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Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes, Donald & Evans (2006) refer to the threat that agri-business has on indigenous wildlife and the long-term problems this dynamic poses to both human and non-human species. Almost half of all land surfaces on the planet are consumed by agricultural endeavors, note the authors. Agricultural develop threatens species diversity more so than overpopulation itself. Monocrops and cash crops like soybean, rubber, and oil palm are only the most obvious means by which habitats are destroyed. When any pristine landscape is compromised by human development, the result is an irreversible fragmentation.
Agro-business does, tend to pose the greatest threat to environmental integrity and diversity. As developing nations devote increasing amounts of space to agro-business, the situation will only worsen. "Habitat Connectivity and Matrix estoration" illustrates the political, social, and ecological implications of agro-business and inspires possible solutions. Birds, according to…
Donald, P.F. & Evans, A.D. (2006). Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes. Journal of Applied Ecology (2006) 43, 209 -- 218 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01146.x
Destruction of Bison
The Destruction of the Bison
The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920 by Andrew Isenberg is an account of the near total-extermination of the bison in Great Plains of America. The bison population declined from being around 30,000,000 in the eighteenth century to less than a 1,000 by the end of the nineteenth century. In recounting the fate of the bison population and how it was decimated in Great Plains, Isenberg looks at various historical, cultural, economic, and ecological factors that contributed to the decimation of the animal. Isenberg challenges two conventional explanations of the bison destruction, both of which largely laid blame on the white Euro-American predators. It was believed that the behavior of Euro-American settlers in the Great Plains was characterized by wastefulness, while Native American Indians were conscious environmentalists (Gore) who preyed on the buffalo only out of necessity and did not…
Cronon, William, "The Uses of Environmental History." Environmental History Review, 17 (Fall 1993), 1-22. .
Dolph, James A., and Dolph, C. Ivar, "The American Bison: His Annihilation and Preservation." The Magazine of Western History, 25.3 (Summer, 1975), 14-25.
Gore, Al. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.
Isenberg, Andrew. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
The first tactic the groups used was to intimidate the local inhabitants with a show of military force and then introduce domesticated animals that often used up a disproportionate amount of the local food resources for their needs.
Since the Californian Indians lived in highly fragmented tribes it was difficult for the missionaries to bring the religion to them; rather they attracted to Indians to the "faith." The Californian Indians were hurdled into guarded Mission compounds which completely disrupted any of the local tribe's daily activities (Mcilliams, 1973, p. 29). Once the natives were converted they basically became slaves and as such were separated from their former affiliations by force. After being baptized, California Indians were no longer allowed to make contact with any of their tribes unless those members became slaves as well. This was strictly adhered to as the missionaries wanted the natives to adopt the new culture…
Castillo, E. (1998). California Indian History. Retrieved from California Native Americans: http://www.nahc.ca.gov/califindian.html
Daritt-Newton, D., & Erlandson, I. (2006). Little Choice for the Chumash. American Indian Quarterly, 416-432.
McWilliams. (1973). Southern California: An Island on the Land.
Wilson. (1999). The Earth Shall Weep: A History of Native America.
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains
Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in…
Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.
California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.
Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].
TVA v. Hill Questions
Do you agree with the Court's decision, based upon the language of the Endangered Species Act quoted above? That is, did the Endangered Species Act preclude construction of the dam? Should the ESA have precluded construction of the dam? as Congress right to amend the ESA to permit the dam to be built?
The Supreme Court acted correctly in its decidedly rigid invocation of Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). According to its decision, Section 7 asserts that "all Federal agencies must take such action as is necessary to ensure that actions authorized, funded, or carried out by them do not result in the destruction or modification of this critical habitat area." (U.S. Supreme Court, p. 1)
Given that $100 million of federal funds had already been funneled into the Tellico Dam project, it is clear that Congress was explicitly responsible for…
Church, T.W. (2007). Review: The Snail Darter Case: TVA vs. The Endangered Species Act by Kenneth M. Murchison. Law and Politics Book Review, 17(8).
Courts, Cats, and Carbon (CCC). (2013). Special Feature: Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill. Courtscatscarbon.com/
Garrett, E. (2009). The Story of TVA v. Hill: Congress Has the Last Word. Weblaw.usc.edu.
Rizzardi, K. (2008). Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill -- 437 U.S. 153. ESA Blawg.
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
Climate change, or global warming, is threating the ecosystems of millions of different species. There are at least 8 million unique species of life on the planet and many of the animals are under a threat that is not due to direct human involvement (alsh). The habitat destruction that is being caused is not something that animal protection acts can address. The problem is with the changing conditions of the environment, these species are losing their habitats altogether or being forced to either migrate or adapt. There have been five extinction waves in the planet's history -- including the Permian extinction 250 million years ago, when an estimated 70% of all terrestrial animals and 96% of all marine creatures vanished, and, most recently, the Cretaceous event 65 million years ago, which ended the reign of the dinosaurs (alsh). Therefore, it could be said that the environmental protection acts or not…
Benzie, R. "Tim Hudak warns endangered species regulations hurting business." 26 February 2013. The Star. Online. 12 April 2004.
Castelnuovo, R. "Case Studies in History and Society." Which Home Do We Protect? The Challenge of Protecting Endangered Species and Property. A Review Essay on Private Property and the Endangered Species Act. Ed. Jason F. Shogren. Austin: Texas Press, 1999. 153.
Debate.org. Should we protect endangered species? N.d. .
Platt, J. "How Much Did the U.S. Spend on the Endangered Species Act in 2012?" 1 November 2013. Scientific American. Online. 13 April 2014.
However, not all biologists agree that building or preserving corridors is the best way to proceed, because it still allows much of the animal's habitat to be diverted for human use (Thwaites, PAGE). They suggest that corridors are an expensive solution, but often those biologists prefer to see less land diversion.
Another solution is voluntary conservation efforts, called "Habitat Conservation Plans" (HCPs). Since these are voluntary, however, they vary greatly in quality and effectiveness. In addition, they allow considerable habitat destruction, and they do not always fully address the long-term survival needs of the endangered animals (Kostyack, PAGE). aturalists have noted that the number of HCPs established in areas of development often do not reflect the level of threat faced by endangered species in the area (Kostyack, PAGE). Critics of how HCPs are currently used believe the government should work harder to require landowners to protect endangered species living on…
Nickens, Eddie. "Woodpecker wars (red-cockaded woodpecker as an endangered specie)." American Forests. January 1, 1998.
Pyper, Wendy. "Changing habitat: the revival of the Richmond birdwing butterfly offers hope that through research, education, dedication and teamwork, local communities can secure a future for threatened species." Ecos. January 1, 2001.
Thwaites, Tim. " Safe passage.(wildlife conservation aided by strips of conserved habitat)(Wildlife Corridors)." International Wildlife. July 17, 1998.
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Paying landowner easements to restrict development on their property is another way to protect habitats (Terris). However, it is still feared that these measures may be inadequate. The most popular solution appears to be controlling growth development to lessen the impact of future urbanization. This means making better use of already developed areas, and providing mixed land uses (Terris). Environmentalists agree that strategic planning is the best solution to help curb further destruction in the future.
Human Rights, not Animal Rights
Numerous wildlife encounters where animals appear in suburban areas make the news headlines at an increasing rate. This would appear to be good, as it indicates that animals are adapting to their human neighbors, and that they are thriving despite the invasion. However, wild animals in the burbs pose a hazard in terms of automobile collisions with deer, and even human deaths by bear attacks (Shaw). Not everyone agrees…
Shaw, Jane. Nature in the Suburbs. (SMG 261-65) http://www.heritage.org/Research/SmartGrowth/BG1724.cfm (Accessed November 4, 2008).
Terris, Jutka. Unwelcome (Human) Neighbors: The Impacts of Sprawl on Wildlife. (SMG 256- 61) http://www.nrdc.org/cities/smartGrowth/pwild.asp (Accessed November 4, 2008).
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…
St. Croix Ground Lizard
As happens with some anoles and other reptiles in the Caribbean, the St. Croix ground lizard is seriously endangered because of human encroachment and exotic predators. For all their speed and quick reflexes, a number of ameivas are easy prey to mongooses. On June 03, 1977, the St. Croix ground lizard was designated as endangered in the St. Croix area. There are currently only two islands where the St. Croix ground lizard, now extinct on St. Croix and listed as an endangered species, still exists -- Green Cay and Protestant Cay.
About the St. Croix Ground Lizard
Croix Ground Lizard is a small species of Ameiva that measures approximately 35 to 77 millimeters in snout-vent length (UFWA, 1992). The lizard is easily distinguished by its parallel longitudinal black, white, and light-brown stripes. Its belly is light gray with lateral blue margins, and pinkish undersides of legs,…
Dodd, C., Jr. (1980). Ameiva polops Cope. St. Croix ground lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Association (UFWA). (February, 1992). Endangered and Threatened Species of the Southeastern United States (The Red Book) FWS Region.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Association Service. (2003). Green Cay National Wildlife Refuge General Information. Retrieved from the Internet at http://caribbean-ecoteam.fws.gov/green_cay_index.htm.
Urban, Val. (1977). Green Cay, National Wildlife Refuge. Refuge Facts.
Two general approaches are used in connection with mangrove restoration. One method only focuses on the replanting of mangroves to replenish those that were lost. The other concentrates on discovering the reason for losses and preventing further loss of mangrove habitat. This philosophy supports natural recovery of the ecosystem, once the sources of destruction have been discovered and eliminated (Lewis & Streever, 2000). Both of these approaches have merit for different reasons.
The first option is to plant mangroves to replenish areas that have been lost. This method is the most costly in terms of capital input. However, it will result in the most rapid recovery of the mangrove forests. Natural recovery of the forests takes between 15-30 years, and that is only if the sources of destruction can be adequately controlled (Lewis & Streever, 2000). However, as mentioned earlier, replanting may be difficult, especially if the area has been…
Coastal Conservancy Association (CCA). (2007). CCA Florida Habitat Restoration Projects. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.ccaflorida.org/habitat.html .
CSIRO Australia (2001, February 14). Storm Surges Increase with Warming Oceans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 10, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/02/010212073904.htm
Hill, K. (2001). What is a Lagoon? Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.sms.si.edu/irLspec/Whatsa_lagoon.htm .
Department of Environmental Protection (n.d.). Florida's Mangroves "Walking Trees" Florida Marine Research Institute. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.floridaplants.com/horticulture/mangrove.htm
Coral reefs began declining when more and more large fish, turtles and seals were killed, species which in the past had frequented coral reef systems. The "reduced visits" have led to a reduced number of herbivorous fish and "added nutrients from pollution" all of which result in seaweed overgrowth and destruction of the reef (Houlder, 2003).
Methods for Addressing Over fishing
The government has encouraged many fisheries and local agents to develop strategic plans for combating the problem of deep sea over fishing. In particular much attention has been spent on an 'ecosystem' approach to fishery management which is adaptive, geographically specified and works to balance diverse objectives (Shotton, 2003). An ecosystem approach aims at "conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems and the fishery resource" (Shotton, 2003).
Longlines can be weighted so that bait sinks faster, and hooks can be set at night, thus reducing the impacts on…
Clarke, T. (September, 2003). "North sea fish have shrunk." Nature Science - European
Cetacean Bycatch Campaign. 1, December 2004: http://www.eurocbc.org/northsea_number_small_fish_increased_due_to_overfishing_25sept2003page1290.html
CSI. "Destructive Fishing Practices." Conservation Science Institute. 1, December, 2004 from: http://www.conservationinstitute.org/destructivefishingpractices.htm
Dayton, P.K., Thrush, S.F., Agardy, M.T., & Hofman, R.J. (1995). "Environmental effects of marine fishing." Aquatic Conservation 5: 205-32
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
Life Span of io Grande Cutthroat Trout
Mature io Grande Cutthroat Trout live between six and eight years, about average for their species (Spaete, 2006). They are stream spawners, and their average age of sexual maturity is between five and seven years of age, with breeding occurring only once or twice during the lifespan (Spaete, 2006). In general, breeding season is between spring and early summer, with offspring in the 1000 to 2000 range (Spaete, 2006). Environmental factors including temperature and food availability will impact the breeding cycle as well as overall size of the individuals.
Habitat Management for io Grande Cutthroat Trout
The io Grande Cutthroat Trout is a subspecies of the cutthroat living primarily in the rivers of Colorado and New Mexico. In addition to the io Grande itself, the Pecos iver and the Canadian iver are its native habitats. The io Grande Cutthroat Trout thrives when it…
Pritchard, V.L. & Cowley, D.E. (2006). Rio Grande Cuthroat Trout. USDA Forest Service. 28 July, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5206803.pdf
Rinne, J.N. (n.d.). Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout." Chapter 3. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved online: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr256/rm_gtr256_024_027.pdf
"Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout Conservation Strategy," (2013). Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved online: https://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/NewMexico/documents/RGCT_conservation_strategy_final_12-10-13.pdf
Spaete, L. (2006). Oncorhynchus clarkia. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved online: http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Oncorhynchus_clarkii/
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…
Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/
Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/
Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full
Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
Of the top 150 medications that are sold by prescription in the U.S. 118 of these are medications that are either "derived from or modeled on naturally occurring substances." (SEAM Global, 2005) Some of the medications that count on habitat presently being destroyed are "aspirin, morphine, vincristine, taxol, digitalis, and most antibiotics."(SEAM Global, 2005)
VI. Internet/Networking: Role Played in Preservation
Through global and subglobal assessments of the ecosystem and monitoring of data in relation to global changes information may be shared from one region to another and earlier attempts made in changing, slowing or altogether avoidance of more extreme conditions. As stated on the web page of "GreenFacts.org": "Some ecosystem problems have been reduced by innovative local responses...Therefore institutions are needed at multiple levels to strengthen the adaptive capacity and effectiveness of sub-national and local responses. (GreenFacts.org, 2005)
VII. Globalization and Changes in Production
Changes have been seen in the…
Globalization's Effects "A World Connected" Online available at http://www.aworldconnected.org/article.php/231.html
Shah, Anup (2005) Effects of Consumerism 2005 April 18 Online available at http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption/Effects.asp
Globalization: Negative Effects of Development (2005) Walon Laboratories Online available at http://whalonlab.msu.edu/Student_Webpages/2003_EC_Projects / Globalization/page_6.html.
Robbins, Richard H. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism. Allyn & Bacon. Copyright: 2002.
ildlife which does not have natural predators in Florida was introduced by people who had bought those animals or reptiles and could not control them, or had to leave the state, and therefore abandoned them in the Everglades. The best example is the one of a Burmese python which was let go in the Everglades and had attached an alligator. Both animals did not survive the encounter, yet it shows that human are the main threat to the environment.
To summarize the environmental issues in Florida, we can say that the main issue is the development and encroachment into the Everglades. The lush mangrove and saw grass marshes of South Florida are the last of a great wilderness that, until the 20th century, stretched for hundreds of miles. Our Everglades refuge countless species, including endangered Florida panthers, Cape Sable seaside sparrows and American crocodiles. Many years of encroaching development have…
NAI. Everglades. NDI Wild Places . 26 April 2010 .
NAI2. Saving the Everglades. 2010. 26 April 2010 .
Natural Resources Defense Council. Florida Everglades. 20 September 2009. 26 April 2010 .
Parker, Karen. Wildlife 'rescues' can do more harm than good. 19 April 2010. 26 April 2010 .
There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.
One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…
1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:
2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118784304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
Still, it is not unimaginable, within a lake as large as Victoria that they might also divide into separate populations along very subtle lines of variation -- like mating behaviors or feeding preferences.
This sort of interpretation of the situation in Lake Victoria, however, rests upon the notion that the species of cichlid found there evolved from a single ancestral species. Yet, even Meyer acknowledges that this might not be the case: "Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic." Put differently, it is possible that the species of cichlid that have evolved in Lake Victoria came from a group of distinct, but closely related, fish that colonized the region several thousand years ago. If this is the case, then the scientific importance of the Victorian cichlids would be somewhat diminished, because a less explosive series of adaptive radiations could explain…
Goldschmidt, Tijs. 1998. Land-Use Changes and NIS in Lake Victoria. Bright and Lodge, 1998.
Kolar, Cynthia S. And David M. Lodge. 2000. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Meyer, Axel et al. 1990. Monophyletic Origin of Lake Victoria Cichlid Fishes Suggested by Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Nature, 347.
Office of Protected Resources. 2005. Endangered Species Act of 1973. NOAA Fisheries. Available:
In recent article in the magazine Grist, Comet's co-owner (with Salfi) Shaffer mentioned that he is the executive director of "Business Alliance for Local Living Economies" (BALLE). Shaffer explained that BALLE - which is interconnected with Comet's entrepreneurship processes - is an alliance of more than 5,400 entrepreneurs in the U.S. And in Canada who are "...dedicated to building "Local Living Economies" (LLE). These economies are committed to "the long-term health of a particular place," Shaffer went on, "whether it is a big city like Philadelphia, medium-sized town like Grand Rapids, Michigan, or a rural area like the Rogue River Valley" in Oregon.
Several of the principles of BALLE include promoting the "decentralized ownership of businesses," "fair wages," promoting news media stories that are "independent of corporate control," and promoting the idea that BALLE members buy from other BALLE members and BALLE entrepreneurs treat customers with dignity and respect, in…
Comet Skateboards. "Phoresia Interview with Jason Salfi." Retrieved May 3, 2008, at http://blog.cometriders.org/?p=41.
Comet Skateboards. "Products. Factory. Contact." Retrieved May 3, 2008, at http://www.cometskateboards.com .
Forest Stewardship Council. "The History of FSC-U.S.." Retrieved May 4, 2008, at http://www.fcus.org/about_us/.
Grist Magazine. "Skate of Grace: Don Shaffer, local-biz promoter and green skateboard entrepreneur answer's Grist's questions." (June 6, 2006). Retrieved May 4, 2008, at http://www.grist.org .
With regard to the issue of environment, the company has faced the ire of EPA and lot of other legal authorities for its failure to confirm to emission standards within the permissible limits. The company has not been able to contain emission levels on a year to year basis. With regard to the issue of employment, the employees of the company have occupational hazards being faced by its employees and the company has several litigations being filed against them for the misuse of the services of its employees. It could be stated that Multinational Corporations like Doe un has been unethical in its activities which need to be brought under scrutiny and control.
Table showing metals mined by Doe un
Dollars in thousands)
Table showing Net Sales of Products and Services
Dollars in thousands)
Primary lead metal sales
Cheryl Whittenauer. U.S.: Doe Run ordered to clean up tailings site. 2 October, 2006. http://www.warprofiteers.com/article.php?id=14196
DeVous, Philip. Utopian solutions vs. real corporate social responsibility. http://ff.org/centers/csspp/library/co2weekly/20051222_news/20051222_04.html
Doe Run Resources Corp: Annual Report 10-K. http://sec.edgar-online.com/2005/03/23/0001047469-05-007373/Section2.asp
Final Award allowing Compensation. The Labor and Industrial relations Commission. http://www.dolir.mo.gov/lirc/wcdecisions/wcdec01%5CLorenA.htm
preservation of the cougar in eastern U.S. As well as for its survival and regeneration in areas of that district and to argue, simultaneously, that care be taken to promote its survival in other parts of the U.S.
The so-called North American cougar is only called so because, whilst, at one time, rampant in the Eastern states, it has virtually been eliminated from there due to hunting and other factors overtly and unintentionally directed to destroying its species. Whilst once commonly found in eastern N. America, it is, nowadays, more prevalent in the western states that seem to care more for its survival.
In the eastern states, the cat was almost universally known as the 'panther', but even in the western states, descendents of that ill-fated species are slowly dying out to man's neglect of the beast. The Puma concolor couguar, for instance, remains one of the few remaining population…
Baron, David (July 28, 2011). "The Cougar Behind Your Trash Can." Boulder, Colorado: New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/29/opinion/the-cougar-behind-your-trash-can.html . Retrieved 9/8/2011.
Barringer, Felicity (March 2, 2011). "U.S. Declares Eastern Cougar Extinct, With an Asterisk." The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/01/us/03cougar.html?hpw . Retrieved 9/8/2011.
Boswell, Randy (March 2, 2011). "Montreal Gazette: U.S. officials declare eastern cougar extinct, despite sightings in Canada." Montreal Gazette, Postmedia News.
Cardoza, J.E., & Langlois, SA. (2002). The eastern cougar: A management failure? Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(1):265-273.
Political Issue and Tourism
Over the years, there has been concern over the fats shifting weather pattern occasioned by the global warming. Extreme and erratic weather conditions have been experienced in almost every part of the world. This essay will review the literature that is available on the definition of Global warming, the causes of global warming, effects of global warming on the community and nations, what the government is doing to stop global warming, as well as what Non-Governmental Organizations or Non-State Organizations are doing to stop global warming and finally what should be done to stop global warming.
The essay will also review the impact of global warming and community of Nations on tourism and how the changing weather patterns have impacted on the tourism trends from the human perspective as well as from the flora and fauna perspective. This will show how global warming has affected the…
Admin, (2011). Definition of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.definitionofglobalwarming.com/
African Safari Vacation, (2010). Effects of Global Warming on Tourism in Africa. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.kenyaonetours.com/african-safari/events/global-warming-on-africa.htm
Anita Pleumaron, (2007). Tourism Feels the heat of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11,
2011 from http://www.google.co.ke/#sclient=psyab&hl=sw&source=hp&q=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&oq=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=94883l112644l1l113205l35l34l4l0l0l14l3892l25307l5-184.108.40.206.4l22l0&bav=cf.osb&fp=a55a91a0191aef52&biw=12
Fate of the Earth
Unfortunately, even if someone could wave a magic wand that causes all of the nuclear weapons on earth to disappear, many believe that due to the depletion of natural resources, the earth would still be in danger of catastrophe, and humankind in danger of extinction.
Jonathan Schell's book "Fate of the Earth" is an alarming portrait of the nuclear power in the world. Since the end of orld ar II, nuclear arms have kept the world's population in a state of constant concern that "something" could happen, whether by design or accident. As tensions continue to build throughout the Middle East, particularly between India and Pakistan, and more recently the nuclear potential of North Korea and China, the nuclear arms race may have subsided between the United States and Russia however, it is still alive and thriving around the globe. As Schell writes, "These bombs were…
Borenstein, Seth. "Study blames global warming for early springs."
St. Louis Post-Dispatch; 5/17/2005; pp.
Hanley, Charles J. "Ocean Study Confirms Global Warming."
Wisconsin State Journal; 4/28/2005; pp.
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
Bahrain's National Action Charter, the Bahrain Economic Vision 2030, and the National Strategic Master Plan 2030 all promote sustainable economic development. A number of formal governmental and private sector organizations help to inform actual strategies for improving Bahrain's environmental assessments. The key issues the Kingdom of Bahrain faces in the early 21st century include water access, air pollution, urban development, rising sea levels, the pollution of the ocean by the petrochemical industries, and ineffective waste management.
Until 1925, Bahrain relied on freshwater springs. By the 1980s, almost all of those freshwater sources had ceased flowing, and now the Kingdom relies on "non-conventional sources of water," namely desalination (Bahrain Economic Development Board, 2017). Bahrain has four desalination plants. Still, Bahrain has a terrible water consumption ratio and is ranked as the second most wasteful water user in the world, measured in water per square centimeter of land (Bahrain Economic Development…
Air Pollution in Bahrain: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://aqicn.org/map/bahrain/
Bahrain Economic Development Board (2017). Water. Retrieved online: http://www.bahrain.com/en/bi/key-investment-sectors/Pages/Water.aspx#.WQ5rmInyuRs
CIA World Factbook (2016). Bahrain Urbanization. Retrieved online: http://www.indexmundi.com/bahrain/urbanization.html
Fowler, S.W. (1993). Pollution in the Gulf. IAEA Bulletin. Retrieved online: https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/35205980913.pdf
Major Issues of the 21st Century: Who is Responsible for Addressing Global Warming?
Global warming is one of the most pressing issues in the 21st century. In the last few decades, the world has experienced higher temperatures, increased melting of ice caps, rising sea levels, more regular and more adverse weather events (such as storms, floods, heat waves, and drought), and changing rainfall patterns. We have also observed increased rain and ocean acidification, desert expansion, as well as greater species endangerment. These occurrences have largely been linked to human activity, particularly air pollution, burning of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, industrialization, and deforestation. The issue is so pressing that it threatens the ability of future generations to sustain their lives, which is ethically unfair. Indeed, global warming threatens food security, human health, human and non-human survival, as well as socioeconomic stability in the future (Cummins, 2014; Justin, 2015).…
Worldwide Population Increase Affect Planet
The world population is a lucrative endeavor that has influential effects on the immediate environment. One of the changing or growing avenues of the planet is that of the enlargement of the human population. Initially, the human population was perceived as a small entity within a vast planet. Nonetheless, the human population has been on the increase over the past centuries. Many lucrative approaches and human activities are part of the changes that have occurred because of the increase in human population in the planet. The avenues of performance within the spectral and planetary stratifications account to the many steps that have been taken by human beings in the environment. The environment is a fragile structure and body that deserves equitable management and security. In order to foster equitable management of the environmental sustainability avenues, there is a need to have a long-range of performances…
Axelrod, R.B., Cooper, C.R., Warriner, A.M., & Kennedy, X.J. (2011). Reading Critically,
Writing Well ninth Ed + Writing and Revising. Bedford/St. Martins
Baer, H.A. (2012). Global capitalism and climate change: The need for an alternative world system. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Gilbert, G. (2006). World population: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-
Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States
Regulation of etlands in the United States
Defining etlands and their Value
A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…
Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010
Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:
Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.
Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.
There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.
Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1
Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)
III. Cultural Significance of the River
Diversity is important for the following reasons:
Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…
Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June
Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.
Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf
Mekong River Basin
Tile: Becoming a vegan
Background information and literature on being a vegan
Justification of the problem
Why the issue of becoming a vegan is relevant in the contemporary socisty.
An interview with a student who is a vegan and noting down of the factual firsthand experience of a vegan
Environmental easons for being vegan
Outline reasons from the student and other sources on how eating meat diets hurt the environment
Becoming a vegan
The notion of becoming a vegan and leaving out all the animal meat in our diet is by and large becoming an essential and almost an inevitable trend in the near future if the current trends are anything to go by. There are various people, famous and infamous, who have condemned the act of killing animals for their meat. One such figure is Leo Tolstoy who is widely quoted to have emphasized that "A man can live…
Richard Ryder, (2013). 49 Reasons why I am Vegetarian. Retrieved February 10, 2012 from http://www.britishmeat.com/49.htm
The Vegan Wolf, (2004). 10 Reasons for going Vegan. Retrieved February 10, 2012 from http://www.veganwolf.com/reasons_to_be_vegan.htm
Explain what conservation biology is and highlight its goals.
Conservation biology is a branch of biological sciences which is primarily concerned with the preservation of life on earth including organisms which are classified as plants and animals. It examines biodiversity and ways and means in which the biodiversity of life on Earth can best be sustained (Sahney 2008,-page 759). This branch of biological study began as a reaction to the growing concern over extinction of species and disruption of habitats because of natural disasters and/or the actions and behaviors of human beings and industrialization. Interactions between species, particularly the interaction between humans and native populations is of particular interest to conservation biologists, particularly in terms of negative effects of human interaction.
The goals of conversation biologists are to protect various species as well as their habitats and ecosystems. They also want to prevent the extinction of species and…
Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.
David Suzuki Foundation.
Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.
Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.
Corporate Social esponsibility
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility in the Workplace and the World
Key stakeholders within the PharmaCare scenario
Stakeholders play a significant role in influencing the performance and the realization of goals and objectives of the organization. They make corporate decisions about the ways in which the organization should carry out its operations meeting the demands of the customers and the legal requirements. The stakeholders of the PharmaCare Company are varied and have varying characteristics. Among the stakeholders, include the employees, customers, investors, and the creditors of the company. The performance of the PharmaCare Company relies largely on the hard work of the employees, the managers, and the members of its board. As such, it implies that the company should provide a variety of services to its employees such as compensation packages to retain and ensure their satisfaction with their job. In addition, the company provides regular training opportunities…
Cragg, W. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Hunnicutt, S. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Kao, R.W. (2010). Sustainable economy corporate, social, and environmental responsibility. Singapore: World Scientific.
McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. (n.d.). McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. Retrieved August 11, 2014, from http://www.mcspotlight.org/beyond/drugs.html
Tehran's geography makes air pollution worse: the Alborz Mountains at its north side trap the increasing volume of pollutants and lead these to remain and hover over Tehran when the wind is not strong enough to blow them away. Furthermore, Tehran's high altitude makes fuel combustion inefficient and adds to the problem. Its altitude is between 3, 300 and 5,000 feet and it is in this space that the pollutants are trapped since the destruction of orchards and other vegetation especially in northern Tehran in the past decades by rapid development and human activity pressures. These natural and man-made factors together have made Tehran one of the most polluted cities in the world. Air pollution reached critical level in December 1999 when high levels of carbon monoxide and other pollutants filled Tehran for many weeks. Deaths, diseases and skin conditions are attributed to extreme air pollution. Records say that more…
Energy Information Administration. (2002). Iran: Environmental Issues. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/iranenv.html
2005). Iran. Country Analysis Briefs.
law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?
Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.
It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…
Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)
British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38
Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute
DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
Condors eat dead squirrels but the colossal birds also consume the poisons intended only for those squirrels. The Condors talk to each other, fearing extinction, introducing naturalism. In 1985 the last 22 Condors are plucked from their tortured habitat and taken to the San Diego Zoo and other venues for captive breeding.
Fast forward to 2012. n ristotelian plot structure with mind-bending irony -- first utilizing the reversal of fortune followed by society's recognition (anagnorisis -- a sudden discovery) that takes people from ignorance to knowledge -- could be a model useful for an enterprising screenwriter delving into the Condor's fate. The reversal of fortune is the demise of the Condor due to human interventions, intended and unintended. That many informed humans have gone from ignorance to knowledge completes the second part of ristotle's plot formula.
s to the irony in proposed ristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In…
As to the irony in proposed Aristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In the masterpiece by Sophocles, Oedipus launches an investigation into who murdered his father, and learns to his chagrin and shock that he alone murdered his father. A screenwriter in 2012 that is blending real-world reality with fictional / naturalism narrative would be to have the father of a little boy (who is fascinated with these enormous birds with the longest wingspan of any bird in North America) investigate -- at the urging of his son -- the reasons some recently released California Condors are seriously ill and dying.
It turns out the father is a member of the National Rifle Association (NRA), a group that refuses to accept the empirical science that shows Condors are poisoned when eating the carcasses of deer and other critters that have been shot with lead bullets. The father's investigation ironically points to his own organization as helping to kill Condors and he can't bear to tell his son, who is already heartbroken that some Condors are dying. This Oedipus-like irony could be considered Aristotelian. it's a father-son plot drenched in angst, descriptively genuine, written with the literary weapons of the future of hope colliding with history.
In conclusion, this not about a "Free Willy" plot. It is about a battlefield between the emerging conservation-minded generation now in middle school and those who are in benign denial as they kill natural world species. The details involve a restless adolescent revolution; thoughtlessness, greed, and adult resistance to good conservation are crushing the natural world. The brilliant, creative genius of a young boy -- who figures out a way to entertain the public (against the will of his parents) with a video that depicts not the toxic resistance of NRA members but the joy of a youthful future -- fits like a glove into the rough draft of a screenwriter searching for fresh themes in a world chocking on old themes.
Pesticides which were invented to destroy large quantities of insects that were harming crops, are actually causing a great deal of harm to the environment. This has been an issue particularly in the agricultural field. Farmers and those in the agricultural field have for a long time had to deal with insects which try to attack their crops and ruin their potential harvest. To combat these bugs, scientists were able to create chemical combinations which would kill the insects and then protect the crops which could then be sold and given to humans. These chemicals, such as DDT, were very successful and farmers had more to harvest than they had in years past (right 2007). However, there was an unforeseen result of the mass spraying of poisonous chemicals on the food stuffs. Human beings were negatively affected in a multitude of ways including contracting illnesses as a result of ingesting…
Bassil, K.L. et al. (2007). Cancer health effects of pesticides. Canadian Family of Physicians.
The College of Family Physicians of Canada: Canada. (53:10). 1704-11.
Lear, L. (1997). Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Hoyten.
Savage, S. (2012). When increased pesticide use is a good thing. Science 2.0.
Jesuit elations: Natives and Missionaries in Seventeenth-Century North America edited by Allan Greer. Specifically it will consider the role the Jesuit missionaries played in the history of New France circa 1633-1665. This book is an important historical document because it preserves many of the practices and parts of the Northeast Native American culture that are now long gone. eading this book is an excellent introduction to Native American culture and values in the early seventeenth-century, and it is valuable for research into the culture, beliefs, and values at the time.
The Jesuits were not in Canada and the Northeast to alter their way of thinking. Their main goals were to colonize and covert the areas to French Christianity. As the editor notes in the Introduction, "And of course, the Jesuits themselves were determined to reshape native thinking and behavior in conformity with Christian principles" (Greer 11). At the time when…
Greer, Allan, ed. The Jesuit Relations: Natives and Missionaries in Seventeenth-Century North America. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000.
Paleozoic time period. Two internet sources, author.
The Paleozoic -- Geological History
Six major continents were present by the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, as the supercontinent had started to break apart during the latest Proterozoic period. Each of these continents can be separated into two principal constituents: a craton and one or several mobile belts. In contrast to the geological history of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic periods, there is lesser information concerning the Paleozoic era because the development of Pangaea led to the destruction of magnetic anomaly patterns that would normally be preserved in ocean crust. Experts thus focused on other concepts in trying to find out more regarding the period's geological history, such as how plants and animals were distributed and other structural relationships.
In addition to the six major continents present during the beginning of the Paleozoic, there were also a series of other microcontinents. Even with…
Fielding, Cristopher R., Frank, Tracy D., and Isbell, John L., "The late Paleozoic ice age revisited," EOS, TRANSACTIONS AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, VOL. 87, NO. 8,-PAGE 87, 2006 doi:10.1029/2006EO080005.
Wicander, Reed, and Monroe, James. S., "Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time," (Cengage Learning, 25.05.2012)
"The Carboniferous Period," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the University of California website: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/carboniferous/carboniferous.php
Part 1: A Closer Look at the Evidence
1. The first graph on the NASA site shows the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, comparing across time. It shows that for all time, there were fluctuations in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, but that the level always remained below 300 parts per million. The graph takes a sharp uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time.
The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the…
S. Department of State). Since them the severity and frequency of bleaching events continues to increase. These bleaching events correlate with rising average sea temperatures on a global basis, rising sea levels, and more frequent tropical storms fueled by increasingly stronger heat masses (U.S. Department of State).
In addition to coral reef bleaching, the geographic ranges of many plants and animals are shifting. Plant and animal ranges are generally limited by climatic factors, with animals able to respond to climate changes faster than plants due to increased mobility (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). ecently, changes have been noticed in the ranges of several species. Those that cannot adapt to the new climate will quickly become extinct. Currently, nearly 20-30% of all plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future, with many of these extinctions related to climate change (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). However, climate change…
Begley, S. The Truth About Denial. Newsweek. August 13, 2007.
< http://www.newsweek.com/id/32482 > Accessed June 1, 2009.
Canadell, J., Le Quere, C., and Raupach, M., et al. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric
CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sink.
It may have seemed to many that Stegner was simply expressing a bitter lament or was being a naysayer, but in fact, what he predicted is actually quite close to the truth. The West is being settled as an insane rate, and there is simply not enough water to continue this growth. Certainly, there are other issues that make up the West, from its complex history to its varied ecosystems, peoples, and cities and towns. The fabric of the West is a patchwork, but if people do not evaluate it as "living space" above all else, and change their basic view of the West as never ending and always available, the West is going to undergo such a drastic and permanent change that it may not be inhabitable for a majority of those who live their now. Stegner, instead of being a negative doomsday predictor was a prophet who should…
These human actions that alter the living and nutrient conditions of soil organism include the repetitive tillage or burning of vegetation, soil erosion, overusing the land without replenishing it with humus or plant compost, clearing of forests. What can be done to solve this problem is to replenish the land with humus or plant compost, give the land rest after excessive use, planting of trees to reduce soil erosion etc. The soil organic matter is linked to the atmosphere; hydrosphere, biosphere and climate change in that the carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere of the earth.
The following are the strategy that I feel should be taken to restore the regions of Udaipur in India. In this area it is evident that the unnecessary human activities of over grazing, slash and burn farming, and activities causing soil erosion have…
Soil is a very important resource in the earth and care should be taken to preserve and maintain its quality. If this is not done, soil will not be able to support the future generations and this means they will be low food production in the world leading to famine to both human beings and animals
Curry and Good. Using Soil Fauna to Improve Soil Health: New York: Stork and Eggleton, 1992
wrong with this picture?
The viewpoint being espoused expresses some wonderful ideas but fails to take into consideration the basic selfishness of man. Expecting the kind of cooperation and dedication that would be necessary to accomplish what is being suggested in this scenario is highly idealistic. It would require the putting aside of both national interests and personal interests on a scale much larger than that necessary for the United Nations to operate. Suggesting that this might be possible is unrealistic. ather, the more reasoned approach is to allow the natural markets to develop.
In the short-term, the world's energy supply system will remain essentially as it is for the next several decades except that the demand in growth will continue due to sustained modernization in China, India and elsewhere. This means that new sources of oil and other energy sources need to be developed alongside strides in energy efficiency.…
Adger, W.N. (2001). Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Development and Change, 681-715.
Armitage, K.C. (2005). State of Denial: The United States and the politics of global warming. Globalizations, 417-427.
The pressure for increased meat to feed the world's hungry population vs. its strain on natural resources
The trendiness of vegetarianism and veganism aside, throughout history there has been a consistent trend regarding meat consumption. The more affluent the society, the more meat it tends to consume. This has been true of the rapidly-expanding population of the developing world. Given that the developed world continues to consume large amounts of meat, this has resulted in a proliferation of factory farming and a depletion of the earth's resources to feed growing demand: "These assembly-line meat factories consume enormous amounts of energy, pollute water supplies, generate significant greenhouse gases and require ever-increasing amounts of corn, soy and other grains, a dependency that has led to the destruction of vast swaths of the world's tropical rain forests" (Bittman 2008). Worldwide, per capita meat consumption has doubled since 1961 (Bittman…
Bittman, Mark. (2008). Re-thinking the meat guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Is eating meat sustainable. (2012). Real Food University. Retrieved:
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Backcountry Skiing Do Not Outweigh the Individual and Societal Impacts
Backcountry skiing is one of the most popular winter recreational activities in many parts of the globe. This activity has gained much popularity with many people taking waiting for winter to take part in the largely accepted practice across those countries that have long winters. There are many impacts of the activity not only to individuals and society but also to the economy and environment. Although environmental conservation campaigns have been on the rise, limited literature explains the impacts of this activity on the people and the environment. The activity is used as a recreational activity for most of the people, but recent calls have been made to have an environmental analysis of the effects of the activity to ensure that the negative impacts have been reduced across the globe. In some cases, the skiing takes place on mountains or…
These gunboats would devastate wildlife area and other immense and indefinite environmental impact. These tankers would carry liquefied natural gas or LNG in cruising through Head Harbor Passage. It would take at least 90 minutes for each tanker, the size of Queen Mary, to cross the passage of whale and porpoise feeding areas, breeding grounds and nurseries as well as aquaculture sites and fishing grounds (Figart).
The Passamaquoddy people and their ancestors have, for thousands of years, lived, fished, hunted and cultivated land in the Quoddy region (Harvey, 2004). They have thrived on marine species for survival. ut over 200 years of permanent European settlement in the region since the late 18th century introduced environmental predators and developers. With the passing of the years, they increased and became more and more efficient (Harvey). In response to the situation, the United Nations Environment developed the Global Programme of Action…
Akagi, H.M. (2002). Appeal to the UN. NGO Committee of the United Nations
International Decade of World's Indigenous Peoples: Sipayik.com. Retrieved on December 19, 2009 from http://www.sipayik.com/akagi's_appeal_to_the_un.htm
CEC (1998). Impact of contaminants on the resources of the Gulf of Maine. A Global
Programme of Action Coalition for the Gulf of Maine. Commission for Environmental Cooperation: Horsley & Witten, Inc. Retrieved on December 20,
Stream Degradation and King County' Salmon Population
King County in Washington State is home to some of the most significant spawning beds in the nation for several major species of salmon, such as the endangered steelhead and Chinook (or King) species. As a result of Washington's urbanization over the preceding years and decades, the purity and integrity of King County's streams and rivers have been degraded and the waterways contaminated (Morley, Karr, 2002). Currently, the Department of Natural esources' Water and Land esources Division is working on numerous projects to reclaim and maintain the streams and rivers of the County (Salmon and Trout Topics: ecovery, 2016). King County's own Wildlife Program Publication offers an indication of how important it is to maintain clean streams and waters for the salmon population. This study aims to answer the three-fold question: Has stream degradation affected salmon habitats in King County Washington state (specifically…
Are Wild Salmon Increasing in Numbers? (2014). State of Salmon in Watershed 2014
Report. Stateofsalmon.wa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.stateofsalmon.wa.gov/statewide/fish-summary/
Booth, D., Jackson, R. (1997). Urbanization of aquatic systems -- degradation thresholds, stormwater detention, and the limits of mitigation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 22(5): 1-20.
Booth, D., Hartley, D., Jackson, R. (2002). Forest cover, impervious-surface area, and the mitigation of stormwater impacts. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 38(3): 835-845.
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
etlands are the main link between the land and the water, and as such are vitally important to the ecology. etlands have been misunderstood and abused throughout the history of the United States -- and elsewhere in the world -- and that has led to enormous environmental losses. This paper explores all pertinent information with regard to wetlands.
hat are etlands?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as those "…transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients," along with the sun's energy, all meet in order to create "…a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation" (EPA). The four categories of wetlands are swamps, bogs, fens and marshes. The EPA describes marshes as wetlands that are "…dominated by soft-stemmed vegetation"; swamps are quite different, as they are composed of "mostly woody plants."
As for bogs, they are freshwater wetlands that were formed by glacier-made lakes;…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Wetlands Overview: What is a Wetland? Retrieved
July 23, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov .
Moreno-Mateos, David, Power, Mary E., Comin, Francisco A., and Yockteng, Roxana. (2012).
Structural and Functional Loss in Restored Wetland Ecosystems. PloS Biology, 10(1), 1-8.
The Malayan tiger is a tiger subspecies that is smaller in size and is found in Malaysia as well as some areas in Thailand. It is one of the many tiger species but it is endangered. It can be found in central and southern areas of the Malaysia peninsula as well as to the south of Thailand. Its habitat is the forests that are less dense which have higher food supply.
Because of the loss of habitat occasioned by deforestation, the existence of Malayan tiger is endangered. Recent estimates place their population at between 600-800 individuals, thereby making it one of the tiger species that have a large population (Malayan Tiger n.p).
ild tigers in all their species are facing extinction threats. For hundreds of years they have been important in Asia's nature and culture (Global recovery program p.10). They are at the top of the…
"Global Tiger Initiative." Tiger Summit. St. Petersburg: Global Tiger Initiative Secretariat, 2010. 70.
Malayan Tiger. 1 January 2008. 26 January 2015 .
"Securing a future for tigers in the wild." Wednesday November 2010. WWF. Accessed by 26 January 2015 available at:.
Tara Harris, Minnesota zoo, Allison Amavisa, Phoenix zoo. "Tiger conservation campaign." The AZA tiger species survival plan (2012): 12.
Trees cover nothing less than one-third of the earth's surface, and it is estimated that around 3 trillion trees exist worldwide. Forests are found in different climates and locations, they exist in wet, dry, sweltering and bitterly climates. Each of these forests types have the natural peculiarities that allow them to develop in their respective climate (Motivans). Unfortunately, in the past few decades, there has been an enormous level of commercial activities that have subjected forests all over the world to a dire consequential threat with adverse felt by most of the woodlands around the world. Deforestation, road and building constructions form a major part of human threats on the woodlands. Adding to the human activities is the climate change, which has been very devastating on many of the species that inhabit these forests. The threats on their inhabitants are a direct danger of extinction to these woodlands, as what…
Accordingly, the Lower Rio Grande Valley National ildlife Refuge, the former Sabal Palms Audubon Sanctuary, and the Nature Conservancy's Southmost Preserve would all be subjected to direct environmental auditing. Comparative figures measuring current findings against archived findings will provide a quantifiable understanding of the impact being levied by the wall in these specific areas. The sanctuaries have been selected for a number of reasons, specifically owing to the claim that these have been directly impacted by the construction of the Border all and based on the assumption that these sanctuaries will already possess a significant set of archived data on environmental features such air, soil and water quality, wildlife migration habits and the environmental safety of human habitation.
It is thus that the proposed study here seeks to support the claim that the border wall constructed in the LRGV is a both a poor response to the immigration crisis and…
Daily KOS. (2010). Walling off the Nature Conservancy. m.dailykos.com.
Mattei, E. (2009). Borderline: When it Comes to the Texas/Mexico Wall, No One's Sitting on the Fence. A Nation Divided. Online at http://blogs.swarthmore.edu/borderwall/?tag=rio-grande-valley
No Border Wall (NBW). (2010). Texas Politicians Ignoring the Danger That the Border Wall Poses to South Texas Levees. No Texas Border Wall. Online at
2005). The rules for deep-sea life are different than those for terrestrial species. Stratification plays an important role in species classification in vent environments. As the chimney grows in height the environment changes.
Tarasov and associates believe that deep-sea vents have a longer evolutionary history then shallow vents found closer to the surface. This is an important factor in understanding how hydrothermal vents are connected to early life on planet earth. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities represent a different phenomenon than shallow water vents. The chemical processes that take place in the deep-sea vent communities are very different from those in shallow areas. Shallow vent species receive light from the sun and more closely resemble terrestrial life forms. However, this is not so with deep-sea forms. Hydrothermal plumes are a rising column of hot water that can have sharp definitions in microhabitats. Similar species found inside the plume and outside of…
DeChaine, E. And Cavanaugh, C. 2006. Presence of post larval alvinocaridid shrimps over south-west Indian Ocean hydrothermal vents, with comparisons of the pelagic biomass at different vent sites Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 86 (1): 125-128.
Govenar, B., Le Bris, N., and Gollner, S. 2005. Epifaunal community structure associated with Riftia pachyptila aggregations in chemically different hydrothermal vent habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series,. 305: 67-77.
Jeng, M., Ng, K., and Ng, P. 2004. Feeding behaviour: Hydrothermal vent crabs feast on sea 'snow' Nature. December 2004. 432 (7020): 969.
Kelley, D., Karson, J., and Blackman, D. 2001. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30 degree N. Nature. July 12, 2001. 412 (6843): 145-149.
In fact, environmentalists were often dismissed during that time period. Moreover, environmental regulation was seen as an area of concern for each individual country, so that other countries would rarely, if ever, provide international pressure for environmental issues. However, the growing body of scientific literature about the environment changed the game between the 1970s and the 1980s/1990s. For example, when the James Bay Project was first conceived, it was considered a very green source of electricity because it lacked emissions and other hallmarks of pollution. The reality, however, is that the project resulted in incredible environmental damage:
It has been shown that environmental impacts of the first phase include: methyl mercury contamination of water in reservoirs and downstream rivers and mercury accumulation in fish; reversal of the natural seasonal flow pattern of rivers; conversion of La Grande estuary from a saltwater environment to a freshwater one because of regulated peak…
Bethune, D.N. (1997). Environmental Damage and Aboriginal Health. Retrieved February 21,
2010 from NIICHRO
Coffee, H. (1992). James Bay Hydroelectric Project Hits a Dam. Retrieved February 21, 2010
The Gray Wolf, which is also sometimes referred to as the tundra or timber wolf, belongs to the canidae species-also known as the dog family. Among its kind it is the largest member and can weigh up to 100 pounds. The gray wolf typically originates from areas in North America, Europe and North Africa. Although these wolves are called gray wolves, they are not necessarily gray in colour. They can range from being black to white or anywhere in between. Colour depends on the age of the wolf and also the area from where the wolf belongs. These wolves have an average life span of 12 to 20 years.
Gray wolves live in the open forests and before they occupied European areas they were commonly found in areas of North America. These wolves travel in packs and the number of individuals in the packs may go up to…
Bangs, E. (2012). The reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone national park and central Idaho; final environmental impact statement.
Ewing, C. (2012). Gray wolves and the endangered species act. Nova Science Pub Inc.
Lopez, B. (2004). Of wolves and men. Scribner Mech, D. (2007). Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation. University Of Chicago Press.
V, A. (2009). Recovery of gray wolves in the great lakes region of the United States: An endangered species success story.