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And After that it's Elephants All the Way Done
Wagner's Grendel is one of the most finely crafted pieces of postmodern fiction because it performs both of the functions with which postmodern literature is tasked. First, it is a work of literature that shines on its own, that offers a significant reward to the reader regardless of whether or not the reader is familiar with literary traditions. Second, the work addresses, incorporates, and analyses traditions of a particular literary form. Grendel is a delight to read while also allowing the reader to explore some of the most important and enduring narrative traditions in Western literature.
Grendel, which was published in 1971, is a parallel novel in that essential to its structure and meaning is another novel. Because it is beautifully written Grendel can stand on its own as a work of art. But because it is based on the…
Currie, M. (Ed.) (1995). Metafiction. New York: Longman Group.
Fludernik, M. (1996). Towards a 'Natural' Narratology. London: Routledge.
"The Empire Writes Back: Jane Eyre." Faculty.pittstate.edu. http://faculty.pittstate.edu/~knichols/colonial3c.html.
'Gone With the Wind' parody draws challenges, supporters." http://www.cnn.com/2001/fyi/news/04/13/wind.done.gone/.
Grendel by John Gardner and Cat's Cradle by Kurt Vonnegut.
Grendel by John Gardner
The Development and Validity of Knowledge
In the beginning of the novel, Grendel is a large and frightening monster who enjoys killing and eating people. It is however revealed that he is also intelligent, and that he can theorize about the meaning of life and tell sophisticated jokes. He however hates almost everything.
He hates his mother, for her inability to speak or reason. He also hates animals for their stupidity, and he hates the sky for ignoring him. This hatred is born of painful knowledge.
When Grendel was young, his foot was caught between two trees. While he was trapped and crying for his mother, Hrothgar's men approached him and attacked him for no other reason than that he looked monstrous. This gave Grendel the knowledge that human beings were cruel to those they did…
Gardner, J. Grendel. Vintage Books, 1989
Vonnegut, K. Cat's Cradle. London: Penguin Books, 1963
Studying the Iliad shows the reader that war, even in the long past, was not always viewed as glorious. The Greeks viewed it as an evil necessity. That is why when Thresities suggests that the Greeks leave and go home, he is condemned by Odysseus. But the war is never a joyous pursuit, and many of the warriors, such as Odysseus, regret ever being forced to participate in the war at all, no matter how many titles and spoils they might win. The Iliad teaches the reader that hatred of violence is not something new to our modern society, but has existed since the beginning of time.
Paradise Lost teaches a similar lesson, showing the evils of war dramatized in the persona of Satan, who, even after being defeated by God is still determined to inflict his evil upon the world:
What though the field be lost?
All is not…
Coming across Hrothgar and Unferth, Grendel further realizes that the human society is immoral and that people having nothing against harming other people. Unferth, however, presents Grendel with the concept that life sometimes has a meaning, but that only heroes can discover it.
The final scene, where Beowulf battles Grendel, contributes in having the monster understand the meaning of life, as it is informed by the Geatish hero that life is mainly important because of its continuity.
Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
A great number of epic quests have been written through history, most of them having men as their protagonists. In epics, women generally have the role of assisting male heroes in their quest, without intervening in any way to obstruct them. Epics from Ancient Greece, from India, and from Mesopotamia all have women as secondary characters. This does not necessarily have to be considered an example of…
1. Gardner, John. (1971). "Grendel." Alfred A. Knopf.
2. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Dir. Ang Lee. Columbia Pictures, 2000.
Beowulf and Grendel's Mother
Among the most enduring examples of English literature in existence, the anonymously penned epic poem Beowulf has been translated from Old English to hundreds of languages during the course of the last ten centuries. The heroic tale of Beowulf, the great warrior king of the Geats who comes to the aid of his fellow monarch Hrothgar when their kingdoms come under attack from the feared monster Grendel, represents a masterful work of structured storytelling. hile the primary focus of the poem remains of its protagonist Beowulf, many literary critics have become intrigued by its complex depiction of Grendel's mother, the fiercely defensive matriarch of the swamp monsters terrorizing both kingdoms. Having stood unchallenged for 12 years while he menaced Hrothgar's subjects without mercy, depicted in an early scene when Grendel "snatched up thirty men, smashed them/unknowing in their beds and ran out with their bodies" (37-38),…
Raffel, Burton. Beowulf. 1st. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 1999. 30-63. Print.
character similarities and differences between Grendel and eowulf based on the classic poem, eowulf. I would like some specific quotations (at least 5) to support the paragraphs in which the two characters are compared.
eowulf and Grendel are two of the key protagonists of the poem. oth are similar in that they fight for what they believe and are courageous. oth are dissimilar in that whilst eowulf is popular and acclaimed possessing characteristics that make him hero to and applauded by society, Grendel is described as malignant and an outcast.
Who was eowulf?
eowulf, bairn of the Scyldings,
eloved land-prince, for long-lasting season
Was famed mid the folk (1-5)
eowulf exemplifies the traits of the perfect hero. The poem explores demonstrations of his heroism in youth and maturity and analyzes his heroism through his struggles with Grendel, Grendel's mother, and the dragon.
eowulf was famed for his courage and prowess…
Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem, Translated From The Heyne-Socin
Text by Lesslie Hall. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Beowulf
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…
However, because of Gilgamesh's thought that he may be invincible, he is actually putting his friend's life at risk by going on his adventure. In his attempt to prove that he is brave and that he would rather die for a cause, he actually indirectly causes the death of Enkidu, who shows that he was the stronger of the two.
5) Defining Honor
Honor is a characteristic that few individuals posses. It is a special type of distinguishing factor, that although many attempt to have, very few actually embrace it to its full meaning. Honor entails pride and personal excellence. It is fully believing in an action or an entity that represents something very important to the self and to those around. To me, honor is being able to stand up for your beliefs despite the opinion of others.
Honor in society can actually be viewed in two ways, depending…
Those with issues to overcome are always more heroic. Hector also becomes a hero when, after at first running from Achilles, he eventually stands up to him and dies a heroic death.
The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the it could easily be argued that the Illiad glorifies war, as much of the poem is spent portraying the warriors as brave and courageous, even as they go on killing rampages. Warriors are describes as "masters of the battle cry" and "warlike" in glowing epithets. When Achilles originally refused to fight, he is roundly condemned for it by all of the other Greek characters. Even the weapons of war, such as Achilles impenetrable shield, are glorified. But homer is more complicated than simple -- war also brings death, which he describes in great detail. Hector's death is perhaps the most graphic of…
Beowulf and Treasure
In the epic poem Beowulf, the hero is one born to wealth and raised to wealth. This position, rather than making him weak, has allowed Beowulf to become respected in his community as a man of generosity and, because of his skills as a warrior, immense courage. To this extent, the reader sees Beowulf engaging in acts of bravery and of generosity towards his fellow men. Contrast this to the more evil characters, both the monsters Grendel and his mother and the monstrous humans that Beowulf encounters. Those who are ungenerous are invariably the wicked characters, both lacking kindness towards fellow men and the heroic bravery of a Beowulf. Money and treasure are shown in the poem as markers of respect and of decency. Those who give it are treated heroically, as is evidenced at Beowulf's funeral. Those who hoard it are shown to be wicked. In…
features of residual (or "secondary") orality preserved in Voluspa, according to the criteria Ong (1982) advances?
Ong (1982) talks about how cultures in the past were only able to preserve their heritage through stories that meticulously passed down through the years (41). He says that since type was invented, importance has moved from the wise old man or woman to someone who can "discover new things" (Ong, 1982, 41). However, societies still deem some things as too important to completely lose their oral tradition. He talks about the residual orality of having to memorize certain things through mnemonic devices (Ong, 1982, 41).
However, he also talks of residual or secondary orality in another way also. He says that secondary orality is "an orality not antecedent to writing and print, as primary orality is, but consequent on and dependent upon writing and print" (Ong, 1982, 167). His analysis of the practice…
Mountfort, P.S. (2006). Language, literature and desire: Critical reader. Auckland: Lyceum Press.
Ong, W.J. (1982). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word. London: Methuen.
Once this has been discussed, it is somewhat easier to translate Einstein's concept to the poet's own courageous scientific imagination, as scene in the scene from "eowulf" previously mentioned. Just as the modern scientist, the poet introduces and, subsequently, tries to understand and explain, the idea of chaotic events, events that cannot be explained by the traditional ideas.
Despite his own behavior aimed at avoiding conflict, eowulf cannot control all the forces and objects/individuals in his realm. This is why the conflict is triggered by one of his men ("ut a certain man / stumbled on it,/into the heathen hoard,/and took a cup,/a large, decorated treasure"). As mentioned, the event itself lacks the previous logic according to which the battles were fought because of the unprovoked attack of the enemy (Grendel, Grendel's mother).
Here, the event cannot be explained by the previous laws of physics (the attack is not caused…
1. Einstein, Albert; Infeld, L. . The Evolution of Physics. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1938
2. Beowulf. On the Internet at http://www.poetseers.org/the_great_poets/the_classics/beowulf/beowulf_becomes_king__the_dragon_attacks/ . Last retrieved on September 28, 2009
Revenge, too, is prominent in all of these works: Beowulf must destroy the monster our of revenge for the havoc on the Kingdom; the Greeks must avenge the kidnapping of Helen and the slights against their lands; the Knight, the Miller and the ife of Bath all must seek revenge for perceived wrongs. Poems like Canterbury Tales, Beowulf, and the Iliad and Odyssey, especially as oral tradition, frame the journey of the hero through trials and tribulations to, eventually success. The saving of society, though, is often met with grave personal sacrifice, sometimes of tangible wealth, more often of loved ones, or, in the case of Beowulf, the ultimate sacrifice -- giving up one's own life in the service of society.
Yet in each of the tales there is at least one, and frankly many more, characters that have a fatal personality flaw that causes not only consternation, but increases…
Bittarello, M.B. "Recrafiting the Past: The Complex Relationship Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies 10.2 (2008): 214-19.
Cambpell, J. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. New York: New World Library, 2008.
Campbell, J. And B. Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991.
Voytilla, S. Myth and the Movies. New York: Michael Wiese Productions, 1999.
Beowulf is one of the oldest heroic sagas in existence, yet it contains many themes that occur and reoccur in modern heroic literature. The hero is designated as 'special,' with a 'special' mission to aid others. He faces a series of trials that enable him to help others and prove his manhood at the same time. Yet ultimately, Beowulf is a lonely man, set apart from others because of his greatness. He is, in his own way, as lonely as Grendel the monster he strives to kill.
There are, of course, some distinct differences between the saga and modern action stories. The purpose of Beowulf is not simply to tell an involving narrative; it is also designed to affirm the values of the tellers of the tale. Beowulf is noble and self-sacrificing. In the first part of the story, he agrees to kill the monster plaguing Hroogar and the Danish…
Off from the sill there
Bent mead-benches many, as men have informed me,
Adorned with gold-work, where the grim ones did struggle.
The Scylding wise men weened ne'er before
That by might and main-strength a man under heaven
Might break it in pieces, bone-decked, resplendent,
Crush it by cunning, unless clutch of the fire
In smoke should consume it. (12. 62-73)
The physical properties that Hrothgar's men had built into the Hall withstood this battle of good vs. evil. Heorot was intended to be a place of greatness and glory to God which gave it the symbolic ability to make good prevail and evil sink.
After Beowulf's victory over Grendel, Beowulf must travel to Grendel's home to do battle with his monstrous mother. Her den is described by Hrothgar to Beowulf as an evil place shrouded in darkness, yet "there ever at night one an ill-meaning portent / a fire-flood…
The Epic of Beowulf. Trans. Lesslie Hall. 2003. 27 October 2006. http://www.bernijohnson.com/beowulf/beowulf.html
Niles, John D. "Beowulf's Great Hall. History Today 56.10 (Oct. 2006): 40 (5p.).
Ebscohost. 27 October 2006. http://www.web110.epnet.com
Mead hall plays an important role in ancient Anglo-Saxon warrior culture. As we see in Beowulf, the mead hall functions as a meeting place, a place of refuge, and a place for socialization. The mead hall of Heorot also served as the seat of government. Thus, the mead hall is a place of critical importance both in the story and throughout Anglo-Saxon culture. e know, for example, from the Orkneyingasaga, that the mead hall would likely only be matched by the church in a given district (Cope, 2007).
hen Beowulf arrives in Daneland, he and the warriors sleep at the mead hall, implying that the hall is more than simply a place for drinking. This is where Grendel first attacks the men, and where the conflict between Beowulf and Grendel takes place. One of the facets of the story is the transition that Beowulf makes from being an untested warrior…
Beowulf. Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16328/16328-h/16328-h.htm
Bruce, A. (2001). An education in the mead hall: Beowulf's lessons for young warriors. South Florida College. Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/5/Bruce1.html
Cope, J. (2007). Earl Paul's palace. Modern Antiquarian. Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://www.themodernantiquarian.com/post/64184/weblog/
Beowulf and the Anglo-Saxons
Part 1: Introduction
Although the epic Old English poem Beowulf has all the characteristics of myth and legend that pertain to fiction, as a historical document it is useful in teaching about the past—the values and culture of the medieval Anglo-Saxon society and how Christian culture intersected with the pagan world at a time when Christian conversion was spreading. Not only does Beowulf refer to real kings of the time, thus grounding the story in a specific historical reality, but it also describes a culture of co-existence—an old world people and place situated neatly between paganism and Christianity. As an epic poem Beowulf describes the heroic journey of the titular character as he accepts the challenge of Hrothgar to defend his Hall against the monster Grendel. Beowulf defeats the monster and then must face the wrath of Grendel’s mother. Many decades after his victory over Grendel’s…
minimum/maximum ( equivalent) introduction, body, conclusion. This a traditional essay. 2. Note assignment include author's note beginning explain project .
The following story is a modern adaptation of the epic poem "Beowulf" and it attempts to bring the poem's actions in a contemporary setting, with characters being somewhat similar to people today and providing readers with the chance to identify with them.
Several years ago the community of a small town in Denmark had a mayor who managed to put an end to corruption in the area and who made it possible for locals to change their perspective on life -- optimism came to dominate the town. This mayor had a son named Beow and this boy rapidly came into prominence through his generosity and through being dedicated to helping anyone he interacted with. In spite of the family's success, the mayor died in his apogee and left his supporters…
In works of fiction, the hero's journey will always be fraught with danger. He will not only have to overcome his own shortcomings, but will also encounter individuals who hope to impede his journey and prevent him from accomplishing his goals or individuals who will help them overcome their obstacles and succeed. Literature throughout history and literature that transcends cultures exhibit this same proclivity. Each component of the hero's journey, beginning with his quest, his initiation into the situation which will lead to his development, his separation from his origin, and finally his transformation at the end of the story is heavily dictated by the attention and communication he receives from the other male character. The stories "Young Goodman Brown," The Epic of Gilgamesh, Beowulf, and "The Legend of King Arthur" all show pairings of male characters, the protagonist and another male figure who either acts as an…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown." 1854.
Hinds, Gareth. Beowulf. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick, 2007. Print.
"King Arthur, and the Legend of the Knights of the Round Table." N.p., n.d.
Sanders, N.K. The Epic of Gilgamesh: an English Version with an Introduction. New York, NY:
Christian Elements in Beowulf
Blending Pagan and Christian Themes in Beowulf
The epic poem Beowulf was written during a time of great change. Ancient pagan societies were going through extreme religious and cultural transitions with the widespread adoption of Christianity throughout Europe at the time. This was definitely a changing way of life for many, and such drastic cultural changes are seen in the literature of the period as well. In fact, one of the earliest English poems, Beowulf, has an interesting juxtaposition of ancient pagan and Christian themes. Although the poem has obvious references to an ancient pagan way of life, it is filled with Christian references as well, illustrating the changing nature of society at the time when it was transitioning from paganism to Christianity. Clearly, the epic poem Beowulf blends emerging Christian philosophies with more ancient pagan traditions of the region.
Fate, also referenced as wyrd in…
Beowulf. Translated from the Heyne-Socin Text by Lesslie Hall. Web. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16328/16328-h/16328-h.htm
embedded values within the eowulf and Anglo-Saxon communities through their fundamental belief systems. In particular, it seeks to uncover the underlying similarities as also the divergence apparent in the cultures by addressing the implication of embracing the Christian religion to the Anglo-Saxon successors who followed the traditional belief in Norse gods by the Germanic ethnic group and the culture of a heroic fighter that are still living under extremely risky circumstances. This paper uses the epic 'eowulf' to highlight the correspondence between the two cultures.
The writer of this poem was unenlightened, Anglo-Saxon and of the Christian faith. He used the character of eowulf to talk about the factors regarding culture and Christ, which still affect us. The writer strives to bring out the similarities between Christ and eowulf through concerted effort: From eowulf's simple "baptism," his assumed demise at a time the poet called "ninth hour," followed by his…
Bobr, J. (n.d.). A Comparison Between the World of Beowulf and Modern America. Retrieved from csis.pace.edu: http://csis.pace.edu/grendel/prjs1c/essay.html
Hawkins, P. (2016). How do you compare and contrast Beowulf and Grendel from the "Beowulf" epic? Retrieved from Quora: https://www.quora.com/How-do-you-compare-and-contrast-Beowulf-and-Grendel-from-the-Beowulf-epic
Williams, D. T. (2007). Review of "Beowulf." Retrieved from Modern Reformation: http://www.modernreformation.org/default.php?page=articledisplay&var2=892
Beowulf is a hero who embodies the ideal characteristics in the Anglo-Saxon culture; these characteristics all come together to make up an epic tale. He possesses the traits and beliefs that were respected in the Anglo-Saxon culture. Beowulf displays these traits in his own actions and words during different circumstances throughout the tale. Beowulf is shown to be the strongest among the strong. Physical strength was very much embraced by the Anglo-Saxon culture. Beowulf could slay the greatest monster of all, Grendel who lived in the woods. The portrayal and evil predictions of the eerie woods indicates an unwelcome place, especially as it is widely known by the people to inhabit evil monsters in the form of Grendel and his mother.
Predictability is something that is many times mentioned throughout this tale. Although many times correct, some predictions seem to be a foreshadow of evil things to come. Other predictions…
Campbell, James. The Anglo-Saxons. Ed. Eric John and Patrick Wormald. New York: Penguin Books, Limited, 1991.
Davies, Peter . The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1980.
Greenblatt, Stephen. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 8th ed. Vol. 1. Boston W.W. Norton & Company, Incorporated, 2005.
Beowulf and Predications
Not wanting to kill but rather to set sail
On streams of love and waves of joy
The children of Krindle each one reached
Like lotus blossoms from mud ponds high
Toward the sky and toward the light
Blessed by sun and nourished by wind
They wanted only that they could have been
A flower that smiled upon each eye that saw
That saw the children of Krindle as children of God
Their tears did nourish further the land
The swamp teeming with life started to fester
Heat sweltering and searing the skin of creatures
All who would pass saw not the love filled flower
None who passed smelled anything but death
All who passed spat on them or stomped down
Squeezing out life before they had the chance to grow
They strived for beauty as fresh as birds
For petals soft as infant's cheeks
And for kisses scented like…
He is not afraid to battle Grendel and his mother; in fact, he seems to welcome the challenge. This is important to the story because it helps back up the poet's tales of bravery and courage, and helps show that Beowulf is indeed an epic hero. A hero has to be brave in battle, and understanding off the battlefield, and Beowulf is both. He is not afraid to rise to Unferth's challenge because he is sure of himself, and this is a characteristic of a hero as well.
This challenge also helps the reader understand the characters even more. Beowulf shows not only that he is heroic, but also that he can argue and persuade with the best of them, when he takes Unferth's challenge and explains what really happened in the seas. He says, "I had greater strength at sea, withstood in the waves more woes than any man.…
Readable Beowulf: The Old English Epic. Trans. Stanley B. Greenfield. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1982.
When Grendel tries to attack the place, it is seen as the attack of chaos aimed at structure and order. "Then a powerful demon, a prowler in the dark, / nursed a hard grievance" (86-87). Grendel is not an intelligent enemy but he is definitely powerful. His immense power turns him into a dangerous force since reason doesn't reside inside him. The hall was a symbol of civilization as the poet informs us: "inside Heorot / there was nothing but friendship" (1017-1018). Thus hall has immense symbolic value in the book and is aptly described as the "greatest house / in the world" (145-146).
Beowulf is perfectly aware of the importance of Heorot. He knows that by saving the place, and defeating Grendel, he could actually be presented with the greatest house on earth. In a passage, he acknowledges the worth and value of this place:
The men hurried forward,…
Alvin a. Lee, "Heorot and the Guest-Hall of Eden: Symbolic Metaphor and the Design of Beowulf," in the Guest-Hall of Eden: Four Essays on the Design of Old English Poetry, Yale University Press, 1972, pp. 171-223.
Jennifer Neville, Representations of the Natural World in Old English Poetry (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999)
Thomas Greene. The Norms of Epic," Comparative Literature 13 (1961), 193-207
Halverson, John."The World of Beowulf."ELH 36:4 (1969): 593-608.Rpt. In Readings on Beowulf. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1998
villains in Beowulf and the Song of Roland, I believe those in the last-mentioned work are more justified in their actions than those in Beowulf. This at least is true from the perspective of the 20th century religious paradigm. In the modern world, it is vitally important to display a tolerant attitude towards all pardigms of religion and other directions of philosophy. In Beowulf there is a direct rivalry between the villagers and the monster, Grendel. There is little doubt that Grendel is a monster and a bully, without any right to reprieve or defense. His mother is the only one prepared to defend him, and she does so to her own demise. Of course this could be understood from the perspective of the family paradigm. Nonetheless, Grendel was never justified in his slaughter of the celebrating party. His villainy is apparently inherent, and he simply enjoys terrorising people without…
Beowulf experiences tough circumstances and because he does the right things, he emerges a hero and can live knowing he did the best he could. Here, responsibility leads to good works and, subsequently, a good life.
In "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," we see Christian values displayed when Gawain accepts his responsibility in much the same way that Grendel does. hen examining the story of Sir Gawain, we cannot overlook the importance of chivalry, which is strongly associated with Christian ideals. Gawain maintain the knight's high ideals even when he under pressure. hen Gawain is traveling to the Green Chapel, he speaks with God, working out his own fear and uneasiness. The result of this conversation is a renewed sense of honor and a urgency to continue. Another example of how the poet intended Gawain to carry these ideals with him is in the pentangle, in which he describes…
Beowulf." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 31-78.
Everyman." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 347-67.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 233-87.
In total contrast with these heroes lies the modern hero or better said the modern man defined by his struggle for power. The idea of an individual selling his or her soul to the devil for knowledge is an old motif in Christian folklore, one that is centered upon in Cristopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus."
Doctor Faustus, a well-respected German scholar unsatisfied with the traditional forms of knowledge decides he wants to learn to practice magic. He begins his career as a magician summoning Mephastophilis, a devil while Valdes and Cornelius instruct him in the black arts. Despite the devil's warnings about hell Faustus tells the devil to return to his master Lucifer with an offer of Faustus's soul in exchange for twenty-five years of service from Mephistopheles. As the twenty-five years have passed, Faustus begins to dread his impending death and on the final night he is overcome by…
1. The Norton Anthology of English, Norton Topics Outline. 2003-2006. W.W. Norton and Company. On the Internet at http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/middleages/topic_4/welcome.htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
2. The Sixteenth century topics: The Magician, the Heretic and the Playwright: Overview. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 2003-2006. W.W. Norton and Company. On the Internet at http://www.wwnortoncom/nto/16century/topic_1/welcome.htm
3. Jokinen, Aniina. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Luminarium: Anthology of English Literature. November 2006. On the Internet at http://www.luminarium.org/medlit/gawainintro/htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
4. Sera, Joseph. A character analysis of Sir Gawain. Pace University Student Projects on Gawain. November 2006. On the Internet at http://csis.pace.edu/grendel/projs2d/ana/page.htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
Leadership, Values, And Beowulf
The epic poem of Beowulf is a narrative a famous warrior who eventually becomes a powerful king. The story involves the exploits of a Scandinavian warrior-prince who comes from the land of the Geats, located in what is now southern Sweden. The poem may be divided into two periods of the Beowulf's life. These two periods exemplify the heroic life in youth and old age.
The poem starts by acquainting the reader with the problems of Hrothgar, King of the Danes, who is being threatened by Grendel, a monster who relentlessly has come to the kingdom night after night for twelve years to carry off and devour the vassals of Herot. Beowulf hears of this situation and resolves to defeat the monster. Eventually, Beowulf defeats Grendel in hand to hand combat tearing off one of the monster's arms. The following night Grendel's mother comes to avenge…
Anonymous. Beowulf. Ed. Michael Alexander. Penguin Books: London, 2001.
Hall, Lesslie (Trans.). Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem." Boston, New York, Chicago: D.C. Heath & Co., 1892. Web. 30 May 2013.
Serriallier, Ian. Beowulf the Warrior. New York: Henry Walck Incorporated,1961. Print.
Stitt, Michael J. "Beowulf and the Heroic Code." English 477 Tolkien & Fantasy Literature, University of Navada, Las Vegas, (ND). Web. 30 May 2013.
Interestingly, although Raskolnikov's punishment comes before the end of the novel, only after he is banished to Siberia is he able to truly let God into his heart. This shows how earthly punishment and salvation are not always linked. The novel ends with him throwing himself upon Sofia's mercy, as she finally understands that he has accepted God into his heart and been redeemed.
Although no figure is Christ-like in the novel, Sofia acts like a figure of wisdom and a facilitator of Raskolnikov's faith. She inspires him to reject secular philosophy for God, as philosophy and his intellect cannot save him, only religion. Although Sofia has no education, she is depicted as wiser than most of the learned men in the novel. Sofia hears Raskolnikov's first confession of his crime, before the authorities. Unlike the anonymous authors of Beowulf, for Dostoevsky true heroism is sacrifice and repentance, not manifesting…
arrior Hero: A Stranger in a Strange Land
The figure of the hero is set apart from the common herd of ordinary men by virtue of his special qualities and abilities; in some works, this separateness is literal - he is in a strange land apart from his own kin. To see how this alienation enhances the tale of the hero's conflict, The Odyssey, Beowulf and The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice will be considered.
Odysseus, Beowulf and Othello are all warrior heroes. Odysseus, in The Odyssey, has been instrumental in the victory at Troy, and now fights to return to Ithaca and bring his men safely home; more struggles await him there. Beowulf, a great fighter who has proven his mettle in many conflicts, hears about the depredations of Grendel on Heorot Hall and journeys there to rescue Hrothgar's people. His role in the conflicts against the…
Alexander, Michael, trans. Beowulf, Penguin Classics. New York: Viking Penguin, 1973.
Cook, Albert, trans. Homer: The Odyssey. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1967.
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Othello, The Moor of Venice, The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. London: Abbey Library.
A warrant may or may not be required to arrest the defendant when the officer has probable cause to believe that the defendant has committed armed assault, and probable cause to believe that the defendant is hiding in a third person's garage. A warrant is not required to arrest a defendant for a felony that an officer has probable cause to believe the defendant committed. Additionally, a warrant is not required to enter a third person's garage if the officer has probable cause to believe that the defendant does not have the owner's consent to be in the garage, as his presence there for the purpose of evading the police constitutes burglary. The officer may enter the garage without a warrant if he believes the defendant's presence there is a threat to another person. A search warrant is required if the officer does not have probable cause to believe…
sof Hengest, though the employment of this striking phrase within the space of a few lines to designate both the opposing parties must be regarded as confusing" (rown) This not only provides confusion for the interpretation and translation of the poem but also for the actual context and flow of events. Thus, this can be an example of transmutation that in turn can determine the value of a translated version or its lack of consistency.
Another important aspect in relation to the style of writing is focused on the artistic literary techniques. More precisely, the accent lies in the way in which the verse and the rhyme are constructed. Up to the interpretation of Tolkien, the rhyme and the verse were considered as lacking precision and value. Still the rhyme is thoroughly analyzed for any potential matching to an already invented system of rhythm and alliterations. A perfect example in…
Bloom, Harold. "Bloom's Guides: comprehensive research and study guide." Infobase Publishing, New York, 2008.
Brown, Carleton. "Beowulf 1080-1106." Modern Language Notes (n.d.).
Cook, Albert Stanburrough. "Beowulf 1422." Modern Language Notes Vol. 39, No. 2 (Feb., 1924), pp. 77-82 (n.d.).
Fulk, Robert Dennis. "An Interpretation of Beowulf, a critical anthology." Indiana University Press, 1991, New York.
It is his own acknowledgment of his glory and honor that allows him to stand as an example to future generations. Folk epics are not meant only to recall historical details, but also to inspire modern heroes; the world of Beowulf and the world for which it was written both required strong heroes who knew the honor and righteousness of their actions.
Beowulf is more than the story of a hero's life, journey and adventures, and death. It is the story of a type of person and a people that the author and original readers of Beowulf felt an intimate longing for. As a folk epic, the tale of Beowulf is meant to draw people together in a common history, and to inspire them to the same types of glory that the heroes of the past achieved. Its purpose is to achieve solidarity in the admiration of a common hero,…
Beowulf. Accessed 26 May 2009. http://www.humanities.mcmaster.ca/~beowulf/main.html
Basic organizational plan: Introduce concept f epic, then folk epic, then explain enerally how Beowulf fits the description. The main body of the essay will explicate some brief apssags, explaining how this fits into the general framework.
XV were Christian is beyond doubt; and it is equally certain that Beowulf was composed in a Christianised England, since conversion took place in the sixth and seventh centuries. Yet the only Biblical references in Beowulf are to the Old Testament, and Christ is never mentioned. The poem is set in pagan times, and none of the characters is demonstrably Christian. In fact, when we are told what anyone in the poem believes, we learn that they are pagans. Beowulf's own beliefs are not expressed explicitly. He offers eloquent prayers to a higher power, addressing himself to the "Father Almighty" or the "Wielder of All." Were those the prayers of a pagan who used phrases the Christians subsequently appropriated? or, did the poem's author intend to see Beowulf as a Christian Ur-hero, symbolically refulgent with Christian virtues" (Yeager)
Interesting though Vis and amin share some characteristics with Hellenistic romances written…
Dick Davis, Panthea's Children: Hellenistic Novels and Medieval Persian Romances, New York, 2002.
Vladimir Minorsky, "Vis u Ramin: A Parthian Romance," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. XI, 1943-46, pp. 741-63; Vol. XII, 1947-1948, pp. 20-35; Vol. XVI, 1954, pp. 91-92; "New Developments." Vol. XXV, 1962, pp. 275-86.
Abrams, M.H.; Greenblatt, Stephen (2000). The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages (Vol 1), Beowulf. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 30.
Yeager, Robert F.. "Why Read Beowulf?." National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
Like so many of us, he feels that heaven has cursed him. The element of disgrace would mean that he has fallen out of favor with God. He feels that all of his efforts are "bootless" (useless). However, the skylark has risen above this, implying that by remembering his love, he will also rise above it.
This author used the example of heaven because it is universal. We all think about our mortality and want to make sure that our lives have meaning. Without it, we are lost and rudderless. However, like the skylark, love will help us rise above the situation and finally make our way through the troubles of life that we all have.
4) the issue of Jews, Judaism and the character of Shylock are famous and among the most examined aspects of the Merchant of Venice. The raise all sorts of questions about whether or not…
eowulf's story is being told by Christian tribes. He finds nature on his side because God is on his side - and he works within Gods will. He does not fight gods or nature, but rather only fights irrevocably evil demons. He is associated with a pious culture which is not humanistic, and in which science and other such forms of hubris are not encouraged. eowulf is a truly medieval hero, just as Odysseus was Grecian.
This difference in culture, between the material and the heavenly, is seen in every aspect of the two characters and their lives. It exists also in their ends. Odysseus spends his entire story seeking a way home to the home of his body - to his wife, his child, his fields and bed. eowulf is seeking only the ultimate good, and he turns down physical reward and even resists kingship until it is forced…
Bibliography used different translations of these two books, so as to make them searchable and because I could not access the specific textbook
Beowulf. Trans. Dr. David Breedan. Archived at http://www.lnstar.com/literature/beowulf/index.html
The Odyssey by Homer. Trans. Samuel Butler. Archived at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~joelja/odyssey.html
Seeing that he was miserable, she told him he could either have her loyal but ugly or beautiful and unfaithful (Chaucer pp). The knight leaves the decision up to her thus, giving the old hag exactly what she wanted, to be in control of her husband. This decision resulted in the old hag becoming beautiful and loyal (Chaucer pp).
omen are central to this tale from the beginning to the end. The knight is saved by the queen, then is sent on a quest to find what appeared to be an impossible answer to a riddle concerning women, and then is saved again at the last minute by another woman who, although wise, was ugly and undesirable. However, he proved true, loyal and obedient, and granted the hag the one thing she wished, control over her man. And in doing so, he received what he truly wanted which was a…
Beowulf. Retrieved September 25, 2005 at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/AnoBeow.html
Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Miller's Prologue and Tale; The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale."
Retrieved September 25, 2005 at http://www.librarius.com/cantales.htm
Dockray-Miller, Mary. "The masculine queen of 'Beowulf.'" Women and Language. September 22, 1998. Retrieved September 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
So many great horror movies have been made over the years that choosing eight is difficult, although the best of them all have certain elements in common that makes viewers crave them, and often leads to many sequels. If the same formula works once, then movie directors and producers will use it repeatedly with slight variations, and this happens with all vampire, zombie, werewolf, and slasher/psycho killer films. Any great horror film has to take basically ordinary people and throw them into a situation where they are confronted with evil or monsters of some kind. These characters must be sympathetic enough that the audience will identify with them and hope that they will finally overcome the monsters, a plot device as old as the heroic Beowulf confronting the dragon Grendel. Of course, many of the characters will not survive the conflict and sometimes none of them do. At…
Blatty, W.. P. And N. Marshall (Producers), & W. Friedkin. (Director). (1973). The Exorcist [Motion picture]. U.S.: Warner Brothers.
Carroll, G., D. Giler and W. Hill (Producers), & R. Scott (Director). (1979). Alien [Motion picture]. U.S.: 20th Century Fox.
Castle, W. (Producer), & R. Polanski. (Director). (1968). Rosemary's Baby [Motion picture]. U.S.: Paramount Pictures.
Foster, D. And L. Turman. (Producesr), & J. Carpenter. (Director). (1982). The Thing [Motion picture]. U.S.: Universal Pictures.
Edgar Allan Poe and Hannibal
Edgar Allan Poe was more than a horror storywriter. He was a person that delved into the human psyche and created a psychological thriller that haunted the reader's mind well after the conclusion was made.
Poe has delved into the human spirit at a time when the idea of the unconscious mind had probably either not evolved, or had just been described and was not commonly known. In his stories of horror, Poe explored in depth the human psyche. Poe was a critic of rationalism but at the same time he was a master in the art of constructing, logically, the irrational 'rationale' for crime committed by his characters. Poe lived a difficult and rather impoverished life, and was himself often given to alcoholism in his private life and the narrator's fears and contradictions that the author describes are something he might have experienced himself.…
DeNuccio, Jerome, History, narrative, and authority: Poe's "Metzengerstein.' (Edgar Allan Poe's novel "Metzengerstein"). Vol. 24, College Literature, 06-01-1997, pp 71(11).
Arthur H. Quinn Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography by (1941)
Author not available, Hannibal Lecter, Superstar., The Toronto Star, 06-20-1999.
THOMPSON Douglas, Moral with a twist., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), 03-29-1998, pp 5.
Greek Hero Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey and the Northern Hero Beowulf in the saga BeoWulf, discussing how either can be heroes and arguing in some ways that it is more than deeds that marks a hero, but also the way in which they behave and relate to others.
Anonymous, 'Beowulf' [online] access at http://www.promo.net/pg/;(2001)
Homer 'The Oddessy' Noonday Press; (1998)
Madam Eglantyne the Nun, is also an ironic charater. She eats in a very refined manner and attempts other fine characteristics such as speaking French, although she fares poorly at this. Ironically, not all her language is pure, as she swears cosntantly by "St. Loy," a saint renowned for not swearing. Unlike the general conception of the Nun, she is very concerned with outward appearances and did not much care for human beings. Indeed, she cared much more for her three dogs than the human beings around her. Another irony is that she has a coral trinket to fight worldly temptations, which is clearly failing badly.
A second character is the Friar, Hubert. While he is jolly, merry, and festive, his actions are nevertheless evil and cunning. He impregnates girls, for example, and marries them off. He deceived the faithful by hearing confessions for a fee, and even begged from…