136+ documents containing “habitat destruction”.
Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes, Donald & Evans (2006) refer to the threat that agri-business has on indigenous wildlife and the long-term problems this dynamic poses to both human and non-human species. Almost half of all land surfaces on the planet are consumed by agricultural endeavors, note the authors. Agricultural develop threatens species diversity more so than overpopulation itself. Monocrops and cash crops like soybean, rubber, and oil palm are only the most obvious means by which habitats are destroyed. When any pristine landscape is compromised by human development, the result is an irreversible fragmentation.
Agro-business does, tend to pose the greatest threat to environmental integrity and diversity. As developing nations devote increasing amounts of space to agro-business, the situation will only worsen. "Habitat Connectivity and Matrix estoration" illustrates the political, social, and ecological implications of agro-business and inspires possible solutions. Birds, according to the….
Destruction of Bison
The Destruction of the Bison
The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920 by Andrew Isenberg is an account of the near total-extermination of the bison in Great Plains of America. The bison population declined from being around 30,000,000 in the eighteenth century to less than a 1,000 by the end of the nineteenth century. In recounting the fate of the bison population and how it was decimated in Great Plains, Isenberg looks at various historical, cultural, economic, and ecological factors that contributed to the decimation of the animal. Isenberg challenges two conventional explanations of the bison destruction, both of which largely laid blame on the white Euro-American predators. It was believed that the behavior of Euro-American settlers in the Great Plains was characterized by wastefulness, while Native American Indians were conscious environmentalists (Gore) who preyed on the buffalo only out of necessity and did not kill the….
Cronon, William, "The Uses of Environmental History." Environmental History Review, 17 (Fall 1993), 1-22. .
Dolph, James A., and Dolph, C. Ivar, "The American Bison: His Annihilation and Preservation." The Magazine of Western History, 25.3 (Summer, 1975), 14-25.
Gore, Al. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.
Isenberg, Andrew. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
The first tactic the groups used was to intimidate the local inhabitants with a show of military force and then introduce domesticated animals that often used up a disproportionate amount of the local food resources for their needs.
Since the Californian Indians lived in highly fragmented tribes it was difficult for the missionaries to bring the religion to them; rather they attracted to Indians to the "faith." The Californian Indians were hurdled into guarded Mission compounds which completely disrupted any of the local tribe's daily activities (Mcilliams, 1973, p. 29). Once the natives were converted they basically became slaves and as such were separated from their former affiliations by force. After being baptized, California Indians were no longer allowed to make contact with any of their tribes unless those members became slaves as well. This was strictly adhered to as the missionaries wanted the natives to adopt the new culture….
Castillo, E. (1998). California Indian History. Retrieved from California Native Americans: http://www.nahc.ca.gov/califindian.html
Daritt-Newton, D., & Erlandson, I. (2006). Little Choice for the Chumash. American Indian Quarterly, 416-432.
McWilliams. (1973). Southern California: An Island on the Land.
Wilson. (1999). The Earth Shall Weep: A History of Native America.
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains
Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in….
Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.
California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.
Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].
TVA v. Hill Questions
Do you agree with the Court's decision, based upon the language of the Endangered Species Act quoted above? That is, did the Endangered Species Act preclude construction of the dam? Should the ESA have precluded construction of the dam? as Congress right to amend the ESA to permit the dam to be built?
The Supreme Court acted correctly in its decidedly rigid invocation of Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). According to its decision, Section 7 asserts that "all Federal agencies must take such action as is necessary to ensure that actions authorized, funded, or carried out by them do not result in the destruction or modification of this critical habitat area." (U.S. Supreme Court, p. 1)
Given that $100 million of federal funds had already been funneled into the Tellico Dam project, it is clear that Congress was explicitly responsible for intervening with any use….
Church, T.W. (2007). Review: The Snail Darter Case: TVA vs. The Endangered Species Act by Kenneth M. Murchison. Law and Politics Book Review, 17(8).
Courts, Cats, and Carbon (CCC). (2013). Special Feature: Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill. Courtscatscarbon.com/
Garrett, E. (2009). The Story of TVA v. Hill: Congress Has the Last Word. Weblaw.usc.edu.
Rizzardi, K. (2008). Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill -- 437 U.S. 153. ESA Blawg.
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native species….
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
Climate change, or global warming, is threating the ecosystems of millions of different species. There are at least 8 million unique species of life on the planet and many of the animals are under a threat that is not due to direct human involvement (alsh). The habitat destruction that is being caused is not something that animal protection acts can address. The problem is with the changing conditions of the environment, these species are losing their habitats altogether or being forced to either migrate or adapt. There have been five extinction waves in the planet's history -- including the Permian extinction 250 million years ago, when an estimated 70% of all terrestrial animals and 96% of all marine creatures vanished, and, most recently, the Cretaceous event 65 million years ago, which ended the reign of the dinosaurs (alsh). Therefore, it could be said that the environmental protection acts or….
Benzie, R. "Tim Hudak warns endangered species regulations hurting business." 26 February 2013. The Star. Online. 12 April 2004.
Castelnuovo, R. "Case Studies in History and Society." Which Home Do We Protect? The Challenge of Protecting Endangered Species and Property. A Review Essay on Private Property and the Endangered Species Act. Ed. Jason F. Shogren. Austin: Texas Press, 1999. 153.
Debate.org. Should we protect endangered species? N.d. .
Platt, J. "How Much Did the U.S. Spend on the Endangered Species Act in 2012?" 1 November 2013. Scientific American. Online. 13 April 2014.
However, not all biologists agree that building or preserving corridors is the best way to proceed, because it still allows much of the animal's habitat to be diverted for human use (Thwaites, PAGE). They suggest that corridors are an expensive solution, but often those biologists prefer to see less land diversion.
Another solution is voluntary conservation efforts, called "Habitat Conservation Plans" (HCPs). Since these are voluntary, however, they vary greatly in quality and effectiveness. In addition, they allow considerable habitat destruction, and they do not always fully address the long-term survival needs of the endangered animals (Kostyack, PAGE). aturalists have noted that the number of HCPs established in areas of development often do not reflect the level of threat faced by endangered species in the area (Kostyack, PAGE). Critics of how HCPs are currently used believe the government should work harder to require landowners to protect endangered species living on….
Nickens, Eddie. "Woodpecker wars (red-cockaded woodpecker as an endangered specie)." American Forests. January 1, 1998.
Pyper, Wendy. "Changing habitat: the revival of the Richmond birdwing butterfly offers hope that through research, education, dedication and teamwork, local communities can secure a future for threatened species." Ecos. January 1, 2001.
Thwaites, Tim. " Safe passage.(wildlife conservation aided by strips of conserved habitat)(Wildlife Corridors)." International Wildlife. July 17, 1998.
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added about….
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the African….
St. Croix Ground Lizard
As happens with some anoles and other reptiles in the Caribbean, the St. Croix ground lizard is seriously endangered because of human encroachment and exotic predators. For all their speed and quick reflexes, a number of ameivas are easy prey to mongooses. On June 03, 1977, the St. Croix ground lizard was designated as endangered in the St. Croix area. There are currently only two islands where the St. Croix ground lizard, now extinct on St. Croix and listed as an endangered species, still exists -- Green Cay and Protestant Cay.
About the St. Croix Ground Lizard
Croix Ground Lizard is a small species of Ameiva that measures approximately 35 to 77 millimeters in snout-vent length (UFWA, 1992). The lizard is easily distinguished by its parallel longitudinal black, white, and light-brown stripes. Its belly is light gray with lateral blue margins, and pinkish undersides of legs, throat, and chest.….
Dodd, C., Jr. (1980). Ameiva polops Cope. St. Croix ground lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Association (UFWA). (February, 1992). Endangered and Threatened Species of the Southeastern United States (The Red Book) FWS Region.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Association Service. (2003). Green Cay National Wildlife Refuge General Information. Retrieved from the Internet at http://caribbean-ecoteam.fws.gov/green_cay_index.htm.
Urban, Val. (1977). Green Cay, National Wildlife Refuge. Refuge Facts.
Two general approaches are used in connection with mangrove restoration. One method only focuses on the replanting of mangroves to replenish those that were lost. The other concentrates on discovering the reason for losses and preventing further loss of mangrove habitat. This philosophy supports natural recovery of the ecosystem, once the sources of destruction have been discovered and eliminated (Lewis & Streever, 2000). Both of these approaches have merit for different reasons.
The first option is to plant mangroves to replenish areas that have been lost. This method is the most costly in terms of capital input. However, it will result in the most rapid recovery of the mangrove forests. Natural recovery of the forests takes between 15-30 years, and that is only if the sources of destruction can be adequately controlled (Lewis & Streever, 2000). However, as mentioned earlier, replanting may be difficult, especially if the area has been altered….
Coastal Conservancy Association (CCA). (2007). CCA Florida Habitat Restoration Projects. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.ccaflorida.org/habitat.html .
CSIRO Australia (2001, February 14). Storm Surges Increase with Warming Oceans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 10, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/02/010212073904.htm
Hill, K. (2001). What is a Lagoon? Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.sms.si.edu/irLspec/Whatsa_lagoon.htm .
Department of Environmental Protection (n.d.). Florida's Mangroves "Walking Trees" Florida Marine Research Institute. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.floridaplants.com/horticulture/mangrove.htm
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited reductions would barely slow….
Life Span of io Grande Cutthroat Trout
Mature io Grande Cutthroat Trout live between six and eight years, about average for their species (Spaete, 2006). They are stream spawners, and their average age of sexual maturity is between five and seven years of age, with breeding occurring only once or twice during the lifespan (Spaete, 2006). In general, breeding season is between spring and early summer, with offspring in the 1000 to 2000 range (Spaete, 2006). Environmental factors including temperature and food availability will impact the breeding cycle as well as overall size of the individuals.
Habitat Management for io Grande Cutthroat Trout
The io Grande Cutthroat Trout is a subspecies of the cutthroat living primarily in the rivers of Colorado and New Mexico. In addition to the io Grande itself, the Pecos iver and the Canadian iver are its native habitats. The io Grande Cutthroat Trout thrives when it has access to….
Pritchard, V.L. & Cowley, D.E. (2006). Rio Grande Cuthroat Trout. USDA Forest Service. 28 July, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5206803.pdf
Rinne, J.N. (n.d.). Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout." Chapter 3. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved online: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr256/rm_gtr256_024_027.pdf
"Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout Conservation Strategy," (2013). Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved online: https://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/NewMexico/documents/RGCT_conservation_strategy_final_12-10-13.pdf
Spaete, L. (2006). Oncorhynchus clarkia. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved online: http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Oncorhynchus_clarkii/
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the African nation….
Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/
Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/
Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full
Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
Transportation - Environmental Issues
Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes, Donald & Evans (2006) refer to the threat that agri-business has on indigenous wildlife and the long-term problems…Read Full Paper ❯
Destruction of Bison The Destruction of the Bison The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920 by Andrew Isenberg is an account of the near total-extermination of the bison in…Read Full Paper ❯
The first tactic the groups used was to intimidate the local inhabitants with a show of military force and then introduce domesticated animals that often used up a…Read Full Paper ❯
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the…Read Full Paper ❯
Tennessee Valley TVA v. Hill Questions Do you agree with the Court's decision, based upon the language of the Endangered Species Act quoted above? That is, did the Endangered Species Act…Read Full Paper ❯
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point…Read Full Paper ❯
Climate change, or global warming, is threating the ecosystems of millions of different species. There are at least 8 million unique species of life on the planet and…Read Full Paper ❯
However, not all biologists agree that building or preserving corridors is the best way to proceed, because it still allows much of the animal's habitat to be diverted…Read Full Paper ❯
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of…Read Full Paper ❯
St. Croix Ground Lizard As happens with some anoles and other reptiles in the Caribbean, the St. Croix ground lizard is seriously endangered because of human encroachment and exotic predators.…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
Two general approaches are used in connection with mangrove restoration. One method only focuses on the replanting of mangroves to replenish those that were lost. The other concentrates on…Read Full Paper ❯
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half. At this point, one shouldn't portray…Read Full Paper ❯
Life Span of io Grande Cutthroat Trout Mature io Grande Cutthroat Trout live between six and eight years, about average for their species (Spaete, 2006). They are stream spawners, and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes…Read Full Paper ❯