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Research Theories
Words: 1579 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72615809
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Research Theories: Comparing and Contrasting
The main differences between the four specific types of research theories above revolve around their perspective of research and the accumulation of knowledge. This in particular to how this research can be gathered to solve problems and provide illumination to issues. For example, deductive theories offer a more specific and focused treatment of research. The research usually revolves around a specific theory within a specific branch of academia that is use for testing and investigation. According to Dr. Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, "In deductive inference, we hold a theory and based on it we make a prediction of its consequences. That is, we predict what the observations should be if the theory were correct. We go from the general — the theory — to the specific — the observations," (Bradford, 2017). Essentially, a deductive theory is founded within reasoning, beginning…

References
Bandodkar, N. R. (2015). Valuable or Stagnating? An Essay on Axiomatic Theories in IS Research. Retrieved from https://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1250&context=amcis2015
Bradford, A. (2107, July 24). Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning. Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/21569-deduction-vs-induction.html
Gabriel, D. (2013, March 17). Inductive and deductive approaches to research | | Dr Deborah Gabriel. Retrieved from http://deborahgabriel.com/2013/03/17/inductive-and-deductive-approaches-to-research/
Scott, H. (2009, November 1). What is Grounded Theory? | Grounded Theory Online. Retrieved from http://www.groundedtheoryonline.com/what-is-grounded-theory/

Theory vs Practice Explained
Words: 3612 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45212383
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Theory vs. Practice

When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…

Theory Checklist as a Guide Analyze at
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56066966
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Theory Checklist" as a guide.

Analyze at least one assumption in your assigned article.

Assessment of Article B

According to alph De Laossa's article "Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research," the use of grounded theory in the social science of family research is particularly valuable. Unlike other forms of qualitative research that merely describe a particular phenomenon or chronicle a 'case study' of a relatively obscure group of people, grounded theory does purport to create some useful and generalizable theory. Qualitative research is distinct from quantitative research, given that the latter tests a hypothesis and is based upon deductive principles. Qualitative research is inductive -- it collects data and formulates a theory from the accumulated information. After assessing verbal data, when using a grounded theory approach, the researcher then codes the data to come to a conclusion based upon the information.

The article details the core principles and the…

Reference

LaRossa, R. (2005). Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research. Journal of Marriage and Family,837-857.

First Response:

In the article "Employee alignment with strategic change: A study of strategy-supportive behavior among blue-collar employees," the article was quantitative because the article placed the theory as the framework for the entire study (Creswell, 2009). The article has a deductive base with an objective to test or verify a theory by questioning the theory and hypotheses, defining the theory through a construct, and reflecting the results as positive or negative through scoring derived from the construct. In the study, the researchers introduced the theory at the beginning of the study and the theory and hypotheses was clearly stated and gave identification on the type of study the

Theory -- Approach Linkage as You Prepare
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37892126
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Theory -- Approach Linkage

As you prepare to complete your literature review, it is important to understand the relationship between theory and the qualitative approach. For this Discussion, you will analyze this relationship and how it is -- or is not -- reflected in the articles you have chosen.

To prepare for this Discussion:

eview the course text readings for this week and the media segment on theory.

Consider the role of theory in qualitative research.

eview the articles you have located for your literature review thus far. In each one, how clear is the alignment of theory with the choice of qualitative approach for the study? How well do the authors justify the alignment?

Which article stands out to you as the best example of alignment between theory and approach? Why?

Draw inferences from the qualitative articles in your literature review to answer the following question: "What is the…

References

Abas, M., Ostrovschi, N.V., Prince, M., Gorceag, V.I., Trigub, C., & Oram, S. (2013). Risk

factors for mental disorders in women survivors of

Theory vs Practice in Small Business Setting Essay
Words: 3923 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array
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When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within the so-called ivory…

Youth Leadership and Theory
Words: 4853 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32117537
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Theory

Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.

Differentiating between hypothesis and theory

The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).

The word theory…

References

Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.

Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.

Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.

Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.

Theory a Critical Discussion of
Words: 4698 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25858207
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English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).

Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…

References

Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know

When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.

Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How

Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html

Theory Guided Practice and Nursing
Words: 1452 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95946632
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Theory-Guided Practice
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for: 
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…

Five Approaches and Theory
Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63575368
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ole of Theory in Qualitative esearch

Five Approaches and Theory

Compare and contrast the role of theory in the five main qualitative approaches:

Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory

Although all five major approaches to qualitative research embrace theory to some degree or another, not all of them value the use of theory to the same degree. Broadly speaking, some cultural 'theory' is usually demonstrated within an ethnography, either through a comparative approach; an attempt to understand the culture on its own terms; a theory that seeks to understand the multiple layers of meaning within the culture in a symbolic fashion; or even a universalizing construct like feminist or Marxist theory. The extent to which this theoretical approach is emphasized will depend upon the anthropologist conducting the study. Some studies may mainly focus upon observations and detail unique aspects of a foreign culture while other studies might largely subsume…

References

Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:

 http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1345 

Grounded theory. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:

 http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1349

Newman's Theory of Hec the Main Purpose
Words: 2412 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6395962
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Newman's theory of HEC

The main purpose of nursing theories is to improve the nursing practice, hence improving the health as well as quality of life of people, families or the community at large (Parker & Smith, 2010). Nursing theories usually provide logical methods of approaching and viewing the care of people in their own environment. Through the use of the theoretical model in care organization, the nursing focus on quality care strengthens significantly (Parker & Smith, 2010). In addition, there is consistency in communication as well as related activities in the nursing care. The development of nursing theories together with theory-guided practice models significantly improves the discipline and the professional practice of nursing (Parker & Smith, 2010).

One of the most key issues facing the nursing discipline is the artificial isolation of nursing theory and practice (Parker & Smith, 2010). Practicing nurses have the responsibility of studying and valuing…

References

Basavanthappa, B.T. (2007). Nursing theories. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers.

Brown. J. (2011). Health as Expanding Consciousness: A Nursing Perspective for Grounded Theory ResearchNurs Sci Q. July 2011 24: 197-201.

Dorothy A. (2006). Newman's Health as Expanding Consciousness. Nurs Sci Q. October 2006 19: 330-332.

Kathleen M. & Paula N. (2011). Health as Expanding Consciousness: Implications for Health Policy as Praxis.Nurs Sci Q. July 2011 24: 279-286.

Ethical Theories in Nursing
Words: 4777 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74406948
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Nursing Ethical Theories

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Significance of Moral in Nursing

Deontology vs. Utilitarianism

Deontology

Utilitarianism

Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics

Justice Ethics

Care Ethics

ights Ethics

Conflict of ights

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.

The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…

References

Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange

Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).

Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19

Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.

Human Theory of Caring
Words: 4029 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85477547
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Introduction

Theory guides practice. This is true of many things, but is especially true of nursing. While many processes, actions, and rules are involved in becoming a great nurse, understanding and applying theory must be the most important aspect. Nursing theory allows for one to examine concepts and then attempt practical application of these concepts when theories are tested. Evidence-based practice for example, is the wonderful lovechild of theory and application in that when theories are constructed, they are then tested, and if they work, are applied to standard practice via modification. This essay aims to provide a deeper synthesis of nursing theory by examining two important nursing theories: Orem's Self-care Theory and Watsons Nursing Theory. Additionally, one will see how nursing theory has evolved since its beginnings.

Background on Nursing Theory

Many say nursing is as old as humankind. If there was someone sick, there was someone willing to…

Constructivist Theory in Today's Educational
Words: 2438 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3310125
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To ensure that the constructivist approach functions optimally, teachers must therefore ensure that the interactional and social situation within each group is managed effectively as well.

Young (2003) notes that another challenge facing teachers and students is the implementation of technology in the constructivist classroom. The specific challenge here is that, more often than not, computer technology has been subject to the traditionally constructed classroom, where knowledge about and by means of computer technology has been divulged under the assumption of static, learned skills. Young (2003) suggests some important and dynamic changes to implement technology in the classroom.

First, the assumption must be cultivated that computers and knowledge about and by means of computers, just like all other forms of knowledge, are continually in flux. Indeed, this is even more so for information technology than other academic fields. To teach students as if this is not the case is particularly…

References

Derry, S.J. (1996). Cognitive Schema Theory in the Constructivist Debate. Educational Psychologist, Vol. 31, No. 3/4.

Dubinsky, E. And McDonald, M.A. (2010). APOS: A Constructivist Theory of Learning in Undergraduate Mathematics Education Research. Retrieved from:  http://www.math.kent.edu/~edd/ICMIPaper.pdf 

Hardy, I., Jonen, a., Moller, K. And Stern, E. (2006). Effects of Instructional Support Within Constructivist Learning Environments for Elementary School Students' Understanding of "Floating and Sinking." Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 98, No. 2

Harris, K.R. And Alexander, P.A. (1998). Integrated, Constructivist Education: Challenge and Reality. Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 10, No. 2.

Theory of Group Development
Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4997968
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Group Develoment

Theory of Group Development

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.

Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…

References

Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.

Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.

Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:

Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ground Rules Charter Outine Q1 8
Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59853198
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Ground Rules Charter (outine . Q1 8 compulsory) Our goals: (required) • What team accomplish? Our ground rules: (required) 1. Other class, attempt meet? (E.g. time, ?) 2. Where meetings place? (E.

Group assignment

Our goal

The scope of the formed team is to improve the overall academic performances of the team members. The members seek to improve their overall grades and to better prepare for the next exam session. In order to attain this goal, we will focus on the course materials and we will study them, but we will also go deeper with adjacent research in other sources in order to deepen our understanding of different concepts, theories, models and so on.

Meetings' schedule

The main meetings will take place in class, but we will also meet in the evenings. Meetings will normally take place on Tuesday and Thursday nights and will last for an estimated two or…

Theory the Objective of This
Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10371204
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I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)

Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…

Bibliography

Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at  http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1 

Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.

Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.

Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.

Theory Analysis Why We'll Keep Going to War
Words: 1814 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1771271
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overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…

Bibliography

ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army,  http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf  (accessed 23 July 2014).

Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).

Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),

Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University,  http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328  / (accessed 23 July, 2014

Theory Artifact of Communication
Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14739772
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Communication

The McDonald's Menu and Charles erger's Uncertainty Reduction Theory

In the field of communication, extant theories and models aim to provide explanations about the nature and dynamics of relating and interacting with other people. These theoretical frameworks also delve into various kinds of communication, such as verbal or non-verbal and intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and organizational. One of the most important aspects among these kinds of communication concern theories about interpersonal relationships, which serve as the common ground wherein further studies on communication among people from one-on-one, group, and/or organizational.

Among these interpersonal theories, Charles erger's uncertainty reduction theory figures as one of the most descriptive and analytical theory in studying communication at the most basic level. The uncertainty reduction theory describes the 'self-monitoring' behavior of communicators when initially establishing a relationship or interacting with another communicator or an agent of communication. The theory involves two important concepts: the objective…

Bibliography

Littlejohn, S. (1999). Theories of Human Communication. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.

Official web site of McDonald's-India:  http://www.mcdonaldsindia.com/ourfood/veg/ .

Official web site of McDonald's-Canada:  http://www.mcdonalds.ca/en/food/lighter.aspx 

Official web site of McDonald's-Philippines:  http://www.8mcdo.com/whatsnew.asp .

theories of humanistic psychology history
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67302230
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Humanistic Psychology

Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…

Theory and Design Organization
Words: 903 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 93093848
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difficult for organization to be effective?

Effectiveness within an organization is a measure of how effective the organization is in achieving the outcomes or goals it has for itself. An organization's effectiveness is also interdependent upon its set of morals, ethics, and ability to community appropriately. Effectiveness is important in different ways for different organizations because of the criteria used to judge (e.g. A non-profit aid group might have a different benchmark than a new accounting firm). It is sometimes difficult for an organization to be effective due to external factors, lack of clear definition and focus, and internal dynamics.

What is the example most outstanding in your mind that accurately illustrates the reality of a learning organization?

A learning organization that almost continually transforms itself and encourages the intellectual growth of its members is probably Apple, Inc. In two eras, 1976-1980 and 2005+. In both of these eras, innovation…

Theories Surrounding the Subject of
Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68408469
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If these perspectives can be successfully reinforced with programming such as F wrestling, are already aligned with violent behavior (McLellan, 2002). The television shows are reinforcing their need to reinforce and actualize this world view and mind set. These perspectives, if the children who play video games for hours every day could also be seeking out those video games in an attempt to actualize their violent thoughts and feelings. Demographics evidence would also agree with this statement, since those who are not at a high risk to commit violent crimes are likely not seeking out the violent television programming and video games.

Attention Deficit Disorder and Television

Some studies show a strong correlation between the amount of television a child watches and the likelihood that they will suffer from ADD later in life (Schmidt and Vandewater, 2008). Other studies show no correlation between them at all. Television has the unique…

Works Cited

Dudley, William. "Media Violence Causes Youth Violence. "Opposing Viewpoints: Mass Media. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 1 Dec. 2009.

Jensen, Elizabeth. "Study Finds Test Scores Not Lowered By Television. " The New York Times. (Feb 27, 2006): C6(L). New York State Newspapers. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 4 Dec. 2009.

McLellan, Faith. The Lancet. London: Feb 9, 2002. Vol. 359, Iss. 9305, p. 502 (1 pp.)

Schmidt, Marie Evans, and Vandewater, Elizabeth A. "Media and Attention, Cognition, and School Achievement." Future of Children. Spring 2008. Vol. 18, Iss.1. (2008).

Watson Human Care Theory the Significance of
Words: 1279 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74291819
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Watson Human Care Theory

The Significance of Watson Human Care Theory in handling dying patients

It is imperative to integrate a psychosocial treatment strategy in handling dying patients. This is based on the knowledge that dying patients could have lost hope leading to depreciation of an illness. In any case, most of the acute illnesses could have been contained at the primary stage of development. Healing or ailing is primarily managed by the mind and not the techniques applied in the medical arena. This study is critical in proving the essentiality Jean Watson's theory of human caring. I will heavily relate to the study to respond to necessities of a dying patient. In particular, the discussion will analyze how the theory is significant in exploring the comfort levels required in the general treating and healing process.

An example

I replicate my approach from an article I adopted from the Danish…

References

Brunjes, C. (2012). Using the Power of Hope to Cope with Dying: The Four Stages of Hope (Google eBook). New York: Linden Publishing

Byrne, A., & Byrne, D. (1992). Psychology for Nurses: Theory and Practice. New York:

Macmillan Education

Chesnay, M., & Anderson, B. (2008). Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing

Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of Risk
Words: 4457 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67940104
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Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk

Definition of isk

The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.

This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…

References

Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s

Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.

Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.

Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.

Sociological Theory
Words: 3338 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14590401
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Sociological Theory

Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.

Sociological imagination

The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…

References

Schaefer, R.T. (2007). Sociology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Ballantine, J.H., & Roberts, K.A. (2010). Our social world: Introduction to sociology. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publications.

Giddens, A., & Sutton, P.W. (2009). Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

King, L., & McCarthy, D. (2009). Environmental sociology: From analysis to action. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Constructivist Theories of Learning
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Learning

Constructivist and cognitive theories are both aimed towards creating a productive classroom environment in which knowledge is imparted in a manner to maximize retention and assure application. This paper aims to understand the underlying patterns of both teaching approaches and comparing and contrasting their basic assumptions, in order to test their resultant feasibility.

Learning theories revolve around the best possible methods known to educators worldwide, which can assist them in creating a productive classroom environment. As the standard of education has evolved, so has the set of strategies associated with imparting knowledge in the most industrious manner. Advance teaching techniques have seeped into the stream of traditional classes and many studious professionals have put their shoulder to the door in order to discover feasible educational theories to help all students. This paper is about the comparison between two such leading educational theories: constructivism and cognitivism. It aims to identify…

Works Cited

Cooperstein, S.E., & Kocewar-Weidinger, E. (2004). Beyond Active Learning: A Constructvist Approach to Learning. References Services Review, 32. Retrieved February 2013

Greeno, J.G., Collins, A.M., & Resnick, L.B. (n.d.). Cognition and Learning. Retrieved February 2013

Mergel, B. (1998). Instructional Design and Learning Theory. University of Saskatchewan, Educational Communications and Technology. Retrieved Februaruy 2013

Counseling Theories
Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31525156
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Counseling Theory

Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.

Existential Therapy

Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…

References

Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN:  http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484  or  http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484 

Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.

Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.

Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.

Freud and His Complete Theory of Grief Bereavement
Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 50942874
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Grief

Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement

Grade Course

Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…

REFERENCES

Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.

Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258

Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.

Christian Counseling Theory
Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61375719
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Truth

Concise Summary of Theory

Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.

The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.

Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…

References

Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.

Bruner's Constructivist Theory and the Conceptual Paradigms
Words: 3441 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 3905232
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Bune's constuctivist theoy and the conceptual paadigms of Kolb's Expeiential Leaning theoy dawing on the associated theoies ae Kinesthetic and Embodied Leaning. As also noted in the intoductoy chapte, the guiding eseach question fo this study was, "What ae the caee paths fo teaching atists seeking to deploy into the field of community at and development?" To develop timely and infomed answes to this eseach question, this chapte povides a eview of the elevant pee-eviewed and scholaly liteatue concening these theoetical famewoks to investigate the diffeent caee paths teaching atists seek to deploy into the field of community at and development, including ceative community building and adult community centes such as woking with Alzheime's Disease and stoke victims.

Adult Leaning Theoies

Kolb's Expeiential Leaning Theoy. Thee ae a wide aay of theoetical models that can be used to identify and bette undestand teaching and leaning pefeences by educatos and students,…

references to improve coaching and athletic performance: Are your players or students kinesthetic learners? The Journal of Physical

Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(3), 30-34.

Fowler, J. (2013, March). Art rescue in a troubled world. Arts & Activities, 153(2), 36-39.

Kerka, S. (2002). Somatic/embodied learning and adult education: Trends and issues alert. ERIC

Kessler, R. (2000). The soul of education: Helping students find connection, compassion, and character at school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum

Constructivist Computerized Learning Constructivist Theories of Knowledge
Words: 2203 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75437130
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Constructivist Computerized Learning

Constructivist theories of knowledge development and learning have been around since the turn of the 20th century. But it may well be the advent of computerized and e-learning educational opportunities that offer this perspective its real chance to make a difference in the virtual world of learning and instruction. From Piaget to Papert, the core precepts of the constructivist understanding have been affirmed by what technology has to offer, even though researchers are just beginning to see what that means in practice. The current work reviews this transformation and what it might mean for the future of knowledge making and learning.

One of the most exciting aspects of the technological invasion of education is that the interactive and creative abilities of these tools allow students and teachers to design and develop their own relationship with knowledge. Computerized technologies of all sorts are simply fundamentally changing the game…

REFERENCES

Ackermann, E. (n.d.). Piaget's Constructivism, Papert's Constructionism:What's the difference? Viewable at  http://learning.media.mit.edu/content/publications/EA.Piaget%20_%20Papert.pdf .

Concept to Classroom (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Thirteen Online. Viewable at  http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub4.html .

Cox, J. And Cox, K. (2009). Constructivism and Integrating Technology in the Classroom. Boise State University. Viewable at http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/coxk/eportfolio/EdTech%20504%20Final%20Synthesis%20K&J.docx.pdf.

Doolittle, P. And Hicks, D. (n.d.). Constructivism as a Theoretical Foundation for the Use of Technology in Social Studies. Viewable at  http://www.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/learnth/DoolittleHicks5.pdf .

Application of Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors
Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 93027941
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Social Concerns

Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors

The Theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors provides a broad framework into which more narrowly focused research can be viewed from. This analysis will consider three individual research journal articles and first provide an overview of the work that was conducted. Then this analysis will try to relate the study and its results to the broader theories mentioned. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. The paper will conclude with a short discussion of why this research is important to society in regard to public health initiatives.

Parenting a Child with a Disability

Parents who have children with disabilities often have additional challenges that are presented in the situation when compared to the responsibilities of parents when their children…

Works Cited

Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.

Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African-American Parents. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 405-411.

Herrenkohl, T., Lee, J., Kosterman, R., & Hawkings, J. (2012). Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: A Developmental Analysis of Child and Adolescent Predictors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 129-135.

Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J., & Beardslee, W. (2012). The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth. American Psychologist, 272-284.

Development of Intelligence Theories
Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83261692
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Intelligence

Over the years, there have been discussions surrounding the issue of intelligence and how it can be measured as well as what parameters determined who is more intelligent than the other. Controversy has surrounded the definition and measurement of intelligence and many scholars have opined that the controversy is mainly based on the fact that historically intelligence has been defined on the grounds of how much one knows rather than how well one processes (Fagan J.F., 2000:Pp1). IQ has been defined in perspective of how much an individual knows in relation to the age mates. This has been faulted several times and hence this paper will highlight some of the theories that have been historically used to define intelligence, the biases in the testing of intelligence and the controversies that have surrounded the entire aspect of intelligence.

On of the major theorists in intelligence is Galton, indeed, he is…

References

Golstein H., (2012). Francis Galton, measurement, psychometrics and social progress. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from  http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/team/hg/full-publications/2012/Galton.pdf 

Fagan J.F., (2000). A Theory of Intelligence as Processing: Implication for Society. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~rakison/fagan.pdf

Kane H. & Brand C., (2003). The Importance of Spearman's g as a Psychometric, Social, and Educational Construct. The Occidental Quarterly. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from  https://www.toqonline.com/archives/v3n1/TOQv3n1Kane-Brand.pdf 

McGraw Kevin, (2009). Evolution of CHC Theory of Intelligence and Assessment. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from  http://www.ibapnet.org.br/congresso2009/material/chctimeline2.pdf

Boudon 2001 Theories of Social
Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 87823124
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For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.

Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?

Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice
Words: 4260 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 80307899
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Ethical Theory & Moral Practice

Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.

This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…

References

Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online:  http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links  / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3 

Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.

Nursing Theory as a Guide
Words: 1309 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 97015701
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227), and as such, the values of nursing practices were degrading. Nowadays we can pride on a much appreciative recognition of nursing theory with "models" being implemented regularly and indeed I can think of the Magis model of care carried out in Chicago in the first decade of the 2000's. This initiative was possible because of "several nursing theories along with information from the Institute of Family Centered Care" (Jasovsky et al., 2010, "Abstract") and led to such results as the change of nursing practice habits that, although proved sometimes uncomfortable for nurses, it meant proficient practicality (Jasovsky et al., 2010, p. 32); the results were deemed even more satisfactory when related to patients feedback, 90% of these having willed to further recommend the services of the hospital (Jasovsky et al., 2010, p. 35-36).

Moreover, Cody believed that nurses found it difficult to adopt or even try to understand nursing…

Reference List

Cody, William K. (2003). Nursing Theory as a Guide to Practice. Nursing Science Quaterly, 16(3), 225-231. Retrieved from  http://nsq.sagepub.com 

Jasovsky, D.A., Morrow, M.R., Clementi, P.S., & Hindle P.A. (2010). Theories in Action and How Nursing Practice Changed. Nursing Science Quaterly, 23(I), 29-38. Retrieved from

Role of Theory and Philosophy
Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 70782494
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nursing is both a discipline and a profession

All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.

Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)

The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing

Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field…

Bibliography

Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.

Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.

Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson. (2008). Understanding Philosophical Inquiry in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 115-121.

Dr Sharon L. Van Sell, Ioannis a Kalofissudis. (2002). A Complexity Nursing Theory.

Actualizing Nursing Theory in Practice
Words: 2246 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5307699
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Caring

Nursing Concept Analysis: Caring

Caring is a concept central to nursing theory. Indeed, an esteemed constellation of nurses throughout history, including Nightingale, Watson, Henderson, and Benner, have integrated the concept of care into their theory and praxis. Caring has been considered a foundational element of nursing such that "compassion and therapeutic relationships" are viewed as essential "underpinnings" of nursing (Skillings, 2008). As with most disciplines, the complexities that accompany professional practice in contemporary settings can pose unanticipated challenges. The ethic of caring that is fundamental to nursing endures an onslaught of competing priorities, barriers to compassionate practice, and adaptations inherent to modern healthcare institutions (Skillings, 2008).

Most behaviors that the nursing discipline considers caring are readily recognized, such as "attentive listening, comforting, honest, patient, responsibility, providing information to the patient can make an informed decision, touch, sensitivity, respect, calling the patient by name" (Vance, 2003). Categorically, many nurse practitioners…

References

Brenner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Dewar, B. & Cook, G. (2013). Developing compassion through a relationship centered appreciative leadership programme. Nurse Education Today, 14(9), 1258-1264.

Fry, N.A. (1993). Beyond professional caring: teaching nursing students the art of Christian caring. Paper delivered at the Faith and Learning Seminar at Union College in Lincoln, Nebraska in June of 1993. Retrieved from  http://ict.aiias.edu/vol_10/10cc_167-185.htm 

Leininger, M.M. (1991). Culture care, diversity and universality: A theory of nursing. New York, NY: National League of Nursing Press, p. 35.

Ethical or Unethical Ground Rules Manifested in
Words: 821 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30394391
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ethical or unethical ground rules manifested in the situation (ethical theory that is broken) as well as which ethics theories should be applied to remedy the situation.

The Murdoch incident involved various leading British newspapers, specifically the 'News of the World' but also other tabloids all published by News International, all of which were a subsidiary of News corporation .The owner of News corporation was upert Murdoch hence the alias The Murdoch phone hacking scandal. Essentially, employees of the corporation were accused of employing improper means in their endeavor to gain new stories such as telephone hacking and bribing police officers during the years 2005-2007, and their targets for these stories almost always involved celebrities, members of the oyal family, and politicians. On 6 July, British prime minister David Cameron announced that a special investigation commission would investigate the incident. Lord Justice Levesonas named chairman of the inquiry on 13…

References

Davies, N. (8 July 2009). Trail of hacking and deceit under nose of Tory PR chief. The Guardian (UK).  http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/jul/08/murdoch-newspapers-phone-hacking . Retrieved 8/23/2011

O'Carroll, L. (20 July 2011). Phone-hacking inquiry extended to include broadcasters and social media. The Guardian (UK).  http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jul/20/phone-hacking-inquiry-broadcasters-social-media .

Straubhaar, Joseph, LaRose, R., & Davenpor, Lt. (2010). Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth

Heawood, J. (13 July 2011). A new manifesto for media ethics.. The Guardian. UK.  http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/13/media-ethics-investigation-david-cameron .

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 43571515
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice developed as a cohesive field in the late twentieth century, with the establishment of the Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Journal, in 1998. The theory therefore represents a culmination of scholarly thought and analysis in the fields of philosophy, sociology, and psychology. As a cross-disciplinary theory, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice reveals the increasing hybridization of fields that relate to normative ethics.

Because Ethical Theory and Moral Practice is a relatively new field of scholastic inquiry, the field is currently "undergoing change," ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008). Changes reflect shifting social, economic, and political realities. Without falling pray to the traps of ethical relativism, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice remains heterogeneous and diverse.

The roots of the theory are difficult to trace because of the "disciplinary cross-pollination" that has occurred ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008).…

References

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online:  http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links /special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Testing Theories
Words: 1517 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27945489
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Philosophy natural science. Given natural science theories: 1. hat makes objects fall 2. The missed 2012 apocalypse First, describe theories world / forces operate . These theories, pass Karl Popper's theory demarcation

Natural Science Theories

The idea of the force that makes objects fall has haunted mankind for thousands of years before people actually came to understand how the force of gravity functions. Italian scientist Galileo Galilei is responsible for opening people's eyes regarding this theory, as he studied it intensively and discovered that an object falling to the ground has a rate of 9.8 meters per second, squared. This made it possible for society to gain a more complex understanding of how the force of gravitation works and diverse variables that can influence this process.

Considering that many individuals in the contemporary society have trouble determining whether some objects are likely to fall faster than others, it would seem…

Works cited:

Giancoli, D. "Physics - Principles with Applications." (Aubrey Durkin)

Restall, M. & Solari, A. "2012 and the End of the World: The Western Roots of the Maya Apocalypse." (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 16 Jan 2011

"Why the World Didn't End Yesterday," Retrieved February 22, 2015, from  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2012/14dec_yesterday/

Lessons in Theory Building
Words: 1784 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26194039
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Darwin's Theory Of Evolution

The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,

"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…

Works Cited

Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from  http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592 

Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698 

Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/

Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199

Kant Theory of Ethics Immanuel
Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85046253
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For example if a person feels that life without wealth is meaningless, he might decide that if he ever becomes poor, he would become a hermit and quit social life. This would be his maxim and thus a principle by which he must abide when such a situation arises. Kant knew that only rational being could be expected to have a maxim of morality. 'Everything in nature, works in accordance with laws. Only a rational being has the power to act in accordance with his idea of laws, that is, in accordance with principles.' (Gr, 412)

However a person who has a maxim is not allowed acting on it unless he decides that it is something he would want for everyone. Kant argues that unless a person wants to attach universality to this maxim, it cannot be considered a correct principle or a moral one. this is known as the…

References

H.J. Paton, the Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948)

Timmons, Mark, (ed.) Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays, Oxford University Press, 2002

Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Translated by H.J. Paton. New York: Harper and Row, 1964

Paton: 19

Education Theories Knowledge of Learning
Words: 3781 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93366223
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Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."

As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.

This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…

Works Cited

Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).

Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.

Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.

Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.

Nozick's Entitlement Theory of Property
Words: 1946 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34386909
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NOZICK'S ENTITLEMENT THEOY

obert Nozick's Entitlement theory is mainly connected with the issue of property and transfer of property but it is essentially based on the issue of Justice and how it comes into question when property is being transferred or owned. Nozick believes that property rights need to be studied in the social context to understand how transfer and owning of property can give rise to the issue of justice within the society. He believes that when a property that was previously not owned by anyone is transferred to someone and an individual becomes the owner of that piece of land, it is the duty of the government to ensure that no one is left worse off due to this transaction. This is the Libertarian view of property rights and was previously raised by some important thinkers including Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. ousseau and Bentham also touched upon the…

References

Funnell, Warwick, Accounting for justice: Entitlement, want and the Irish Famine of 1845-7. Accounting Historians Journal; 12/1/2001;

G.A. Cohen, 'Nozick on Appropriation', New Left Review, no. 150, 1985

Levy, Neil, Self-ownership: defending Marx against Cohen.(Karl Marx and G.A. Cohen) Social Theory and Practice; 1/1/2002;

Paul Russell, 'Nozick, Need and Charity', Journal of Applied Philosophy, vol. 4 number 2, 1987, pp. 205-216.

Equity Theory in the Public
Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59532277
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From the standpoint of the labor market, the lack of equity in the public system would continue to exist until the market force becomes united and demands a better protection of its rights. For now however, when the people fear the loss of their jobs and when the market place is saturated, the public employers are not pressured to implement equity. At the level of personal evaluation and job contributions, these are only able to reveal the cases of lack of equity through a comparative analysis of contributions, evaluations and compensations of several public sector employees. Individually however, a person who is inequitably rewarded will not be able to make a difference in the system.

In the hypothetical context of a perfect compensation system, several elements would sit at the basis of its evaluation. All these elements would be constructed on complex analyses of past trends, future estimations, equity theory…

References:

Adams, J.S., Berkowitz, L., 1976, Equity theory: toward a general theory of social interaction, Academic Press

Berman, E.M., Bowman, J.S., West, P., Van Mart, M., Human resources management in public service -- paradoxes, processes and problems, 2nd edition

Mann, G.A., 2006, a motive to serve: public service motivation in human resource management and the role of PSM in the non-profit sector, Entrepreneur,  http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/160542365_2.html  last accessed on November 9, 2010

2009, the end of pay equity for women in the federal public service, Public Service Alliance of Canada,  http://psac.com/news/2009/issues/200902pseact-e.shtml  last accessed on November 9, 2010

Gutek's Theory of Education Is
Words: 857 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 64751838
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For the concept that no child left behind, from my understanding reflects the concern of teachers for every individual student that they have. It shows that as everyone starts the race, everyone should cross the finish line. The approach shows that every student is given utmost importance and despite the seemingly low performance of the student, he or she should be given the necessary assistance to cope with the demands of learning. This is seen in certain examinations; some students prefer essay questions while some prefer the objective type, a good type of examination would then be to balance the items to reflect both essay and objective types in the examination. Another form of leaving no child behind is manifested during tutorial sessions wherein students are given added time to study their lessons on a one on one setting.

Educating the whole child refers to the way in which one…

References

Gutek, G.L. (2004) Philosophical and Ideological Voices in Education (3rd edition). Boston: Pearson Education.

Gutek, G.L. (1991) a Historical Evaluation to American Revolution. Illinois: Waveland Press.

Ornstein, a. (2006) Foundations of Education (9th edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Nursing Theory Is That it
Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61414434
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At times patients cannot care for themselves, and nurses must remedy these self-care deficits (Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory, 2011, Nursing Theories).

Whenever possible, patients should be empowered to act as best as they can to care for themselves. The nurse is viewed as an aid to remedy the self-care deficit in Orem's view. The nurse is not seen as superseding the patient's basic right to autonomy. Although some nurses know this intuitively, when busy or rushed sometimes it can be easy to forget the value of allowing patients to do as much as possible as they can for themselves, even if this is something as simple as eating and drinking or going to the bathroom.

Given the preponderance of lifestyle-related diseases today, Orem's stress upon patient self-knowledge and awareness is essential. Patients will care for themselves when they return home from a healthcare environment in most instances, and they must…

References

Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett

Publishers.

Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory. (2011, January 11). Nursing Theories.

Retrieved April 6, 2011 at  http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html

Miller Evolution Miller's Theory of
Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28820253
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As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.

Chapter 6: The orld That Knew e ere Coming

Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in…

Works Cited:

Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).

Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.

Scientific Theory in Psychology the
Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 86305141
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So, just as the concept of Right has to have Wrong as its counterpart to be a truth, so does theory need evidence. Science is a method of understanding, it is an understanding of what exists, what we can determine that we know about these things, and the method by which we go about achieving that understanding. Thus, without evidence on either side of the theory, there can be no support for the theory therefore making that theory non-scientific.

The evaluation of a theory is the identification of the type of theory it is. Much like theories themselves that set out a parameter of evaluation of a measurable prediction about a particular behavior or set of behaviors, theory evaluation is the determination of the validity, structure, and use of the theory itself. Theories have two dimensions: parasitical (its reliance on other theories) and operationalizable (interpretations of the theory). The less…

Gestalt Theory There Are Many
Words: 2828 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80206275
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The idea behind constructivism is that the learner is building an internal representation of knowledge, a personal interpretation of experience. This representation is constantly open to change, its structure and linkages forming the foundation to which other knowledge structures are appended. Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience. Conceptual growth comes from the sharing of multiple perspectives and simultaneous changing of our internal representations in response to those perspectives as well as through cumulative experience (Bednar, 1991).

Therefore, as the days pass, an individual's perception of the meaning of new thoughts or ideas that he knows from other people may change everyday. He may gain new ideas everyday and may experience new things everyday. These experiences may influence his perception of the idea that he acquires from other people. This is the level where he creates his own opinion of this idea.…

Works Cited

Bednar, A.K., et al. (1991). Theory into practice: How do we link? G. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.

Blosser, P. (1973). Principles of Gestalt psychology and their application to teaching junior high school science. Science Education, 57, 43-53

Cognitive Development." 2006 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_development.

Cognitive Development." 2006 http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~epritch1/pianalz.htm.

Alderfer's Erg Theory as a
Words: 2017 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3102041
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The researches in this direction have confirmed that engagement in goal-setting and acceptance of the goals are crucial for the assurance of the goal and job. Moreover, monitoring the stages of attainment of goal is also crucial for imparting motivation. While an employee is not attaining timely and accurate feedback on performance it is quite difficult in assessing the behaviors for continuance in the direction of achieving the goals in subsequently. It is again pertinent to note that goals themselves are not reinforcing. The motivation is perceived to have resulted from the discontentment of what is accomplished and what was set earlier for accomplishment. Such shortfalls imbibe people to work harder for achieving better pursuits subsequently. (Goal Setting Theory)

The importance of the goal setting theory stems from its focus on motivation in work fronts and on the core characteristics of a successful and effective goal or aim. The performance…

References

Big Dog's Leadership Page - Human Behavior. May 17, 2000. Retrieved at  http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadhb.html . Accessed on 10 February, 2005

ERG Theory. Retrieved at http://www.envisionsoftware.com/articles/ERG_Theory.html. Accessed on 10 February, 2005

ERG Theory. Retrieved at  http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/erg/ . Accessed on 10 February, 2005

Goal Setting Theory. Retrieved at http://www.siop.org/Instruct/Motivate/sld007.htm. Accessed on 10 February, 2005

Positivist Theory of Crime Lombroso
Words: 1786 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72636028
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Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso

Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory

The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.

Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)

Three Types of Positivism

Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…

Bibliography

Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from:  http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf 

Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from:  http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract 

Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from:  http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf

ayes Probability

Can ayes Confirmation Theory Give an Adequate Explanation for Confirmation of Scientific Theories?

Theorizing in science is a complex and time-consuming undertaking. The theorist uses collected evidence from some means of scientific inquiry to project a generalized case. However, there is a difficulty with this process. There is some amount of probability that the theory will be wrong. Even if this is not a harmful outcome, it is difficult for the theorist to overcome in their professional lives. So, researchers want to understand the probabilities involved in the success of their theories.

ayes theorem discusses the probability that an event will occur, which in the use proscribed for this research is whether a theory is correct or not. ayes looked at two different events one of which can be used to add to the probability that the other is correct. For example, say that a statement (any given…

Bibliography

R Dawd, 'Scientific prediction and the undetermination of scientific theory building', PhilSci Archive, 2008, Retrieved 24 March 2012 from  http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/4008/ 

D Garber, 'Old evidence and logical omniscience in Bayesian Confirmation Theory', J Earman (ed.), Testing scientific theories, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1983, pp. 99-132.

R Garlikov, The nature of the logic of confirmation in science, 2000, Retrieved 24 March 2012 from  http://www.garlikov.com/Science.html 

PE Meehl, 'Theory-testing in psychology and physics: A methodological paradox', Philosophy of Science, vol. 34, 1967, pp. 103-115.