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Tierney draws another comparison between Hurricane Katrina and the earthquake in Haiti by describing the people who were most affected by the disasters. She claims that Katrina affected people who were least able to help themselves, such as the poor and the disabled, but many people were able to escape. Haiti, however, is one of the poorest nations in the world. The majority of the population lives in chronic poverty. Katrina affected the only the most vulnerable segments of the Gulf Coast population, but in Haiti the entire population is vulnerable.
Haiti is different from the Gulf Coast in that the island nation ranks very low in health, levels of education, and household income. Unlike the United States, the nation of Haiti had a great deal of difficulty providing even the most basic services for its people before the disaster. The political system of the United States is relatively stable,…
I. Executive summary
Santé Nou—is a Travel Care Voucher and affordable healthcare plan that offers family members in Haiti access to primary health care. This comprehensive marketing strategic plan should provide a roadmap for the pre-pilot phase with its customer-focused objectives. While many organizations have difficulty communicating and connecting with Haitian consumers both in Haiti and in the United States with Haitian Americans, experience and understanding for this specific target population allows for a thorough representation of what can be done to not only reach this target demographic, but also achieve specific goals.
Those specific goals involve regular primary care visits and ease of access to important emergency medical services to help prevent major medical issues, while also promoting healthy living. To deliver positive outcomes in health for Haitians is to provide the kind of service that can help change lives for the better. Although Santé Nou is not a…
Natural disasters are always surprising because each specific, affected area has diverse social, economic, and health circumstances. There are some parallels nevertheless concerning health effects of countless natural disasters. Distinguishing these connections will guarantee upcoming health and emergency medical assistance as well as restricted resources are well managed. A good example of a disaster that could assist with understanding possible health effects of these types of conditions was the cholera outbreak in Haiti. Here, first responders in hospitals, field Clinics as well as police and law enforcement personnel show what to do in order to develop an effective training program.After onset of a cholera epidemic in Haiti in mid-October 2010, a team of researchers from France and Haiti implemented field investigations and built a database of daily cases to facilitate identification of communes most affected. Several models were used to identify spatiotemporal clusters, assess relative risk associated with the epidemic's…
Mukandavire, Z., Smith, D., & Morris Jr., J. (2013). Cholera in Haiti: Reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates. Scientific Reports, 3. doi:10.1038/srep00997
Piarroux, R. (2011). Understanding the Cholera Epidemic, Haiti. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 17(7), 1161-1168. doi:10.3201/eid1707.110059
Prevention, C. (2015). Cholera in Haiti - Watch - Level 1, Practice Usual Precautions - Travel Health Notices | Travelers' Health | CDC.Wwwnc.cdc.gov. Retrieved 30 April 2015, from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/watch/haiti-cholera
Health Plan for Haiti
Haiti has a population of approximately ten million people. According to the 2009 WHO statistics, the gross national income per capita was $1.220. The life expectancy at birth in terms of years for females and males is 64/61 respectively. In 1000 births (children under five years), 76 children have s probability of dying. In a population of 1000 people, 223 females and 258 males have a probability of dying when between the ages of 15 and 60 years. The 2011 statistics indicate that Haiti's total expenditure per capita was $94. Besides, the total expense on health as a GDP percentage was eight. With such statistics, solid and effective health plans should be put in place. This is a suggested health plan for the oral health of children below the age of twelve years.
Although oral health may seem as though it is not a serious health…
Babcock, C., Theodosis, C., Bills, C., Kim, J., Kinet, M., Turner, M., Millis, M., Olopade, C. (January 01, 2012). The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 87(11): 1609-15.
Estupin-a-n-Day, S., Lafontant, C., & Acun-a, M.C. (January 01, 2011). Integrating oral health into Haiti's National Health Plan: from disaster relief to sustainable development. Pan American Journal of Public Health, 30(5): 484-9.
Ivers, L.C., & Walton, D.A. (January 01, 2012). The "first" case of cholera in Haiti: lessons for global health. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 86(1): 36-8.
Liu, A., Sullivan, S. Khan, M., Sachs, S. & Singh, P. (2011). Community Health Workers in Global Health: Scale and Scalability. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine: A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine, Vol. 78 (3): 419-435
poverty challenges in Haiti. Haiti is one of the poorest nations in the Western hemisphere and the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The nation's demographic statistics reveal the effect of extreme poverty. This condition has significantly reduced life expectancy to 49.2 years. This is highly contributed by high infant mortality rates due to poor health services and general high death rates. Despite the slow population growth rate and extreme poverty, Haiti is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with approximately 95% of the population made up of black people. Extreme poverty in Haiti and the challenges that this condition causes to the people are the main reasons for carrying out this study. The research explores the political, economic and social structures of Haiti in relation to the poverty level. It is…
International Monetary Fund.2008. Haiti Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Washington D.C: IMF Publications.
Verner. D. 2007. Social Resilience and State Fragility in Haiti. Washington D.C: Recycled Paper.
International Monetary Fund. 2001. International Monetary Fund: Staff Country Reports. Washington D.C: IMF Publications.
Lundahil, M. 2013. The Political Economy of Disaster: Destitution Plunder and Earthquake in Haiti. New York: Routledge Publisher.
Poverty in Haiti -- Case Study
CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS
Poverty in Haiti
Key Problem: Haiti remains among the poorest in the world despite strong interventions.
a broad-spectrum approach under a proper leadership will address Haiti's multiple problems synergistically.
Haiti overcame French colonial control and slavery in a series of wars in the early 19th century to become the world's first black-led Republic and the first independent Caribbean State (C, 2012). Its largely mountainous terrain and tropical climate, location, history and culture made it a promising tourist spot. ut instability and violence since the 80s decimated this prospect. Decades of poverty, environmental degradation, continued instability and a dictatorship made it the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere today. Economic sanctions and U.S.-led military intervention compelled its restitution into a constitutional government in 1994, but electoral irregularities, extrajudicial killings, tortures and brutalities have kept it in disarray and misery. An interim government…
BBC (2012). Haiti country profile. BBC News: British Broadcasting Corporation.
Retrieved on September 21, 2012 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/12022772.stm#leaders
Clinton Foundation (2012). Fish farms -- fighting poverty in Haiti's rural communities.
Clinton Foundation. Retrieved on September 21, 2012 from http://www.clintonfoundation.org/main.clinton-foundation.blog.html/2012/09/17/fish-farms-fighting-poverty-in-haiti 's-rural-communities
Jefferson and Haiti
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776, marking the beginning of the American Revolution, and the establishment of a new nation: The United States of America. It may seem strange that the man who wrote so eloquently about the rights of man, and how each human being was invariably born free, could in fact be the owner of his fellow human beings, but it was true. Thomas Jefferson, while a true believer in the principles of the Enlightenment: liberty, self-determination, freedom, etc., his views on slavery were more pragmatic than idealistic. Jefferson may have been a man who personally felt that the institution of slavery should be ended, but he never took any real concrete steps toward that goal. And when the slaves on the French island of San Domingue rose up and gained their independence, Jefferson, fearing that this could become an inspiration to…
Gates, Henry Louis Jr., "The Curse on Haiti: it wasn't the devil that hurt Haiti; it was Thomas Jefferson." The Root. (2010) Web 26 Apr. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.theroot.com/views/curse-haiti
"St. Dominguez (Haiti)" The Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia. Web 25 Apr. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.monticello.org/site/research-and-collections/st-domingue-haiti
As per the constitution of Haiti – promulgated in 1987 – the government of Haiti has an obligation to not only offer basic protections to the citizens of Haiti, but also maintain law and order. The country’s judiciary, which happens to be one of the three arms of government, is made up of the magistrate’s courts, civil courts, courts of appeal, and court of cassation. This text concerns itself with the criminal justice system of Haiti. In so doing, it not only highlights the historical development of Haiti’s criminal justice system, but also the county’s criminal law and how it relates to that of the United States and Saudi Arabia.
A: Historical Development
The Haiti criminal justice system is largely founded in on the French criminal justice model. It is important to note that French Buccaneers set base in Turtle Island during the 16th and 17th century which they…
producing in Haiti?
Despite Haiti's profound economic difficulties both before and after the earthquake, a number of recent initiatives have been undertaken to revitalize the Haitian economy from within, effectively 'playing to Haiti's strengths' as a producer. A good example of this is Haitian coffee production which was sold for $3.00 a pound in Japan before the earthquake. The country still has the resources to produce high-end coffee but more marketing is needed to promote the product abroad. As a point of comparison, "Haiti and Rwanda produce about the same volume of beans each year. But Rwanda has exported nearly 20% of its coffee in recent years as washed beans for gourmet markets, up from just 1% in 2002. Haiti sells 90% of its production as cheap, dry-processed beans that never leave the island of Hispaniola. The upshot is that in 2010, Rwanda made $55 million from coffee exports. Haiti…
Glor, J. "Relief group fighting deadly spread of cholera in Haiti." CBS News. 28 Nov 2013.
1 Dec 2013.
"Haiti assistance program." Red Cross. 1 Dec 2013.
The country has one of the biggest international debts in the world. Even more, the country is not able to pay this debt.
Given the economic and social conditions in Haiti, the workforce in the region is highly unskilled, making it even more difficult for a company or government to make successful investments here.
The natural disasters that often happen here must also be taken into consideration. Even if something is built here, there are significant chances to be destroyed in an earthquake like the recent one that shook the country, or by frequent tropical storms affecting the region.
Social risks are inherent given the circumstances. The majority of the population is living below the poverty line, there are frequent riots because of the high prices of food and lack of formal jobs.
The political situation can also be considered a risk (BBC, 2010).
Also, street riots and the country's…
1. Iranzo, S. (2008). Delving into Country Risk. The Bank of Spain. Retrieved January 22, 2010 from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1120723 .
2. Haiti (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved January 22, 2010 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html .
3. Cordoba, J. & Luchnow, D. (2010). Fierce Earthquake Rocks Haiti. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 22, 2010 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126333470907826737.html .
4. Country Risk Assessment (2009). COFACE. Retrieved January 22, 2010 from http://www.coface-usa.com/CofacePortal/US_en_EN/pages/home/wwd/inform/Country_risk/Country%20Risk%20Assessment .
history of the epublic of Haiti. Specifically it will focus on the economic factors that have led to wealth, poverty, corruption and conflict in Haiti. Haiti is located on the western side of Hispaniola; the eastern portion of the island is made up of the Dominican epublic. Columbus discovered the island in 1492, and it soon became a center for French pirates. The Spanish gave up control of what would become Haiti in the 1600s and gave it to the French. The French gave African slaves on the island their freedom during the French evolution, and eventually the slaves revolted against French rule and took control of the island in 1804. The first leader of the new country was a black general who fought against the French. General Jean Jacques Dessalines became the lifetime governor-general of the island. Unfortunately, he was uneducated, cruel, and conceited, and he proved to be…
Buckman, Robert T. Latin America, 2008. (42nd ed.). Harpers Ferry, WV: Stryker-Post Publications.
Scott, B.J. (2004). Order in the Court: Judicial Stability and Democratic Success in Haiti. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 37(2), 555+.
The Truth about Haiti. (2004, March 8). New Statesman, 133, 6+.
Robert T. Buckman. Latin America, 2008. (42nd ed.). Harpers Ferry, WV: Stryker-Post Publications. 202-203.
Haitian Revolution / Independence Annotated Bibliography
Bhambra, G. K. (2016). Undoing the epistemic disavowal of the Haitian revolution: a contribution to global social thought. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 37(1), 1-16.
Bhambra (2016) looks at global historical interconnections with relation to the Haitian Revolution and asks what can be learned from this important historical event. The purpose of the article is to identify problems in sociological thought and how by ignoring the Haitian Revolution sociology studies tend to marginalize the black experience. The author refers to this marginalization as a cognitive injustice and that a decentralization of European self-understanding is needed to see the significance of the Haitian Revolution. The author calls for a connected sociologies approach and argues that in this way the revolution can be better seen in its appropriate context. The article is helpful for indicating how sameness of perspective over time can limit one’s understanding of different cultures.
Bhambra, G. K. (2016). Undoing the epistemic disavowal of the Haitian revolution: a contribution to global social thought. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 37(1), 1-16.
Garrigus, J. D. (1996). Colour, class and identity on the eve of the Haitian revolution: Saint?Domingue's free coloured elite as colons américains. Slavery and Abolition, 17(1), 20-43.
Garrigus, J. D. (2007). Opportunist or patriot? Julien Raimond (1744–1801) and the Haitian revolution. Slavery and Abolition, 28(1), 1-21.
Joseph, C. L. (2012). ‘The Haitian Turn’: an appraisal of recent literary and historiographical works on the Haitian Revolution. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 5(6), 37-55.
Knight, F. W. (2000). The Haitian Revolution. The American Historical Review, 105(1), 103-115.
Lacerte, R. K. (1978). The Evolution of Land and labor in the Haitian Revolution, 1791-1820. The Americas, 449-459.
Reinhardt, T. (2005). 200 Years of forgetting: Hushing up the Haitian revolution. Journal of Black Studies, 35(4), 246-261.
Scott, R. J. (2011). Paper thin: Freedom and re-enslavement in the diaspora of the Haitian Revolution. Law and History Review, 29(4), 1061-1087.
S. military to stabilize the violent uprising by the 'opposition' thugs, many of whom were former members of the Duvalier-era military or members of the death squad known as the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti, who were responsible for a multitude of human rights violations during the three years following the coup d'etat in 1991 (ater pp). Moreover, aters and others want to know why the Bush Administration refused to negotiate a peaceful settlement to the crisis, and forced Aristide, "who had agreed to a peace plan worked out by the international community, to resign and leave his country" (aters pp). Prior to Aristide's departure, Bush's only concern was to make sure that all Haitian refugees were turned back at sea before they could reach the U.S. (aters pp).
Hallinan, Conn M. "Haiti: dangerous muddle." Foreign Policy in Focus. March 08
2004. Retrieved October 29,…
Hallinan, Conn M. "Haiti: dangerous muddle." Foreign Policy in Focus. March 08
2004. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Kidder, Tracy. "The trials of Haiti: why has the U.S. government abandoned a country it once sought to liberate?" The Nation. October 27, 2003. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Rice, Jim. "Regime change in Haiti: the Bush doctrine strikes again." Sojourners.
The public opinion differences in support for the Haiti and Panama interventions were that the latter was viewed by the people (prompted by the media) simplistically, as a mission of good guys (the U.S.) fighting bad guys (Noriega); on Haiti, the public (again prompted by the mainstream media) was the reverse—intervention was unnecessary and was just a case of Clinton trying to get the spotlight off his own back. This paper will compare and contrast the way the government handled the two interventions and discuss the media’s role in the interventions and how a “rally ‘round the flag effect” occurred for the Panama intervention—but not for the Haiti intervention.
In the Panama intervention under Bush, the media depicted the soldiers as effectively bringing Christmas and Santa Claus to the Panamanians (Milburn Panama Video 1, n.d.). The propaganda campaign made it appear as though Noriega was a ruthless dictator who was…
trudged down the steep airplane steps, I glanced at the flight attendants who were smiling farewell. I shielded my face from the scorching sunlight with my hat as I exited the plane, steeling myself for what lay ahead. The air outside was thick with oppressive heat. The physical journey had been arduous but I knew it was nothing compared to the emotional trials I would face in Haiti, where I was volunteering my time as a teacher at a local school.
As I rode on the bus to my destination, I could not help but take note of the differences between Haiti and my native New York. Haiti was still covered in debris from the 2010 earthquake. There were hardly any cars visible and the roads were unpaved. The streets were almost empty. It was so different from the hectic, technologically-driven pace to which I was accustomed.
Through the glass,…
Schmidt, Hans. The .S. Occupation of Haiti: 1915-1934. New Brunswick: Rutgers
niversity Press, 1995.
Hans Schmidt's The .S. Occupation of Haiti was originally published in 1971, after the folly of American intervention in Vietnam had become all too stark and clearly apparent to the .S. public. Schmidt wrote his book to tell a sordid tale of another, earlier example of a misguided .S. intervention in a foreign land. After the people of Haiti had rioted in protest of the actions of their current leader, America entered the independent nation and occupied it, resulting in the death of almost two thousand Haitians in five short years (102). The calculated, self-serving invasion was not undertaken because of humanitarian reasons, for the Haitian politician unrest was solely internal -- there had been seven presidents in rapid succession, and President Guillaume Sam had executed 167 political prisoners, to the anger of many Haitians (167).…
University Press, 1995.
Hans Schmidt's The U.S. Occupation of Haiti was originally published in 1971, after the folly of American intervention in Vietnam had become all too stark and clearly apparent to the U.S. public. Schmidt wrote his book to tell a sordid tale of another, earlier example of a misguided U.S. intervention in a foreign land. After the people of Haiti had rioted in protest of the actions of their current leader, America entered the independent nation and occupied it, resulting in the death of almost two thousand Haitians in five short years (102). The calculated, self-serving invasion was not undertaken because of humanitarian reasons, for the Haitian politician unrest was solely internal -- there had been seven presidents in rapid succession, and President Guillaume Sam had executed 167 political prisoners, to the anger of many Haitians (167). But the American invasion was motivated by America's determination to protect its interests in the Caribbean, especially after its construction of the Panama Canal, along with its fears of the growing French and German presence in the region.
Schmidt's book was also written shortly after the victories of the recent American Civil Rights movement. He noted that Americans, rather than liberating the Haitians, instituted Jim Crow racial segregation in the African nation, supposedly because of linguistic and social differences, but really because of fears of Haitians 'mixing' with American white women (137). The racial hostility was especially notable on the part of the U.S. military, which was mostly made up of Southerners. Haitians were barred from the American social clubs, and Americans took the best houses, much to the outrage of Haiti's former upper class. Even American withdrawal was a protracted affair, despite many promises to the contrary, given the U.S.'s difficulty in financially extricating itself from the messy state of Haiti's financial affairs, of which the U.S. had assumed control after the invasion. Today, this book's portrait of an American invasion in a land it does not understand, and America's involvement in a politically divided nation with a foreign culture is just as timely, if not more timely, than when this book was first written.
In January of 2010 Haiti suffered a 7.0 magnitude earthquake which destroyed much of the country and left the population devastated. When this tragedy occurred, Haiti was "already the poorest in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty." ("CIA") As a Haitian with little prospects of having a decent life, or making a decent living, I have decided that I want to emigrate to the United States. After much consideration, including researching the immigration and naturalization process, but most importantly the costs, I have discovered that it will be very difficult for me to emigrate. The costs alone are much more than a poor Haitian like myself to pay. It costs over $1,000 U.S. just to apply for a Green Card, and this will only grant me residency, and another $680 U.S. just to apply for citizenship. And…
"CIA - The World Factbook." Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html
"Statue of Liberty Inscription, by Emma Lazarus." New York City Travel Guide.
Retrieved from http://www.nycinsiderguide.com/Statue-of-Liberty-Inscription.html%20//%20axzz1dnloO1VL
Haiti Case Study and Response to Disaster
The 2010 earthquake was one of the most powerful earthquakes to hit Haiti in a century. This mega-disaster killed thousands of people and displaced more. The catastrophe triggered massive relief efforts that serve vital disaster management lessons for world regions. This paper draws largely on a 2010 report by the United States Joint Forces Command. The essay reviews the Joint Task Force Haiti Case Study and annotates the joint logistical planning processes and the joint mission execution designed for the Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief mission. Specific topics to be covered and analyzed include USSOUTHCOM's organization, Situational Awareness, deployment of forces, the speed of response versus force/resource flow requirements and communication.
The U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) adopted a directorate organization model to promote collaboration within stakeholders as well as interagency (United States Joint Forces Command, 2010). This structure gave the combatant commanders the…
United States Joint Forces Command. USSOUTHCOM and JTF-Haiti... Some Challenges and Considerations in Forming a Joint Task Force. U.S. Joint Forces Command Joint Center for Operational Analysis 24 June 2010 Print, UNCLASSIFIED
Wishing to Pursue Graduate Study
Dr. Paul Farmer of Partners in Health was asked in an interview if he knew at a young age what he wanted to do or if it was an idea that evolved over time. He replied: "You can…grow into what you want to do…grow into your aspirations." I took that to mean that personal experiences can open our eyes to possibilities and that small successes can focus our attention on goals that once seemed too lofty. I have learned the importance of taking one step at a time and striving to excel in every stage before reaching for the next level. Like a rock climber, I have also learned to visualize my next handhold -- and picture myself achieving that goal even as I reach for it.
Despite some difficult life circumstances, I have been graced by my origins and my experiences as an immigrant.…
Developing country that will be focused upon for this report is Haiti. The reason the author of this report chose Haiti for this report is because the recent earthquake there that claimed roughly 50,000 lives brought it to the forefront. This is in contrast to the Dominican epublic (which is on the other end of the same island) had little to no notable news coverage during the same aftermath. Haiti is certainly not at the bottom of the barrel when it comes to developing countries but it shares a colonial past (French) with many other countries and it faces many challenges including starkly low incomes, very low literacy rates and other major life challenges for normal every-day Haitians. Facts to be covered include the name of the country, which of course is Haiti, when it became independent, its location, in what ways the country is less develop than more advanced…
Brittanica. (2013, April 28). Haiti -- Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/251961/Haiti
CBCNews. (2013, April 28). CBC.ca - Canadian News Sports Entertainment Kids Docs Radio TV. CBC.ca - Canadian News Sports Entertainment Kids Docs Radio TV. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.cbc.ca/
Ferreira, S. (2013, October 25). The Clintons in Haiti: Can an Industrial Park Save the Country? | TIME.com. World | International Headlines, Stories, Photos and Video | TIME.com. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://world.time.com/2012/10/25/the-clintons-in-haiti-can-an-industrial-park-save-the-country/
GoogleMaps. (2013, April 28). Google Maps. Google Maps. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://maps.google.com/
Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.
Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…
"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.
Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office
Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
ole of Technology in educing and Exacerbating Disaster isk: A Case Study of -- Haiti
Examine how technology(s) exacerbates.
Examine how technology(s) reduces the vulnerability of different people facing the same risk.
Make policy recommendations that would reduce the risk for the most vulnerable.
How to involve communities in technology development.
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The technological inventions and life often go hand in hand and the disasters have often been…
Cashmore P. (2010) Haiti Quake Relief: Hoe Technology helps. Cable News Network [online]. Available from [13Nov 2014]
Choney S.(2010) Mobile Giving to help Haiti Exceeds $30 Million[online].Available from [11November 2014]
Encyclopedia of the Nations (2014)Haiti- Agriculture. Available from
He has become a respected individual in his Brooklyn residence as a landlord, barber, husband and father. But the persons he victimized cannot forget their tortures. This highlights the impossibility, despite the myth of forgetting one's past identity so popular in America, of leaving behind the world of one's personal and national history in one's country of origin.
The book chronicles a series of conflicted identities. The man's husband loves him. His daughter is angry and rebellious. Neither of them have a secure sense of self, despite their apparently happy American home. The physical reminder of the scar on the man's face demonstrates that physical crimes against the flesh, no matter how 'good' one is in America, cannot be erased. Thus, in essence, the memory of Haiti emerges as a truer picture of the reality of torture, although Danticat complicates matters by making the dew breaker not a monster, but…
Danticat, Edwidge. The Dew Breaker. New York: Knopf, 2004
2002, I immigrated to the United States from Haiti. I completed high school in 2004, and I have since committed myself to my studies, focusing in Biology, with the intention of attending medical school and practicing family medicine. I've spent the last six years advancing through an associates degree program, into my undergraduate degree program, and at the same time, I completed training as a nursing assistant. My educational experiences and technical training have provided me with a combination of hands-on medical knowledge and academic training in the sciences, and I am confident these skills will help me excel in medical school.
rowing up in a rural part of Haiti, I witnessed abject poverty and constant physical suffering, especially among the women and children of my community. As I studied Biology and nursing here in the United States it became more clear to me how much my skills are needed…
Growing up in a rural part of Haiti, I witnessed abject poverty and constant physical suffering, especially among the women and children of my community. As I studied Biology and nursing here in the United States it became more clear to me how much my skills are needed in my home country. Simple improvements in family medical practices and public health, such as immunizations and basic health education, could create infinite improvements in the small villages where people suffer from diseases and infections that rarely occur in the United States. Health issues such as dysentery and food-born illnesses can be decreased through proper education regarding prevention and sanitation. Childhood diseases such a tetanus, polio, and measles can easily be prevented with vaccinations, and maternal and childhood health can be improved through concerted efforts to offer proper nutrition and health services.
Haiti has a long history of violence and economic turmoil, and these issues have been enormously compounded by the earthquake that occurred in early 2010. My people have had to rely on foreign aid, and the rebuilding process has stalled any economic or political improvements. As Haitian-American, it is extremely painful watching my people suffer in conditions that do not exist here in the United States, and I have develop a deep and abiding commitment to work that can change this inequity. Upon completing my medical degree I will return to Haiti to practice family medicine. My hope is that bringing my education and skills back to my community will contribute vital new resources and knowledge, enabling me promote an increase in Haitian-led social change. This process is vital to the growth of our country, as we currently rely to heavily on support from foreign individuals who do not always understand or appreciate our culture.
Enrolling in the Medical School at Ross University will give me the opportunity to study in the Caribbean and gain practical medical experience serving rural communities in Dominica. With my training as a nursing assistant and my personal experiences as a resident of the Caribbean, I am confident I can offer a great deal to the medical program, and I will, as I have with all of my pervious studies, invest all of my time and energy into preparing for my work as a family physician.
The film is subdued and takes great care not to hurt sentiments of the white population and also avoids the probable civil unrest that may be caused with the coloured community watching it, if it was to be made in depth. The director has stopped with pointing to the facts rather than explore the possibilities as a film. Therefore there has been no bias except that there was a tighter reign in exploring the issues.
4) - What are the director's visible goals? What did he/she try to do with this movie? What might be his/her thesis?
She probably wanted to highlight the plight of the Haitians and their history and that was sought to be done through their hero -- a person who gave them the constitution and stood up to Napoleon. However the thesis failed because neither was she able to present us the personality of the central…
Documentary. (n. d.) "Egalite for All. Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution"
Retrieved 12 April, 2013 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D6F5dXqTCfo
Facebook. (2013) "Facebook" Retrieved 12 April, 2013 from https://www.facebook.com/paste1
IMBD. (2013a) "Egalite for All. Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution"
all of Fire Rising" is a tragic story by Haitian author Edwidge Danticat. The title of the tale comes from a line in a play about Dutty Boukman, a slave rebel turned revolutionary hero in Haiti. Boukman's story symbolizes release from bondage and oppression, and the ongoing struggle of the Haitian people evident in the complicated daily lives of ordinary families like that of Guy, Lili, and their son. Although the story does end tragically, "A all of Fire Rising" contains a kernel of hope. that dreaming of a better future, and being committed to doing the hard work to attain that goal, will eventually bring about liberation. The line in the play reads, "a wall of fire is rising and in the ashes, I see the bones of my people," (Danticat 234). Little Guy recites these lines as they perfectly parallel the suicide of his father, who jumped out…
Danticat, Edwidge. "A Wall of Fire Rising."
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts
This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to. The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario.
Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in 2005 and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1,836 people died as a result of…
Mancuso, Louis C.; Alijani, Ghasem S.; Kwun, Obyung. (2011). The effects of the BP oil spill and hurricane Katrina in South Louisiana. Entrepreneurial Executive,
Mckenzie, Russell; Levendis, John; (2010). Flood Hazards and Urban Housing Markets: The effects of Katrina on New Orleans. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, pp. 62-76.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul.(2010). Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on psychological well being of evacuees. Disasters, p1031-1044, 14p,
Shaughnessy, Timothy M.; White, Mary L.; Brendler, Michael D.; (2010). The Income Distribution effect of Natural Disasters: An Analysis of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, pp. 84-95
With a positive mental attitude, horrible physical problems are much more possible to overcome.
In this way, their heart is in the work and they are motivated to do the right things, to be responsible and accountable for their actions as they relates to their patients. This author puts themselves in their patients' positions and wishes to give them the kind of care that elicits their trust, shows compassion and caring as well as competence as a nursing. Just as patients would not want to be treated badly, they revile incompetent, uncaring and untrustworthy nurses that soil the reputation of the profession. This repugnance must be reflected by the nursing professional.
The focus on patient care needs to be reflected in the pharmaceutical profession as well as in nursing. Indeed, patient focus is an important part of the focus of the medical team overall. In my opinion, pharmacists should provide…
It is a joy to watch him as he becomes more confident and sure of himself, and I cannot wait to see him play with his new brother or sister. I have no idea what he will become in the future, but it seems clear that he will grow up to accomplish great things, and I think that is positive change.
If I can do anything, I hope that I can inspire other Black women to reach their full potential and reach for the stars. That can ignite great change in the Black community, and among all women, no matter their race or stature. I believe that women can accomplish great things, but many allow themselves to be held back, and I hope that my experiences can inspire women to do more and become better. Change does entail strength, and women have always shown themselves to be strong individuals, no…
Handling an epic crisis requires a swift response and a high level of organization and efficiency. It also requires the ability to meet the needs of a large number of stakeholders, whose situations and needs might be quite diverse in nature. A capitalist economic system should have a fairly high level of efficiency, but that efficiency tends to develop over time -- you don't become Wal-Mart overnight. During Katrina, one of the first companies on the scene was FedEx, which used is high level of organization and efficiency to provide goods to the area (FedEx, 2005). The drawback to this system is that while it allows for altruism and community service, it is not oriented towards it. FedEx can deliver medical supplies but it cannot reunite families or repair damaged neighborhoods. While in theory there could be a private disaster-relief company that operates privately, in practice the payer is…
FedEx. (2005). FedEx delivers over 1800kg of clothes to victims of Hurricane Katrina. FedEx Newsroom. Retrieved March 19, 2014 from http://news.van.FedEx.com/FedEx-delivers-1800kg-clothes-victims-hurricane-katrina
Pirog, R. (2010). Winter fuels outlook 2010-2011. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved March 19, 2014 from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41471.pdf
Eyes of the Heart: Seeking a Path for the Poor in the Age of Globalization, by Jean-ertrand Aristide, is an important book, written not just for Haiti and its people, but on behalf of all people living in developing countries. It is a cry for social justice for the poor of the world, and in the book, Aristide uses his experiences of poverty and development in Haiti to lay bare and to berate the morality of a world that can allow situations, such as the one Haiti has lived through (and indeed continues to live through), to occur and to continue. It is necessary to know something of the life of the author, and of the history of Haiti in order to appreciate the significance of this book, and so I will begin with short synopses of these topics.
Jean-ertrand Aristide has fine credentials and a strong background with which…
Aristide, J-B. (2000). Eyes of the Heart: Seeking a Path for the Poor in the Age of Globalization. Common Courage Press.
History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.
Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora
Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.
Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)
"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/1844-1915/douglass.htm
The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.
Eyes of the Heart: Seeking a Path for the Poor in the Age of Globalization, by Jean-ertrand Aristide. Specifically, it will discuss the book as if explaining it to a friend who had not read the book, so they would be able to understand the whole book with out having to read it. Jean-ertrand Aristide's "Eyes of the Heart" is a compelling look at a country so low on the economic scale that it barely exists. Aristide wants the world to understand the hardships his fellow citizens face, but more than that, he wants the world to take responsibility for the suffering going on, and the way the riches nations seem to ignore and foster poverty in the poorest nations.
EYES OF THE HEART
Author Jean-ertrand Aristide was the President of the Republic of Haiti, a Catholic Priest, and a dedicated humanitarian, which makes him an expert in the lives…
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand. 2000. Eyes of the heart: Seeking a path for the poor in the age of globalization. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.
Profile of H.E. Mr. Jean-Bertrand Aristide. [online]. 2003. Washington D.C.: The Embassy of the Republic of Haiti; available at http://www.haiti.org/aristide-bio.htm;Internet, accessed 13 May 2003.
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand. 2000. Eyes of the heart: Seeking a path for the poor in the age of globalization. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, p 2.
Over the course of time, this helps to fuel anger and a sense of helplessness, that no can be able to take charge of their own future. A good example of this can be found with the passage that says, "For years, hate had become with them a habit. It had given an object and a target to their impotent anger. Only there was one condition: that was reconciliation. And what did it cost them? A mere gesture, a few steps like walking over a bridge, and they would leave behind bad days of poverty, they would enter the land of abundance." (Roumain, 1944, pr. 131) This is significant, because this passage is highlighting the underlying challenges facing Haiti on a daily basis. Where, everyone becomes focused on themselves and angry about the entire situation (i.e. The poverty and harsh economic conditions). At which point, they will begin to take…
Literature About Haiti. (1998). Language Works. Retrieved from: http://www.language-works.com/Haiti/lit.htm
Arnold, J. (1994). Exile and Recent Literature. A History of Literature in the Caribbean. (pp. 451 -- 464). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Carby, H. (1999). Proletarian of Literary Revolution. Cultures in Babylon. (pp. 135 -- 144). London, Verso.
Roumain, J. (1944). Masters of the Dew. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
" (p. 28)
Once Farmer got involved with Haitian culture, he also found himself entangled in many dilemmas both ethical and political. The first one came in the form of science and magic. Is it ethical to learn sorcery and allow people to think that you are using magic to cure them when you obviously believe in the power of medical science far more than magic? Farmer offered an explanation of why he got involved with sorcery. He realized that without understanding the belief system that controlled the health of Haitian people, it would be impossible to offer them alternatives. Farmer's explanation was simple: "A doctor who knew nothing about local beliefs might end up at war with Voodoo priests, but a doctor anthropologist who understood those beliefs could find ways to make Voodoo houngans his allies." (p. 83)
This was an important step taken by Farmer to bring new…
Tracy Kidder. Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, a Man Who Would Cure the World. Random House Trade Paperbacks (2009)
Economic sanctions are an important tool of U.S. foreign policy. They are used for a variety of reasons and often have substantial repercussions for countries on the receiving ends. Sanctions are used as a way to stop objectionable actions of foreign governments such as: to stop military adventures, arms proliferation, support of terrorism and drug trafficking, and human rights abuses among others. (Department of the Treasury website, 2002) "In conjunction with diplomacy and other measures, sanctions seek to demonstrate U.S. resolve and express outrage, change the behavior of the target country, and deter other countries from resorting to similar actions in the future." (Carter, 1988)
"Sanctions provide a middle road response between diplomacy and military action." (Day, 1992) Ineffective sanctions have led to U.S. military intervention in Panama, Haiti, Somalia, and Iraq, just to name a few places, and the consequences have been quite harsh. Not to mention…
1. Carter, Barry. International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
2. Clark, Ramsey, The Children are Dying The Impact of Sanctions on Iraq, 1996, WorldView Forum Inc., New York.
3. Day, Erin. Economic Sanctions Imposed by the United States Against Specific Countries: 1979 Through 1992. CRS Report for Congress 92-631 F. Congressional Research Service, August 10, 1992.
4. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control. "Foreign Assets Control Regulations." Available at http://www.ustreas.gov/ofac . 21 February 2002.
oth religions are not technically held to be systems of belief by their adherents, but rather as systems of service or patronage to higher powers. The idea was present in African feudalism, but seems to be enhanced and highlighted in Creole religions by the slave experience. Seeking for a path away from the rule of cruel Europeans, African slaves turned to the rule of benevolent and helpful Orishas and Loas. Practitioners serve the demi-gods, and the demi-gods in turn serve the practitioners. The relationship between god and man is mainly business, although love and respect are also required. However, no true worship -- as a westerner would understand it -- is required; instead the Orishas and Loas are propitiated by sacrifices, and communicate their assistance mainly by oracles. In both Vodou and Santeria each Orisha or Loa is associated with a certain constellation of symbols, fetishes, sacrifices, and drum-rhythms…
1. Olmos, Margarite Fernandez and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santeria to Obeah and Espiritismo. New York: New York University Press. 2003. Print.
2. Filan, Kenaz The Haitian Vodou Handbook: Protocols for Riding with the Lwa. Vermont: Destiny Books. 2007. Print
3. Murphy, Joseph M. Santeria: African Spirits in America. Massachussets: Beacon Press. 1993, Print.
4. Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M. "The Contribution of Catholic Orthodoxy to Caribbean Syncretism: The Case of La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre in Cuba." Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 117 (2002): p.37-58. WesScholar. Web. 10 April 2010
But into this more hopeful (if only by a small margin) view of Haitian culture as one that is polysemous, Martine reappears. She and Sophie initially reconnect and there is a sense -- briefly -- that women in Haiti may be able to meet each other without the distortion of men's ideas about women's bodies and destinies. But then Martine becomes pregnant and kills herself, unable to bear the implications of her own fertility and sexuality. Despite the suggestion that a woman can rewrite Haitian cultural values, Martine finds herself overwhelmed by these values. As a Haitian she is enveloped by the rules of a culture designed to privilege those with privilege, which did not include women like herself.
Does Danticat want us to take a sense of encouragement from the fact that it is Martine and not Sophie who is defeated? Does each new generation of women (or other…
Charters, Mallay, "Edwidge Danticat: A Bitter Legacy Revisited," in Publishers Weekly,
August 17, 1998, p. 42.
Danticat, Edwidge. Breath, Eyes, Memory. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. 2nd Vintage
.. reason is being heard throughout the whole universe; discover your rights," led to her being charged with treason, resulting in her arrest, trial and execution in 1793 by the dreaded guillotine (1997, Halsall, "Olympe de Gouge," Internet).
The Haitian evolution:
While all of this revolt was happening in France, the small Caribbean colony of Haiti was experiencing similar turmoil. The Haitian evolution of 1789 to 1804 began as a political struggle among the free peoples of Saint Domingue, a French colony on the island of Hispaniola. The French evolution of the same period provided the impetus for class and racial hatreds to come about on the island. Each of the colony's social classes, being the wealthy planters and merchants, and the lower white classes, seized the chance to address their grievances and bring about social chaos and revolt. While many colonial members sought support from the political groups in…
Carpentier, Alejo. (2004). "The Kingdom of the World." Internet. November 12, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.msu.edu/~williss2/carpentier .
Declaration of the Rights of Man -- 1789." Internet. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/rightsof.htm .
Halsall, Paul (1997). "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Internet. Modern History Sourcebook. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1791degouge1.html .
Instead a violent transfer of power occurred, in 2004, with an armed rebellion led by former military and paramilitary leaders sweeping through the country, all with the veiled support of the Bush administration of the supposedly non-violent political opposition parties ("The International epublican Institute").
In this most recent Haiti operation, in 2004, the U.S. Treasury Undersecretary, John Taylor, noted that the United States would contribute $232 million and the Inter-American Development Bank would contribute $400 million. However, American federal funds had already been flowing into the country since the late 1990s. Through the II, $3 million had already been funneled into Haiti in an effort to destabilize Aristide, mostly funds from taxpayer money from the U.S. Agency for International Development. Harsh sanctions, coupled with the II's training of Aristide's political opponents and the rejection of internationally-sanctioned power sharing agreements, escalated the Haitian political crisis to the eventual political coup that…
Did the Bush Administration Allow a Network of Right-Wing Republicans to Foment a Violent Coup in Haiti?" Africa Speaks. 20 July 2004. Democracynow.org. December 30, 2006 http://www.africaspeaks.com/haiti2004/2007.html .
The International Republican Institute: Promulgating Democracy of Another Variety." Council on Hemispheric Affairs. 15 Jul 2004. Council on Hemispheric Affairs. December 30, 2006 http://www.coha.org/2004/07/15/the-international-republican-institute-promulgating-democracy-of-another-variety/.
IRI Home Page. 2005. International Republican Institute. December 30, 2006 http://www.iri.org/ .
Robinson, Randall. "Bushwhacked in the Caribbean: America's Contempt for the World." Africa Speaks. 22 May 2004. Africa Speaks. December 30, 2006 http://www.africaspeaks.com/haiti2004/2205.html .
Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form
The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…
13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: http://www.ushistory.org/us/13h.asp
Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=8A-PwV_3zkcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=culture&f=false
Mountains Beyond Mountains
Author Tracy Kidder writes, "The world is full of miserable places…" His tongue-in-cheek quote then continues, "One way of living comfortably is not to think about them or, when you do, to send money." Kidder then proceeds to write Mountains Beyond Mountains (2003) and the obert Frost "road not taken" by Dr. Paul Farmer that is completely opposite to "sending money." Another Mother Theresa, Farmer focuses nearly all his waking time on the poverty and disease of Haiti's people, at the cost of forsaking the richness of family life with his wife and children. Although Farmer is a physician, his story holds considerable meaning for those in the counseling field. Similar to Farmer, many caring individuals become counselors to help the "miserable people" who fill the world. They want to do much more than "send money." Also, like Farmer, they are confronted with the impact of this…
American Counseling Association (2005) Code of Ethics. Web site retrieved December 2, 2010
Baird, S. & Jenkins, S.R. (2003). Vicarious traumatization, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout in sexual assault and domestic violence agency staff. Violence and Victims, 18, 71-87.
Everall, R.D., & Paulson, B.L. (2004) Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress: Impact on Ethical Behavior. Alberta: University of Alberta
With the amount that Guy works, he should be able to assure a better life for his son, which is his real effort; instead, he is barely able to ensure his son's survival, and the only real purpose for ensuring this survival is so his son can provide the same bleak level of subsistence to his family in the future. This is a losing cycle and not one that actually ought to inspire any hope when fully examined and understood.
The hot air balloon serves as a symbol of freedom and hope throughout the story, and when Guy first takes flight in it is at first appears to indicate that he ahs achieved some sort of escape. His decision to plummet to his death once again turns this symbol on its head, however, showing that there is no real escape and thus no reason to hope -- dreams and symbols…
Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, and the Struggle for Hispaniola
The American writer and free lance journalist Michele Wucker in her first book has written about both Haiti and the Dominican epublic complex relations in terms of their cultures and on the sources of their great effort both in their island home as well as in the United States.
According to the book, the Caribbean island of Hispaniola is home to historic, where this continuing conflict between two countries has been intensely separated by language, race and history. However, at the same time it has been forced continuously into argument by their shared geography. The book is emotional from the beginning with the fighting and posturing of blood sport, as observed by the writer in her first Haitian cockfight (1):
The air cracks with the impact of stiffened feathers as each bird tries to push the other to the ground. Around…
1. Bob Corbett. Why The Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians And The Struggle For Hispaniola
By Michele Wucker. New York: Hill & Wang. May 1999
2. Rob Ruck. Why The Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, And The Struggle For Hispaniola by Michele Wucker. "A history of Hispaniola." August, 1999.
Legba the Voodoo Spirit in estern and African Art
Voodoo is a religious practice with followers throughout the Caribbean region, particularly in Haiti and in parts of Africa where the religion spread through the introduction of the slave trade to the continent. Those who practice Haitian voodoo are called vodouists. They believe in a polytheistic system wherein each spirit, or loa sometimes spelled lwa, is responsible for one aspect of human experience (Holmes). Human beings cultivate a personal relationship with the loa and choose one particular spirit as the guiding force of their life. This is true except for the highest gods who were too busy to deign to give their attentions to mere mortals (Deren 55). Sometimes they are even granted conversation and communication with the gods if they are fortunate enough to receive permission to do so. Those who practiced Haitian voodoo did so with an unwavering devotion…
Brewster, Robert. "Papa Legba, Head of the Gods in Voodoo." Yahoo. Yahoo! Inc., 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. .
Davies, Carole Elizabeth. Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.
Deren, Maya. Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti. New Paltz, NY: McPherson, 1983.
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
Examples of global leadership are easily found, but it is important to make distinctions based on criteria other than fiscal gain or corporate revenue. The example of global leadership discussed in Section 2 of this paper is Dr. Paul Farmer, the founder of Partners in Health. Dr. Farmer's innovations in the global healthcare truly use Blue Ocean strategy and have altered the landscape of providing medicine to people in poverty. Farmer's primary attributes -- in addition to his extraordinary intellect -- are humility, compassion, and vision. Indeed, it is Farmer's vision and his ability to recruit followers and funds that have changed healthcare policy and practices around the world. Training executives to become competent global leaders requires a comprehensive plan such as that developed for the Global Leadership Expertise Development model. This model forms the basis for the training plan provided and recommended in this discussion.
____. (2008, May 5). Dr. Farmer's Remedy. 60 Minutes. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/videos/dr-farmers-remedy/
Celenk, O., & Van de Vijver, F. (2011). Assessment of acculturation: Issues and overview of measures. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 8(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.9707 / 2307-0919.1105
Dyer, J.H., Gregersen, H.B. And Christensen, C.M. (2009) 'The innovator's DNA,' Harvard Business Review, 87 (12), December, pp.60-67 [Online]. Available from: University of Liverpool Library: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=Harvard+Business+Review&volume=87&issue=12&spage=60&date=2009 (Accessed: 22 February 2015).
Govindarajan, V. And Trimble, C. (2010) 'Stop the innovation wars,' Harvard Business Review, 88 (7/8), July/August, pp.76-83 [Online]. Available from: University of Liverpool Library: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=Harvard+Business+Review&volume=88&issue=7%2F8&spage=76&date=2010 (Accessed: 22 February 2015).
The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.
The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…
Dubois, Laurent and John D. Carrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Print.
Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chain: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. Print.
Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Silencing the Past. Beacon Press, 1997.
Much as historical individuals in real space and time make claims about their own importance and their proposed role in the future, early on in his own text the historian Michel-Rolph Trouillot states that the prospective project of his book, Silencing the Past, is to tell a theoretical tale about the relationship between history and power. He attempts to analyze how historical narratives are produced. In other words, Trouillot sees history as a narrative, as a production, rather than as a series of factual, unbroken events. "Human beings participate in history both as participants and as narrators," says Trouillot. (2)
This point-of-view of history, because it employs a literary as well as a factual understanding of historical narrative, perhaps inevitably suggests that the production of historical narratives involves the uneven contribution of competing groups and individuals. Individuals at specific historical moments in…
The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.
This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.
Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks
It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…
Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Nov [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110827
The World Health Organization (2006). Communicable Disease following natural disasters. Risk Assessment and Priority Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf
Vaccinations in disaster situations: Recommendations of the PAHO/WHO special program for vaccines and immunization (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.paho.org/English/PED/te_vacc.htm
Foreign medical teams are comprised of health care professionals in a wide range of fields and areas of specialization. Their primary goal is to treat persons affected by sudden disasters and emergencies. Foreign medical teams may work under the auspices of NGOs, governments, or international aid organizations like the ed Cross. The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a set of minimum standards foreign medical teams must meet in order to comply with evidence-based best practices. Those standards are outlined clearly in formal documents (WHO, 2013). Because foreign medical team standards are becoming increasingly standardized, the drawbacks with using foreign medical teams may be minimized. Those potential drawbacks include miscommunication or lack of effective coordination between disparate teams and their presiding organization. Other drawbacks include the inability to provide ongoing or long-term medical services in ways that also help to relieve the burdens placed on the local, regional, or national…
Brolin, K., Hawajri, O. & von Schreeb, J. (2015). Foreign medical teams in the Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan 2013. Retrieved online: http://currents.plos.org/disasters/article/dis-15-0018-foreign-medical-teams-in-the-philippines-after-typhoon-haiyan-2013-who-were-they-when-did-they-arrive-and-what-did-they-do/
National Academy of Sciences (2015). Healthy, resilient, and sustainable communities after disasters.
O'Sullivan, T.L., Kuziemsky, C.E., Toal-Sullivan, D. & Corneil, W. (2013). Unraveling the complexities of disaster management. Social Science and Medicine 93(2013): 238-246.
United States Department of Health and Human Services (2015). Core mission areas. Retrieved online: http://www.phe.gov/about/oem/recovery/Pages/rsf-core.aspx
Social Problem in a Family Context
Select a social problem, disorder, or condition that affects family dynamics.
Family Separation due to Deportation
In the introduction describe the problem, its etiology, and effects on the family system.
Problem and Etiology
Innumerable children experience the trauma of separation from their families (parents), owing to deportation. For many years, no attention has been paid to their suffering or their demands. However, of late, a glimmer of hope can be seen for such families, on account of President Obama's precise, direct position with regard to this major issue. Therefore, now is the opportune moment to broach this issue and assist researchers in making these displaced people's voices heard. Migrants from different parts of the globe are lured to the U.S. where they hope for a secure future and improved life. A number of families and individuals risk much, including their lives, for acquiring passage…
Applied Research Center (2011). Shattered Families: The Perilous Intersection of Immigration Enforcement and the Child Welfare System. Retrieved on May 14, 2014 from https://www.raceforward.org/research/reports/shattered-families?arc=1
Bakker, C. (2009). The Impact of Migration on Children in the Caribbean. UNICEF Office for Barbados and Eastern Caribbean.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic.
It is simply how the world works, and how humans interact with the world.
One of the speaker's main points is that developing countries alter their political and government arenas as they develop. She believes that the government, which regulates taxes and other economic incentives, has the power to attract or repel business investment in their developing countries. She writes, "If taxes, industrial policy, environmental regulation, or industrial relations in any society are too costly or constraining, investors will pull up stakes and transfer them elsewhere; workers cannot move so easily" (Berger 2010, 51). She contends that as government leaders gain more power through technology, taxes, and investment in their country, they become less trustworthy to their citizens. Another group of writers note, "More than anybody else, government officials, as defined above, are responsible for words and action that influence the developmental direction of society. The decisions that they have…
Berger, S. 2010. Globalisation and politics. Annual Review of Political Science. 2000. 3:43 -- 62.
Hafsi, T., and Mehdi F. 2005. Applicability of Management Theories to Developing Countries: A Synthesis. Management International Review 45, no. 4: 483+.
Hyden, G. Court, J., and Mease, K. 2003. Government and Governance in 16 Developing Countries. [Online] Available at: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3140.pdf [Accessed 14 May 2010].
Perkins, R. 2008. Incentivizing Climate Mitigation: Engaging Developing Countries. Harvard International Review 30, no. 2: 42+.
There are sources claiming that the population of natives had fallen from several million to several tens of thousands. The sources cannot be verified in the present, since there are no notable documents to confirm either assumption. hat is certain is that the Taino population from Hispaniola had been severely diminished as a result on their interaction with the Europeans.
hile Columbus continued to visit the Caribbean in hope that he would find the famous kingdoms that he have heard about, his brother Bartolome became governor of the island. Still, similar to his brother, Bartolome did not seem to control the situation, as no major advancements have been performed during his governing. One of the biggest mistakes that the Europeans had done during their first years on Hispaniola had been that they did not want their community to have anything to do to the native one. The locals had not…
1. Atkins, Pope G. Wilson, Larman Curtis. The Dominican Republic and the United States: from imperialism to transnationalism. University of Georgia Press, 1998.
2. Bakewell, Peter John. "A history of Latin America: c. 1450 to the present."
3. Brown, Isabel Zakrzewski. Culture and customs of the Dominican Republic. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
4. Guitar, Lynne. "History of the Dominican Republic." Retrieved June 12, 2009, from Hispaniola Web site: http://www.hispaniola.com/dominican_republic/info/history.php
This study reviews Pat obertson's "Courting disaster: How the Supreme Court is usurping the power of Congress and the people." Pat obertson is the founder and chairperson of the Christian Broadcasting Network, founder of egent University, and The Center for Law and Justice. He and his wife have four children and thirteen grandchildren. They reside in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Using both legal and religious points-of-view, obertson attempts to prove that the current operation of the judicial system is dangerous to both the republican form of government and our individual freedoms. While seeking to strengthen his argument, the author has compiled fascinating facts, quotes, case decisions, and opinions of the Court (Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, 2007).
From this study, it is evident that obertson undertook a political expedition seeking to identify various issues that bedeviled the American society. However, he fails to provide solutions to the identified problems. This is an action…
Barrett, P., & Smolla, R.A. (2010). A year in the life of the Supreme Court. Durham [u.a.: Duke Univ. Press.
Edwards, L., & Meese, E. (2011). Bringing justice to the people: The story of the freedom-based public interest law movement. Washington, DC: Heritage Books.
Melashenko, E.L., & Smith, D.B. (2009). Rock-solid living in a run-amok world. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Pub. Association.
Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, G. (2007). America's battle for God: A European Christian looks at civil religion. Grand Rapids, Mich. [u.a.: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…
Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.
Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.
Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.
Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.
I longed for a mother with a scarf on her head and a skin so dark that I never would have to be afraid at night again that the sun would ever burn me" (350). It is this sense of personal shame of having a white mother, caused by the teasing of her peers, that perhaps drives the daughter's longing to travel to Surinam someday to meet her extended family and learn of her black father's roots. "… I began to think about everything, about who my parents were, about my mother, about where my father is from, about what I am, about who were are together" (349).
Her parents are reluctant to allow their daughter to go, but finally give in when it is the summer of the grandmother's eightieth birthday. The father and daughter make the long trip to Surinam. "I knew that we were flying away from…
Danticat, Edwidge. "Nineteen Thirty-Seven." The Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories, Ed. Stewart Brown and John Wickham. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 447-456. Print.
Hunter, Andrea G. And Robert J. Taylor. "Grandparenthood in African-American Families." Handbook on Grandparenthood, Ed. Maximilane Szinovacz.. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. 70-86. Print.
Marshall, Paule. "To Da-duh, in Memoriam." The Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories, Ed. Stewart Brown and John Wickham. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 159-168. Print.
Roemer, Astrid. "The Inheritance of my Father: A Story for Listening." The Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories, Ed. Stewart Brown and John Wickham. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 348-361. Print.
The Spanish oyal Crown officially declared that the only salvation possible for the native populations was to accept their opportunity to adopt Christianity. In fact under a concept known as equerimiento, the Spaniards were required to give the native people a "fair" opportunity to do just that before they disposed of them as savages instead of respecting them as human beings created in God's image. As Eurocentric a concept as equerimiento was, even that edict was routinely ignored by Columbus's men (Schwartz, 2000; Stannard, 1993). They enslaved men, rapes women, and murdered children virtually at will. They imposed "quotas" of minimum amounts of gold ore to be collected daily and imposed penalties of mutilation and death, often depending on whether or not their victims survived after having limbs hacked off as a message to their companions and their communities that the Spaniards were deadly serious about expecting them to find…
Schwartz, S.B. (2000). Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of Conquest
of Mexico. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Stannard, D. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York:
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little
The interests of land owners often clashes with the state in developed nations, where government collusion with large business conglomerates make decisions that are not in the best interests of those who pay property taxes. Those who pay property taxes also hail from too diverse a political landscape to reach any consensus that might benefit the whole community.
Scott's argument can also be extended to the realm of genetic engineering of crops and the patenting of seeds. What science has offered is a potential disaster wrapped up as a gift. The state-level planning required to either embrace (as in the case of the United States and some developing nations) or reject (as in the case of most of Europe) genetically modified foods is the problem.
Part of the problem with poor state-level decision making is therefore political. In Chapter 4, Scott touches upon the hubris of urban planners and indeed…
Scott, J.C. (1998). Seeing Like a State. New Haven: Yale University Press.