Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of Essay

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Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form

The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment. Revolution was certainly on the mind of Thomas Paine, author of "Common Sense' (1776) a work that is stated to allow a "biographical glimpse of the larger currents of revolutionary changes in this period. Specifically, it is stated "Paine foresaw that the struggle to create an independent republic free of monarchy was a cause of worldwide importance. For Paine, success would make America." (The Atlantic Revolutions, 2012, p.1) Soon followed the work to the Atlantic to the French Colony of St. Domingue in the Caribbean and an independent black-run Republic of Haiti in 1804 resulted in the U.S. being "joined by a second republican experiment in the New World." (The Atlantic Revolutions, 2012, p.1) Life in America was much freer than it was in Europe in that there was no titled nobility, no established church, the people had a right to be represented in Parliament, and they possessed local autonomy. The settlers of the New World had grown used to their liberties and objected greatly when control was tightened by the British government. The reasons for the revolution in France are many and include revolutionary ideas being introduced, the belief in liberal freedoms for all men, the belief in taking up arms against tyranny, and the fact that King Louse XVI preferred his own personal interests to those of the court. There was a need for tax reform in France and nobles in France were determined not to give up their tax concessions. The Haitian Revolution was won on January 1, 1804, when the victors proclaimed their independence and named the country Haiti, which was the original name of the island of Taino prior to Columbus arriving. The individual who led the victory, Jean-Jacques Dessalines "warned of the spirit of proselytism that could destroy the whole enterprise. Let us leave our neighbors alone, let them live under their own laws." (Klooster, 2009) However, peace was not yet because it was decreed that anyone who had been born a Frenchman that sets foot in Haiti would be killed and this is precisely what occurred. Of the 240 men women and children who were French that remained in Haiti, 208 were killed. In spite of the victory against France, Haiti was still a place with discriminatory characteristics and Haiti remained divided for fourteen years with the north and south disagreeing on whether to cut all ties with France or to continue with the association with France. The differences between the north and south Haiti people were not near as much as the similarities in that "Both regimes consciously emulated European Polities, systematically banning voudou -- while endorsing Roman Catholicism. Autocracy was another hallmark of both Haitian states." (Klooster, 2009) Reported as the primary problem with Haitian politics, following i9ndepdence "was the legitimacy of the plantation economy." (Klooster, 2009, p.115) It is reported that in Spain was characterized by "the preeminent group in these hierarchically structured societies" or those of the predominantly Creole or the locally born white aristocracy" (Klooster, 2009, p.115) Some of these individuals could trace their ancestry to the conquistadores, while other families had amassed wreath and noble titles through mining, plaiting or other forms of entrepreneurship. The preserved their family fortunes preferably by creating entail, the consolidation of property that could…

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Bibliography

13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: http://www.ushistory.org/us/13h.asp

Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=8A-PwV_3zkcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=culture&f=false

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