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Ancient Greek art has survived most successfully in the forms of sculpture and architecture, as well as in such minor arts as coin design, pottery and gem engraving. Greek architecture relied on two main styles, namely the Doric and the Ionic. The names were given by the Ancient Greeks themselves, who believed that these architectural styles were derived from the gods (Chase: 122). Ancient Greek art has survived most successfully in the forms of sculpture and architecture. However, most of the monuments of Ancient Greece have not survived; they were either destroyed by wars, or by nature in earthquakes or fires. Only a handful of temples, such as the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, have been spared.
Major forms of Roman art include architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. According to a traditional classification of Roman sculpture, there are a number of distinct categories of Roman artifacts…… [Read More]
"...the moment captured in the statue is an example of rhythmos, harmony and balance" (Encyclopedia: Discobolos)
The Dying Gaul, sometimes known as the Dying Trumpeter, is a "...ancient Greek statue of a dying warrior lying on the ground supporting himself with one arm. The omans later made a marble copy of the Greek original." (Dying Gaul) This sculpture is well-known as one of the most poignant classical expression in sculpture of death and dying. "After 50 years of desperate and unceasing battle, victory over the Gauls was commemorated by this gravely realistic depiction of a tragic hero. With classic details revealing the Greeks' admiration for strength and bravery" (Dying Gaul Sculpture) the Greek emphasis on form and the esthetic representation of the human are also clearly evident here.
Studies of Greek and oman art tend to emphasize similarities as well as differences in this various sculptures and other artworks. What…… [Read More]
Greek and Roman Theatre
Greek tragedy is characterized as being composed of tetralogy, wherein the play presented consists of three tragedies and a 'satyr' play, wherein criticisms in the government and society are addressed comically. Greek tragedy also has a dramatic form and focus, and most of the stories or topics used in tragedies are from myths and legends of the Greeks. Tragedies focus on the suffering of the lead character in the play, and provide insight and enlightenment to the main character at the end of the story or play. Meanwhile, Greek comedies were incorporated to Greek festivals along with tragedies, and comedies often depict extravagantness in its appearance while attacking and insulting people or actions that concerns society, or even personal attacks on people. Greek comedies are less restrictive in its form, and do not possess the high quality of organization that tragedies possess.
The Chorus is essential…… [Read More]
Whereas the Greek had a balanced view of the values inherent in both the physical and the intellectual, the omans were more practical, and valued war above intellectual abilities. As mentioned, ome freely adopted parts of other cultures and religions, including Greece. The omans hoped for a better afterlife than the Greeks did, which explains the appeal of Christianity to the nation.
While a good afterlife was a prospect for the common people, those in power had the option of becoming gods themselves, like the Egyptian pharaohs. The emperors were then worshiped as gods. As such, ome had three types of religions that existed side by side: the state religion, with the emperor as god; the mystery religions with their promises of life after death, and many foreign religions, including those of the Greeks (Mullen). It was therefore by no means a simple system.
oman and Greek Gods
According to…… [Read More]
Greek and oman Deities
In ancient times traditions, histories and other elements of society were passed down by the way of stories told from one generation to another. Ancient Greek culture predates oman culture. As the two cultures developed there was a certain degree of interaction between the peoples. The myths of these two cultures reflected many of the ethical issues that were important in that time. It is not surprising considering their close geographic proximity that there was a certain degree of mixing of cultures and consequently mythology as well. This research will explore the similarities and differences between Green and oman deities.
The first ancient Greek writings date to around 600 BC. However, the oratory tradition of the myths dates from a much earlier time. Greek mythology centered on the idea that a group of immortals were responsible for the creation of the world as it is today.…… [Read More]
Greek and Roman Empire Influence on Western Civilization
Spawning Civilization: From Greece to Rome to Western Civilization
It is difficult to find an area of life in contemporary Western Civilization which has not been influenced by the ancient empires of Greek and Rome. These two cultures were similar to one another, and helped to propagate many of the values and customs that are still prevalent in Western Civilization today. Some of the many facets of life in which the influence of these aforementioned situations is considerable include religion, language, philosophy, aesthetics or arts, architecture, and others. That this influence is so strong is not surprising; the present, after all, is directly related to the history that preceded it. From a historical perspective, then, it is extremely noteworthy that first ancient Greece, and then ancient Rome, was always the dominant power in Western civilization. There were many aspects of Greek culture…… [Read More]
Aeneas was also supposed to take with him some cattle for sacrifice, but they were to be sacrificed to the underworld gods.
In the Odyssey, Odysseus is supposed to seek out Teiresias, seer of the dead, who could instruct him on how to find his way home. He was supposed to sacrifice the sheep and make a drink offering to the dead, but was not to allow them to partake of it until Teiresias arrived. In the Aeniad, the purpose of Aeneas' trip to the underworld was to seek out his dead father Anchises and to see what the future held for him and his descendants; it was prophesized that he would be the founder of Rome. While in the underworld Aeneas witnessed many things, among them the Stygian lake across which Charon ferried the dead, Cerberus the three-headed dog, the Mourning Fields in which lost lovers resided, the torture…… [Read More]
Achilles himself is a warrior, and ultimately he decides himself to join the battle, regardless of his love for Briseis and regardless of the fact that he knows he will die. It is this in him that he cannot deny Patroclus.
Achilles nonetheless does all that he can to ensure Patroclus' safety. He warns Patroclus not to pursue the Trojans, because he knows this will lead to death. Furthermore he implores the gods with offerings to bring the young man back safely. None of these strategies however work, because Patroclus disregards both Achilles and the gods in his desire to attain glory. Ironically, his infamy lies only in the fact that he was foolish and that he died unnecessarily.
Furthermore Achilles' predicament lies in the fact that he is now to explain to Patroclus' father the reason why he went into battle. Achilles also lost a friend that he mourns.…… [Read More]
Both were established as the preeminent nation during their respective heyday, both used their internal structure of semi-democratic rule to establish their "right" to impress other nations to their way of life, both made exceptional use of false rhetoric to convince others of their preeminence, and both stretched their militaries to the point of breaking - more than once. Additionally, research demonstrates that the decline in American popularity coincides with the decline of democratic rule in the U.S. While under Democratic control, the United States enjoyed a significant period of favor within the world. but, the "war President" Bush has squandered all of that good will both at home and abroad - to the point where there are virtually no true friends left to come to her side in times of crisis, just as was the case with ome before the Barbarians from the North finally broke the myth of…… [Read More]
Caesar's death was partially owed to his mercy and intolerance, which, in mixture, were unsafe for his individual safety. Caesar had not wavered to assign carnages against barbarians when it had fitted him, but he was almost constantly generous in his action of his overcame oman adversaries. Thus forgiveness was most likely not just a subject of policy. Caesar's initial knowledge in his political career had been Sulla's merciless maltreatment of his conquered domestic opponents. Caesar amnestied his adversaries extensive and gave an amount of them good locations in his new government. Gaius Cassius Longinus, who was the poignant strength in the plan to kill him, and Marcus Junius Brutus, the figurative personification of oman republicanism, were both previous opponents. Et tu, Brute was Caesar's phrase of his particular suffering at being knifed by a man whom he had pardoned, relied upon and respected (Julius Caesar, n.d.).
At his…… [Read More]
On the other hand, the scenery on the stage was nominal, often made up exclusively of decorated panels that were put on stage (Elizabethan Theater, n.d.).
Elizabethan theaters were often crude, unclean, and noisy, but always managed to draw people from all social classes. Shows were normally put on in the afternoons and lasted between two and three hours. Each part of the theater had a special price of entrance, with the lowest costs being in the pit lower than stage height where people stood up to view the play. The majority of show seats were prearranged in-the-round, which gave viewers the occasion to view both the play and the actions of the audience as well. Manners did not forbid the spectators from liberally communicating their aversion or approval for the achievement on stage (Elizabethan Theater, n.d.).
illiam Shakespeare and Elizabethan Theatre are often thought to go together. The Renaissance,…… [Read More]
myth in some detail, and give your evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses.
The word 'myth' comes from the Greek word 'mythos' that means, "spoken or written story." A myth is essentially a story with a purpose that is usually to explain why the world is the way it is, or the relationship between the gods and human beings. Though the events within myths may sometimes appear to be far-fetched or impossible, there was usually a social issue or moral underneath it all.
This theory of a myth, I feel is probably one of the most viable as myths have lasted thousands of years. Many have been passed on from one generation to another for centuries before written documentation or a created alphabet. Myths, in this case, would be the spoken story or history of people and events relevant to that particular society.
The natural enemy to these spoken stories…… [Read More]
Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Sculpture
Different cultures see the world in different ways. Religion, society, and even politics, shape our views, and give form to our human environment. Architecture, music, literature, dress -- all are visible manifestations of a people's values. This is no less true in the realm of sculpture. A religious people will create works of art that express its most deeply held spiritual beliefs; a cerebral people, sculptures that capture humankind's highest ideals, while the politically minded turn out statues and busts that represent their world's movers and shakers. Styles can range from the formal and the symbolic, to the ideal and the real. Each serves its cultural purpose. As all peoples have done, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans produced sculptures that testify to the beliefs of their respective societies.
Ancient Egypt was a fundamentally religious society. The axis of its world turned around…… [Read More]
he Roman diet was based on cereals: "Emmer was the first food of the ancient inhabitants of Latium, and the offerings of emmer...are a strong confirmation. hat emmer porridge, rather than bread, was the staple of the Romans" (Pliny, cited by Purcell, 2003). In the households that had kitchen quarters, Roman women baked their own bread. hose who live in one room apartments had to purchase their food ready made because they had no room for preparing food. Wine is also extremely important in the Roman diet and had a high religious significance, too. he population had also access to meat from game and domestic animal and the rest of the products resulted from animal rising.
By the year 273, Rome became one of the most powerful forces around the Mediterranean sea. A few years later, in 267, the Roman regained the last of the Greek controlled territories in the…… [Read More]
Judaic, Greek, and Roman origin myths, and indeed, those who believe the former is representative of some divinely-inspired message would likely take offense at the notion that their god's story is suspiciously similar to the stories of other, mutually exclusive ideologies (or else argue that these latter stories are merely corrupted imitations of the "true" version). However, when considering the history of the cosmos as laid out in Genesis, Hesiod's Theogony, and Ovid's Metamorphoses, certain thematic and narrative similarities and correspondences become clear, such that one cannot take these three different stories as discrete objects, but rather companion pieces in the larger attempt to uncover the origins of human beings and the universe at a time when the scientific tools necessary to uncover those origins had not yet been dreamed up. Understanding this allows one to chart the connections between the stories in order to determine their universally shared elements,…… [Read More]
Ancient Wonders of the World
The classic era in history saw the construction of some of the most remarkable structures the world has ever seen. Of the Seven Wonders of the World, four structures stand out and are the focus of this discussion. These four structures are: The Colossus of hodes, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and the Statue of Zeus at Olympia.
During the period of classical antiquity, and particularly the 1st and 2nd centuries BC, several extraordinary built environments were constructed that have fascinated people across the ages. The classical period is most often associated with the land around the Mediterranean Sea, which encompassed the ancient civilizations of Greece and ome. The Greco-oman cultures flourished during the classical era and influenced societies in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa (D' Epiro & Pinkowish).
The Colossus of hodes
The Colossus of hodes represents…… [Read More]
Ancient Romans wanted to compensate for their lack of experience in the world of medicine through their dedication to keeping healthy by promoting hygiene and physical exercise. Surprisingly, the technological progress experienced by Ancient Rome did not seem to be of any importance to its people, as they were only attracted to keeping their health through any means possible. The fact that hygiene and physical exercise were interconnected when regarding people in Ancient Rome and their desire to keep healthy can be observed by looking at the way gymnasiums were built next to public baths.
Aqueducts were yet another technological advancement in Ancient Rome, but in spite of their greatness and of the fact that they provided people with fresh water and with an ingenious method of irrigating crops, most Romans were satisfied with exploiting them, and not with analyzing how they worked. There were numerous techniques Romans used with…… [Read More]
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]
Their plays were similar to the Greeks and many of them were just translated versions. Theatre was an instrument used by the administration to keep the public from devoting much time to the political affairs. Thus any mentioning on stage regarding the political situation or activities would have serious consequences for the author for writing it and the actor for agreeing to perform it. In addition it also served as a purpose to get away from everyday life and worries. It was a part of their life and civilization. As time passed by the theatre evolved but women were not allowed to take part in it for a very long time. With the establishment of churches and the influence of popes, women faced yet another problem in getting accepted as being part of the society. oman theatre was a major influence on the later European theatre and they learnt much…… [Read More]
Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:
The different ways they believed their gods intervened.
During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.
Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.
In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…… [Read More]
The vengeance of the gods is further underscored by the Chorus who warns that "But if any man comes striding, high and mighty, in all he says and does, no fear of justice, no reverence for the temples of the gods-let a rough doom tear him down, repay his pride, breakneck, ruinous pride!" Oedipus portrays tyranny and the people's greatest blessing becomes their worst curse.
In the last stage, Oedipus is a man who has become humbled with the pain and dejection of knowing the truth of reality as he is forced to admit his tragic destiny by the overwhelming evidence. The writer shows the sudden change in the protagonist's persona when Oedipus condemns himself by saying, "I stand revealed at last -- cursed in my birth, cursed in marriage, cursed in the lives I cut down with these hands!" (1309-1311) Oedipus's complete transformation is demonstrated when he gouged out…… [Read More]
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…… [Read More]
As great as it is to have one thing that everyone shares, it's even better to have more than one to relate to. I think that makes people take their faith even more seriously.
I absolutely believe that misconceptions about people's beliefs are common. Protestants believe Catholics worship idols; Christians believe pagans worship demons and dance naked in the woods; believers think atheists are horrible, immoral people. From what I remember in history, part of the reason the Catholic Church was able to pull off the Crusades was by painting the non-Christians as evildoers who ate babies. hy does it happen? Because as human beings, we want to believe that we have a good deal on the afterlife. And I also think people often just want to think of themselves as "better" than others.
To fix this, I think people should be more willing to discuss their faith with others.…… [Read More]
For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.
But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.
Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…… [Read More]
Greek Concept to Movie Troy
Ancient mythology as never ceased to amaze and fascinate its readers and followers. Especially Egyptian and Greek mythology, having followers everywhere; in the current times it has found a new fan, that is the movie making business, with a special interest in Greek mythology. Nothing is better than watching your favorite characters brought up to life and actually see them doing all the things we had previously only imagined them doing. One such captivating movie is 'troy' based on the Greek Trojan war starring Brad Pitt. Various Greek concepts were shed light in this movie, which will be discussed, in relation to the movie.
The first concept is Fate, since in Greek mythology fate does not just happen. The gods make things happen, in their own engineered ways, and interfere to make things happen on their own account. Then there is MOIA, which means that…… [Read More]
The 1960 film Spartacus claims to tell the story of the famous slave revolt, also known as the Gladiator War, which terrorized Rome for years and can be pinpointed as one of the most influential causes of the eventual destruction of the Roman Republic and its descent into imperialism and tyranny. One must say "claims to be," rather than "is," in this case because the film is wildly inaccurate historically. The creators of this work were, of course, aware of its lack of historical authenticity, which is partly attributed to the artistic necessity of condensing four years of political upheaval and constant warfare into less than four hours. Indeed, condensation of time is the biggest historical inaccuracy here -- for example, many main Roman characters are rather indiscriminately condensed in time, such as Gracchus who appears to be a combination of two Gracchus brothers active fifty years…… [Read More]
The rule of law is essential to commerce, and commerce is essential to wealth. To longer shall local chieftains and would-be kings rule over the Empire - they are all subject to me, no different from anybody else.
A call upon the soldiers. Military might is the key to our success, in establishing rule of law and expanding our borders. Your support is required for this endeavor and for it you will be rewarded handsomely. I call upon the administrators. You are the ones who will do my work, and ensure that our country is filled with peace and prosperity. I call upon the merchants and the traders. My reforms will give you the opportunity to become wealthy beyond belief. Support me, go forth and trade. Bring us the goods of the orient.
My subjects, all I ask of you is for your help. I need your support. Be peaceful,…… [Read More]
Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites
Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade is only recently being regulated and stopped. There are many problems with the methods used to stop the trade however and no one nation or regulatory body has been able to devise a solid means by which these treasures can be returned to the people who claim them as heritage. The heritage argument and the ability to return the artifacts becomes even more clouded when the items in question are found underwater. Although there has been a concerted…… [Read More]
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…… [Read More]
Narrative of an Episode From My Travels With Paul
As a traveling companion of Paul, I have seen a number of marvels and the way in which the Christian faith of the Apostle challenges the boundaries between cultures and societies. For example, in Greece, I have seen Paul mix and mingle with Jews, with those baptized by John (and then baptized in the spirit of Christ by Paul),[footnoteRef:1] with Romans, and with every other possible number and variety of inhabitant in the islands. Paul could relate to many because his mission and view were such that he saw himself connected to everyone, even the living and the dead. I mention these latter because even a tombstone of a young girl, depicting her innocence as she holds a dove, could elicit from Paul such reverence and appreciation and praise that you would think he had personally known that girl.[footnoteRef:2] In such…… [Read More]
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…… [Read More]
Aphrodite was said to have been the most beautiful and sensual of all the goddesses. There are varying stories of her birth. One story holds that she was born from the loins of Uranus, when his sex was severed from him and thrown into the sea: Aphrodite emerged from the sea foam—a daughter of the sea, which is why one of the most famous images of her in artistic expression is of the goddess emerging from the sea (Graves). Homer in the Iliad indicated that Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Regardless of her origin story, Aphrodite served a central role in the back story of Greece, particularly when it came to her feud with Hera and Athena over who was the most beautiful of all.
Aphrodite was said to have married Hephaestus, the god of blacksmithing. She was also said to have had many paramours,…… [Read More]
Odyssey: Daily Life for Women
When it comes to the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey is recognized as a piece of literature that was not just about gods, men, and creatures, this historical read served as a cultural example about the women and their place in society. This book, provides a wide-ranging view of the Achean's peacetime people. Throughout Odyssey, a person is able to pick up some understanding of what is appropriate or inappropriate in relationships among servant and master, father and son, guest and host, god and mortal, and--notably -- woman and ma. It is clear that the women are the ones that perform an important role in Odyssey. With that said, this essay will explore the daily life of women from the literature Odyssey.
Social customs, marriage, rights and freedoms
While Odysseus is looked at as being an interesting figure, the women persons in the Odyssey are just as…… [Read More]
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…… [Read More]
And an owner could set his slave free as a reward for that slave's noble service, transforming this piece of property into a human being with a touch of the hands and a few words.
Plautus depicts the absurdity of this legal reality with a humorous edge, but his humor has a great deal of societal bite. Plautus' most famous play, which provides the plot of "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum," is entitled "Pseudolous." The main character and incidentally the main character in Stephen Sondhiem's musical. Pseudolous means false or "trickster" and Pseudolous is indeed a mendacious individual. However, Pseudolous is also part of a mendacious Roman society, a society which denies him rewards equal with his intelligence and his cunning and rewards the falsely pious can't of the young man's father he is attempting to help.
Plautus deals with this issue even more explicitly…… [Read More]
Roman view of Christianity
Early Christianity did not develop in isolation, but within a complex landscape already occupied by belief systems, social networks, systems of identity, and political institutions, and it is essential not to regard it 'as somehow independent, as if the church were an entity existing apart from Christians living in particular times and places. Such a treatment neglects how the history of Christianity was influenced and shaped by its cultural environment.'
Foremost among the factors making up that environment was the Roman Empire, itself an amalgam of peoples, creeds and societies. The relationship between Christianity and pagan Rome was a complex and evolving one. This paper will examine Roman hostility to Christianity during this period, and aspects of Roman criticism of Christian belief.
In the earliest period of the Christian church's existence within the Roman Empire, Christians were commonly referred to as troublemakers, offending against Roman order…… [Read More]
The Greek government has faced an ongoing fiscal crisis for the past several years. ecently, for the third time, its Eurozone partners have been compelled to offer a bailout to the country. This is done to stabilize Greece's finances and to impose further measures on the Greek government to remedy the nation's budget and to ensure that there are no similar issues in future. The first part of the paper is a brief overview of the situation. The second part will outline some of the key issues that lead both to favor the bailout and to oppose it, and finally there will be analysis and a conclusion about whether or not bailing out Greece is the right thing to do. It will be argued that it is not, at least in the current form.
There are several key issues at work with the Greek bailout. Greece…… [Read More]
The public library in the baths of Caracalla was no exception to this (DeLaine, 1997).
Inside the bathing area itself, there were several components (DeLaine, 1997). One of these was a 183X79-foot cold room located under three 108-foot high groin vaults. There was also a double pool which was tepid, and a 115-foot diameter hot room (DeLaine, 1997). There were also two separate gyms where people could box and wrestle with one another. There was also a standard swimming pool in the north end of the complex. It was a roofless structure and had mirrors made of bronze mounted over it (DeLaine, 1997). This helped to direct sunlight into the area surrounding the pool for both beauty and warmth. The whole building was on a platform that was raised up twenty feet off of the ground. This was done in order to allow for the furnaces underneath the building and…… [Read More]
astelands of Labyrinths, astelands of the Modern Past and Present
The wasteland of myth is a place where people have been mislead, where they dwell in a terrible half-existence, living a lie. Perhaps the most familiar modern expressions of the word 'wasteland' are those of T.S. Eliot's poem about "The asteland" and the idea of a modern, suburban 'teenage wasteland.' hen people speak about a teenage wasteland, they usually are referring to a group of disenchanted youths who have given up on their parent's values but cannot construct their own, new set of values. hen people speak of the "asteland" poem of Eliot, written during the early half of the 20th century, they are referring to Eliot's vision of modern life as a series of broken visions of past phrases, verses, and schemas of believe that no longer have a coherent form or provide moral guidance for people living today.…… [Read More]
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]
Greek & Roman
The mainstream lifestyle of the Ancient Greeks accepted that sexuality existed on a spectrum, and that sexuality was something that was fluid and not rigid or fixed. Therefore, the presence of heteroerotic and homoerotic in their poetry is no surprise. The Ancient Greeks accepted that sex with the opposite gender, the same gender, or with groups of people was normal, accepted, and at least, moderately expected. The paper will attempt to briefly note some, if any, differences among the Greek love poetry provided, specifically as those differences directly relate as to whether the poem is homoerotic or heteroerotic.
The homoerotic poetry is distinctive to this reader from the heteroerotic poetry. The homoerotic poetry repeatedly has imagery of horses. The poetry is typically written from the perspective of the older male in the affair. There are only a few homoerotic poems from the selection, yet they all include…… [Read More]
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…… [Read More]
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…… [Read More]
Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."
Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.… [Read More]
How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?
Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…… [Read More]
Gospels Greek text a basis. The Bible on Luke Chapter 7: 1-10 Sample Essay Outline ( a guideline, adjust argument) ! short introduction (end statement thesis [, a summary interpretation passage]) ! body (argument support thesis) " summary passage " observations contents passage " observations literary, thematic, historical contexts " summary message original audience " explanation application context ! short conclusion (begin -stating thesis).
Jesus' healing of the Centurion's servant
The biblical text of Jesus healing a Centurion's servant is recognized for the numerous ways in which it can be interpreted and for being a significant pillar of faith in the Christian world. The story is particularly intriguing because it involves a Centurion turning to Jesus in order to get help and because it is one of the only two biblical accounts involving Christ performing a miracle meant to help Gentiles and in the presence of these people. This text…… [Read More]
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…… [Read More]
wealthy Roman, a villa a retreat stresses public life? I asked role villa life a wealthy Roman a definite conclusion. as a villa a retreat, a number roles. I appeal evidence drawn Roman literature, Horace Pliny, Younger.
The Roman Villa
Romans considered villas to be more than just locations where they could live on a daily basis, as these buildings served a series of other purposes. City life imposed a great deal of stress on the wealthy and intellectual members of the Roman community and thus they needed a place where they could escape colloquial duties. City streets were dirty, unwelcoming, and filmed with violence, as they practically contrasted villas and their surrounding environments. In order for a villa to satisfy its inhabitant to its maximum potential, it had to be in accordance with his personal desires, both inside and outside. Also, the scenery where the villa was located needed…… [Read More]
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…… [Read More]
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…… [Read More]
Appiah concluded by remarking that, 'it is a pallid version of cosmopolitanism that barely deserves the name, and if we can excuse ourselves because others are shirking their responsibilities, we are barely principled' (Anthony, 2006).
Assessment of Theories
The contemporary political theorists considered cosmopolitanism as 'citizenship of the world, which is a critique of ordinary theories of political obligation, with their tendency to focus on our duties to fellow citizens, not to people elsewhere' (Patrick, 2005). The consequence of the cosmopolitanism is expected to be 'single world government with corresponding global citizenship' (Patrick, 2005). Surprisingly such aspirations have not discussed by the serious circles. The modified and renewed version of the cosmopolitanism includes 'everyone in the world in a single global web of mutual obligations' (Ulrich, 2006). However the reservations and criticism mounted against cosmopolitanism is relevant to the negligence of the 'obligations of reciprocity'; there has been consensus on…… [Read More]
Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus
The wall painting of The Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus at the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii (c. 60 BC) is a work of oman art that exemplifies the oman culture in the time just before Christ -- rich, ornate, elaborate, bordering on decadence, yet with still enough refinement to see a nobility and purpose in the spiritual life. Here, in the villa of a wealthy oman's vacation home near Mt. Vesuvius (which would fatally erupt just a century later, burying under ash and avalanche the wealthy in their very lap of luxury) can be seen the Greek influence on the oman culture.
The mural depicts a number of scenes in the ite of the Cult of Bacchus across three walls within a room of the Villa, near which was a wine press, used to make wine from the local…… [Read More]
Bust of Antinous
The piece of Roman art being discussed is the bust of Antinous Mondragone, which is now in the Louvre in Paris, and it came from the Mondragone villa, located in Frascati, Italy. The artist is unknown, but it is thought to have been sculpted around 130 AD. This beautiful sculpture represents much of Roman art at the time, and it represents a larger cultural context, as well.
The arts were becoming popular during this time in the Roman Republic, and sculpture was becoming increasingly popular after the Romans captured Syracuse during the Second Punic Wars and brought back much of the island's sculpture to display in Rome. Roman sculpture often copied classic Greek statutes, because the artists and people admired Greek art. The sculptures were often of Roman rulers, indicating how important they were to the culture, and how they were held up by the people as…… [Read More]
Engineering the oman Colosseum
While the Colosseum stands, ome shall stand; when the Colosseum falls, ome shall fall; when ome falls, the world shall fall. -- The Venerable Bede quoting an Ancient Anglo-Saxon Peasant Prophecy
Perhaps the most enduring symbol of the greatness of the oman Empire can be seen today in the ruins of the Colosseum. This massive amphitheatre is situated in the middle of modern ome near the oman Forum and has become an iconic representation of the oman Empire at its zenith. Although estimates vary, analysts believe that at least 50,000 and perhaps as many as 80,000 spectators were accommodated in its capacious dimensions and the Colosseum has become the benchmark by which all subsequent stadia have been judged. Flush with the treasures and riches of Jerusalem, the builders of the Colosseum spared no expense in its design and construction, but despite its impressive seating capacity and…… [Read More]
fall of the Roman Empire?
The decline and eventual fall of the Roman Empire happened in the third century. Rome had made many enemies and grew from a revered unchallenged leader of the Mediterranean to a rather weary empire surrounded by a myriad of enemies. Rome experienced a number of significant military defeats over the time. The most significant contributor to the fall of the empire though was the economic policies adopted by the emperors. The decline is noted to have started with the rule of Septimius Severus in 193 AD. The rulership engaged in excesses and spent too much on the military. The currency was debased and inflation rose to crisis levels. Further, the time of poor economic policies coincided with a time when civil wars were commonplace. Assassinations were rife. Army generals made attempts to stage coups and assume ruler ship. The soldiers often murdered the emperor when…… [Read More]
Archimedes was a Greek scholar born in 287 BCE in Syracuse, which is modern-day Sicily. His father was an astronomer, but not a very famous one, whose name was Phidias. Archimedes studied in the great ancient center of learning Alexandria, Egypt. He went on to study a broad range of fields in science and math such as hydrostatics, geometry, and calculus (orres, 1995). He also studied astronomy like his father and helped to invent the planetarium (orres, 1995). Furthermore, Archimedes is known as the father of integral calculus (orres, 1995). Archimedes is famous in part because he developed the method to measure the density of objects (orres, 1995). This method is sometimes known as pycnometry or as the Archimedes' Principle (orres, 1995). In addition to his work on calculating density, Archimedes invented many important things including advanced pulley systems and some war machines (orres, 1995). Archimedes is considered to be…… [Read More]
Greek Classical Era on Christian Art
The fifth century B.C.E. initiated a new philosophy in Greek art. hile before this era, Greek representations of the human form tended to be static and relatively stylized (much like Egyptian art), the Classical era exhibited a notable break with previous artistic images. Representations of the human form became much more realistic. Knowledge of anatomy combined with an ideology that celebrated and idealized the human form (while still keeping it recognizably human) characterized the style of this era, as can be seen in one of the wonders of the ancient world, the Tomb of Mausolus (Asia Minor, 359-351 B.C.E.). One famous relief on the Tomb depicts Greek warriors and Amazon women in combat. Both the soldiers and the women are intricately detailed in terms of the folds of their clothing and musculature. Both sides are also perfectly proportioned and while all look recognizably human,…… [Read More]
[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…… [Read More]
The Roman people regarded themselves as highly religious. They linked their success as a powerful force in the world to their cordial relations with the gods. The victory by the Romans was essentially a religious occasion in which the generals exhibited their piety and zeal to serve society by dedicating a fraction of their fortunes to the gods. Jupiter was particularly called to attention in such circumstances because he was the god of justice in leadership. Following the Punic wars fought between 264 BC and 146 BC in which Rome fought hard to assert its power as a dominating authority, magistrates built many temples in honor of a deity who they depended on to guarantee success in the war (Religion in ancient Rome) (Roman mythology).
How Ancient Rome Practiced Religion
Ancient Romans recognized and offered prayer too many gods and goddesses. Some of the gods were of Roman origin but…… [Read More]