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Haitian Essays (Examples)

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Toussaint L'ouverture
Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 16947665
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Toussaint succeeded to gain people's trust and support in is revolutionary ideas precisely because e disagreed wit te first manifestations of revolt against te Frenc. Tey were conducted temselves only by rules of destruction. After te defeat and condemnation of Oge, te new risings swept across te island: "Te slaves awoke as if from an ominous dream. Under one of teir class, named Boukman, a man of Herculean strengt, wo knew not wat danger was, te negroes on te nigt of August 21st, 1791, arose in te terrific power of brute force. Gaining immediate success, tey rapidly increased in numbers, and grew ot wit fury. Tey fell on te plantations, slaugtered teir proprietors, and destroyed te property. Suc progress did te insurrection make, tat on te 26t, te tird of te abitations of te Nortern Department were in ases. In a week from its commencement te storm ad swept over… 

Toussaint Louverture. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved: Oct 15, 2009. Available at: 

Mossell, Charles.W. Gragnon-Lacoste, Thomas Prosper. Toussaint Louverture, the Hero of Saint Domingo. 1890.. Ward & Cobb, 1896

Egalite for All Toussaint Louverture
Words: 1482 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Film Review Paper #: 32784470
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The film is subdued and takes great care not to hurt sentiments of the white population and also avoids the probable civil unrest that may be caused with the coloured community watching it, if it was to be made in depth. The director has stopped with pointing to the facts rather than explore the possibilities as a film. Therefore there has been no bias except that there was a tighter reign in exploring the issues.

4) - What are the director's visible goals? What did he/she try to do with this movie? What might be his/her thesis?

She probably wanted to highlight the plight of the Haitians and their history and that was sought to be done through their hero -- a person who gave them the constitution and stood up to Napoleon. However the thesis failed because neither was she able to present us the personality of the central…


Documentary. (n. d.) "Egalite for All. Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution"

Retrieved 12 April, 2013 from 

Facebook. (2013) "Facebook" Retrieved 12 April, 2013 from 

IMBD. (2013a) "Egalite for All. Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution"

Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of
Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88148161
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Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form

The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…


13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: 

Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from:

R-Questions to Build the Literature
Words: 9245 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 46920430
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Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…


Aaron, P. (1997). The Impending Demise of the Discrepancy Formula. Review of Educational Research, 461-502.

Abedi, J. (2008). Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility. Teachers College Record, 2282-2303.

Ang, S., Van Dynne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templar, K., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.

August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 50-57.

Why the Cocks Fight
Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30918567
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Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, and the Struggle for Hispaniola

The American writer and free lance journalist Michele Wucker in her first book has written about both Haiti and the Dominican epublic complex relations in terms of their cultures and on the sources of their great effort both in their island home as well as in the United States.

According to the book, the Caribbean island of Hispaniola is home to historic, where this continuing conflict between two countries has been intensely separated by language, race and history. However, at the same time it has been forced continuously into argument by their shared geography. The book is emotional from the beginning with the fighting and posturing of blood sport, as observed by the writer in her first Haitian cockfight (1):

The air cracks with the impact of stiffened feathers as each bird tries to push the other to the ground. Around…


1. Bob Corbett. Why The Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians And The Struggle For Hispaniola

By Michele Wucker. New York: Hill & Wang. May 1999

2. Rob Ruck. Why The Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, And The Struggle For Hispaniola by Michele Wucker. "A history of Hispaniola." August, 1999.


Legba the Voodoo Spirit
Words: 2072 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79468742
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Legba the Voodoo Spirit in estern and African Art

Voodoo is a religious practice with followers throughout the Caribbean region, particularly in Haiti and in parts of Africa where the religion spread through the introduction of the slave trade to the continent. Those who practice Haitian voodoo are called vodouists. They believe in a polytheistic system wherein each spirit, or loa sometimes spelled lwa, is responsible for one aspect of human experience (Holmes). Human beings cultivate a personal relationship with the loa and choose one particular spirit as the guiding force of their life. This is true except for the highest gods who were too busy to deign to give their attentions to mere mortals (Deren 55). Sometimes they are even granted conversation and communication with the gods if they are fortunate enough to receive permission to do so. Those who practiced Haitian voodoo did so with an unwavering devotion…

Works Cited:

Brewster, Robert. "Papa Legba, Head of the Gods in Voodoo." Yahoo. Yahoo! Inc., 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. .

Davies, Carole Elizabeth. Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.

Deren, Maya. Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti. New Paltz, NY: McPherson, 1983.


Enlightenment on the French and
Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32699302
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.. reason is being heard throughout the whole universe; discover your rights," led to her being charged with treason, resulting in her arrest, trial and execution in 1793 by the dreaded guillotine (1997, Halsall, "Olympe de Gouge," Internet).

The Haitian evolution:

While all of this revolt was happening in France, the small Caribbean colony of Haiti was experiencing similar turmoil. The Haitian evolution of 1789 to 1804 began as a political struggle among the free peoples of Saint Domingue, a French colony on the island of Hispaniola. The French evolution of the same period provided the impetus for class and racial hatreds to come about on the island. Each of the colony's social classes, being the wealthy planters and merchants, and the lower white classes, seized the chance to address their grievances and bring about social chaos and revolt. While many colonial members sought support from the political groups in…


Carpentier, Alejo. (2004). "The Kingdom of the World." Internet. November 12, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005. .

Declaration of the Rights of Man -- 1789." Internet. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Accessed June 10, 2005. .

Halsall, Paul (1997). "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Internet. Modern History Sourcebook. Accessed June 10, 2005. .


Trouillot Michel-rolph Silencing the Past Beacon Press
Words: 1170 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17764764
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Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Silencing the Past. Beacon Press, 1997.

Much as historical individuals in real space and time make claims about their own importance and their proposed role in the future, early on in his own text the historian Michel-Rolph Trouillot states that the prospective project of his book, Silencing the Past, is to tell a theoretical tale about the relationship between history and power. He attempts to analyze how historical narratives are produced. In other words, Trouillot sees history as a narrative, as a production, rather than as a series of factual, unbroken events. "Human beings participate in history both as participants and as narrators," says Trouillot. (2)

This point-of-view of history, because it employs a literary as well as a factual understanding of historical narrative, perhaps inevitably suggests that the production of historical narratives involves the uneven contribution of competing groups and individuals. Individuals at specific historical moments in…

Diversity Scholarship Award
Words: 832 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13038045
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School Faculty Council selects Doctor Psychology student person represents academic excellence, leadership, service field psychology. Write a position statement essay related a Diversity Scholarship applying

Diversity scholarship

At present I am pursuing a PhD in organizational development and leadership with a specific concentration in social media and technology. I have chosen to pursue this degree because I believe in the future there will be an even greater need for organizations to respond to the needs of a diverse workforce and customers in a culturally-sensitive manner. As someone who is of Haitian heritage, I have always been acutely aware on a personal level of the need for responsiveness to an individual's ethnic and racial background. Many people have misconceptions about Haiti because they know the country only through the images they have been presented with on the news. They think of it as a land solely characterized by poverty and turmoil…

Abolition of Slavery Abolition of
Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72178216
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The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.

The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…

Works Cited

Dubois, Laurent and John D. Carrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Print.

Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chain: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. Print.

Challenges of Opening NYC Restaurant
Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 66820861
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NYC African Restaurants

African Restaurants

African Restaurants in NYC

The restaurant's soft industrial lighting makes the chrome gleam. A soft and expansive backdrop of blue gives the space a cool and slightly futuristic industrial like a hip loft in the future. Exposed brick walls are tinged in a blue sheen and the distressed wood chairs and tables have been stained steel gray and have marble table tops. In three weeks, Cisse Elhadji, the owner of Ponty Bistro in Midtown, will open his new restaurant La Terengea. Located at 144 West 139th St., the restaurant us nestled in between the Hudson and Harlem rivers a few blocks west of the City College of New York. The location of the restaurant is quite lucrative given its relative proximity to both Central Park as well as Yankee Stadium.

Though Elhadji has succeeded once with an African restaurant, La Teregenga is still a gamble.…

Noble Savage in Age of Atlantic Revolutions
Words: 4909 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93388118
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noble savage..." etc.

The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution

When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…


Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: ]

Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: ]

Foundation of Peace
Words: 7104 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18200902
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Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.

Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…


"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.

Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office

Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from

Breath but Not Voice as
Words: 1634 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90257886
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But into this more hopeful (if only by a small margin) view of Haitian culture as one that is polysemous, Martine reappears. She and Sophie initially reconnect and there is a sense -- briefly -- that women in Haiti may be able to meet each other without the distortion of men's ideas about women's bodies and destinies. But then Martine becomes pregnant and kills herself, unable to bear the implications of her own fertility and sexuality. Despite the suggestion that a woman can rewrite Haitian cultural values, Martine finds herself overwhelmed by these values. As a Haitian she is enveloped by the rules of a culture designed to privilege those with privilege, which did not include women like herself.

Does Danticat want us to take a sense of encouragement from the fact that it is Martine and not Sophie who is defeated? Does each new generation of women (or other…

Works Cited

Charters, Mallay, "Edwidge Danticat: A Bitter Legacy Revisited," in Publishers Weekly,

August 17, 1998, p. 42.

Danticat, Edwidge. Breath, Eyes, Memory. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. 2nd Vintage

Contemporaries Edition.

Eyes of the Heart
Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19019880
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Eyes of the Heart: Seeking a Path for the Poor in the Age of Globalization, by Jean-ertrand Aristide, is an important book, written not just for Haiti and its people, but on behalf of all people living in developing countries. It is a cry for social justice for the poor of the world, and in the book, Aristide uses his experiences of poverty and development in Haiti to lay bare and to berate the morality of a world that can allow situations, such as the one Haiti has lived through (and indeed continues to live through), to occur and to continue. It is necessary to know something of the life of the author, and of the history of Haiti in order to appreciate the significance of this book, and so I will begin with short synopses of these topics.

Jean-ertrand Aristide has fine credentials and a strong background with which…


Aristide, J-B. (2000). Eyes of the Heart: Seeking a Path for the Poor in the Age of Globalization. Common Courage Press.

Eyes of the Heart Seeking a Path for the Poor in the Age of Globalization
Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5565221
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Eyes of the Heart: Seeking a Path for the Poor in the Age of Globalization, by Jean-ertrand Aristide. Specifically, it will discuss the book as if explaining it to a friend who had not read the book, so they would be able to understand the whole book with out having to read it. Jean-ertrand Aristide's "Eyes of the Heart" is a compelling look at a country so low on the economic scale that it barely exists. Aristide wants the world to understand the hardships his fellow citizens face, but more than that, he wants the world to take responsibility for the suffering going on, and the way the riches nations seem to ignore and foster poverty in the poorest nations.


Author Jean-ertrand Aristide was the President of the Republic of Haiti, a Catholic Priest, and a dedicated humanitarian, which makes him an expert in the lives…


Aristide, Jean-Bertrand. 2000. Eyes of the heart: Seeking a path for the poor in the age of globalization. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.

Profile of H.E. Mr. Jean-Bertrand Aristide. [online]. 2003. Washington D.C.: The Embassy of the Republic of Haiti; available at;Internet, accessed 13 May 2003.

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand. 2000. Eyes of the heart: Seeking a path for the poor in the age of globalization. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, p 2.

Mountains Beyond Mountains Farmer's Dilemma
Words: 1084 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57211787
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" (p. 28)

Once Farmer got involved with Haitian culture, he also found himself entangled in many dilemmas both ethical and political. The first one came in the form of science and magic. Is it ethical to learn sorcery and allow people to think that you are using magic to cure them when you obviously believe in the power of medical science far more than magic? Farmer offered an explanation of why he got involved with sorcery. He realized that without understanding the belief system that controlled the health of Haitian people, it would be impossible to offer them alternatives. Farmer's explanation was simple: "A doctor who knew nothing about local beliefs might end up at war with Voodoo priests, but a doctor anthropologist who understood those beliefs could find ways to make Voodoo houngans his allies." (p. 83)

This was an important step taken by Farmer to bring new…


Tracy Kidder. Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, a Man Who Would Cure the World. Random House Trade Paperbacks (2009)

Developing Country That Will Be Focused Upon
Words: 2357 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8451041
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Developing country that will be focused upon for this report is Haiti. The reason the author of this report chose Haiti for this report is because the recent earthquake there that claimed roughly 50,000 lives brought it to the forefront. This is in contrast to the Dominican epublic (which is on the other end of the same island) had little to no notable news coverage during the same aftermath. Haiti is certainly not at the bottom of the barrel when it comes to developing countries but it shares a colonial past (French) with many other countries and it faces many challenges including starkly low incomes, very low literacy rates and other major life challenges for normal every-day Haitians. Facts to be covered include the name of the country, which of course is Haiti, when it became independent, its location, in what ways the country is less develop than more advanced…


Brittanica. (2013, April 28). Haiti -- Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from 

CBCNews. (2013, April 28). - Canadian News Sports Entertainment Kids Docs Radio TV. - Canadian News Sports Entertainment Kids Docs Radio TV. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from 

Ferreira, S. (2013, October 25). The Clintons in Haiti: Can an Industrial Park Save the Country? | World | International Headlines, Stories, Photos and Video | Retrieved April 28, 2013, from 

GoogleMaps. (2013, April 28). Google Maps. Google Maps. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from

Panama and Haiti Interventions
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35213272
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The public opinion differences in support for the Haiti and Panama interventions were that the latter was viewed by the people (prompted by the media) simplistically, as a mission of good guys (the U.S.) fighting bad guys (Noriega); on Haiti, the public (again prompted by the mainstream media) was the reverse—intervention was unnecessary and was just a case of Clinton trying to get the spotlight off his own back. This paper will compare and contrast the way the government handled the two interventions and discuss the media’s role in the interventions and how a “rally ‘round the flag effect” occurred for the Panama intervention—but not for the Haiti intervention.
In the Panama intervention under Bush, the media depicted the soldiers as effectively bringing Christmas and Santa Claus to the Panamanians (Milburn Panama Video 1, n.d.). The propaganda campaign made it appear as though Noriega was a ruthless dictator who was…

Religion Comparing and Contrasting Vodou
Words: 2523 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49455140
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oth religions are not technically held to be systems of belief by their adherents, but rather as systems of service or patronage to higher powers. The idea was present in African feudalism, but seems to be enhanced and highlighted in Creole religions by the slave experience. Seeking for a path away from the rule of cruel Europeans, African slaves turned to the rule of benevolent and helpful Orishas and Loas. Practitioners serve the demi-gods, and the demi-gods in turn serve the practitioners. The relationship between god and man is mainly business, although love and respect are also required. However, no true worship -- as a westerner would understand it -- is required; instead the Orishas and Loas are propitiated by sacrifices, and communicate their assistance mainly by oracles. In both Vodou and Santeria each Orisha or Loa is associated with a certain constellation of symbols, fetishes, sacrifices, and drum-rhythms…


1. Olmos, Margarite Fernandez and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santeria to Obeah and Espiritismo. New York: New York University Press. 2003. Print.

2. Filan, Kenaz The Haitian Vodou Handbook: Protocols for Riding with the Lwa. Vermont: Destiny Books. 2007. Print

3. Murphy, Joseph M. Santeria: African Spirits in America. Massachussets: Beacon Press. 1993, Print.

4. Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M. "The Contribution of Catholic Orthodoxy to Caribbean Syncretism: The Case of La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre in Cuba." Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 117 (2002): p.37-58. WesScholar. Web. 10 April 2010

Bishop Kyle Raising the Dead
Words: 1511 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 35207531
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Evolution of the Zombie

An element which was not examined in great detail by Bishop was the evolution of the "undead" creatures of which zombies are one of many. It would appear that Hollywood is always evolving new concepts in terms of these creatures, so much so that the idea of the zombie begins to become blurred. For example some films, most notably 28 Days Later and 28 Weeks Later have toyed with a concept which is very similar to that of the zombie, but is induced by a virus. The creatures in these movies are not technically zombies as they have never died, they have simply changed into flesh-eating monsters. In addition, Shaun of the Dead takes the traditional conventions of the zombie film, but adds an element of comedy, creating what is arguably a new style of film. It would therefore appear likely that given the popularity of…

US Occupation of Haiti
Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13290138
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Schmidt, Hans. The .S. Occupation of Haiti: 1915-1934. New Brunswick: Rutgers

niversity Press, 1995.

Hans Schmidt's The .S. Occupation of Haiti was originally published in 1971, after the folly of American intervention in Vietnam had become all too stark and clearly apparent to the .S. public. Schmidt wrote his book to tell a sordid tale of another, earlier example of a misguided .S. intervention in a foreign land. After the people of Haiti had rioted in protest of the actions of their current leader, America entered the independent nation and occupied it, resulting in the death of almost two thousand Haitians in five short years (102). The calculated, self-serving invasion was not undertaken because of humanitarian reasons, for the Haitian politician unrest was solely internal -- there had been seven presidents in rapid succession, and President Guillaume Sam had executed 167 political prisoners, to the anger of many Haitians (167).…

University Press, 1995.

Hans Schmidt's The U.S. Occupation of Haiti was originally published in 1971, after the folly of American intervention in Vietnam had become all too stark and clearly apparent to the U.S. public. Schmidt wrote his book to tell a sordid tale of another, earlier example of a misguided U.S. intervention in a foreign land. After the people of Haiti had rioted in protest of the actions of their current leader, America entered the independent nation and occupied it, resulting in the death of almost two thousand Haitians in five short years (102). The calculated, self-serving invasion was not undertaken because of humanitarian reasons, for the Haitian politician unrest was solely internal -- there had been seven presidents in rapid succession, and President Guillaume Sam had executed 167 political prisoners, to the anger of many Haitians (167). But the American invasion was motivated by America's determination to protect its interests in the Caribbean, especially after its construction of the Panama Canal, along with its fears of the growing French and German presence in the region.

Schmidt's book was also written shortly after the victories of the recent American Civil Rights movement. He noted that Americans, rather than liberating the Haitians, instituted Jim Crow racial segregation in the African nation, supposedly because of linguistic and social differences, but really because of fears of Haitians 'mixing' with American white women (137). The racial hostility was especially notable on the part of the U.S. military, which was mostly made up of Southerners. Haitians were barred from the American social clubs, and Americans took the best houses, much to the outrage of Haiti's former upper class. Even American withdrawal was a protracted affair, despite many promises to the contrary, given the U.S.'s difficulty in financially extricating itself from the messy state of Haiti's financial affairs, of which the U.S. had assumed control after the invasion. Today, this book's portrait of an American invasion in a land it does not understand, and America's involvement in a politically divided nation with a foreign culture is just as timely, if not more timely, than when this book was first written.

Danticat Short Story Wall of Fire
Words: 1722 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34657899
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all of Fire Rising" is a tragic story by Haitian author Edwidge Danticat. The title of the tale comes from a line in a play about Dutty Boukman, a slave rebel turned revolutionary hero in Haiti. Boukman's story symbolizes release from bondage and oppression, and the ongoing struggle of the Haitian people evident in the complicated daily lives of ordinary families like that of Guy, Lili, and their son. Although the story does end tragically, "A all of Fire Rising" contains a kernel of hope. that dreaming of a better future, and being committed to doing the hard work to attain that goal, will eventually bring about liberation. The line in the play reads, "a wall of fire is rising and in the ashes, I see the bones of my people," (Danticat 234). Little Guy recites these lines as they perfectly parallel the suicide of his father, who jumped out…

Work Cited

Danticat, Edwidge. "A Wall of Fire Rising."

History African Diaspora Subject - Fredrick Douglass Ambassor
Words: 1455 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86818821
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History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.

Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora

Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.

Africans have…

Works cited:

Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)

McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)

"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: 

The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.

Aloud or in Writing Making
Words: 17261 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71062622
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Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.

2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.

3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.

4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.


The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…


Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.

Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.

Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.

Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.

Causes of Different Economic Development Among Different
Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88896797
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causes of different economic development among different immigration groups in the United States will be documented on a description of the economic level of each community and some of its characteristics, as well as on the different policies that the U.S. government may have applied in their cases and on the social and human capital they have brought along.

The Cubans represent a case apart, mainly due to the legal stimuli that they received from the White House administration for their immigration. Indeed, as many sources were keen to mention, the Cuban immigrates were privileged, in the sense that, unlike many other populations, they were not required to prove their position as political immigrates, but their status was predefined as such, because of Fidel Castro's Communist regime in Cuba. This meant that they were automatically considered refugees and received the privileges that went with this position.

Additionally, starting from 1966,…


1. Stepick, Alex. Immigrants, Race and Power in Miami: Reconfiguring Relations. November 2003. On the Internet at

2. Dominicans Are City's Fastest Growing, Poorest Group, Says Study. Columbia University Record -- March 10, 1995 -- Vol. 20, No. 20. On the Internet at 

3. Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at

Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at

Bush Government Policy in Haiti
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S. military to stabilize the violent uprising by the 'opposition' thugs, many of whom were former members of the Duvalier-era military or members of the death squad known as the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti, who were responsible for a multitude of human rights violations during the three years following the coup d'etat in 1991 (ater pp). Moreover, aters and others want to know why the Bush Administration refused to negotiate a peaceful settlement to the crisis, and forced Aristide, "who had agreed to a peace plan worked out by the international community, to resign and leave his country" (aters pp). Prior to Aristide's departure, Bush's only concern was to make sure that all Haitian refugees were turned back at sea before they could reach the U.S. (aters pp).

orks Cited

Hallinan, Conn M. "Haiti: dangerous muddle." Foreign Policy in Focus. March 08

2004. Retrieved October 29,…

Works Cited

Hallinan, Conn M. "Haiti: dangerous muddle." Foreign Policy in Focus. March 08

2004. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Kidder, Tracy. "The trials of Haiti: why has the U.S. government abandoned a country it once sought to liberate?" The Nation. October 27, 2003. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Rice, Jim. "Regime change in Haiti: the Bush doctrine strikes again." Sojourners.

Nineteen Thirty-Seven and the River Edwidge Danticat
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Nineteen Thirty-Seven and the River

Edwidge Danticat and Flannery O'Connor both explore the influence of religion in creating a belief system in individuals who have been disconnected from societies' main stream in their shot stories Nineteen Thirty-Seven and The River. Characters in both stories have been abandoned by humanity and strive to regain their identity through God's grace. Danticat uses a poverty stricken Haitian woman, Manman, who has been accused of being a witch and incarcerated, while O'Connor incorporates a very young affluent boy, Bevel, who has been discounted as a human being and forsaken by his parents to frame their stories. Both Manman and Bevel use religion, specifically Christianity, to help them find an identity under hostile conditions.

Danticat's story is set in Haiti, in a society that is dominated by poverty and superstitious beliefs. Manman is hauled out of her home one morning, beaten by her neighbors, and…

Works Cited

Danticat, Edwidge. "Nineteen Thirty-Seven." Krik-Krak!" New York: Soho Press Inc., 1995.

O'Connor, Flannery. "The River." A Good Man is Hard to Find and Other Short Stories. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1955.

Ethics in Relation to Mountains Beyond Mountains
Words: 3403 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 74045811
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Mountains Beyond Mountains

Author Tracy Kidder writes, "The world is full of miserable places…" His tongue-in-cheek quote then continues, "One way of living comfortably is not to think about them or, when you do, to send money." Kidder then proceeds to write Mountains Beyond Mountains (2003) and the obert Frost "road not taken" by Dr. Paul Farmer that is completely opposite to "sending money." Another Mother Theresa, Farmer focuses nearly all his waking time on the poverty and disease of Haiti's people, at the cost of forsaking the richness of family life with his wife and children. Although Farmer is a physician, his story holds considerable meaning for those in the counseling field. Similar to Farmer, many caring individuals become counselors to help the "miserable people" who fill the world. They want to do much more than "send money." Also, like Farmer, they are confronted with the impact of this…


American Counseling Association (2005) Code of Ethics. Web site retrieved December 2, 2010 

Baird, S. & Jenkins, S.R. (2003). Vicarious traumatization, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout in sexual assault and domestic violence agency staff. Violence and Victims, 18, 71-87.

Everall, R.D., & Paulson, B.L. (2004) Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress: Impact on Ethical Behavior. Alberta: University of Alberta

How Technology Shapes Disasters
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ole of Technology in educing and Exacerbating Disaster isk: A Case Study of -- Haiti

Examine how technology(s) exacerbates.

Examine how technology(s) reduces the vulnerability of different people facing the same risk.

Make policy recommendations that would reduce the risk for the most vulnerable.

How to involve communities in technology development.

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The technological inventions and life often go hand in hand and the disasters have often been…


Cashmore P. (2010) Haiti Quake Relief: Hoe Technology helps. Cable News Network [online]. Available from [13Nov 2014]

Choney S.(2010) Mobile Giving to help Haiti Exceeds $30 Million[online].Available from [11November 2014]

Encyclopedia of the Nations (2014)Haiti- Agriculture. Available from

Earth as the People of
Words: 3609 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 34876836
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There are sources claiming that the population of natives had fallen from several million to several tens of thousands. The sources cannot be verified in the present, since there are no notable documents to confirm either assumption. hat is certain is that the Taino population from Hispaniola had been severely diminished as a result on their interaction with the Europeans.

hile Columbus continued to visit the Caribbean in hope that he would find the famous kingdoms that he have heard about, his brother Bartolome became governor of the island. Still, similar to his brother, Bartolome did not seem to control the situation, as no major advancements have been performed during his governing. One of the biggest mistakes that the Europeans had done during their first years on Hispaniola had been that they did not want their community to have anything to do to the native one. The locals had not…

Works cited:

1. Atkins, Pope G. Wilson, Larman Curtis. The Dominican Republic and the United States: from imperialism to transnationalism. University of Georgia Press, 1998.

2. Bakewell, Peter John. "A history of Latin America: c. 1450 to the present."

3. Brown, Isabel Zakrzewski. Culture and customs of the Dominican Republic. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.

4. Guitar, Lynne. "History of the Dominican Republic." Retrieved June 12, 2009, from Hispaniola Web site:

Immigration in January of 2010 Haiti Suffered
Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80140733
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In January of 2010 Haiti suffered a 7.0 magnitude earthquake which destroyed much of the country and left the population devastated. When this tragedy occurred, Haiti was "already the poorest in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty." ("CIA") As a Haitian with little prospects of having a decent life, or making a decent living, I have decided that I want to emigrate to the United States. After much consideration, including researching the immigration and naturalization process, but most importantly the costs, I have discovered that it will be very difficult for me to emigrate. The costs alone are much more than a poor Haitian like myself to pay. It costs over $1,000 U.S. just to apply for a Green Card, and this will only grant me residency, and another $680 U.S. just to apply for citizenship. And…


"CIA - The World Factbook." Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from 

"Statue of Liberty Inscription, by Emma Lazarus." New York City Travel Guide.

Retrieved from 


Dew Breaker the United States
Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95758357
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He has become a respected individual in his Brooklyn residence as a landlord, barber, husband and father. But the persons he victimized cannot forget their tortures. This highlights the impossibility, despite the myth of forgetting one's past identity so popular in America, of leaving behind the world of one's personal and national history in one's country of origin.

The book chronicles a series of conflicted identities. The man's husband loves him. His daughter is angry and rebellious. Neither of them have a secure sense of self, despite their apparently happy American home. The physical reminder of the scar on the man's face demonstrates that physical crimes against the flesh, no matter how 'good' one is in America, cannot be erased. Thus, in essence, the memory of Haiti emerges as a truer picture of the reality of torture, although Danticat complicates matters by making the dew breaker not a monster, but…

Works Cited

Danticat, Edwidge. The Dew Breaker. New York: Knopf, 2004

Growth and the Social Importance
Words: 1611 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69610879
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The author states that the laws of citizenship have also shown an even greater amount of discrimination. The article goes on to describe the various laws as they relate to birthright and citizenship.

The important point is made that most people receive citizen as a result of birth right and not naturalization. It is also noted that for the first hundred years of the history of the county little concern was given to racial minorities.

lacks for example were denied citizenship in 1857 - which was rectified by the Civil Rights act of 1866. The author also cites other instances of discrimination after this period. This discrimination was also to apply to the granting of citizenship to the Native American Indians. It was only in 1940 that the basic law of citizenship, namely that a person born in the country is a citizen of the county, was fully applied.



Akst D. New Americans Fresh off the presses. Carnegie Reporter. 2003. pp.3-11

Cultural Event Report Museum of Art Fort
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Cultural Event Report: Museum of Art Fort Lauderdale

Recently, I had the pleasure of visiting the Museum of Art at Fort Lauderdale. Surprisingly, I had never been to the museum before. It sits adjacent to Nova University, in a very beautiful and modern section of the city. The very moment I walked up to the doors, I was excited. The museum is a very interesting exterior composition, with the bright coat of abstract paint, which seems to drift down the side of one of the main exterior walls. From looking at pictures of its old facade, I am definitely impressed with how well they have grown and opened up to facilitating the true spirit behind modern art. Pictures from their website show a much different building, one that was much more drab and boring. The new facade that now stands is much more enlightening; a true testament to the modern…

Experimental Film
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Maya Deren: An Experimental Life

Maya Deren, born Eleanora Derenkowsky on April 29, 1917 in Kiev, Ukraine, has been referred to as "the high priestess of experimental cinema." (1) Even though she was a dancer, choreographer, poet, writer and photographer, she is still considered a pioneer not only in experimental filmmaking, but also a voice for the feminist film community.

In 1922, the Derenkowsky family fled the threat of anti-Semitism in the Ukraine, arriving in New York where they changed their name to "Deren." The family, though, was frequently unhappy and at odds. As an adolescent, Maya was sent to Geneva to attend The League of Nations International School while Maya's mother, Marie Deren, studied languages in Paris and her father, Solomon Deren, practiced psychiatry in New York City.

After attending school in Geneva, Deren studied journalism and political science and became active in student politics at Syracuse University. She…

4. P. Adams Sitney, Visionary Film: the American Avant-Garde 1943-1978, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979, p.10

5. Nichols, Maya Deren and the American Avant-Garde, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001, p.5

6. Deren, p. 33

important historical documents of independence
Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56842885
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1. Alexander Pope assumes an authoritative voice in “An Essay on Man.” These lines, beginning with “All nature is but art,” and ending with “whatever is, is right” are declarative statements in keeping with the general tone and theme of the poem. In “An Essay on Man,” Pope seeks to situate humankind in the natural order of the universe. Pope shows the potential and the limitations of human beings, encouraging an attitude of humility.

By stating, “All nature is but art,” Pope affirms the ineffable beauty of nature: which is one thing that humankind certainly does not create. As much as human beings can interfere with nature or adjust nature for functional or aesthetic purposes, nature is “art” on another level: a creative, perhaps divine level. Pope then refers to “all chance, direction, which thou canst not see,” which reiterates the meaning of the previous line about nature being naught…

miami beach high'school demographic report
Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78376069
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School Community Demographic Study
Demographic Report
Miami Beach Senior High School serves Miami Beach, FL. US Census data informs about the demographics of the Miami Beach community, which stretches along a narrow north-south oriented barrier island. Over the years, the demographics of the area have shifted, so this makes for a good study on aligning demographics with the area with those of the school. The census data shows that the total population for Miami Beach is an estimated 91,917. The area is majority Hispanic, with 53% of the total population. This is split among a number of different national origins, however. Miami Beach is 20% Cuban, 4.9% Colombian, 4.6% Argentinian, 3.7% Puerto Rican and there are many other Hispanic groups represented as well. Most of the Hispanic population is white. Only 4.4% of Miami Beach is black, being a mix of black Hispanic, Haitian, Afro-Caribbean and African. The non-Hispanic, non-white…

Culture Importance of the Extended
Words: 2224 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28356747
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I longed for a mother with a scarf on her head and a skin so dark that I never would have to be afraid at night again that the sun would ever burn me" (350). It is this sense of personal shame of having a white mother, caused by the teasing of her peers, that perhaps drives the daughter's longing to travel to Surinam someday to meet her extended family and learn of her black father's roots. "… I began to think about everything, about who my parents were, about my mother, about where my father is from, about what I am, about who were are together" (349).

Her parents are reluctant to allow their daughter to go, but finally give in when it is the summer of the grandmother's eightieth birthday. The father and daughter make the long trip to Surinam. "I knew that we were flying away from…

Works Cited

Danticat, Edwidge. "Nineteen Thirty-Seven." The Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories, Ed. Stewart Brown and John Wickham. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 447-456. Print.

Hunter, Andrea G. And Robert J. Taylor. "Grandparenthood in African-American Families." Handbook on Grandparenthood, Ed. Maximilane Szinovacz.. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. 70-86. Print.

Marshall, Paule. "To Da-duh, in Memoriam." The Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories, Ed. Stewart Brown and John Wickham. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 159-168. Print.

Roemer, Astrid. "The Inheritance of my Father: A Story for Listening." The Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories, Ed. Stewart Brown and John Wickham. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 348-361. Print.

Glossolalia or Speaking in Tongues
Words: 4590 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46535991
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Therefore, we may conclude that the speaker has some cognitive function from the structure of the speech, even if it is based on a very basic set of language rules (Samarin 1972 120).

Three major linguistic traits emerged from other research into the subjec. Regardless of the geographic area, educational level, or age of the individual, glossolalia consists of:

Verbal behavior that has a certain number of consanants and vowels.

There seem to be a limited number of syllables that are reorganized into larger units.

These units are then rearranged using variations in pitch, volume, speed and intensity (e.g. A "word" group spoken with different inflections).

The "words" put together seem haphazard but emerge as word and sentence like because of the use of realistic timbre, rhythm, and melody (Samarin 1972).

Other research confims that glossolalia shows an oddly definitive syballant commonality with the particular spoken language of the speaker.…


Aquinas, T. "Summa Theologica Question 176." New Advent. March 2008.  (accessed September 2010).

Bock, D. Acts: Baker Exegetical Commentary. Ada, MI: Baker Academic, 2007.

Chavda, M. The Hidden Power of Speaking in Tongues. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publishers, 2003.

Coffman, J. "Commentary on Mark 16." Abeline Christian University Press. 1999.  (accessed September 2010).

International Rescue Committee Is a
Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16008088
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On the other hand, the International Rescue Committee focuses on promoting human rights as one of the core of every innovative programs carried out by the organization. This major focus on human rights through the restoration of safety, hope and dignity to millions of refugees is one of the major relations of this organization with the ISCOR major at San Diego University.

Finally, the third major relation of the organization with the ISCOR major is that it serves as an opportunity where graduates of the program can apply their knowledge in helping IRC to accomplish its mission. This is largely due to the fact that students completing the major are prepared for careers that relate to international security and conflict resolution. Since the International Rescue Committee hits the ground in places with conflicts across the globe, graduates of this program can be used to help provide a way from harm…

Works Cited:

Graubart, Jonathan. "Program Information." San Diego State University: International Security and Conflict Resolution. San Diego State University, 27 Oct. 2010. Web. 15 May 2011. .

"History of the International Rescue Committee." International Rescue Committee: From Harm to Home. International Rescue Committee. Web. 15 May 2011. .

"International Rescue Committee." Action Without Borders, Jan. 2011. Web. 15 May 2011. .

"International Security and Conflict Resolution." San Diego State University: SDSU 2011-2012 Catalog. San Diego State University. Web. 15 May 2011. .

Wall Fire the Irony of
Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91324178
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With the amount that Guy works, he should be able to assure a better life for his son, which is his real effort; instead, he is barely able to ensure his son's survival, and the only real purpose for ensuring this survival is so his son can provide the same bleak level of subsistence to his family in the future. This is a losing cycle and not one that actually ought to inspire any hope when fully examined and understood.

The hot air balloon serves as a symbol of freedom and hope throughout the story, and when Guy first takes flight in it is at first appears to indicate that he ahs achieved some sort of escape. His decision to plummet to his death once again turns this symbol on its head, however, showing that there is no real escape and thus no reason to hope -- dreams and symbols…

Voodoo Is Derived Comes From
Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71609878
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12. Likewise, drumming, changing and dancing are characteristic of voodoo practices in both Jamaica and Haiti (Cavendish, 1970).

13. The physical possession of the voodoo adherent is achieved by the supernatural spirit via the loa which tests the believer's faith (Cavendish, 1970).

14. The object of the voodoo ritual is to effect this physical possession and direct its power towards the intended goal, which may be for good or evil depending on the practitioner's intentions (Cavendish, 1970).

15. Voodoo adherents believe in "the invisibles" which are enemies that must be befriended and then used as a source of power (Cavendish, 1970).

16. Similarly, voodoo adherents consider the supernatural realm to be a resource that can be used to treat and cure diseases (Cavendish, 1970).

17. It is important to note, though, that voodoo also refers to a systematic religion in which supernatural beings actually descend from the afterworld and take…


Cavendish, R. (1970). Voodoo in Man, myth & magic: An illustrated encyclopedia of the supernatural, vol. 23. New York: Marshall Cavendish Publishing Corp.

Childs, D. (2011). Voodoo, hoodoo, and conjure: A handbook. The Journal of African-American

History, 95(3-4), 457-458.

Fleurant, G. (1996). Dancing spirits: Rhythms and rituals of Haitian vodun, the rada rite.

Dominican Culture
Words: 861 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99502291
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Dominican Culture: An Overview

The Dominican epublic is unique from all other Latin American nations in part because it's heritage relates to Haitian cultural traditions rather than solely Spanish ones, much like the rest of Latin America (Brown & Standish, 1999). In fact, the Dominican epublic received its independence from Haiti not Spain (Brown & Standish, 1999). This is not to say that Spanish colonial influences are not evident in the country; in fact they are widespread, particularly within the realm of architectural structures and art.

The official religion of the Dominican epublic is oman Catholicism (Brown & Standish, 1999:69). More than 90% of the citizens living in this country are oman Catholic. There are other religions prevalent in the country however including Protestantism and the traditional religious system of native Taino Indians, who practice cohoba religious ceremonies and also Gaga, which is the Dominican version of voodooism (Brown &…


Brown, Isabel K. & Standish, Peter. "Culture and Customs of the Dominican Republic."

Westport, Greenwood Press, 1999.

Kryzanek, Michael J. & Wiarda, Howard J. "The Dominican Republic." Boulder,

Westview Press, 1992.

Divine Referred to as Lwa
Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47883163
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The overall theme that such rituals convey is the elemental nature of the Vodou religion. Specifically, within Vodou it is believed -- much like in Hinduism -- that there is one, ultimate spiritual being, known as God. However, this overarching spiritual force cannot be comprehended or experienced directly be human beings. This is the reason why the lwa is essential to the ritual life of people practicing Vodou. The lwa is the connection between the perfectly divine realm of God and the lesser realm occupied by humanity. Obviously, the in-between realm of the lwa acts upon the human realm continually; yet the rituals themselves are designed to strengthen this connection. Accordingly, possession by the lwa is of ultimate importance to be able to cross the line -- however briefly -- between the human and the divine. This interpretation of possession contrasts strongly with Christian interpretations, which almost universally view it…

Works Cited

American Museum of Natural History. "Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou." American Museum of Natural History, 2007. Available: .

Bellegarde-Smith, Patrick and Claudine Michel. Haitian Vodou. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

McAlister, Elizabeth a. "Vodou." Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Black History, 2007. Available: .

2002 I Immigrated to the United States
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2002, I immigrated to the United States from Haiti. I completed high school in 2004, and I have since committed myself to my studies, focusing in Biology, with the intention of attending medical school and practicing family medicine. I've spent the last six years advancing through an associates degree program, into my undergraduate degree program, and at the same time, I completed training as a nursing assistant. My educational experiences and technical training have provided me with a combination of hands-on medical knowledge and academic training in the sciences, and I am confident these skills will help me excel in medical school.

rowing up in a rural part of Haiti, I witnessed abject poverty and constant physical suffering, especially among the women and children of my community. As I studied Biology and nursing here in the United States it became more clear to me how much my skills are needed…

Growing up in a rural part of Haiti, I witnessed abject poverty and constant physical suffering, especially among the women and children of my community. As I studied Biology and nursing here in the United States it became more clear to me how much my skills are needed in my home country. Simple improvements in family medical practices and public health, such as immunizations and basic health education, could create infinite improvements in the small villages where people suffer from diseases and infections that rarely occur in the United States. Health issues such as dysentery and food-born illnesses can be decreased through proper education regarding prevention and sanitation. Childhood diseases such a tetanus, polio, and measles can easily be prevented with vaccinations, and maternal and childhood health can be improved through concerted efforts to offer proper nutrition and health services.

Haiti has a long history of violence and economic turmoil, and these issues have been enormously compounded by the earthquake that occurred in early 2010. My people have had to rely on foreign aid, and the rebuilding process has stalled any economic or political improvements. As Haitian-American, it is extremely painful watching my people suffer in conditions that do not exist here in the United States, and I have develop a deep and abiding commitment to work that can change this inequity. Upon completing my medical degree I will return to Haiti to practice family medicine. My hope is that bringing my education and skills back to my community will contribute vital new resources and knowledge, enabling me promote an increase in Haitian-led social change. This process is vital to the growth of our country, as we currently rely to heavily on support from foreign individuals who do not always understand or appreciate our culture.

Enrolling in the Medical School at Ross University will give me the opportunity to study in the Caribbean and gain practical medical experience serving rural communities in Dominica. With my training as a nursing assistant and my personal experiences as a resident of the Caribbean, I am confident I can offer a great deal to the medical program, and I will, as I have with all of my pervious studies, invest all of my time and energy into preparing for my work as a family physician.

Wishing to Pursue Graduate Study Dr Paul
Words: 1820 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79455352
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Wishing to Pursue Graduate Study

Dr. Paul Farmer of Partners in Health was asked in an interview if he knew at a young age what he wanted to do or if it was an idea that evolved over time. He replied: "You can…grow into what you want to do…grow into your aspirations." I took that to mean that personal experiences can open our eyes to possibilities and that small successes can focus our attention on goals that once seemed too lofty. I have learned the importance of taking one step at a time and striving to excel in every stage before reaching for the next level. Like a rock climber, I have also learned to visualize my next handhold -- and picture myself achieving that goal even as I reach for it.

Despite some difficult life circumstances, I have been graced by my origins and my experiences as an immigrant.…

Magic as a Central Theme in Moses
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Magic as a Central Theme in "Moses, Man of the Mountain"

There has been magic in the world since time began. Even in the scientific world that has little to do with metaphysics, magic has a significant place because how can a scientist explain the tiny bit of matter that became the universe unless they do so with magic. Throughout history it has had a significant place because there are many things about this world that people still cannot explain, so they reason that there must be some unseen force behind it. Zora Neale Hurston saw this in the Biblical story of Moses, as have many others. He was able to do wondrous things with the staff he carried, the rod of power (Hurston), because of its magic. This paper discusses a central theme, magic, as it is developed in Hurston's book "Moses: Man of the Mountain" from the perspective…

Works Cited

Elrod, Eileen R. "Moses and the Egyptian: Religious Authority in Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative." African-American Review 35.3 (2001): 409-427. Web.

Hurston, Zora N. Moses: Man of the Mountain. New York: Harper Collins, 2008. Print.

Mark, D. "Moses, Man of the Mountain -- Zora Neale Hurston." A Noble Theme, 2011. Web.

Osahon, Naiwu. "The Jews Lied Against Africa to Ascend." Modern Ghana, 2009. Web.

Massacre at El Mozote A Parable of
Words: 1967 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95329275
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Massacre at El Mozote: A Parable of the Cold War by: Mark Danner and the Farming of Bones by: Edwidge Danticat. The writer compares the two books and the plots with a focus on the massacres themselves as well as their consequences. The writer uses two sources, the books, to complete this paper.

Throughout history authors of literature have used their works to prove a point or send a message to their readers. Sometimes the message is put out there with a bluntness that cannot be ignored, and other times it is a more subtle undertaking in which the reader is led to the conclusion without knowing they are being led there. egardless of the way the author chooses to address the important points and messages if they do it with finesse the book becomes a solid piece of literature. Two classic examples of authors using their talent to do…


The Massacre at El Mozote: A Parable of the Cold War by Mark Danner

Born in Korea but Despite
Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 6792012
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I became an active member of the Red Cross Club, formed a band to perform at school shows, helped raise money for the Haitian flood relief, and auditioned and joined as many vocal groups as possible -- including the California All State Choir.

I am now a senior and do not even recognize that freshman who flew into Pebble Beach from Asia. I am enrolled in three AP courses; English, Economics and Music Theory. I study because I want to, and glean intellectual satisfaction from my participation in these courses. I am the lead tenor for the Jazz Choir, and lead guitarist for the Jazz Band. I enjoy physical challenges as well, and am one of the student leaders for the Rock Climbing Club. A few years ago, receiving a B. would have been a gift from heaven -- now it is a terrifying prospect. I have a group of…

Masters of Dew for Most
Words: 1439 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29825399
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Over the course of time, this helps to fuel anger and a sense of helplessness, that no can be able to take charge of their own future. A good example of this can be found with the passage that says, "For years, hate had become with them a habit. It had given an object and a target to their impotent anger. Only there was one condition: that was reconciliation. And what did it cost them? A mere gesture, a few steps like walking over a bridge, and they would leave behind bad days of poverty, they would enter the land of abundance." (Roumain, 1944, pr. 131) This is significant, because this passage is highlighting the underlying challenges facing Haiti on a daily basis. Where, everyone becomes focused on themselves and angry about the entire situation (i.e. The poverty and harsh economic conditions). At which point, they will begin to take…


Literature About Haiti. (1998). Language Works. Retrieved from: 

Arnold, J. (1994). Exile and Recent Literature. A History of Literature in the Caribbean. (pp. 451 -- 464). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Carby, H. (1999). Proletarian of Literary Revolution. Cultures in Babylon. (pp. 135 -- 144). London, Verso.

Roumain, J. (1944). Masters of the Dew. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Sex and AIDS on How
Words: 998 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77617850
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Sociologist activism in the community that simultaneously brings about information processing and the ideal segment of society for the log run can contribute largely to the containment of the epidemic. (Trickett; Pequegnat, 2005)

The possible solution for the state, where the epidemic ca be spread by a known infected person is to cast a punitive punishment. Perhaps make the event actionable. Thus one of the possible laws that could be brought about to stem the growth of infection could closely follow the laws of pollution and the principles of pollution and the polluter pays principle that is much effective in industrialization. Thus the legal system has procedures to deal with the spread of epidemics although it has been used so far in the case of pollution. Another interesting area where the principle is used and can be cited is the case of cigarettes and the non-smokers inhaling second-hand smoke from…


Andersen, Margaret L; Taylor, Howard Francis. (2005) "Understanding a diverse society" Cengage Learning.

Moore, Melinda; Forst, Martin Lyle. (1996) "AIDS education: Reaching diverse populations" Greenwood Publishing Group.

Murphy, Raymond. (1997) "Sociology and Nature: Social Action in Context." Westview

Press: Boulder, CO.

French Amer Rev Extra
Words: 2391 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 65254923
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There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.

The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…


Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French

Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International

History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign

Miami-Dade County Schools Negotiations the
Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5105821
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To quote Noble's article negotiations commonly follow a four-step path: preparation, information exchange, explicit bargaining, and commitment. ... Negotiation is, in short, a kind of universal dance with four stages or steps. And it works best when both parties are experienced dancers."

So, beginning with step one, there must be preparation. The ground rules must be spelled out and meetings, policy making and ratification procedures need to be drawn up. Secondly, one the ground work can be done there is the education process that must take place where information is exchanged. Thirdly, negotiations must go on. Fourthly, commitment must be secured from the negotiation parties. This will spell out in the establishment of a monitoring and facilitation regime that will ensure that the policies are carried out. Attorney Noble then spells out these steps in greater detail, one that is far beyond the scope of this short policy paper (Noble,…

Works Cited

Boston still vexed by school busing. (2009, November 1). Retrieved from 

Busing's boston massacre. (2010). Retrieved 15 July 2010 from 

Demographic profile miami-dade county, florida 1960-2000. (2003, September).

Retrieved 14 July 2010 from

Sex Slavery ABC News 2006
Words: 1451 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 14070976
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(2009, Oct. 4). 25,000 Nepli girls involved in sex trde in Indin cities.

Commercil sex brothels in the towns of Delhi, Mumbi, Pune nd Kolkt feture young girls believed to hve been kidnpped from Nepl, ccording to the rticle. There re n estimted fifty brothels in Pune, nd mny of them re reportedly owned by dult women from Nepl. In those 50 brothels there re bout 500 Neplese girls working in sexul slvery, the rticle sserts. This informtion comes through report tht ws intended to get the medi interested in reporting these terrible crimes. Retrieved Feb. 13,

2010, from http://www.expressindi, com/fullstory.php?newsid=55901.

Hwii News Now. (2010, Februry 10). Hwii mn chrged with sex trfficking t Super Bowl. A mn who is lleged to be pimp from Hwii is being chrged with bringing teenge Hwiin girl to the Super Bowl in Mimi -- nd llegedly used her to mke money. Fred Collins…

and Customs Enforcement agents that they were promised good jobs and a better life in the United States, so they came to the U.S. with high hopes. But when they arrived it turned out that they had to work in the bar for $20 a day until they paid off their "smuggling fees" of around $4,500. Part of their job was to have sex with customers "for money."

Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from the Monitor . (2010, Feb. 14). Report: Human Trafficking Big Business in Ohio. This article on WTOV9 tells the story of how teenager Theresa Flores was raped and had photos taken of the act of being raped. The attacker said unless she submitted to being a hooker for his gang, her photo would be on the Internet and everyone would know she had sex (even her priest) So she went along for 2 years. Moreover, the story claims that as many as 1,000 children born in Ohio each year are forced into sex slavery. Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from .

Afro-Caribbeans to Be Successful Rather
Words: 1062 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 29563298
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While not every frican immigrant has such impressive credentials, the presumption of the superiority of certain cultural markers, such as a European accent, cannot be entirely dismissed.

However, the racism against 'blackness' affects all Black mericans, regardless of whether they are the children of slaves or wealthy, nglicized fricans. s discussed by Obama in his autobiography Dreams From My Father, as an individual of Kenyan ancestry, he was still treated as an frican-merican by the individuals whom he encountered in his daily life. Race may be a scientific fiction, but in merican culture it is treated as a reality. This can cause a complication for fro-Caribbean immigrants: they may feel frustrated that it is assumed that they are frican-mericans with no ties to their frican homeland. Growing up in a different educational system, living in a world filled with local tribal languages and rituals; observing religious practices that are often…

Afro-Caribbean values, beliefs, and experiences will inevitably be different from Black Americans by virtue of their distinct backgrounds. Similarly, recent immigrant from Ireland will have a profoundly different view of the world than an Irish-American whose parents immigrated in the 19th century. The fact that American's obsession with physical 'racial' trappings elides the difference between native-born African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans can cause great frictions within the Black community, as well as surprise such recent immigrants.

Afro-Caribbeans are a diverse people, as diverse as the many nations and tribes of Africa. One cannot proclaim if the have more in common with their Black or White American counterparts: even the transition of different African groups into American society is easier for some Africans, and more difficult for others. Class often has a greater influence upon the ability of various Afro-Caribbean groups to make an easy transition than nation of origin -- a poor Haitian may have more in common with both Black Americans and Whites of his class; an educated Kenyan may have more in common with Ivy League educated Black Americans. Regardless, the main difference between Afro-Caribbean immigrants and Black Americans is that the former have an 'immigrant' experience. They must make linguistic and cultural adjustments. They often enjoy group solidarity and tight-knit community support, than Black Americans may lack in many sections of the nation. However, both groups still face discrimination because they are characterized, in the racialized eyes of America as 'Black' and to address the social needs of these different groups, difference rather than racialized sameness is a more effective paradigm to apply when analyzing these both social categories.

Douglas A. McVay, "Race and prison," Drug War Facts, 2006, December 29, 2009,

Young Adult Is Advantageous Historical
Words: 984 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2408900
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A work of non-fiction does not have to be about a person, however. Non-fiction work can include theories of social studies, presented in interesting and new ways. Non-fiction is tremendously helpful in lesson planning because the prose elucidates issues in subjects like science and social studies.

Question 6: Although she is not remembered as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement, Marian Anderson's life contributed to some of the reforms that African-American citizens demanded. Discuss how her voice "challenged" a nation.

Marian Anderson was an accomplished African-American singer. Anderson broke the color barrier in the arts, just as Jackie Robinson did in sports. Anderson's success challenged prevailing social norms, as she became a visible figure in America's most elite concert halls. Anderson began indirectly using her voice as a political tool, channeling her success into achieving broader civil rights goals.

Question 7: Describe how the city of Philadelphia, its…

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American Library Association. "Terms and Criteria." Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from 

"Yellow Fever Attacks, 1793" Eye Witness to History. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from

Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been
Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 97185279
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Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…


ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site: 

HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:

WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present
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Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…


Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time: 

"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,

May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: