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No matter how much I might prefer to think that I am unique and that my communications patters are unlike any other person's, my social relations also fall into the patterns described by scholars on communications. This paper will outline two occasions in which I have noticed my own life to be affected by a group communications concept we have studied in class, describe the concept and describe my observation of its real world effect on my life.
Cohesion is the level of group identity that members feel (Myers & Anderson, 221). In very closely linked groups, there is a great deal of cohesion, which also is correlated with a high degree of satisfaction. Those members feel tightly bound to each other. How people communicate can grow or impair the growth of group cohesion. Cohesion can be built by emphasizing similarities between group members. Cohesion and participation both…
Myers, Scott A., & Anderson, Carolyn M. Fundamentals of Group Communication. New York: Sage, 2008. Print.
Wood, Julia. Communication in Our Lives. Beverly, MA: Wadsworth. 2011. Print.
Non-verbal communication -- such as body language -- is a communication channel that never closes, and so this must also be utilized to show confidence and approachability.
hen it comes to the diversity of the group itself, both cultural and role-specific issues must be considered. In the case of the latter, care must be given that the information remains understandable and relevant; this becomes far more complex with the issue of cultural diversity. Drastically different meanings and interpretations are attributed to gestures, tones of voice, and certain ways of speaking by different cultures, and can have huge effects on the interpretation of the information being communicated (Locker-Kienzler 2008). Specifically, using figurative language such as understatement or hyperbole might be natural parts of some cultures, and be understood for what they are, while other cultures might see this as misleading or even simple ignorance (Locker-Kienzler 2008).
In order to ensure that…
When it comes to the diversity of the group itself, both cultural and role-specific issues must be considered. In the case of the latter, care must be given that the information remains understandable and relevant; this becomes far more complex with the issue of cultural diversity. Drastically different meanings and interpretations are attributed to gestures, tones of voice, and certain ways of speaking by different cultures, and can have huge effects on the interpretation of the information being communicated (Locker-Kienzler 2008). Specifically, using figurative language such as understatement or hyperbole might be natural parts of some cultures, and be understood for what they are, while other cultures might see this as misleading or even simple ignorance (Locker-Kienzler 2008).
In order to ensure that the information presented at the above-described stakeholder meeting scenario is effective, the proper cultural considerations will be matched by an appropriate understanding of the various roles present in the meeting. This extends beyond simply understanding the varying knowledge bases of those in attendance in the meeting, and the different positions they hold in relation to the company's endeavors, and requires a certain amount of flexibility and awareness of the group roles that tend to emerge in such settings (Locker-Kienzler 2008). Encouraging the active involvement and development of positive group roles while calmly and quickly addressing any negative roles that might appear to be emerging will keep focus on the information being presented, helping it to become much more effective (Locker-Kienzler 2008).
The many different considerations that must be made in order to ensure an effective and productive meeting for everyone in attendance can make such attempts very difficult. Adding to this difficulty is the fact that meetings are often seen as boring, unproductive interruptions of useful work, meaning that there is already negative sentiment to overcome before the meeting has even begun (Locker-Kienzler 2008). Organizing and presenting the information with clarity and efficiency, and setting this tone from the outset of the meeting by being well-prepared and inviting, can go a long way towards eliminating these feelings, and mitigating their effects on the meeting as a whole. This consideration, along with these others listed above, will result in effective communication.
One of my main tasks at work is to transcribe the minutes of the weekly departmental meetings; thus, since my report requires me to present the minutes of the meeting in a concise, yet organized, form, I use the organizational strategy or method of writing. In the organizational strategy, I take into account how the information is presented in a document -- in my case, the minutes of meeting for the department. According to Chandler (1995), the organizational strategy involves dividing the information in the document into three main divisions: the introduction, body, and conclusion.
In the organizational strategy, these three divisions are specified further. he introduction becomes the part where the "major point" of the document is stated. his part may be likened to the 'lead' of a journalist's news article -- it allows the reader to know what the document is all about, supported by information…
The organizational strategy that I use in communicating with the other department members in the workplace influence the way I think or construct ideas and information when it comes to processing and using them in decision-making processes with the organization. This belief that written communication (or any form communication, for that matter) has influences and affects the way we think is based on the principle that "All Messages Have a Content and a Relational Dimension" (Adler, 1998:19). This principle is divided into two components: the content and relational dimension of the message given to another communicator/s.
The content of a communication message includes the written message itself (in my case, the content of the minutes of the meeting document). However, the content of the message may be affected by its relational dimension, perhaps considered the most important element of a non-verbal message. This relational dimension is manifested by the kind of tone and style used by the communicator. Combining these two components: the recipient of the communication message can formulate or structure the 'mood' of the document, which, in turn, affects his/her impression of the source of the communication message. Thus, in my case, using a formal tone and organized writing style in composing business documents allows me to evoke a business-like and professional image to other people (communicators). This example shows the power that communication, particularly writing, plays in creating images and handling impression management in a diverse workplace environment.
Adler, R. (1998). Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Factionalism must be avoided at all costs. Obeying the rules of etiquette, such as not interrupting when another person is speaking or ensuring that everyone has a chance to provide input during a discussion, can work wonders to keep tempers from flaring. In an unfamiliar group, these protocols may need to be formal, in a group of people who know each other well helpful reminders from the leader might be the best way to keep courteous behavior in mind.
It is always necessary that the group leader or leaders make it clear why the group was formed, so the group has a sense of collective mission and purpose. A group must be a team, with a goal, not simply a collection of randomly assembled persons. Every person of the team has a valuable and specific task, and should not feel threatened expressing his or her opinions about that task, or…
Competition should not be the primary focus of a group decision-making setting because this will not lead to solution-oriented thinking. ather than focusing on the problem that requires solving, group members are more likely to entertain themselves with methods they can employ to "win" other members of the group to their line of thinking or problem-solving methods.
Behaviors that promote best practices in group decision-making include behaviors that encourage all team members to participate in strategic development and open expression of their thoughts, feelings and opinions such that each member feels included in the decision-making process (Johnson & Johnson, 2000; Katzenbach & Smith, 1992). To make this environment possible it is important each member of the team feel their contribution to the decision-making process and solution is important, even if their idea or proposed solution is not adopted once a final decision is made.
Other behaviors that promote best practices…
Foundation Coalition. (2007, May). "Effective decision making in teams: Methods."
Created May, 2001 Foundation Coalition. Accessed 4, May, 2007:
Intrax Technology Group, Ltd. "Problem solving tools and methods." Intrax Ltd. Accessed 4, May, 2007: http://www.intraxltd.com
Group Communication and Decision-Making Methods
This paper will focus on two primary factors important for the leaders, in the modern world, to completely conquer. These two factors are:
Decision making methods
The paper also provides proof using prior researches done on the aforementioned subjects, focusing primarily on the role of the leader in instigating motivation amongst the employees as well as improving the overall decision making processes. The paper will also take into consideration the views presented in different books written today like the Power of Impossible Thinking by Jerry Wind, Colin Crook and obert Gunther, first published in 2004 as well as the Prepared Mind of a Leader by Bill Welter and Jean Egmon first published in 2005.
Decision making methods and Leadership
Communication is all about the approach towards a common goal. It is the lifeblood of an effective and successful leader (Wind, Crook and Gunther,…
Avolio, B.J. (1994). The alliance of total quality and the full range of leadership. In B.M. Bass & B.J. Avolio (Eds.), Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership (pp. 121-145). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Avolio, B.J., Bass, B.M., & Jung, D.I. (1999). Reexamining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441-462.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B.M., & Avolio, B.J. (1997). Full range leadership development: Manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.
She does not need to speak, the art will do it for her, but unlike the expressive purpose of museum artwork, the point of this expression is to reinforce a relationship rather than speak to strangers.
There is a public, shaming potential to the pot lid's use such as using the lid when her husband is having company. Context can add to the meaning of the lid, but still, there is some control over who hears the message, unlike the message conveyed by art to a person strolling through a museum, whose presence does not usually add or subtract from the meaning of the work of art.
Art is not done by professionals in this est African tribal context, rather everyone has the potential to make art, or to read art, in fact it is necessary in this case, that the husband be fluent in the language of the pot…
Congo (Zaire) pot lid." The Stanley Collection:
The University of Iowa Museum of Art. January 1999. 25 Mar 2007. http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/chapters/kml/KMD1.html
2002, p.3) The following example from the experience of the group serves to illustrate the way in which these theoretical perspectives applied to the evaluation of the group's ability to function successfully.
As noted in the previous section, the group was faced with a crisis when the tour guide was injured by a lion. In terms of the above theory the group should have been able to communicate under stress in order to find a common solution to the problem at hand. Instead, what actually occurred was chaotic division and disagreement in the group which led to dysfunction. Two of the group members were in a state of shock and feared that they might be in danger. One of the American members of the group suggested that they should drive the guide back to the base camp as quickly as possible. Other members of the group disagreed with this view…
Frey L.R. ( 1994) The call of the field: studying communication in natural groups, in L.R
Frey ( Ed.), Group communications in context: Studies of natural groups, Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Galanes and Adams ( Leading Small Groups: Theoretical Perspectives, Chapter 7).
(Full reference not provided)
Small Group Communication
It is often the case that communication that works perfectly well in person - or face-to-face, as we call it now - breaks down when people attempt to translate the same relationships that they have developed directly into cyber-relationships. And herein lies the rub: cyber-relationships are not the same as those we have in person. Once people acknowledge the fact that such relationships are different with different sets of rules (not worse or better, but simply different), then they can adjust their behavior and their expectations to the new form of communication.
Cyber-communication is an unnatural way of maintaining human relationships. We have each been evolutionarily selected to be social animals - and social animals in a very specific way, by being in the physical presence of other humans. This means that while some large percent of our ability to communicate with others is based on the…
Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.
Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a…
Brown, J.M. (n.d.). How Can Cultural Differences Affect Business Communication? Retrieved
December 20, 2011, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-cultural-differences-affect-business-communication-5093.html
Dainton. (2004, September 16). Introduction to Communication Theory. Retrieved December
20, 2011, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4983_Dainton_Chapter_1.pdf
hile allowing an authoritarian voice to hold final sway over what is done may be least desirable, it may be necessary in a very spread-out group with many areas of expertise, or if the leader bears the brunt of the responsibility for the project and has greater knowledge of the different organizational factors involved.
There is no single perfect formula for forming a cohesive group, making decisions, and arguing in a constructive manner. The only rule that does hold fast and firm, regardless of the composition and authority structure of the group, good listening skills are necessary, as well balanced consideration of all sides of a debate. A healthy group, even a group dominated by a single leader, must not fall into groupthink, or create an environment where only a single opinion is considered valid, and dissent is not permitted.
Engleberg and ynn. orking in groups: Communication principles…
Engleberg and Wynn. Working in groups: Communication principles and strategies. 3rd ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.
Group Social Work: Nurturing Father's Program
The group investigated for this paper is the Nurturing Father's Program. I encountered the Nurturing Fathers Program while working for my state's child protective services division (DCFS). The NFP is an evidence-based, 13-week training course designed to teach parenting and nurturing skills to men. Each 2 1/2-hour class provides proven, effective skills for healthy family relationships and child development" (Nurturing Fathers, 2012). The goal of the program is to help men transform themselves into nurturing fathers by enabling cognitive, behavioral, and affective changes in the group participants. The NFP program has been used successfully in a wide variety of contexts, including, but not limited to schools, preschools, churches, government child-safety programs, and the military.
This particular NFP group meets at First Presbyterian Church, 270 Franklin Street, Quincy, MA on Tuesday evenings from 6:00pm to 8:30pm. There is no charge for participation, and group participants…
Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups, Inc. (2006). Standards for social work practice with groups. Alexandria, VA: AASWG, Inc.
Brandler, S., & Roman, C.P. (1999). Group work: skills and strategies for effective interventions. New York: Haworth Press.
Department of Children and Families. (2012). Report child abuse. Executive Office of Health
and Human Services website: http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/consumer/family-services/report-child-abuse.html
Individuals trust that agreement speaks something relating to the fact. Complying with the group norms hence fulfils our requirement relating to mastery. When individuals privately, show their compliance since they trust group norms represent fact, the group has the impact of information. At the time when the chances are high, individuals are more inspired to take correct decisions, and hence correspond even strongly. Going away from the agreement weaken the impact of the group. Additionally, it weakens confidence, and hence we could feel perplexed, apprehensive and ambiguous. (Smith; Mackie 315-319).
Norms accord us the feelings of linkage since compliance to group principles lead to achieving a positive as well as principled social identity and getting respect from the members of the other group. Compliance as such gives rise to encountering a view of belonging, and it indicates assurance to members of other groups. A group has positive impact at the…
AlRoomi, Dhari. The effect of Cohesion of Group Productivity. The MBA Journal. 23 February 2006. http://businessadministration.wordpress.com/2006/02/23/the-effect-of-cohesion-of-group-productivity/
Bostro, Alan; Bredemeier, Brenda Jo Light; Gardner, Douglas E; Shields, David Lyle Light. The Relationship between Leadership Behaviors and Group Cohesion in Team Sports. Journal of Psychology, vol. 131, no. 2, 1997. pp: 196-211.
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study. Health Education & Behavior, vol. 33, No. 5, 2006, pp: 677-689
Glass, Scott. J; Benshoff, James. M. Facilitating group cohesion among adolescents through challenge course experiences. The Journal of Experiential Education. Fall, 2002. vol. 26, no. 2, pp: 47-51.
Other than this, I would try to establish my own personal goals and objectives that are subordinated to group objectives. For example, I would try to establish very tight deadlines for the tasks assigned to me, because I work very well under pressure.
I would also try to establish a career path that I would follow in the future, determining medium term objectives for me to reach. Knowing where I want to be in my career would motivate me to achieve my full potential, and even to develop new skills and abilities that would help me advance in my career.
e. In large corporations, where there are hundreds or thousands of employees, many of them covering similar positions, it is difficult for the H department and top managers to establish a motivational system analyzing each individual in particular. As a consequence, H managers develop a motivational system that is generally…
1. Engleberg, I.N. & Wynn, D.R. (2007). Working in Groups: Communication Principles and Strategies. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
Different demographic groups also feel differently about the demographics of a group, and racial and gender differences can cause reduced efficacy for some individuals. Group size must also be considered.
Group cohesiveness is also another important factor in measuring group efficacy, though some cohesion can be detrimental to the group's purpose. The cohesive elements must support the group's states and intended purpose to be effective. Group development can also be studied; this perspective treats the group as an individual entity that changes over time, hopefully for the better. This concept is most useful to practitioners as a way of organizing the individual members of the group as far as their goals are concerned, and to draw their attention to the dynamics of the group, especially during times of group change.
Though empirical evidence is still difficult to come by when addressing group development, there is a general consensus in the…
In general, communication refers to the sharing of ideas by transmitting those ideas from at least one individual to at least one other individual. Communication can involve several different mediums: it includes verbal transmission of ideas, visual transmission of ideas, and it can involve both deliberate and unintentional or even unconscious transmission of ideas. Communication is not necessarily limited to same species either: individuals from different species often communicate using postures, mannerisms, and sounds that are universally associated with particular concepts, such as aggression and dominance or submission and fear, among many others.
What is the purpose of communication?
Communication has many different purposes. Most generally, it is intended to allow another individual to understand the state of mind of another individual. That state of mind may include myriad different ideas such as aggression, non-aggression, interest, non-interest, possessiveness over resources, and even deception, such as in the case of…
Skilss in Interpersonal, Group and Organizational Communications
The objective of this study is to examine interpersonal communication and spoken skills. This work will examine communication skills using the theories of Pragmatic Perspective, Psychological Perspective, Social Constructionist, and social responsibility theory. Trenholm (2008) states that communication "is very important to everyone. One form of communication that occurs among individuals is known as interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication is a term "reserved for two-person, face-to-face interaction and is often used interchangeably with the term dyadic communication."
Interpersonal Communication: Speaking and Listening Skills
Interpersonal communication can be understood as the interaction that takes place between individuals and concerns the deliver and receipt of information or a message. Involved in interpersonal communication are listening as well as nonverbal forms of communication and speaking. Listening is the capacity to both understand and provide appropriate response to what others are saying. Listening requires the evaluation of what…
Pearce, WB (nd) Communication and Social Construction: Claiming our Birthright. pp. 33-56 in Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz and Gloria Galanes (Eds). Socially Constructing Communication. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press. 2009.
Ramaraju, S. (nd) Psychological Perspective: Interpersonal Communication. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce. Retrieved from: http://www.researchersworld.com/vol3/issue4/vol3_issue4_2/Paper_09.pdf
Suresh, K. (nd) Theories of Communication CHAPTER 2: Retrieved from: http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesch/mass/mass2.html
Tips for Communication Skills with Groups. About Leaders. Retrieved from: http://www.aboutleaders.com/tips-for-communication-skills-with-groups/
Insomuch, Angela felt that she was being penalized because she worked from home. Although alph tried to explain that this was not the case, he was unsuccessful in conveying the real issue of missing a deadline. Consequently, the focus shifted to more of a personal nature because Angela felt unappreciated so they decided to reconvene to another meeting two weeks later.
Unfortunately, the meeting started with some hostility from Angela. She was very cold and nonresponsive to alph's questions regarding her well-being. Because Angela did not feel positive about the last exchange, she missed another meeting, plus she failed to submit a report. Her actions are labeled as passive aggressive because her lack of apathy has now transferred into a performance issue. With her constant interruptions and frustrations, Angela refuses to communicate and wants to resign. Clearly, conflict is an issue in which resolution is needed in the form of…
Communication for Organizations. (2010). Communication process: The basics. Retrieved from http://communicationprocess.net/
Jehn, K.A., Greer, L., Levine, S., & Szulanski, G. (2008). The Effects of conflict types, dimensions, and emergent states on group outcomes. Group Decision & Negotiation, 17(6), 465-495. doi:10.1007/s10726-008-9107-0
Mind Tools. (2012). Active listening: Hear what people are really saying. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm
Mind Tools. (2012). Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm
The maintenance roles help to support the creative side, which is a task that can be high risk at times (Benne & Sheats, 1978). The work that the junior members do in providing support to the creatives while simultaneously challenging them to develop stronger ideas is one of the reasons that the shop's output is so highly regarded.
This group has a significant amount of trust. The different members have built this trust over the course of years and multiple projects. ith this trust, however, they are able to be stronger, in particular with task roles. Assumptions are challenged frequently, in particular with regards to the outcomes sought by the customers. The group views this is value added to the customer, by refining a vague customer concept into something that is actionable for the advertising firm.
The high level of trust that the group members have in one another allows…
Baltes, B.; Dickson, M.; Sherman, M.; Bauer, C.; LaGanke, J. (2002). Computer-mediated communication and group decision-making: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Vol. 87 (1) 156-179.
Benne, K & Sheats, P. (1978) Shared experiences in human communication: Functional roles of group members. Hayden Publishing.
Communication and Perception Processes
Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions
Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Barriers / Noise
Environmental noise- physical noise
Semantic noise- noise in encoding process
Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages
Physical context- environmental factors
Psychological context- mental and emotional factors
Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
Carey, J. (Unk). "A cultural approach to communication." Communication as culture.
Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Northern Illinois University website: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/gunkel/coms465/carey.html
"Communication and Perception Processes." (Unk.) In, A primer on communication studies, pp.
1-21. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Lardbucket website: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/a-primer-on-communication-studies/s01-02-the-communication-process.html
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…
Bond, J. (2007, December). Training in a diverse environment. Canadian HR
Reporter, 20(21), 19, 26. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global
through ProQuest (Document ID: 1410548371).
Brett, Jeanne, Kristin Behfar, & Mary C. Kern. (2006, November). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 84-91. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global through ProQuest (Document ID: 1151916931).
acism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.
I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.
Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this…
Bohmer, P., 1998, Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality, Available at:
Effective Communication Skills, 2009, Available at: http://www.maximumadvantage.com/
Horton, J, 2008, Why Looking Different Upsets Many People: Evolution, Available at:
This, perhaps, has made me more of an avid listener that is eager to appreciate what others have got to say rather than being a high decibel demagogue that would neither brook any resistance nor would tolerate any dissidence, however mild that may be.
Thus, the very essence of communication, which is nothing but a means of encouraging and stimulating others to share their views while attempting to skillfully shepherd them to veer around towards the speaker's perspectives, and the form it would finally acquire, is heavily influenced by the speaker's personal behavioral traits.
Listening as a Potent Tool for Effective Communication
We must have heard numerous times the exhortation, "Listen carefully, I don't want repeat myself," in some form or the other but in our excessive eagerness to make ourselves heard, we have ignored such requests and pleas and put an unceremonious end to many a potentially enriching communication.…
Carbonell, M. (2005). Extreme personality makeover: How to develop a winning Christ-like personality to improve your effectiveness! . Blue Ridge, GA: Uniquely You Resources.
Donahue, M.C. (1996, December 1). How active is your listening? (communication technique; includes advice for managing anger) . Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader Publication, pp. 23-25.
Frisk, B. (2007, May 11). Effective Listening a Forgotten Art That Can Open Many Doors. Daily Herald, p. 12.
Madrigal, D., & McClain, B. (2001, August). The secret of active listening. Tactical Response, pp. 50-52.
The Application of Five Communication Theories
There are countless communication theories, with each one looking at a different aspect of communication or looking at communication in a new way. The number of theories that exist raises the question of how they can be used to understand communication. The answer is that every communication is complicated, with one single theory not being enough to understand every communication completely. For this reason, various theories can be applied to various situations, with each one helping us to understand something about the communication. To consider how real situations can be analyzed, five communication theories will be described. Each one will then be applied to a real situation to show how the theory helps create understanding of the communication events and processes that make up human life.
Theory of Feminine Style
The theory of feminine style argues that the difference in the way that…
Dow, B.J. & Tonn, M.B. "Feminine Style and Political Judgment in the Rhetoric of Ann Richards." Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(1993), 286-302.
McLuhan, M. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Men. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
Employees become frustrated and develop negative views concerning management. Any animosity that the employee may exhibit could result in workplace violence. If employees are terminated or laid off under such conditions, resentment could lead to violence (Chenier 1998)." stressful work environment can also lead to poor service and customer dissatisfaction (aner 1995). In severe cases, problems communicating in the workplace can lead to the demise of a business or enterprise. Therefore, it is vitally important that workplace communications problems are addressed in a timely and appropriate manner. Over the next few paragraphs, we will discuss how communication problems in the workplace can be resolves.
Resolving Communications Problems in the orkplace
Stoppler (2005) explains that problems communication in the workplace will always exist to some extent. Therefore, managers and employees alike must find ways to resolve these conflicts. The author argues there are ten ways that communication problems in the workplace…
Brownell, J. (1994). Managerial listening and career development in the hospitality industry. Journal of the International Listening Association, 8, 31-49.
Carmichael, K. (1996). Conceptualizing Business Communication. The Journal of Business Communication, 33(3), 327+. Retrieved Chenier E. (1998) the Workplace: A Battleground for Violence. Public Personnel Management. Page Number: 557.
Cooper, L.O. (1997). Listening Competency in the Workplace: A Model for Training. Business Communication Quarterly, 60(4), 75+..
Communication in a Nursing Environment
This research paper deals with the subject of ensuring effective communication between nursing staff, their patients, and the patient's family. It is proposed that understanding and utilizing body language would be an effective way for a nurse to improve communication.
The nature of communication and of the importance of body language in the communication process was researched, with a focus on how this can be used to assist in communication. ased on the research, it is seen that body language can be used by nursing staff to ensure they send the right message to patients and their families and also to ensure the real message and the real state of patients can be understood.
From the research and its application to nursing and the environment of nursing, it can be seen that body language could be an effective tool in improving communication processes. In turn,…
Ashcroft, Norman & Scheflen, Albert. (1976). Human Territories: How We Behave in Space-Time. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Bolton, Robert. (1987). People Skills. Roseville: Simon and Schuster.
Carnegie, Dale. (1981). How To Win Friends and Influence People. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Friedrich, G.W., O'Hair, D., Wiemann, J.M., & Wiemann, M.O. (1995). Competent Communication. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Effective written communication is necessary in a number of different situations. In the first section of this paper, I discuss my areas of personal weakness in written communication. Those areas include improving my tone and voice, understanding my audience's point-of-view, and improving my self-confidence. Effective persuasive communication depends on rhetorical strategies like pathos, ethos, and logos. In the second section of this paper, I suggest how to solve a specific problem using effective written communication.
Whether dealing with a casual conversation with a friend about the need for sidewalks to improve community safety, an email to a boss proposing a new safety procedures, or an academic persuasive essay about the community's need for a free spay/neuter program, I will need to know how to communicate effectively. Effective written communication depends on choosing the most effective tone, voice, and style for each situation. One of the three aspects of my…
"Basic Rhetoric and Writing Strategy," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.wpi.edu/Images/CMS/Diversity/Basic_Rhetoric_and_Writing_Strategy.pdf
Pepper, M., Brizee, A. & Angeli, E. (n.d.). Visual rhetoric: Analyzing visual documents. Retrieved online: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/725/
"What is Effective Writing Communication," (n.d.). Your Dictionary. Retrieved online: http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/style-and-usage/what-is-effective-writing-communication.html
Communication in organizations includes all the means, both formal and informal, by which information is passed up, down, and across the network of managers and workers in a business. These various types of communication may be used to distribute official information between workers and management, to trade hearsay and rumors, or anything in between. The dispute for businesses is to control these countless communications so they serve to advance customer relations, encourage employee satisfaction, build knowledge-sharing all through the organization, and most significantly, improve the firm's competitiveness (Communication in Organizations, 2012).
Communication is one of the most prevailing and important activities in organizations. Basically, relationships grow out of communication, and the functioning and survival of organizations is based on effectual relationships amid individuals and groups. Additionally organizational capabilities are developed and carried out through intensely social and communicative processes. Communication helps people and groups manage activities to attain goals, and…
Aul, P. & Siira, K. (2010). Organizational Communication and Conflict Management
Systems. Nordicom Review, 31(1), p. 125-141.
Berger, B.K. (2008). Employee/Organizational Communications. Retrieved from http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/employee-organizational-communications/
Boesky, J. (2011). Active Listening. Retreived from http://www.johnboesky.com/activelistening.php
This is exacerbated by the problem that Carmen is close friends with the owner Kenneth. Kenneth has a similar conflict management style to Carmen. He can be extremely nice when dealing with people casually, but whenever a problem arises like Carmen he makes excuses, avoids the problem, tries to pass it on to someone else, or resorts to texting or faxing messages rather than confronting complaints. Their favorite 'nonverbal' communication strategy is simply not being there.
A failure to listen is one of the most common workplace communication problems. "When people or groups are in conflict, communication between them tends to get worse and worse. As a conflict escalates, people limit their direct contact with people on the other side, because such conflict is uncomfortable or threatening….Eventually all direct communication between parties may be cut off. Sometimes, communication is cut off in protest" (Lack of communication channels/avoided communication, 2005, OTPIC).…
Craig, Suzanne. (2012). What restaurants know (about you). The New York Times. Retrieved:
Lack of communication channels/avoided communication. (2005). Online Training Program
on Intractable Conflict (OTPIC). Retrieved:
This second violent incident forced Stoops to take a harder stand against one of his most popular players and suspend him."
Sooners used a crisis management plan to deal with the university's decision, in an effort to prevent bad publicity for the school and the team (Forde, 2004). The following describes how the university handled the crisis the day before it hit the newsstands. In the early afternoon, OU issued a release saying that it had suspended Dvoracek indefinitely and replaced him as captain. The action had been implemented by coach Bob Stoops a few days earlier, but it wasn't made public until the day before the weekend Oregon game.
The school was prepared for the news to create a major rise across the state, starting with the evening newscasts (Forde, 2004). However, the situation did not end there, with the university's release and a canned statement from Stoops. In…
Fink, S. (1986) Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable, American Management Association, New York.
Forde, Pat. (September 22, 2004). Teamwork the key during a crisis. ESPN.com. Retreived from the Internet at http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?columnist=forde_pat&page=program/crisis .
Hessert, Kathleen. (1997). How to Prepare PR Professionals for the Dennis Rodman's and Michael Irvin's of Sports. International Sports Summit. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/nl/crisismgr000701.html .
Hoffman, Judith. (1999). Keeping Cool on the Hot Seat. Four C's Publishing Co.
Communication -- Gender and Communication
The parameters of gender have undergone a dramatic expansion through the efforts of Science and enlightened feminists such as Nancy Mairs. Their contributions allow a multitude of genders and new definitions that account for the richness of human sexuality. As a result, femininity can be defined in the broadest and richest terms as a set of psychological traits unconstrained by classically masculine and feminine boundaries.
"Femininity" is best defined as sensitivity and awareness, a firm set of psychological traits that is not reflected in behavior. Actions are not masculine or feminine, but approaches to them are masculine or feminine. The classically oppressive confinement of "normal" gender to male and female is no longer viable, for humanity exists in a far greater array of sexual characteristics than genitals can distinguish or dictate. Anne Fausto-Sterling offers many examples of Science's growing acceptance of broad gender range, reaching…
Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. Retrieved on February 19, 2013 from www.uta.edu Web site: http://www.uta.edu/english/timothyr/Fausto-Sterling.pdf
Mairs, N. (1986). Plaintext essays by Nancy Mairs. Tucson, AZ: University of Airzona Press.
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from: http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/publications/indonesia-baseline-study.pdf
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704229
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703998
El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=727
Group Motivation Inventory
Motivation can be defined as the various ways used to make people or a group of people to become more interested and committed to their work. Scholars' termed motivation to be more of sociological and psychological concept as it is relying on human behavior and how they relate to one another. Group motivation is an important aspect in group dynamics since most groups purely rely on motivation to be able to work together efficiently Xiangli, Solmon, Tao, & Ping, 2011.
Motivation can be derived from various things and because of that, each and every group member derive his/her motivation from different sources, which without their, existence results in differences in attitude and contribution levels to the group's projects or tasks. In the recent group motivation assessment, we carried out, I got to discover how I view group participation and some of the issues that affect both mine…
Amiot, C.E., & Sansfacon, S. (2011). Motivations to identify with social groups: A look at their positive and negative consequences. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 15(2), 105-127. doi: 10.1037/a0023158
Elliot, A.J., & Dweck, C.S. (2005). Handbook of Competence and Motivation: Guilford Press.
Lewis, T. (2011). Assessing social identity and collective efficacy as theories of group motivation at work. [Article]. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(4), 963-980. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2011.555136
Xiangli, G.U., Solmon, M.A., Tao, Z., & Ping, X. (2011). Group Cohesion, Achievement Motivation, and Motivational Outcomes among Female College Students. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23(2), 175-188.
News Reporting on Crimes, Corruption, and worsening Economic Conditions:
News channels also telecast detailed reports on crimes, corruption, political instability, and worsening conditions of economies. General public, which is already in a miserable condition due to a stressful life further gets into tensions and worries due to such type of information. These reports present a very weird picture of what is happening around the world. All this creates an atmosphere of restlessness, anxiety, and depression among the general public (Kraut & Attewell).
Impacts of Information overload on Investors:
Investing in a particular asset, organization, or industry is such a decision which requires a comprehensive and careful analysis of the relevant facts and figures. Generally, investors look at the industry trends over the last few years in a view to anticipate the attractiveness and potential of their investment. Now-a-days, there are various sources through which they can obtain this information. But…
Bondarouk, Tanya. Handbook of research on e-transformation and human resources management technologies: organizational outcomes and challenges. Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2009. Print. (412)
Costigan, Sean & Perry, Jake. Cyberspaces and global affairs. Burlington: Ashgate Publishers, 2012. Print. (p. 319)
Eppler, Martin. Managing information quality: increasing the value of information in knowledge-intensive products and processes. New York: Springer, 2006. (p. 2)
Kraut, Robert & Attewell, Paul. Media Use in a Global Corporation: Electronic Mail and Organizational Knowledge. 6 July 1996. Web. 16 March 2012.
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.
Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
8 (1): 247-63.
Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press
Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Leung, K., et.al. (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.
Levinson, W., et.al. (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills…
Communication Studies. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
Because they ignored those concerns and chose to save a very small amount of money, they ended up costing their organization much more money for placing an entirely new advertisement that reflected the additional wording that the two team members had originally tried to propose.
On a much smaller scale, this is precisely the same thing that happened on the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform: namely, junior-level team members expressed specific concerns to management; those concerns were ignored and further contribution of those team members discouraged by management. Ultimately, the organization suffered exactly the type of harm those team members had envisioned and it cost the organization much more than the relatively inexpensive fixes that would have been recommended by the dissenting team members if their opinions had been take more seriously by management.
Barsa, M. And Dana, D.A. "Learning from Disaster: Lessons for the Future from the Gulf…
Barsa, M. And Dana, D.A. "Learning from Disaster: Lessons for the Future from the Gulf
of Mexico." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 38(2) 2011: 219-
Charvatova, D. And van der Veer, C.G. "Communication and Human Resource
Management and its Compliance with Culture." International Journal of Human
COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL -- PIESTLEY'S PAADOX
Introduction to Priestley's Paradox
According to Priestley's Paradox, there may be an inverse relationship between the quality of communications and the complexity and variety of modern methods of communication (Hodge 1993, 4; Eunson 2008, 17). More specifically, Priestley suggested that the richest and most effective means of communications is the process of face-to-face verbal communication between two individuals. Every additional variable, such as adding more individuals to the communications chain or introducing artificial technological mechanism necessarily reduces the quality and accuracy of the communications process. In principle, therefore, direct face-to-face communications between two people is more effective than direct, face-to-face communications among larger groups of individuals. Likewise, face-to-face communications are preferable to telephonic communications, written communications, and other forms of remote communications (Hodge 1993, 6; Eunson 2008, 18).
Applying Priestley's Paradox to the Educational Environment
Priestley's Paradox is more relevant to the contemporary educational…
Allen, J (Ed) 2004, Sociology of Education: Policies and Practice, 3rd ed. Thomson
Learning, Australia, Victoria
Dufficy, P 2005, Designing Learning for Diverse Classrooms. Primary English Teaching
Elaborate on the factors that are important to ensure communication is effective and efficient in the workplace.
There are many factors that are critically important to ensure communication is accurate, efficient and effective throughout a workplace, with the larger the enterprise, the more critical these factors becoming. First and most important are shared expectations (Jones, George, 2007), trust, and a focus on shared objectives. Many studies indicate of these three factors, trust is the single greatest catalyst of communication within and between groups and within teams. Additional factors that are critically important for ensuring communication effectiveness and efficiency include a common lexicon or language (Jones, George, 2007). In many industries the reliance highly specific acronyms, concepts and terms are an approach to simplify and streamline communication through each sector of an industry and its value chain. Of the many disagreements companies have internally and externally that have as…
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
Jones, Gareth, & George, Jennifer. (2007). Essentials of contemporary management . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.;.
Nold, H.. (2011). Merging Knowledge Creation Theory with the Six-Sigma Model for Improving Organizations: The Continuous Loop Model. International Journal of Management, 28(2), 469-477.
Additional research showed that those who were frequently exposed to these movies were also inclined to develop risk-taking behavior (Greene and Kromar).
Vulnerable young women who had long-term exposure to sexually objectifying media could suffer from decreased self-esteem, according to another study (Aubrey 2006). A group of 149 female undergraduates in a big mid-Western university was surveyed for their responses after having been exposed to such media. The study revealed that the exposure could dent their global self-esteem if they already possessed the vulnerability to these media materials. An example is Seventeen Magazine, which is an example of a sexually objectifying medium (Aubrey).
The media are an effective instrument of war (Payne 2005). Recent conflicts clearly demonstrate that the transmission of information plays a significant part in warfare. Winning a war is considered as decisive as actually beating the enemy at the battlefield. Winning the medial war is, therefore, a…
Aubrey, J. S, (2006). Exposure to Sexually Objectifying Media and Body Self-Perceptions Among College Women.16 pages. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Springer
Greene, K.and Kromar, M. (2005). Predicting Exposure to, and Liking of, Media Violence. 17 pages. Communication Studies: Central States Speech Association
Holts, S. (2005). Establishing Connections. 2 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Kariithi, N. (2007). Connecting the Continent. 4 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
The one that was the most successful would receive more focus. This means that the strategy will concentrate on what area will most effectively increase sales. Therefore, it will involve the elements of: advertising and public relations activities.
When you step back and analyze this part of the strategy, it is clear that it will give the best results for AC Online ooks. The reason why is because, it is determining what approach will have the greatest impact on the company's bottom line. Once this takes place, it will allow the business, to most effectively target their media strategy.
Clearly, AC Online ooks has a unique approach that could allow them to revolutionize the sale of online literature (through their free shipping within 24 hours policy). However, to determine the best strategy for effectively promoting the site requires identify the target audience. In this case, this would involve: every age…
Heibieng, Roman. The One Day Marketing Plan. New York: McGraw Hill, 2004. Print.
Trehan, Mukesha. "Media Planning and Scheduling." Advertising and Sales Management. New Delhi: VK Publishers, 2007. 140. Print.
Communication & News Framing - Case Study of the U.S. & China Standoff of 2001
An event is a fact. It happens. People witness it. People talk about it. People report it. In today's world, the even t may be recorded for posterity in a variety of ways. It may be capture on videotape. It may be captured in the voice recordings of an airplane's "black box." It may be tracked line by line through a printed transcript that contains the exact words of the participants. ecorded. Exact. Fact. We associate these words with what we read in newspapers, hear on the radio, or see on television. We assume that the news, as it is reported, is wholly truthful and accurate, but is it? Is the reportage of real-world events by the "unbiased" media free from the filters through which we all observe and analyze the world around us? Children…
Dzur, A.W. (2002). Public Journalism and Deliberative Democracy. Polity, 34(3), 313+.
FM Spokesman Gives Full Account of Air Collision." (4 April 2001). The People's Daily. URL: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/home.html .
Rosenthal, Elisabeth; and Sanger, David E. (2 April 2001).
More specifically, because the potential for miscommunication, misunderstanding, and pejorative or other negative interpretations is so much greater in remote communications especially through email (SHM, 2010), the implications of failure to establish trust remotely are even greater. As Yoong (2009) points out, that is largely a function of the fact that genuineness in expressions of cultural awareness and sensitivity (as opposed to patronizing or otherwise insincere) expressions is absolutely crucial.
Sincerity and genuineness are much more difficult to communicate effectively in impersonal communications media (SHM, 2010; Yoong, 2009). Therefore, appropriate expressions and other manifestations of cultural awareness and sensitivity are most appropriately communicated to virtual working groups via two-way video conferencing instead of other less personal methods of communications, notwithstanding the substantive sufficiency or factual accuracy of those expressions in writing, for example (SHM, 2010;Yoong, 2009).
This project relies primarily on a review of secondary research in the…
Douglas, C. And Zivnuska, S. "Developing trust in leaders: an antecedent of firm performance." SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of Management. 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-177101798.html
George, J.M. And Jones G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Maxwell, J.C. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Rules of Leadership. Georgia: Maxwell
Group Behavoirs in Companies
Group Behaviors in Companies
There are so many different companies that have embraced executive coaching and mentoring as their principal way to support development creativities in hospital settings. However in today's corporate world these do not talk to the real-world, group dynamics that managers have to deal with. Behavior within a group in a hospital setting can be manipulated by group dynamics, interactions, group cohesiveness, the work environment, social influences, and leadership. This paper will explore each of these components of group behavior in the interior of an organization such as a hospital.
Defining Group Behaviors
Group Behavior can be described as, conditions that enable groups of people to have interaction rather it be large or small group settings. These individuals collaborating among each other may appear to coordinate their behavior by performing in a certain way that will bring them to a design that differs…
Alam, M., Gale, A., Brown, M., & Khan, A.I. (2010). The importance of human skills in project management professional development. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 3(3), 495-495-516. doi:10.1108/17538371011056101
Appelbaum, S.H. (1984). The organizational climate audit ... Or how healthy is your hospital. Journal of Healthcare Management, 29(1), 51-51.
Bradshaw-Camball, P. (1989). The implications of multiple perspectives on power for organizational development. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 25(1), 31-31.
Costigan, R.D., Insinga, R.C., Berman, J.J., & Ilter, S.S. (2005). An examination of the relationship of a western performance-management process to key workplace behaviours in transition economies. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 22(3), 255-255-267.
Communication in Organizations
Define organizational culture and provide analysis of organizational culture relating to role, power, people and task culture as discussed by Charles B. Handy (1994) "Understanding Organizations"
Organizational culture is many things including the values and behaviors an organization and its members adopt to create the environment in which they work. esearchers have struggled for decades to define organizational culture as one thing or another. They have also worked diligently to define what skills or components are necessary to promote a successful 'culture' within an organization. To understand how organizational culture can benefit any enterprise one must first define organizational culture.
Organizational culture is defined differently depending on who you talk to. There are several consensus opinions however about what organizational culture includes. Organizational culture includes the morals, values, beliefs and strategies a firm and its employees or managers adopt to conduct business successfully (Bonache & Cabrera, 1999).…
Bonache, J., Cabrera, E.F. (1999). "An expert HR system for aligning organizational culture and strategy." Human Resources Planning, 22(1): 51.
Handy, C.B. (1994). Understanding Organizations. New York: Penguin.
Hansen, D.A. (2005 -- March). "Total Quality Management." Available:
Communication Management and Organizational Change
Communication management in the organization and most specifically in the organizational change environment is critically important. The work of Heathfield entitled "Communication in Change Management" state that it is impossible to "over-communicate when you are asking your organization to change." (2011, p.1) According to Heathfield, there are four critical components of effective communication as follows:
(1) The person sending the message must ensure that the message is presented clearly with great detail and that the message be perceived as containing integrity and that the message be authentic;
(2) The individual reading the message must make the decision to listen and to ask questions to ensure clarity and finally must trust the message's sender;
(3) The method of delivery must be chosen as appropriate for the context and for the needs of the sender and receiver of the message;
(4) The message content must resonate and…
Albrecht, Karl G. The Northbound Train. N.Y.: AMACON, 1994.
Blake, R. And Mouton J. Corporate Excellence Through Grid Organizational Development. Houston, 1968 Gulf Publishing Co.
Cohen, Eli and Tichy, Noel. "How Leaders Develop Leaders" in Training in Development. May 1997 pp. 58-73
DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resources Management, 37, 295-303. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from the LIRN, ProQuest database.
From the experiences, I have had in organizations that work to combine autonomy, mastery and purpose, the level of performance goes up and becomes the new norm of corporate performance. The many studies of motivation underscore that when autonomy, mastery and purpose are combined, long-term learning and motivation occur (amsey, 2010). The communication networks and channels within organizations are accentuated and made more effective when these three attributes become the foundation of long-term learning and growth over time.
In conclusion, the culture, incentive, and leadership within a given organization have a major impact on the effectiveness of communication networks and channels within organizations. When there is a transformational mindset about aggregating content, data and information then transforming it from a system of record to competitive advantage, companies can use their expertise to compete more effectively. In many respects, this ability to compete more effectively based on better use of information…
Andriole, S. (2010). Business Impact of Web 2.0 Technologies. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(12), 67.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Billington, C., & Davidson, R.. (2010). Using knowledge brokering to improve business processes. The McKinsey Quarterly,(2), 110.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
This became a major roadblock for the project with opposing views on the problem.
Finally, the manager spoke to the client and explained the situation. They agreed to extend the due date by a couple of months and the developers and testers felt that time was good enough to make the changes. So, communication helped to clear this stand-off between the team members.
Leadership style of the manager
The manager followed a democratic style of leadership. According to Daft (2007, p.44), "A democratic leader delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates' knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence." This is the exact approach that was followed by my manager and it proved to be effective. He could manage the entire project and could communicate easily with those located in different parts of the world.
Such a style of leadership was comfortable for all…
Daft, Richard. L. (2007). The Leadership Experience. Publication: Cengage Learning.
Hartley, Peter. Bruckmann, Clive. G. (2002). Business Communication. Publication: Psychology Press.
Often, in fact, there can be an overabundance of communication without any effective organization or leveraging of the information thus obtained, which can lead to serious detriments to any organization or endeavor (Lager 2006). It is bad enough when one arm of an organization doesn't seem to know what the other is doing, but the problem seems somehow conceptually worse when the various arms have information regarding the rest of the organization, but don't utilize it. This is, unfortunately, partly occurring in my organization, and is also an issue I need to deal with personally as I incorporate the organization's goals and actions into my own thinking and methods.
This concept of the correct processing and utilization of information goes further than simply making the organization run more efficiently on an internal level. Especially as new regions of the world are becoming increasingly important for business, the use of communication…
Fitzgerald, Neil. (2006). "Mind the gap." Information week 28 August, pp. 8.
Friedrich, N. (2008). "Disparate solutions work to fill communications gap." Microwaves & RF 47(6), pp. 44.
Lager, M. (2006). "Overcoming a bear of a communications gap." Customer relations management 10(7), pp. 51.
Collaboration and Communication among different personality types can also be optimized by knowledge. The three personality types identified include the Thinker, the Organizer, and the Giver. Thinkers tend to reflect independently upon new information. They are good at analysis and abstract thinking, and devising new approaches to complex issues. The organizer in turn prefers clear, concrete task definitions in a structured, stable environment. They tend to carefully organize both their work and their schedules, and require feedback to ensure that they are on the right path. They are responsible and reliable and work well within social settings. The Giver enjoys studying with others, as well as teaching them. Their main aim is to be helpful to others, while also being honest and clear in expressing their feelings. They are also good at negotiation and aim to communicate openly.
In a group setting, these three personality types can work well together…
Next, the facilitator will pose an introductory question that will stimulate brainstorming by engaging students in the "why" of their involvement in the group (Bouassida et al., 2006). Next a transitory question will lead to examination of the problem at hand, where the members of the group attempt to answer key questions including (1) what is the foundation of the problem (2) what tools are available to solve the problem (3) what are the most probable outcomes of a problem given the information provided (Bouassida, et al., 2006).
Bouassida et al. (2006) provide the rationale for this protocol, suggesting it enables group members to participate in a manner that allows greater collaboration and verification of the results. This form of focus group enables each member to participate on an equivalent basis. The outcome will result in rapid resolution of complex problems including those presented in the future to students…
Bouassida, M.S., Chridi, N., Chrisment, I., Festor, O. & L. Vigneron. (2006, Jun).
Automatic verification of a key management architecture for hierarchical group protocols, in, Cuppens, F. And Debar, H., editors, 5th Conference on Security and Network Architectures.
CEISMC (2006). Focus Group Protocol, Center for Educational Integrating Science,
Mathematics and Computing at Georgia Tech College of Sciences. Retrieved October 18, 2007: http://www.ceismc.gatech.edu/MM_Tools/FGP.html
Groups, Networks, And Organizations
In daily situations and quite spontaneously, people formulate reference scales to which they attach sources and concepts or hierarchical preferences of individuals. Latitude of acceptance and latitude of rejection imply that an individual's attitude is determined by a margin in regards to either positions that individuals consider acceptable or those which are unacceptable to them. This is to say that people either accept or reject certain positions in a varying degree which depends on the source transmitting the information and what that information implies. It is considered that the more attached an individual is toward his/hers attitude, the wider the latitude of rejection becomes and the limited the latitude of acceptance is.
For example, suppose a family is struggling with their child's weight problem. Suppose as well their belief is that current food trends favor child obesity. As an issue of national concern, the latitude of…
Andersen, Kenneth E. Developments in Communication Ethics: The Ethics Commission, Code of Professional Responsibilities, Credo for Ethical Communication. Journal of the Association for Communication Administration 29 (2000): 131-144. Web. 30 Oct 2013.
Malone, Thomas W. The Future of Work: How the New Order of Business Will Shape Your Organization, Your Management Style, and Your Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press, 2004. Print.
Niederer, Sabine, and Van Dijck, Jose. Wisdom of the Crowd or Technicity of Content? Wikipedia as a Sociotechnical System. New Media and Society XX.X (2010): 1-19. Web. 30 Oct 2013.
Quan-Haase, Anabel, Cothrel, Joseph, and Wellman, Barry. Instant Messaging for Collaboration: A Case-Study of a High-Tech Firm. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10.4 (2005): 1-17. Web. 30 Oct 2013.
... Paents' expectations had a stong and positive diect effect on adolescents' expectations and indiect effects though school-based paental involvement and though students' high school involvement. (Tusty, 2002)
All in all, Afican-Ameican gils appeaed to be positively influenced in almost evey measue of achievement, if those desiable behavios wee einfoced by positive goup inteactions. Such a study pesents clea evidence that the psychology of the goup, and the assumptions made by society, play a lage and significant ole in shaping oppotunities fo Afican-Ameican women. Those who do not have the suppot of thei families, fiends, and educatos, will not eceive the encouagement necessay to make the pope choices in egad to caee. They will not pusue the education that is equied fo advancement to positions with highe eanings potential. Even moe likely, lacking sufficient encouagement, young Afican-Ameican gils will find themselves locked into unfulfilling "caees" that bing little in the…
references for Job Attributes Associated with Work and Family: A Longitudinal Study of Career Outcomes. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(5-6), 303+.
Phillips, S.D., & Imhoff, a.R. (1997). Women and Career Development: A Decade of Research. 31+.
Trusty, J. (2002). African-Americans' Educational Expectations: Longitudinal Causal Models for Women and Men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 332+.
The proposed merger between Riordan Manufacturing and JJJ Company is detailed in four company memorandum written from the perspective of the accounting department, and addressed to a select group of individuals as well as the committee responsible for the decision on moving forward with the acquisition. Each memo contains a review of material which ultimately leads to a recommendation on the feasibility of the venture. Yet, a review of these messages reveals writings which are poorly organized, composed, and incomplete.
How well did the communication convey the intended message?
The four memorandums convey the accounting department's viewpoint that the proposed merger between the two organizations would not be in the best interest of Riordan given the financial stability of the JJJ Company. The two memos which state this point most forcefully are the Ad Hoc Committee memo and the Mark, Sales Manager memo. The main concern however, is…
Zeff & Higby (2002) also point out that respect is a common feature enhancing communication within teams. Therefore, quiet members can be encouraged to participate more readily in the informal and supportive team environment than they might in a group environment.
A diverse workplace benefits especially well from teamwork because of the enhanced communication potential. Moreover, minority voices are more likely to be acknowledged within the respect-oriented setting of a team. The team has no choice but to work together to achieve goals meaningful to each individual. In the group, individuals only care about their own performance. The motivation to help others in the group is low, and the desire to seek help by expressing concerns is also low especially when some members of the group are domineering. Quiet members of a group will feel dominated by the more aggressive ones ("Teams & Groups" 1996). This is especially true when…
"Differences between Work Groups and Teams." (nd). For Dummies. Retrieved May 3, 2010 from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/differences-between-work-groups-and-teams.html
"Teams & Groups." (1996). Retrieved May 3, 2010 from http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/MECD/gf1.html
Zeff, L.E. & Higby, M.A. (2002). Teaching more than you know. Academic Exchange Quarterly 6(3). Retrieved May 3, 2010 from http://www.rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/6jan2118j2.htm
In a study entitled Lost on the Web: Does Web Distribution Stimulate or Depress Television Viewing?, it was found out that Web distribution of TV programs positively influenced the overall viewing of TV network programming (Waldfogel, 2007). A joint poll by America Online and the Associated Press reports that 80% of their respondents say that their TV viewing habits remain unchanged despite having consumed online videos. It can be inferred, therefore, that Web distribution of network material can actually become a form of free advertising.
ESACH QUESTIONS and HYPOTHESES
The review of the literature and the study framework lead to the following research questions: Does downloading or online viewing of shows play a role in the TV viewing habits of University students? What are the motivations that drive these students who prefer online downloading and viewing over watching shows aired in cable TV?
It is likewise the review of the…
Allen, D. (2007, August). Top 10 Video Sharing sites. PC World Magazine.
Aughton, S. (2005, October 11). P2P activity doubles in two years. PC Pro. Downloaded at http://www.pcpro.co.uk/news/78525/p2p-activity-doubles-in-two-years.html
CIO Online magazine. (2005, October). June Statistics Reveal Online Video Popularity. Downloaded at http://18.104.22.168/cmo/metrics/viewmetric.cfm?METRIC=866
Foulke, N. (2000, December). The history of Napster (a quick and dirty version). The Bi-College News Online. Downloaded at http://www.biconews.com/article/view/3390
The Power of Communication in Organizations
The unifying dynamic of all successful organizations is communication. The foundational elements of all successful collaboration, coordination and the synchronization of complex systems and tasks are predicated on a multifaceted and well-integrated communications network across an enterprise (Smeltzer, Glab, Golen, 1983). The highest performing organizations often have the most agile, open and knowledge-rich networks of their industries, making tacit and explicit knowledge easily shared across the entire ecosystem (Huseman, Alexander, Driver, 1980). When an organization's communication channels at the individual, group, division and corporate level are stifled or limited, productivity and eventually profitability will suffer. The upward and downward flows of communication within an organization determine the level of agility the company achieves as well (Huseman, Alexander, Driver, 1980). The goals of this analysis are to evaluate what happens in an organization when communication is limited, and second, how downward and upward communication…
Eisenberg, E.M., & Witten, M.G. (1987). Reconsidering openness in organizational communication. Academy of Management and the Academy of Management Review, 12(3), 418-418.
Huseman, R.C., Alexander, Elmore R., I.,II, & Driver, R.W. (1980). Planning for organizational change: The role of communication. Managerial Planning, 28(6), 32-32.
Nelissen, P., & Martine, v. S. (2008). Surviving organizational change: How management communication helps balance mixed feelings. Corporate Communications, 13(3), 306-318.
Smeltzer, L.R., Glab, J., & Golen, S. (1983). Managerial communication: The merging of business communication, organizational communication, and management. The Journal of Business Communication, 20(4), 71-71.
Week 2 DQ 2 -- Diversity is having a team comprised of heterogeneous members -- in physical characteristics, education, experience, outlook and other facets of being. Diversity brings a number of viewpoints to the workplace. In addition, it helps the company to better understand its customers if the workforce reflects the customer base. By opening up more markets within the general populace, diversity can increase the potential value of a firm by increasing its potential revenue streams. There are a number of strategies to increase diversity, including targeting recruiting, building better networks in specific communities and establishing mentorship programs that can encourage members of different communities to apply at the firm by improving the firm's employer brand within those communities.
Week 3 DQ 1 -- I was engaged in a field operation and my team faced enemy fire. Keeping the team together under such an adverse circumstance was partly the…
This value plays a key role in the manner with which the Eskimos interact with each other as well as with other people. This value is taught very early in the life of every Eskimo. In the article published by Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada (2006), this value was explained as, "this belief causes Inuit to often feel a certain degree of discomfort when exercising authority over other Inuit, even if the position they hold necessitates such authority." It is said that Eskimos are not very likely to welcome someone who is trying to direct them and their actions. This value that the Eskimos uphold, plays a crucial role in the way employers act with their Eskimo employees.
The value of leadership is also important to Eskimos. However, leadership is on a different level among Eskimos. Unlike the usual leader who delegates tasks to people, for the Eskimos, the leader…
Eskimo. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/192518/Eskimo
Alaska: History, Geography, Population, and State Facts. (2007). In Infoplease 2000-2007 Pearson Education. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Infoplease: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108178.html
Fienup-Riordan, a. (1990). Eskimo Essays: Yup'ik Lives and How We See Them. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
Fitzhugh, W. (2004). Eskimo. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/croads/eskimo.html#eskimo
Effective communications between doctors and nurses has always been a high priority in the medical field, especially in an arena such as a hospital, health clinic or hospice. Communicating effectively between the nurses and the doctors is especially important in a hospice setting due to the fact that the patient is usually suffering the most; both with the physical and the emotional pain and suffering that is being experienced as the patient nears death.
One recent study determined that "doctors and nurses have different but complementary roles in what, when and how treatment choices are negotiated with patients" (Mccullough, Mckinlay, Barthow, Moss, Wise, 2010, p. 482) and the treatment choices when facing death are decisions that should not be taken lightly, either by the involved nurses or the doctors. The decisions taking place in the hospice setting will often determine how much pain and suffering the patient will endure…
Basch, E.; (2010) The missing voice of patients in drug-safety reporting, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 362, Issue 10, pp. 865-869
Bezzina, A.J.; (2009) Prevalence of advance care directives in aged care facilities of the Northern Illawarra, Emergency Medicine Australia, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 379 -- 385
Byrnes, J.; Braden, J.; James, G.; Broadus, T.; Owen, R.; (2011) Implementing an electronic medical record (EMR) in an integrated delivery system Sharp Healthcare (SHC) San Diego, California, accessed on September 25, 2011 at http://proceedings.amia.org/1alo2n/
David, S.E.; Ahmed, Z.; Salek, M.S.; Finlay, A.Y.; (2005) Does enough quality of life related discussion occur during dermatology outpatient consultations? The Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 153, pp. 997 -- 1000