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The stick was federal prosecution carrying long sentences with no parole in faraway prisons; the carrot was meetings where offenders were offered help getting shelter, job training and education. In many instances, individuals revert to gun violence when they believe themselves to be at a point of no hope (Chapman, 2006). The action plan therefore, will focus on providing job training, and education to allow individuals to become better members of society. This ultimately will reduce their reliance on weaponry as they now have "something to lose." Another incentive would be to heavily reward those who tip on illegal firearms or the belief an individual will use a firearm in an inappropriate manner. This approach would not only produce more arrests of felons and teens but also strongly discourage them from carrying weapons (Baker, 2004). The incentive in this instance is twofold. One, those who are aware of illegal action…
1. Ozanne-Smith, J;, K Ashby, S Newstead, VZ Stathakis and a Clapperton. "Firearm related deaths: the impact of regulatory reform." Prevention 2004;10:190-286.
2. Chapman, S;, Alpers, P., Agho, K. And Jones, M. "Australia's 1996 gun law reforms: faster falls in firearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without mass shootings." Injury Prevention 2006; 12:365-372.
3. Mouzos, Jenny; & Reuter, P (2002). Ludwig J & Cook PJ, ed. Australia: a massive buyback of low-risk guns. Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence. The Brookings Institution, Washington.
4. Baker, Jeanine; & McPhedran, Samara (2006-10-18). "Gun Laws and Sudden Death: Did the Australian Firearms Legislation of 1996 Make a Difference?." British Journal of Criminology (3): 455
Cost enefit Analysis (CA) is the method with the help of which the answer to the question of "did the spending serve its purpose?" is obtained. It is an analytical process of measuring the utility of an interventional process or ways and methods of reaching and objective. In the domain of crime prevention, the programs carried out are subjected to this analysis among others by the Australian government and others to look at the efficacy of the designed and implemented policies. Amongst the first in the world to put the policies through this rigor are the governments of American and United Kingdom. In Australia, the method has been seen to make inroads in recent times and is not as prevalent as in the aforementioned countries (Dossetor, 2011).
To cite an example, Gun control in the United States has been an issue of debate for quite some…
Beder, S. (2002).Costing the Earth: Equity, Sustainable Development and Environmental Economics. New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law, 4, 227-243. Retrieved from http://www.uow.edu.au/~sharonb/esd/equity.html
Cohen, M.A., & Miller, T.R. (1998).The cost of mental health care for victims of crime. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13, 93-100.
Cohen, M.A. (2000). Measuring the costs and benefits of crime and justice, in LaFree G, Measurement and analysis of crime and justice. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice
Cohen, M.A., Rust, R.T., Steen, S., & Tidd, S.T. (2004).Willingness to- pay for crime control programs. Criminology, 42(1), 89-109
Public Administration: Gun Laws
The disturbing images of distraught children and staff members at the Sandy Hook Elementary School scampering for safety as a gunman who had calmly made his way into the school compound shot indiscriminately, killing 26 innocent persons, among them 20 children are still vivid, almost three years after the incident. This was not even the first incident of mass gun violence in the country -- approximately 36 similar mass shooting incidences were reported nation-wide between 1997 and 2000. According to a 2014 report on the state of gun policy by the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, approximately 70% of homicides committed in 2011, the latest year for which statistics are available, involved a firearm; and more than 100,000 persons fall victim to gunshot wounds every year. In the past, numerous policies directed at regulating gun use, possession, and commerce, have been enacted at the federal…
GAO. (2012). Gun Control: Sharing Promising Practices and Assessing Incentives could Better Position Justice to Assist States in Providing Records for Background Checks. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). Retrieved 12 November 2014 from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/592452.pdf
Goss, K.A. (2006). Disarmed: The Missing Movement for Gun Control in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kates, D.B. & Mauser, G. (2007). Would Banning Firearms Reduce Murder and Suicide? Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 30(2), 649-694.
Kwon, I.G., Scott, B., Safranski, S.R. & Bae, M. (2010). The Effectiveness of Gun-Control Laws: Multivariate Statistical Analysis. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 56(1), 41-50.
In the U.S., people have a Constitutional right to bear arms. This right is protected by the Second Amendment, which states that “a well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.” While the justification for the Second Amendment may seem outdated to some, it is honored and celebrated by others who believe that part of what makes America unique among other countries in the world is that its citizens have never been denied the right to bear arms. Indeed, among all modern nations, the U.S. stands out for its gun laws for a number of reasons. Compared to England, where guns are banned, the U.S. is practically the Wild West, where virtually anyone can get a gun it seems. While that is not exactly true, as there are a number of checks that are in…
References from https://www.forbes.com/sites/paulhsieh/2018/03/20/any-study-of-gun-violence-should-include-how-guns-save-lives/#6ae1ade65edc
NRA. (2014). Gun laws. Retrieved from https://www.nraila.org/gun-laws/state-gun-laws/
U.S. Constitution Amend. II.
hile sweeping gun laws are required to improve America's issue of gun violence, evidence from Obama's attempts suggest that only gradual and small degrees of regulatory change will be capable of passing through a divided legislative branch.
This literature demonstrates that even a public administrative force such as the executive branch must face power limitations. The very premise of the United States government is that the three branches work in coordination with one another to ensure to no singular ideological vision comes to dominate a nation founded on plurality. Accordingly, the text by Denhardt & Grubbs indicates that public administration must demonstrate the capacity for compromise, for accommodation and for recognition of a wide cross-section of interests (Denhardt & Grubbs, 422)
Moreover, this cross-section is always shifting, changing and demanding engagement by its leadership. Accordingly, in many locales, rising populations in immigrant communities, various shifts in settling patterns related to…
Barrett, T. & Cohen, T. (2013). Senate Rejects Expanded Gun Background Checks. CNN.com.
Denhardt, R.B. & Grubbs, J.W. (2002). Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Wadsworth Publishing.
Rainey, H.G. (2009). Understanding and Managing Public Organizations (4rd ED). Wiley Publishing.
(NCSL, p. 1)
Beyond these states, the NCSL indicates that there are 23 states which avail the discretion of this ban to individual colleges and universities. According to the NCSL, these states are Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, hode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia. (NCSL, p. 1)
A third category exists for states of which Colorado is now a part. As the NCSL reports, "due to recent state legislation and court rulings, 5 states now have provisions allowing the carrying of concealed weapons on public postsecondary campuses. These states are Colorado, Mississippi, Oregon, Utah, and Wisconsin." (NCSL, p. 1)
What is particularly troubling about the policy orientation of the five states identified directly here above is that there position represents a rising wave of reactionary gun advocacy initiatives. As students, educators and…
Frosch, D. (2012). University is Uneasy as Court Ruling Allows Guns on Campus. The New York Times.
Jervis, R. (2011). State Lawmakers Push for Guns on Campuses. USA Today.
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). (2012). Guns on Campus: Overview. NCSL.org.
The recent school shooting in Oakland, California draws attention to the importance of the issue of guns on college campuses. A ban on carrying concealed weapons on college campuses is problematic for several reasons. One, it violates state laws regarding the right to carry concealed weapons. Two, it leaves students defenseless against terrorists like the Oakland shooter. Three, it sends the message that greater gun awareness and gun safety training are not important. The State of Texas must rule that college campuses are not exempt from concealed weapons laws; eligible students must have the right to carry concealed weapons.
Texas is not the only state contending with the issue of how to address campus rules related to concealed weapons. School shootings have happened in many different states, making the issue of self-defense critical to address immediately. Colorado's state Supreme Court recently ruled: "the University of Colorado overstepped its authority…
Coffman, K. (2012). Colorado court says students can carry guns on campus. Reuters. Mar 5, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/06/us-guns-colorado-university-idUSTRE82504920120306
Soderstrom, E. (2012). Shooting highlights fallacy of gun-free schools. Students for Concealed Carry. Retrieved online: http://concealedcampus.org/
"Texas CHL." (n.d.). FAQs. Retrieved online: http://www.texaschl.us/faq.htm#exclude
Guns on Campus
SHOULD STUDENTS BE ABLE TO CAY GUNS ON CAMPUS?
Of all the places in the world, one would think that the collage is the safest place for a student to be and sometimes it is not. In this paper it will be discussed whether students should be allowed to carry concealed weapons to college. The advantages of allowing students to carry a concealed weapon will be discussed and why Gun Free Zones do not work.
There are many current issues happening in the U.S. And abroad, which makes it very difficult to decide which one to choose. I chose the topic: "If students are able to carry weapons on campus." It affects all students in the United States. Dispute the right to arms has been going on with the second amendment was approved. Some people believe that the Second Amendment states that the military should only be…
Bennett, J.T. (2008). Choice and Individual Responsibility are More Effective than Laws in Reducing Gun Violence, Retrieved April 17, 2011 from Gale: Opposing Viewpoint Resource Center (Power Search) database.
Blek, C.L. (1999). Gun Control is Constitutional. At Issue: IS Gun Ownership a Right. Kelly Doyle. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Retrieved April 17, 2011, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Apollo Library database.
Brady Campaign. (2009). Facts and Issues. http://www.bradycampaign.org/ issues
Cornell, S. (2006). The Second Amendment Is Misused by Opponents of Gun Control. Current Controversies: Guns and Violence. Debra A. Miller. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Retrieved April 17, 201, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Apollo Library database.
"Studies have shown that guns are needed for the safety of the people and there is a need to repeal Gun Control for all guns."
Semiautomatic weapons have been brought out by a student of suburban high school and fired resulting in fatal injuries to his classmates and teachers and several others. The consequence is that a pre-teen boy was sentenced for life under the charge of murdering a 6-year-old girl. One teenager breaks out a pistol and gun and another fired at the girl. The news became so widespread that the respective horrors have initiated to coalesce, making our sense of hope and security as individuals and as a society becomes irresistible. The school yard insults that once resulted in a confrontation to deal with have extended to the children literally proceeding for their guns. In the past it was a matter of grave concern for some…
Cottrol, Robert. J. (September, 1999) "Gun Control is Racist, Sexist & Classist" American Enterprise. Vol: 8; No; 1; pp: 14-16
Graves, Earl. G. (May, 2001) "Stop the Guns - Need for Gun Control Demonstrated by How Easily People Kill with Them" Black Enterprise. Vol: 11; No: 1; pp: 27-30
Kates, Don. B. (6 March, 1995) "Shot Down - Opposition to Gun Control" National Review. Vol: 7; No: 1; pp: 18-20
Lott, John; Lehrer, Eli. (December, 2004) "Gun control flops" American Enterprise. Vol: 12; No: 1; pp: 32-37
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. Retrieved November 21, 2004
A poignant question was devised by the William J. Krouse. This was pertaining to: whether gun owners were contributing to increased levels in violent crime. According to Krouse, 44 million people owned guns in 1995 which represented: 35% of households and it amounted to 192 million firearms. In 2007, the total number of firearms increased to 294 million (Krouse). Where, the availability of guns increased by: almost 100 million. However, the amount of households owning guns is not indicated in Krouse's information. This has led to a number of questions that are brought up from this data. The most notable include:
Were the guns being purchased by: households that already owned them?
Was the proliferation of guns occurring with: those who could not legitimately own them? (Krouse).
Clearly, the issues surrounding those who can legitimately own guns is continually evolving. As those who are law abiding citizens have been declining…
Feigelman, William and Yih-Jin Young. Hands-On Sociology. Nassau Community College, 2008. Web. 9 May 2011
Hahn, Robert A. First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Firearm Laws. Centers for Disease Control. CDC, 2003. 9 May 2011
Krouse, William. Gun Control Legislation. Congressional Research Service, 2011. Web. 9 May 2011
Congress can pass specific legislation to control what types of guns are sold, to whom, and how. The U.S. Supreme Court rules on whether congressional laws are in keeping with the letter and/or the spirit of the Second Amendment.
edefinitions of the problem
The current debate over gun control is so volatile because even supporters of gun control acknowledge that it cannot be 100% effective. The school shooter in Sandy Hook, for example, was able to obtain guns legally given that his mother was an avid gun collector. However, there are also examples of persons with questionable mental health histories, such as the Virginia Tech killer, who likely would have been prohibited from owning a weapon had he been forced to submit to a background check. "Seung-Hui Cho, who killed 32 people in 2007 on the picturesque Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, had been deemed mentally ill by a judge,…
Johns, Joe. (2013). Would background checks have stopped recent mass shootings? Probably not. CNN. Retrieved: http://www.cnn.com /2013/04/10/politics/background-checks-mass-shootings' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Gun Control Legislation
Gun control is not one concern, but several. To some people gun control is a crime issue; to others it is a rights issue. Gun control is a safety issue, an education issue, a racial issue, and a political issue. Within each of these issues, there are those who want more gun control legislation and those who want less. Guns are not for everyone. Certain individuals cannot handle a firearm safely, and some individuals choose to use firearms inappropriately. Our society has passed laws regulating the ownership and use of firearms, and additional legislation is being considered. Most of this legislation restricts, to some degree, the rights of individuals to possess or use firearms. Some restrictions may be necessary, but some recent legislation has gone too far. Society benefits from firearms in the hands of responsible citizens, and taking firearms away from such citizens will do more…
It would also be highly recommended that there are designated buffer zones between the convention and any designated First Amendment Zones. Additionally, these zones must be away from any other public areas. If they are too close to public areas, like malls, they may inadvertently disrupt the flow of the public and endanger passersby.
There are also recommendations for general policy of the possible disruption of protest groups at the DNC event. If officers were to commence in disrupting the protest groups, it would be absolutely necessary to show they were acting in accordance with the misdemeanor violation of Section 870.02 in the 2002 Florida Statutes. Essentially, this would mean that officers would have to prove more than three individuals were acting in a way to disturb the peace, rather than to peacefully assemble. It is true, "no actual breach of peace needs to take place" (Unlawful Assembly Dispersal Order).…
Independent Review Panel. (2004). The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) Inquiry Report.
M6. (2013). "First Amendment Zones."
M6. (2013). "Unlawful assembly to commit a breach of the peace."
Opponents of gun control became more proactive and in 1977 after the capture of NA leader, they began to harm the reputation of the GCA officers and executives. They aimed to scare the gun owners into thinking that they will be harassed and prosecuted for possessing guns.
Opponents of gun control pushed the Carter administration to remove the proposals which aimed at changing the execution of the laws. After this was done they became even more proactive in their campaign (Vizzard, 1993; 228-235). In 1979 and 1980, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms was called in for Hearings in the Senate after they sidestepped Congress to trigger a change in policy utilizing executive power. While the federal administration had influenced this strategy on not only the treasury but also the ATF, they rapidly backed out from the ATF and dumped the strategy as they saw strong resistance (Vizzard, 1993;…
Barber, Benjamin R. (1984). Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bruce-Biggs, B. (1976). The Great American Gun War. The Public Interest. 45, 37-62.
Cobb, Roger W. And Charles D. Elder, (1972). Participation in American Politics: The Dynamics of Agenda-Building. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Davidson, Osha Gray, (1993). Under Fire: The NRA and the Battle for Gun Control. New York: Henry Holt.
S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reaffirm restrictive gun laws since the Second Amendment was not infringed by a law that requires firearm owners to demonstrate proper cause (Nimmo par, 2).
The unanimous decision by the three-judge panel was regarded as a victory for the New York State law, the American constitution, and families throughout New York who are appropriately concerned regarding the plight of gun violence that is a major problem to all communities. There are various groups in the gun industry such as the Second Amendment Foundation and the National Rifle Association have been filing cases against cities and states throughout the country on the basis of the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The ruling re-affirming restrictive gun control laws has followed the significant increase in the number of the sale of guns.
Gun Control Laws in Other States:
Generally, crime rates associated with gun violence have…
"Banning Assault Weapons - a Legal Primer for State and Local Action." Legal Community Against Violence. Legal Community Against Violence, Aug. 2005. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Baynes, Terry, Eddie Evans, and Todd Eastham. "Appeals Court Upholds New York Gun Licensing Law." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Garrett, Ben. "New York Gun Rights - an Overview of Gun Laws in New York." About.com - Civil Liberties. About.com., n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Gius, Mark. "The Effect of Gun Ownership Rates on Homicide Rates: A State-level Analysis." Applied Economics Letters 16 (2009): 1687-690. Print.
gun control, including counter arguments. Owning a gun is much more than just a statement about this country's Constitution and Second Amendment rights. Owning a gun is a measure of protection and freedom that illustrates the principles this country's founders created, and it is a right that Americans should not take for granted. Gun control is not a suitable method for controlling crime, and it has not been proven to help control violent crime.
First, it is imperative to define what "gun control" means, because it can mean different things to different people. Two experts note, "Gun control is an umbrella term covering everything from laws prohibiting the ownership of defined classes of firearms to mandating the inclusion of gun locks with every firearm sold" (Moorhouse & Wanner, 2006). Clearly, with such a broad definition, and differing meanings, gun control cannot be easily measured or understood, which is one of…
Beachler, D.W. (2003). Militias and segregationists: The politics of low turnout elections in the United States. Polity, 35(3), 441+.
Editors. (2003). Fact sheet: Stolen guns. Retrieved 6 July 2009 from the Johns Hopkins University Web site: http://www.jhsph.edu/gunpolicy/guns_theft_fs.pdf .
Moorhouse, J.C., & Wanner, B. (2006). Does gun control reduce crime or does crime increase gun control? The Cato Journal, 26(1), 103+.
Payne, B.K., & Riedel, R. (2002). Gun control attitudes and the criminal justice student: Do differences exist? College Student Journal, 36(2), 314+.
gun control. They counter argumnents I invalidated Counter Arguments Violation Second Amendment Right Gun control laws directly violate a citizen's bear arms granted amendment constitution.
There is much controversy with regard to gun-control laws and to the effect they have on society in general. hile individuals in the U.S. In particular have been accustomed to living in a gun culture, more and more people have started to express doubt with regard to pro-gun laws and to whether or not they help the masses feel safer. The government has attempted to introduce a series of gun laws in recent years with the purpose of controlling the general public and in order to make it more difficult for potential criminals to get their hands on firearms. "The laws cumulatively provide fewer restrictions than exist in most developed countries, but they nonetheless constitute an impressive effort." (Mears 200)
Gun laws are generally designed…
Carter, Greg Lee. "Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law, Volume 1," (ABC-CLIO, 2012)
McDowell, Earl E. "America's Great Gun Game: Gun Ownership Vs. Americans' Safety: an Outline of the Need for Increased Federal Gun Legislation." (iUniverse, 2007)
Mears, Daniel P. "American Criminal Justice Policy: An Evaluation Approach to Increasing Accountability and Effectiveness," (Cambridge University Press, 12 Apr 2010)
Non-Sense Crime Drugs: A Policy Guide
Proposition #24: Attempts to ban the possession of handguns, or certain kinds of guns, are not a viable option for reducing crime.
According to sociologist Samuel Walker: "People intent upon committing a crime are particularly motivated to obtain a gun. In short, it is not very efficient or sensible to try to control ownership of guns by the public at large when the real problem is the behavior of a very small part of the population -- violent criminals" (Walker 2010: 236). This statement is problematic for a number of reasons. First of all, many individuals who do not intend to commit crimes still do so as a result of crimes of passion. Having a gun involved in a highly emotional situation almost invariably raises the ante of confrontation. Although they might not intend to commit a crime, the crime happens by virtue…
Background: CAP. (2013). Smart Gun Laws. Retrieved from:
http://smartgunlaws.org/ child-access-prevention-policy-summary/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Many see gun control as a controversial topic that has sparked much debate. This gun control essay can offer ways to examine this topic from both the pro and against sides. By detailing the pros and cons of gun control, you will be able to see the impact on society. These examples include recent changes in laws, news stories associated with gun violence, and what other countries do about this highly debated subject. Examining a topic from both sides, it offers a deeper and richer understanding that cannot be achieved from one-sided analysis.
Gun Control: Examining Both Sides
Understanding Gun Control
The Impact of Gun Control on Violence
How Gun Control Influences Gun Violence
Gun Control and the Second Amendment
Countries that Ban Guns
Gun Control and the Safety of the Public
Gun Control Laws
B. Understanding Gun Control
Gun violence in America has always been a great concern to communities, families and law enforcement officials. But in recent years gun violence has received a great deal more publicity and public concern because of the mass shootings -- particularly in schools -- that the media focuses on in great detail. In other words, a law-abiding family living in a quiet small town in Vermont is impacted emotionally when a gunman enters a school in California or Connecticut and murders innocent children. This paper identifies recent trends in mass shootings, potential laws that would attempt to keep guns out of the hands of mentally disturbed and violent individuals, and how the National Rifle Association (NRA) uses unethical tactics to promote its paranoid obsession that government is out to take guns away from law-abiding gun owners.
Recent Mass Shootings
Of the many gruesome mass killings that have been reported on television…
Castillo, Marianne. "NRA clear on gun debate stance: arm schools." CNN. Retrieved May 12,
2015, from http://www.cnn.com . 2012.
Cohen, Amy P., Azrael, Deborah, and Miller, Matthew. "Rate of Mass Shootings Has Tripled
Since 2011, Harvard Research Shows." Mother Jones, Retrieve May 12, 2015, from http://www.motherjones.com . 2012.
Gun Laws / Gun Violence
Gun violence, gun registration, and mass shootings in the United States -- and to a lesser extent in the United Kingdom -- have caused authorities great concern over the past few years. And these issues have received a great deal of media attention and hence are worthy of research. This paper reviews gun violence in the U.S. and in the UK, and gun laws that are in place and those that should be in place.
Mass shootings and gun violence in the U.S.
In the United States, as of October 1, 2015, there have been 294 mass shootings (a mass shooting is defined as one in which four or more people were killed or injured by a gun), and 45 of those occurred at schools (BBC). In the U.S. (again, up to October 1) 9,956 people have been killed in "gun incidents," and 20,000 people…
BBC. (2015). Oregon shooting: Statistics behind 'routine' U.S. gun violence. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com .
Brattleboro Reformer. (2015). Our Opinion: Guns, money, and simplistic assumptions.
Retrieved October 13, 2015, from http://www.reformer.com .
Casciani, D. (2010). Gun control and ownership laws in the UK. BBC. Retrieved
In light of events like Sandy Hood, Columbine, the Charleston church shooting, the on-air shooting of two reports in Virginia and many others, gun control is a topic that has remained a topic that is ever-present in the twenty-four hour news cycle of modern day America. Further, there are several cities right now that are the sites of some major and protracted gun violence. This violence and depravity is to the extent that some people assert that gun violence is a public health issue. The author of this report will answer that question and will also speak to the ways in which gun purchases can be limited and regulated given the presence of the Second Amendment. While gun violence is certainly an issue that involves health, it is primarily a crime and punishment issue and should be dealt with as such.
As easily discernible from the question…
Ernst, A. (2014). Why does Chicago have so many illegal guns?. America.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 11 September 2015, from http://america.aljazeera.com/watch/shows/america-tonight/articles/2014/10/22/why-does-chicagohavesomanyillegalguns.html
Volokh, E. (2015). A rare Second Amendment exemption from federal ban on felons possessing guns. Washington Post. Retrieved 11 September 2015, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2014/09/27/a-rare-second-amendment-exemption-from-federal-ban-on-felons-possessing-guns/
Definition of the Problem (Gun Control)
In America as well as other parts of the world, the role played by guns in committing violent acts, and what must be done in this regard, is a hotly debated topic. However, some facts are incontestable. Over 31,000 individuals sustained gunshot injuries in the year 2010, in America. As these victims are mostly youths, gun violence can be considered as one among the primary reasons for premature deaths in the U.S. Apart from mortal wounds, there were, in the same year, approximately 337,960 non-fatal acts of violence perpetrated with the use of guns; emergency departments of American hospitals received 73,505 cases of nonfatal wounds made by guns. The economic and social costs associated with gun violence are also huge, in the U.S. (Webster, 2013)
However, ironically, in spite of gun violence's colossal impact, a majority of public discussions in regard to…
Cook, P., Ludwig, J., Venkatesh, S., & Braga, A. (2007). UNDERGROUND GUN MARKETS. The Economic Journal, F558 -- F588.
Hood, M. N. (2009). Citizen, defend thyself: an individual-level analysis of concealed weapon permit holders. Criminal Justice Studies, 22(1), 73-89
Kates, D., & Mauser, G. (n.d.). WOULD BANNING FIREARMS REDUCE MURDER AND SUICIDE? Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 650.
Kopel, D. B. (1995 ). THE IDEOLOGY OF GUN OWNERSHIP AND GUN CONTROL IN THE UNITED STATES. Quarterly Journal of Ideology.
Gun control is a law or policy passed with the aim of limiting the possession and use of guns or firearms by private citizens. Gun and firearm control have been a subject of extensive debate in the U.S. The establishment of a balance between the personal rights of individuals to own and the government's commitment to maintain law and order has proved a tricky affair. The ownership of firearms and guns is an integral part in the culture and identity of the American people. The origin of gun possession can be traced to the west where the locals had to arm themselves to protect themselves from the Indians, enemies and wild animals. Consequently, the American citizens armed themselves for personal defense and as part of their culture. Additionally, guns are common in hunting, both leisure and for food and have since become a sport in the…
"Would Guns Control Reduce Suicides?." CQ Researcher 14.6 (2004): 131. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Cook, Philip J., and Jens Ludwig. "Fact-Free Gun Policy." University Of Pennsylvania Law Review 151.4 (2003): 1329. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Gorman, Linda, and David B. Kopel. "Self-defense: The Equalizer." Forum For Applied Research & Public Policy 15.4 (2000): 92. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Grier, Peter. "Elementary school shooting: What gun control laws might U.S. voters support? (+video)." Christian Science Monitor 14 Dec. 2012: N.PAG. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
In the examination of the aspect of gun ownership, the research adopted the concept of qualitative research method. This is because the study focuses on the examination of social problem in the United States. Data was collected through administration of the questions to approximately 4901 participants.
The main aim of the process was to adopt an effective and accurate comparison between the research hypotheses and the available data. This indicates that the study's focus was on the determination of correlation between the dependent variables: age, gender, and income and independent variable: gun possession in the United States. esearch questions were formulated in accordance with the three hypotheses in order to achieve accurate and reliable data vital for quality and effective conclusion.
In order to analyze the available data, the data was integrated into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This was essential in the achievement…
James D. Agresti & Reid K. Smith. (September 13, 2010). "Gun Control Facts: Just Facts",.
Revised 2/11/13. http://justfacts.com/guncontrol.asp
Greene, E., Bornstein, B.H., & Dietrich, H. (2007). Granny, (don't) get your gun: competency issues in gun ownership by older adults. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 25(3), 405-423.
But the logic behind the analogy is sound. When my peer says that without human intervention guns do not kill people, he is ignoring the fact that free availability of guns may allow some crazy people to kill others although without guns they might not have been able to kill anyone. My peer's statement that a gun "is just a tool like any other" again is technically correct but simplistic. A gun is a much more powerful weapon than a pocket knife. The crazy person who tried to assassinate President Reagan would have had far lesser chances of attacking the President with a pocket knife, for example. The availability of guns makes it easier to kill others.
My peer's analogy with the use of machete in Rwanda actually weakens his argument. Again, it is technically true that the machetes did not kill people, but people with machetes did. But one…
Hence, while ratifying the U.S. Constitution, the Virginia convention passed a resolution specifying: "That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defense of a free state;"
It is, therefore, clear that the central issue that led to the adoption of the Second Amendment, as part of the Bill of Rights -- ratified in 1791, was the concern that the powers granted in the U.S. Constitution to the Congress over the militia and a national army may be used to abrogate state sovereignty and power, rather than a desire to recognize the right for bearing arms by individual citizens. Nowhere in the background and history of the introduction of the Second Amendment in the U.S. Constitution do we find the issue of personal use of weapons, for purposes…
Economic Costs of Gun Violence." Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Updated 4/17/07. October 31, 2007. http://www.bradycampaign.org/ facts/factsheets/pdf/economic_costs.pdf
Firearm Facts." Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Updated 4/18/07. October 31, 2007.
rime rates do not drop with restrictions on gun control because crimes have been shown to be intent driven rather than means driven. Which simply means that those who are interested in committing crimes will usually do so given any access or restrictions standards? It is evident from this analysis that guns have little impact upon crime rates. However, gun control advocacies use misinformation to present a dangerous position to the public.
Another important factor in media manipulation is the use of specific misinformation to influence public opinion to support severity within gun legislation. Popular gun control advocacies use strong statistics to influence the public into perceiving that gun control is not only needed, but that gun violence is an escalating crime that needs to provide greater security mandates. Oftentimes they use deceiving statistics as a means to manipulate public opinion on the prevalence of firearms. For instance, the Brady…
Counting Guns, Randolph Roth. Social Science History 26:4 winter 2002
Would Banning Firearms reduce Murder and Suicide? A Review of international evidence, Gary a. Mauser & Don B. Kates. Bepress Legal Series 2006 paper 1564
Shooting down the more guns, less crime hypothesis, John J. Donohue & Ian Ayres. Center for the study of law and society Jurisprudence and social policy program. 2003 paper 5
The Need for Gun Control to Stop the Violence
Sandy Hook Elementary was a sad scene, one which hit at the heart of most Americans. It is a scene that we all wish to have never repeated. With so many outburst of violence around the United States using heavy machinery and advanced firearms, Congress needs to instill greater regulation of guns, especially more dangerous weapons like automatic weapons and riffles. This does not mean that Congress should ban such guns, as such would be a violation of the Second Amendment, but it is clear that these dangerous weapons need to be regulated in order to make sure they do not continue to end up in the wrong hands and continue to cause tragedies across the United States.
Despite a strong connotation that Americans should have free range in regards to their weapons under the Second Amendment, recent tragedies…
Calabresi, Massimo. "How Gun Control Ends: Not with a Bang, But with a Whimper." Time Magazine. 2013. Web. http://swampland.time.com/2013/03/11/how-gun-control-ends-not-with-a-bang-but-a-whimper/
Devi, Sharmilla. "Researchers Call for Reform of U.S. Gun Control Policies." The Lancet. Vol. 380, Issue 9853, P. 1545.
Both purposes mean that they were used to kill human beings. By comparison, long guns served many purposes. Early settlers often had to hunt for their food. To take their guns would mean that they would risk starvation. They were also used for defense, and early skirmishes of the Revolutionary War were fought by militiamen - private citizens who brought their own long guns to fight the British.
One of the strongest arguments against laws restricting handguns come from those who believe there should be no restrictions whatsoever on firearms. They argue that those who argue against handguns have a hidden agenda. They argue that people against handguns actually want to ban all guns for all purposes, including for target practice and hunting. They feel that they must fight restrictions on any guns to protect their Constitutional right to bear arms. However, this argument doesn't make sense to most people.…
According to gun control advocates, crime should be extraordinary, but this simply is not the case. In fact, the exact opposite is true. Switzerland has far less crime per capita than the United States and almost no gun crime. ased on this example, Kopel (1988) correctly concludes that there is no direct link between the level of citizen gun ownership and the level of gun misuse.
Then there's the case of Kennesaw, Georgia where crime dropped after a law that requires its citizens to own guns passed. Lieutenant Craig Graydon, Kennesaw Police Department comments, "Well, after the city ordinance passed, there was actually a decrease in reported crime in the Kennesaw area, especially violent crime." (Wilmouth, 2007).
Last, but certainly not least, is the fact that there's already plenty of gun control legislation and it doesn't work. So, if guns are outlawed only criminals will have guns, leaving law-abiding citizens…
Greenslade, Robert. "The Flawed Second Amendment." Nitwit Press 6 Oct. 2004. http://www.thepriceofliberty.org/04/10/06/greenslade.htm
Gun Control Doesn't Reduce Crime, Violence, Say Studies." WorldNetDaily. 30 Dec. 2004. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=42167
Kopel, David B. "Trust the People: The Case Against Gun Control" 11 Jul. 1998. Cato Institute. http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa109.pdf
The Right to Keep and Bear Arms." Report of the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the United States Senate Ninety-Seventh Congress. Second Session Feb.1982. http://www.constitution.org/mil/rkba1982.htm
Because gun suicide success rates are at about 90%, however, those who attempt suicide with a gun are far less likely to be given a second chance or time to reconsider. Success rates for other types of suicide are significantly lower, such as 2% for drug overdoses and 34% for jumping (MSNBC 2008). These statistics suggest that gun ownership in itself is dangerous for those who have suicidal thoughts, a demographic that makes up a large portion of the population. By instituting a gun ban, these homes would be safer for these individuals as well as others.
Finally, children and those who suffer from suicidal thoughts are not the only types of people to suffer at the hands of a gun. Guns are dangerous, even in competent adult hands, and guns also have the potential to misfire when used properly or improperly. By employing a gun ban, however, governments can…
Braga, Anthony et al. (2002). The Illegal Supply of Firearms. Crime and Justice. 29, 319-
Davies, Anne. (2008). Cities targeted as DC gun ban ends. Retrieved July 1, 2008, at http://www.theage.com.au/world/cities-targeted-as-dc-gun-ban-ends-20080627-2y4a.html .
MSNBC. (2008). Surprising Fact: Half of Gun Deaths are Suicides. Retrieved July 1, 2008 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25463844/ .
Wintemute, Garen J. (2002). Where the Guns Come From: The Gun Industry and Gun
11. The issued rose in this case is unauthorized use of a company vehicle, which resulted in an accident. Prater was told to bring the truck home over the weekend to work on the body only. His boss never gave him permission to use the truck for any other purpose. Besides, the insurance on the truck would probably only pay for the accident if it occurred on company time. Prater could be charged for stealing the truck and unauthorized use. The ruling in this case should be for the plaintiff. Prater should have to pay for the accident and repairs to the truck.
5. In this case, the city is still the rightful owner of the piece of restored artwork. It does not matter how long Hoeltzer had the artwork, it is still the property of the city. Therefore, the city has legal title to the artwork unless…
While it is a felony to flee the scene of an accident, a police office is ethically bound to report the issue if he himself is in such an accident. The same is with drunken and disorderly behavior or destruction of property. In "Choirboys" the police officers would congregate in a park after hours to engage in drunkenness, disorderly behavior and sexual orgies with women. And this park was supposed to be out of bounds and closed to the public after hours.
The introduction in this essay already alluded to the "blue wall of silence" that accompanies every police organization. This is an exclusive fraternity and officers are required to look after and out for each other. In fact, beat cops see themselves as removed from the detective squad, whom they refer to as suits. Certainly, most police hate the Internal affairs squad, though they were once beat cops…
BusinessWeek. (2004). Who will Fastow Implicate.
Retrieved April 22, 2008, at http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jan2004/nf20040115_1433_db035.htm
Gilmartin, K.M., & Harris, J.J. (1998). Law Enforement Ethics: The Continuum of Compromise. Police Chief Magazine
Retrieved April 22, 2008, at http://www.rcmp-learning.org/docs/ecdd1222.htm
Gun Trafficking and Straw Purchasing
Traffic Jam: Straw Runners' Complicity
Rational choice theory is the theory of criminal behavior that posits that when people commit illicit acts, they generally tend to do so while considering their own self-interest. This theorem posits that criminals are well aware of the illegality of that which they are contemplating, and that they take into account a number of factors before first pursuing these actions. Such factors generally include what sort of benefits they will incur (as well as to what degree they will profit) from criminal behavior, which is typically weighed against the likelihood of their getting caught. Furthermore, this theory contends that people who commit crime also are cognizant of the nature and the degree of the punishment they may induce if they are apprehended for committing a crime. In view of all of these factors, when people decide to still commit a…
"After September 2001 law enforcement agencies realized the potential devastation and chaos an act of terrorism can cause. The Council was created to improve the ability of the Police Department to respond to a situation and educate the Department and the community." (ichmond Police Department, 2004)
Police departments have had to become terrorist experts. The Homeland Security Terrorism Advisory Council for example is a collaboration of sworn officers and civilian employees with diverse backgrounds. Many of these members are or were leading members of specially trained units or have extensive training in SWAT, bomb technology, military assault, hazmat crime analysis, international terrorism intelligence, strategic planning and many other legal units such as basic attorneys. Through technology and experience, the Homeland Security Terrorism Advisory Council should be able to identify, acquire, plan, and advise on terroristic crisis. With this knowledge base the unit should be able to therefore anticipate, prevent, and…
Boyd, David G. (1995). On the cutting edge: law enforcement technology. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 7/1/1995.
Dempsey, Tom, Department of Government and Public Affairs, & Newport News. (1997, November 1). Computer Communications Technology Facilitates Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.iacptechnology.org/Library/ComputerTraining.htm
Division of Emergency Communications. (n.d.). Captain Linda Samuel. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.ci.richmond.va.us/department/police/Chief/pdxxs_DEC.asp
Richmond Police Department. (n.d.). Richmond Police Department. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.richmondgov.com/department/police/pdxxi_index.asp
difficult buy a gun, a U.S. citizens amendment 8-10 pages length, double spaced, font 12 times roman. MLA standards 8-12 sources, 12-20 citations.
hy the U.S. should not ban gun control
There is presently much controversy regarding the U.S. And its position concerning gun control. ith recent events such as the Newtown, Connecticut (a mass shooting involving 29 persons shot dead) dominating media devices, the public has become agitated concerning gun laws. The fact that these legislations provided an environment where guns can be used by a series of controversial individuals triggered alarm and influenced the masses to lobby with regard to reform. Even though gun control is especially important when considering conditions in the contemporary U.S., it is also significant for the authorities to acknowledge that guns are an active part of society and that people who meet a series of requirements associated with gun ownership need to have…
Daily Mail Reporter, "Father of boy killed in Newtown school shooting heckled during legislative hearing as he begs for stricter gun control," Retrieved April 18, 2013, from the Daily Mail Website: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2269910/Parents-children-slain-Newtown-school-shooting-beg-legislators-stricter-gun-control.html
Gerber, Larry, "The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms," (The Rosen Publishing Group, 15.01.2011)
Gould, Andrew R. "The Hidden Second Amendment Framework within District of Columbia V. Heller," Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 5
Hatt, Kyle, "Gun-Shy Originalism: The Second Amendment's Original Purpose in District of Columbia V. Heller," Suffolk University Law Review, Vol. 44, No. 2
However, this is a common, recurrent theme that has been injected into the public sphere by private interests. As a result, it dominates a substantial amount of discourse in the public sphere, and even people like Griffin and ostron, who believe that it is demoralizing and misleading and state those beliefs publicly, have had little success in challenging this misconception. Therefore, to have a real gun control debate in the public sphere, it is necessary to investigate whether proposed gun control laws would have had an impact on some of these crimes. In the instances of these massacre-shootings, over and over again it appears that the gunmen purchased their weapons and ammunition legally, rather than going to illegal sources for their weapons. They were not prevented from doing so by current gun-laws, but many of them had behavioral flags that may have led to gun-restrictions under more exacting laws. For…
Blendon, R., Young, J.T., & Hemenway, D. (1996). The American public and the gun control debate. JAMA, 275(22), 1719-1722.
Castells, M. (2008). The new public sphere: Global civil society, communication networks, and global governance. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), 78-93.
Goss, K.A. (2006). Disarmed: The missing movement for gun control in America. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press.
Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones
THEE SHOULD BE NO GOVENMENT MANDATED GUN-FEE ZONES IN PUBLIC SPACE.
Banning guns for masses and establishing gun-free zones are one of the most controversial topics in American politics. There are clearly two schools of thoughts on this subject. The right to keep a gun and displaying it publically is directly related to individual's rights under the second amendment of the prevailing constitution. However, despite the recognition of the citizens' rights, one cannot ignore the dangers of gun-free zones. Every year, there are cases reported, resulting from arms used in the gun-free zones. Maximum cases were reported in educational institutions where ammunition was used by children and teenagers. Publically mandated gun-free zones have resulted in loss of many precious lives.
There have been many cases reported where emotionally unstable individuals killed number of individuals in the public place. Majority of these massacres took place in educational…
First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Firearms Laws. 2003. Web. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5214a2.htm
Horner, William T. Showdown in the Show-Me State: The Fight over Conceal-and-Carry Gun Laws in Missouri. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2005.Questia. Web. 26 Apr. 2012.
Patrick, Ryan. Ron Paul Introduces Bill to Abolish 'Gun-Free Zones'. August 2011. Web.
The government has no right turning a blind eye to criminals who possess arms, allowing innocent citizens to live unprotected in their own homes. It is far too late to restrict access to guns, anyway. The market has already opened its arms to criminals who have stashes of weapons. Those weapons aren't going anywhere and so American citizens must have unrestricted access to the weapons that can protect them from being killed by criminals.
Gun control also prevents objective education surrounding the proper use of guns. If young adults are taught how to properly store and use a firearm they are less likely to use them indiscriminately. espect for guns helps create a more educated, enlightened society instead of one that cowers in fear from the very thought of a weapon that has been around for centuries.
The original purpose of the Second Amendment was to empower the citizens of…
Agresti, J.A. (1999). "Gun Control. "Just Facts. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.justfacts.com/guncontrol.asp
Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Website retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.bradycampaign.org/
Gun Control." Almanac of Policy Issues.Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.policyalmanac.org/crime/guns.shtml
National Rifle Association. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.nra.org/home.aspx
Gun Violence in the United States
According to the Gun Violence Archive, which keeps track of gun-related violence in the United States, 2016 has had 53,602 known incidents, resulting in 13,854 deaths and 28,505 injuries. There have been 363 mass shooting incidents in 2016. In 2015, there were 372 mass shootings killing a total of 475 people and wounding 1,870, according to the Mass Shooting Tracker ("Guns in the U.S.: The statistics behind the violence" 2016). Defensive use accounts for 1683 of all gun-related incidents in 2016, and 1,988 gun incidents in 2016 were classified as being accidental (Gun Violence Archive, 2016).
In 2015 alone, there were 64 school shootings. Some of those incidents did not involve casualties, but the numbers still prove alarming, revealing the extent of the problem ("Guns in the U.S.: The statistics behind the violence" 2016). Even more mass shootings take place in ordinary businesses --…
Barry, C.L., Mcginty, E.E. Vernick, J.S. & Webster, D.W. (2015). Two years after Newtown -- public opinion on gun policy revisited. Preventative Medicine 79,pp. 55-58.
Barzilay, Julie and Mohney, Gillian, 2016. "Why the CDC Hasn't Launched a Comprehensive Gun Study in 15 Years."
DeFilippis, E. & Hughes, D. (2015). The Myth Behind Defensive Gun Ownership. Retrieved online: http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/01/defensive-gun-ownership-myth-114262#.VLhsjS42d6I
"Firearm Access is a Risk Factor for Suicide," (n.d.). Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved online: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/means-matter/means-matter/risk/
The Second Amendment to the Constitution states, “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed,” (United States Constitution). Because few contemporary gun owners would describe themselves as being part of a “well regulated militia,” the relevance of the Second Amendment becomes increasingly spurious. Mass shootings, firearm accidents, and other gun-related deaths are disproportionately high in the United States, but assessing causality remains one of the greatest policy challenges of the last century. Gun control advocates claim that revising the Second Amendment would help to reduce the number, frequency, and severity of violent deaths and especially curb instances of mass shootings. On the other hand, gun control detractors claim that guns themselves are not the problem; that existing legislation already controls firearm ownership, and that the Second Amendment must remain sacrosanct in…
legal principle of at-Will employees is one that I feel has both good and bad ramifications. On the good side, it allows employees to quit at any time and seek employment somewhere else. This can be a positive step if the employee feels that the job is not something he or she wants to continue for whatever reason. On the other hand, I think this principle could undermine the entire structure of the employer-employee relationship, giving it a sort of indeterminate or unstable footing. Depending on the nature the job or line of business, it might be beneficial for the employer and the employee to develop more of a relationship that is built on commitment so that both sides know that the other is fully invested -- sort of like a marriage. This sort of investment has ramifications, of course, beyond the mere business arrangement: it has societal ramifications. For…
Another reason that the site would be useful is that not only tackles the legal concerns of employment law but also the ethical concerns that stem from cultural issues. This is an important point to emphasize, I feel, as one false step in this direction could actually come back to haunt someone even if, strictly speaking, there was no illegal activity conducted. Sometimes what is perceived as bias or prejudice can be made to look so in a court of law, so it is important to understand the ethical and cultural dimensions of issues -- and this site is helpful it that it brings this important point up for the reader.
Finally, the site is helpful in an aesthetic way because it is uncluttered by ads and has no annoying pop-ups, and I will always recommend a site that is clean, user-friendly, and easy to navigate. Vault is definitely that and for these reasons I feel this site could be of good use for the student of Employment Law.
The author of this report has been asked to select a crime control policy and then use the facts and facets of the policy to answer a few questions. First, there will be a summary of the key elements of the policy. Second, there will be an explanation of the political process for the policy. Third, there will be an examination of the role that the federal government plays when it comes to formulating crime control policy. To get a little more specific about the federal role, there will be an evaluation of how the United States Congress gets involved and influences crime control policy. This is despite the fact that many of the applicable crime control policies in play are decided at the state level. All of this will be looked at through the lens and rubric of who has the most influence and control when it…
Brookings. (2014). Legal Marijuana: Comparing Washington and Colorado. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/fixgov/posts/2014/07/08-washington-colorado-legal-marijuana-comparison-wallach-hudak
Costa, J. (2016). Punishment for repeat DUI offenders inconsistent. Wcax.com. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.wcax.com/story/23033725/punishment-for-repeat-dui-offenders-inconsistant
Glazer, S. (2014). Sentencing Reform. CQ Researcher by CQ Press. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2014011000
MADD. (2016). MADD - Statistics. Madd.org. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.madd.org/statistics/?referrer=https://www.google.com/
Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal
THE EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA
STAND YOU GOUND: A CY FO EPEAL
Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal
Academic and Professional Writing for Graduate Students (LS526-01)
The "Stand Your Ground Law" is one of the most controversial laws in recent years and has gained notoriety due to its enactment in thirty-three states so far. Advocates of the law claim that it reduces the threat of violence in society, but the statistics prove otherwise as research shows that the law actually inflames race-based violence (Purdie-Vaughn, Williams, 2015). As such there are several states that have either taken a wary view of the law and have decided to steer clear of it, or have raised issue(s) with enactment of the law while considering it. It is because of this scrutiny the law has been misunderstood by some people, abused by others, and just…
Alabama Criminal Code, Section 13A-3-23. Retrieved from http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/alcode/13A/3/2/13A-3-23
Campbell, R. C. (2014). Unlawful/Criminal Activity: The Ill-Defined and Inadequate Provision
for a "Stand Your Ground" Defense. Barry Law Review, 20(1): 3-21.
Cook, R. (2012). The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 'Stand Your Ground Law' in Effect in Georgia More Than 100 Years. Retrieved: http://www.ajc.com/news/news/local/stand-your-ground-law-in-effect-in-georgia-more-th/nQSgW/
" (Foster, 1999) Within this framework there is no reference to gun ownership by individuals and according to Foster's report: "...it is reasonable to assume that private arms are intended for destruction under the term." (Foster, 1999)
The work of David . Kopel, a former assistant district attorney in Manhattan and presently a practicing attorney in Colorado writes in the work entitled: "Trust the People: The Case Against Gun Control" a policy brief published at the Cato Institute that: "Gun control is based on the faulty notion that ordinary American citizens are too clumsy and ill-tempered to be trusted with weapons. Only through the blatant abrogation of explicit constitutional rights is gun control even possible." (1988) Kopel relates that less than one in 3,000 gun owners commit murder. Each year approximately 7,000 individuals commit suicide and 300 or fewer people die in accidents involving handguns. As a matter of fact,…
NRA Warns of U.N. Gun Control (2006) the New World Disorder - WorldNetDaily. 16 June 2006. Online available at http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=50671
Foster, Sarah (1999) the 40-year Gun Grab: '60s disarmament plan still going strong, say U.N. critics. Panic in the Year Zero. 13 Dec 1999. WorldNetDaily. Online available at http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=17280
Bowers, Faye (2007) U.S. Steadies Its Aim at Gun Trafficking Into Mexico. 20 July 2007. Christian Science Monitor. Online available at http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0720/p01s05-usfp.html?page=1 .
U.S. Spent $27 Million to Destroy Small Arms, Light Weapons (2006) U.S. Department of State 9 June 2006. USINFO.STATE.GOV online available at http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html?p=washfile-english&y=2006&m=June&x=20060609171603sjhtrop0.2761042&t=xarchives/xarchitem.html
gun control. One side rights benefits owning a firearm. The side anti-gun ownership guns illegal. The final part paper position pro-gun ownership! Please make essay original.
There is much controversy regarding fire-arms, their use, and whether or not people should have access to guns. The "guns don't kill people, people kill people" expression is likely to spring to mind when considering issues related to guns. Surely, one might be inclined to say that in spite of the fact that guns are not directly responsible for the fact that people are dying, they provide humanity with a means to killing individuals. Some people are unable to effectively control an excessive amount of power and it thus seems wrong to provide them with access to fire-arms. Even with that, if the authorities focus on establishing harsher laws concerning gun ownership, individuals who are predisposed to committing crimes will no longer be able…
Cook, Philip J., "The Social Costs of Gun Ownership" Retrieved December 6, 2011, from the Sanford School of Public Policy Website: http://www.sanford.duke.edu/research/papers/SAN04-07.pdf
Greenhouse, Linda, "Justices Rule for Individual Gun Rights," Retrieved December 6, 2011, from the New York Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com /2008/06/27/washington/27scotuscnd.html?pagewanted=all' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Gun control and the regulation of fundamental rights, is written by Lance K. Stell. It was printed in Criminal Justice Ethics Journal in 2001. The writer has focused on fundamental rights of citizens and argues whether they are entitled to possession of guns or not. He refers to Aristotle and LaFollette and some other philosophers to gather his arguments and find adequate philosophical support for them. The author believes in the right to possess guns. But this is not clearly mentioned in the article and has to be extracted from reading between the lines.
The targeted audience for this article is students of public policy and philosophy since it contains regular references to great thinkers of ancient times and also discusses current policy on gun-control. The article discusses social control with reference to major philosophers and their views on gun-control.
The article is significant to students of public policy and…
Lance K. Stell: Gun Control and the Regulation of Fundamental Rights. Criminal Justice Ethics. Volume: 20. Issue: 1. 2001. 28+
The idea that the easy availability of guns does not have anything to do with high homicide rates in the United States is a myth and a propaganda campaign of the National Rifle Association and others who support its ideology.
Let me illustrate the necessity of stricter licensing system by bringing an example from international affairs. There are a few nations that possess nuclear weapons but there is a general consensus among civilized nations, including most that do not possess nuclear weapons, that irresponsible nations must not be allowed to possess nuclear weapons. The reasoning behind this consensus is that a the availability of nuclear weapons will make it easy for a country like Iran to unleash attacks and kill lots of people. No one justifies Iran's right to possess nuclear weapons by saying that "nuclear weapons do not kill people, people kill people" although it is also a technically…
Blodget, Henry. "Yes, 'Guns Don't Kill People, People Kill People,' but Do We Really Want Guns for Sale at Walmart?" The Business Insider. 10 January 2011. Web. 25 April 2012
Erbe, Bonnie. "The NRA is Wrong: Guns Do Kill People, as the Pittsburg Shootings Show." USNews. 6 April 2009. Web. 25 April 2012
Hemenway, David. Private Guns, Public Health. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004. Print.
Henigan, Dennis. "Actually, Guns Do Kill People." HuffingtonPost. 27 July 2011. Web. 25 April 2012
Gun Control in the American Society
The issue of gun control has been a primary social and political problem in the American society, most especially when 'spree killings' have become prevalent among young adults in high schools all over the country. The issue of gun control is always brought up when such killings occur, most especially when a young individual is involved and is the primary suspect in the killings. One of these cases is the killing committed by Kip Kinkel, a Thurston High student in Springfield, Oregon. The killing took place in May 1998, and Kip Kinkel, age 15, killed his parents, Bill and Faith Kinkel, and murdered 2 students and injured 25 others when he attacked the school cafeteria in Thurston High a day after he killed his parents. The murders that took place in May convicted Kip Kinkel and was sentenced to serve 220 years in prison.…
Navasky, Miri. "The Killer at Thurston High." PBS Online and FRONTLINE. 13 November 2002 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows.kinkel/ .
Recruitment of Kids to the Gun Culture." Violence Policy Center Web site. 13 November 2002 http://www.vpc.org/studies/startcon.htm .
Gun Control Legislation
The availability of and access to firearms which is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution by the Second Amendment has created a multitude of consequences for modern Americans. The impacts of a loosely regulated gun market include the highest per capita rate of gun-related deaths in the world, major metropolitan areas like Detroit and Chicago struggling with unprecedented murder rates, and toddlers routinely finding their parent's weapons and dying after accidental discharge. Several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the U.S. is by far the world's leader in both gun ownership and gun-related fatalities, and in fact, America's rate of 10.2 gun-related deaths per 100,000 citizens is more than double the rate of any other developed nation. The Congress has historically been averse to the passage of restrictive gun control legislation, as a powerful firearm lobby led by the National ifle Association has successfully kept the advances of gun…
Boodman, S.G. (2006, May 16). Gifted and tormented academic stars often bullied -- and more likely to suffer emotionally as a result. The Washington Post, p. F1. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp - dyn/content/article/2006/05/15/AR2006051501103 .html
Cooper, A., & Smith, E.L.U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011).
Homicide trends in the United States, 1980-2008: Annual rates for 2009 and 2010 (NCJ-
236018). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:
People can no longer decide on their selves, and there the rulers of the country must intervene. The measures proposed will have as finality the reduction in violent attacks, and more tranquil life in American cities and ghettos. The feasibility of the legislative intention is also demonstrated with logical arguments, which would deter the behavior of individuals with an aversion to violence.
The violence is a sign of weakness, both of the individual and the society on one hand and of the laws that govern the society on the other. Some individual is not capable to think things clear, or maybe he is not familiar with the legal proceedings, so his only solution is violence oriented to other citizens. The authorities are not able, up to present times, to control this violence issue through specific measures - legal, in general. The current proposals could be a viable solution for the…
1) Peter Rutten & Albert F. Bayers III and the World Rank Research Team, Where We Stand', New York: Bantam Books, 1992), pp. 297,289
2) Brian Wenn Australian Government - Violence today, no. 4: Violence in sport
ISBN 0 642 14748 5; ISSN 1032-7894
In this case it was the U.S. Vs. Miller in which the court had to rule on whether a sawed off shotgun has a reasonable relationship in the preservation of a well regulated militia (Gun Politics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_politics_in_the_United_States).
As recently as 2002, the Supreme Court dealt with issues of gun control with regard to felons owning them. In that decision the court ruled that no agency or state can allow a convicted felon to ever own a firearm for any reason.
By a unanimous vote, the nine justices held that a federal district court lacked the authority to order Texas gun dealer Thomas Lamar Bean's firearms privileges restored after the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms declined to consider his request because Congress had refused to give it money to do so (Lane, 2002)."
The concept of the second amendment is at the core of any Supreme Court hearing with…
Gun Politics (Accessed 4-8-07)
Lane Charles, (2002) Supreme Court Unanimously Affirms Gun Control Provision; Federal Courts May Not Restore Ownership Right to Felons.The Washington Post | Date: December 11, 2002 | Author: Charles Lane
____(2003) Gun rights showdown / Assault rifle ban goes before Supreme Court
Gun Control" care deeply enough about the Second Amendment to write essays on the topic. However, the two essays are completely different not just in their rhetorical content but also in their rhetorical style. The former, entitled "How I See It," is an article that argues in favor of gun proliferation while the latter, "A Case for Gun Control," argues in favor of gun control. The two essays differ significantly in terms of language, supporting evidence, sociological influences, and author perspectives.
Given the striking differences between the quality of "How I See It" and "A Case for Gun Control," it seems unfair to compare the two. "How I See It" lacks credibility because of the frequent use of, and reliance upon, logical fallacies. hile a pro-gun position can be framed in a logical and sane manner, this author is neither of those. Instead, the author of "How I See It"…
Author Last Name, Author First Name. "A Case for Gun Control." Date.
Author Last Name, Author First Name. "How I See It." Date.
Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools?
The purpose of this 2009 mixed method study by Cecelia Obeng was to ascertain the need for teaching gun safety to students in pre-K to grade 6. Additionally, the researchers hoped to determine who teachers felt were most qualified to teach children about gun safety and to determine if gun safety were to be, taught the most appropriate grade level. In 2005 there were 3,006 firearms related deaths in among children aged 15 and younger. Of these 822 (27%) were children that committed suicide with a gun, 1,972 (66%) were gun related homicides, and 212 (7%) were a result of accidental death related to firearms. Approximately one-third of U.S. homes with children have firearms. esearch indicates that levels of firearm deaths among children are closely related to the availability of guns in the home.
This study was conducted in two counties in a single…
Obeng, C. (2010, August). Should schoool safety be taught in schools? Perspectives of teachers. Journal of School Heatlh. Vol. 80, No. 8. 394-398.
" ("The Second Amendment," the Brady Campaign, 2006) Note how pro-gun activists conveniently omit the words referring to a well-regulated militia in their defense of carte blanche access to firearms. hen the U.S. Constitution was adopted, each of the states had its own military force comprised of part-time soldiers, and the militia was 'well-regulated' in the sense that its members were subject to various requirements such as training and engaging military exercises away from home. "It was a form of compulsory military service intended to protect the fledgling nation from outside forces and from internal rebellions," and every soldier was allowed to use his or her own firearms in the service of the United States as a member of the military ("The Second Amendment," the Brady Campaign, 2006)
To arm and train the military was the true intent of the Second Amendment, not that every person without military training should…
Gun Control." ACLU. 4 Mar 2002. [16 Feb 2007] http://www.aclu.org/police/gen/14523res20020304.html
The Second Amendment." The Brady Campaign. 2006. [16 Feb 2007] http://www.bradycampaign.org/ facts/issues/?page=second
Federal and State Legislation
Domestic Violence Legislation at the Federal and State Level
Domestic violence is considered any violent act taken against someone involved in an intimate or family relationship (Eulich, 2013). It is a serious problem with countless victims each year. In 1994, Congress passed the United States Crime Bill which gave power to the federal government to help combat domestic violence, in particular violence against women and children. Specifically, the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) was created to address this problem which is considered to not only hurt victims, but also damage families, children and society as a whole (Eulich, 2013). The Act mandates that such crimes may be prosecuted by the Department of Justice and that the Gun Control Act (that existed as part of the federal Crime Bill) be extended to include issues related to domestic violence crimes. This VAWA gives the federal government a platform…
Eulich, W. (2013, February 13). In U.S., big strides in reducing domestic violence. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG.
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States
The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
In my personal opinion, everybody is legally and morally entitled to own guns. The U.S. Constitution does delineate citizens' right to possess and carry arms -- a right that is often disregarded in the organizational context. In the year 2002, timberland owner and timber-products manufacturer, Weyerhaeuser, based in Seattle, sacked a number of its Oklahoma factory workers for violating the company-stipulated prohibition against keeping arms in their automobiles. This mass firing elicited a sharp outcry from gun-rights supporters such as the NRA (National Rifle Association). These groups assert that individuals bearing a firearms license must be able to access their guns in the event they are really needed, while traveling back and forth between their homes and workplaces. According to the NRA's executive VP, Wayne Lapierre, the fact that organizations can prohibit firearms in employee automobiles represents a serious blow to the Constitutional Amendment II (Shaw). However, senior attorney working…