient center of learning Alexandria, Egypt. He went on to study a broad range of fields in science and math such as hydrostatics, geometry, and calculus (orres, 1995). He also studied astronomy like his father and helped to invent the planetarium (orres, 1995). Furthermore, Archimedes is known as the father of integral calculus (orres, 1995). Archimedes is famous in part because he developed the method to measure the density of objects (orres, 1995). This method is sometimes known as pycnometry or as the Archimedes' Principle (orres, 1995). In addition to his work on calculating density, Archimedes invented many important things including advanced pulley systems and some war machines (orres, 1995). Archimedes is considered to be…… [Read More]

References

"Archimedes," (n.d.). Famous Scientists. Retrieved online:  http://www.famousscientists.org/archimedes/ 

"Archimedes Biography," (n.d.). About.com. Retrieved online: http://math.about.com/library/blbioarchimedes.htm

Day, M.M. & Capri, A. (2002). "Density," Visionlearning Vol. SCI-1 (4), 2002. http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=37

Rorres, C. (1995). Archimedes. Retrieved online: https://www.cs.drexel.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/contents.html
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The Greek Classical Artistic Tradition

Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67148473

Greek Classical Era on Christian Art

The fifth century B.C.E. initiated a new philosophy in Greek art. hile before this era, Greek representations of the human form tended to be static and relatively stylized (much like Egyptian art), the Classical era exhibited a notable break with previous artistic images. Representations of the human form became much more realistic. Knowledge of anatomy combined with an ideology that celebrated and idealized the human form (while still keeping it recognizably human) characterized the style of this era, as can be seen in one of the wonders of the ancient world, the Tomb of Mausolus (Asia Minor, 359-351 B.C.E.). One famous relief on the Tomb depicts Greek warriors and Amazon women in combat. Both the soldiers and the women are intricately detailed in terms of the folds of their clothing and musculature. Both sides are also perfectly proportioned and while all look recognizably human,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Art of the Crusades Era." University of Michigan. 8 Dec 1997. Web 28 Dec 2015.

Boardman, John. "The Classical period (5th - 4th century BC)." Classical Art Research Centre.

Oxford University. 26 Oct 2012. Web 28 Dec 2015.

Cartwright, Mark. "Ara Pacis Augustae." The Ancient History Encyclopedia. Web 28 Dec 2015.