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Analysis of "Black Hamlet: Battening on the Moor" by Patricia Parker
In the journal article "Black Hamlet: Battening on the Moor" (2003) in Shakespeare Studies, author Patricia Parker centered on 'blackness' as one of the emergent symbolisms in illiam Shakespeare's play "Hamlet." Parker used blackness as the symbolical representation of important themes that were underscored in the play. Synonymously associating blackness with impurity, malice, death, deviltry, vengeance, and melancholy, the analysis showed how blackness as both a symbol and a concept led to the creation of conflict among the characters in the play, specifically that of Hamlet, Old Hamlet, Claudius, Gertrude, and even Ophelia. Moreover, Parker illustrates how, through the persistence of blackness and its associated themes, "Hamlet" can be truly considered a tragedy.
This paper looks into the use of blackness and themes associated with it as the catalysts that led to tragic end of the characters in…
Parker, P. (2003). "Black Hamlet: Battening on the Moor." Shakespeare Studies, Vol. 31.
He questions whether he should try to clear the court of corruption or just give up and end his life now. It is this emotional doubt that drives Hamlet to act deranged at times, but he overcomes it, and almost manages to answer the difficult questions posed in his life. In Act V, when calm returns, Hamlet repents his behavior (V, ii, 75-78) (Lidz, 164).
In Lidz's book Freud is quoted as saying "that if anyone holds and expresses to others an opinion of himself such as this [Hamlet's "Use every man after his desert, and who shall escape whipping?"], he is ill, whether he is speaking the truth whether he is being more or less unfair to himself." Though Hamlet has proved his intellectual stability, he is quite obviously emotionally "ill."
This emotional illness and uncertainty is why Hamlet procrastinates in the killing of Claudius. On his way to…
Babcock, Weston. A Tragedy of Errors. Purdue Research Foundation 1961.
Charlton, Lewis. The Genesis of Hamlet. Kenniket Press, Port Washington, NY 1907.
Elliot, T.S. "Hamlet and His Problems." Sacred Woods. 1920.
Leavenworth, Russel E. Interpreting Hamlet: Materials for analysis Chandler Publishing CO, San Francisco 1960.
Hamlet is by far one of Shakespeare's more enigmatic characters. e understand from the beginning of the play with Horatio and Marcellus that they think very highly of Hamlet as they decide to tell him first about the ghostly vision they saw whom they believe to be his father. However, when we meet Hamlet, we are confused. Is he depressed -- or is he simply cruel (Davies 30)? Or is Hamlet, a man who is overly sensitive, deeply melancholy, and armed with a reflective mind, simply mad? It is this dichotomy of characteristics that always leave us guessing about Hamlet's psychological state. Hamlet himself does not deny this. In fact, he says to his mother, the queen, that there is much more to him than people see.
'Seems', madam -- nay it is, I know not 'seems'.
'Tis not alone my inky cloak, cold mother,
Nor customary suits of solemn…
Davies, Michael. Hamlet Character Studies (Continuum Character Studies). Continuum, 2008.
Paris, Bernard J. Bargains with Fate: Psychological Crises and Conflicts in Shakespeare and His
Plays. Transaction Publishers, 2009. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet (Arden Shakespeare: Third Series). Arden Shakespeare; 3rd
..render up myself...Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night...And for the day confined to fast in fires, / Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature/Are burnt and purged away." (I.5). At first, Hamlet believes the ghost is from Purgatory because of the vividness of these images. Then Hamlet constructs a test for the ghost as he worries: "the devil hath power/to assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps/Out of my weakness and my melancholy, / as he is very potent with such spirits" (2.2). In short, Hamlet begins to doubt the doctrine because the ghost ostensibly from Purgatory has asked him to commit a murder, to kill a king.
Hamlet seldom displays a consistent attitude to Purgatory in the play. In his most famous soliloquy, Hamlet says that death is a place from which "no traveler returns" indicating he doubts the ghost (III.1). Hamlet wrestles…
Felluga, Dino. "Module on Stephen Greenblatt: On History." Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. Date of last update: 2002. Purdue U. 12 Jul 1007. http://www.purdue.edu/guidetotheory/newhistoricism/modules/greenblatthistory.html .
Greenblatt, Stephen. Hamlet in Purgatory. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Pettegree, Andrew. "The English Reformation." BBC: History -- the English
Reformation. 1 May 1, 2001. 12 Jul 2007. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/english_reformation_01.shtml
Bradley describes this by saying that "Othello's nature is all of one piece... Love, if he loves, must be to him the heaven where either he must leave or bear no life. If such a passion as jealousy seizes him, it will swell into a well-night incontrollable flood" (Bradley 188). This shows how Othello goes to the extremes, especially relating to his emotions. Bradley also says that "He is quite free from introspection, and is not given to reflection. Emotion excites his imagination, but it confuses and dulls his intellect" (Bradley 188). This shows that like Hamlet, Othello is not able to consider the source of his emotions. This occurs as a natural part of Othello's character, while for Hamlet it is specifically linked to the particular situation and the particular emotion. However, the end result is the same with both characters unable to consider their emotions and rationalize them.…
Bradley, A.C. Shakespearean Tragedy. New York: Penguin, 1991.
Eliot, T.S. "Hamlet and his Problems." The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism. 1922. Bartelby.com. Retrieved October 29, 2005. URL: http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html
Shakespeare, W. Hamlet. New York: Penguin, 1987.
Shakespeare, W. Othello. New York: Penguin, 1984.
She...handles Rosencrantz and Guildenstern with skill and diplomacy...has the accent of command with her son...witty and perceptive about Polonius...she is not stupid at her job: there she gives out and reserves herself in good proportion." (Pennington 160) Gertrude's performance in the court shows Branagh makes a commitment as a director to giving the female characters of the play individualistic integrity beyond their ability to mirror different Oedipal aspects of the central protagonist's development. "There isn't an iota of sexual energy or tension in Hamlet's confrontation with his mother," unlike Oliver's version, where a bed is featured in the confrontation scene between Hamlet and his mother in Act IV, Scene 3. (Rosenberg, 1996) Julie Christie's Gertrude is morally conflicted about what she has done, and increasingly aware that she might have married a murderer after the confrontation of the closet scene. But Oliver's Gertrude is simply infatuated with her son. She…
Dashille, Chris. "Hamlet." 1999. Cinescene. [26 Nov 2006] http://www.cinescene.com/dash/flicks101999.html
Dawson, Andrew. Hamlet. Shakespeare in Performance Series. General Editors JR.
Mulryne and J.C. Bulman. New York: Manchester University Press, 1995.
Hamlet." Directed by Lawrence Oliver. 1948.
The film may skip scenes like this, and others, to tell the story more quickly, and arguably more dramatically. This may also be because films are expensive to make, so every omitted scene saves money. Polonius has more scenes in the play than the film. In the play, he is a key character, second only to Hamlet, Gertrude, and Claudius. In the film, he almost seems like a minor character.
The relationship between Hamlet and Ophelia is shown more in the film, possibly because the filmmaker wants to emphasize their romance. In the film, Ophelia and Hamlet are often alone together. In the play they are usually with others: In Act II, again, scenes from the play are shortened or omitted from the film. Scene I of Act II, has an exchange between Polonius and Reynaldo (1-72) then on- between Polonius and Ophelia (74-120). In the film we only see…
Hamlet is arguably illiam Shakespeare's most famous of his many still existing plays. Even people who have not read the play know the basic plot of the story. Prince Hamlet of Denmark is in mourning over the death of his father who, as it turns out has been murdered by his uncle so that Claudius can take over the throne and marry the queen, his brothers' widow. Hamlet decides to act crazy in order to determine if his Uncle Claudius is indeed guilty of the act. Over the course of the story, people die and the play's climax is the final duel between Hamlet and young Laertes where both men die as well as King Claudius and Queen Gertrude. There are countless film versions of the play which represent the attitudes and artistic styles of the filmmakers who created them. One of the earlier film versions created by…
Hamlet. Dir. Franco Zeffirelli. Perf. Mel Gibson and Glenn Close. Nelson Entertainment, 1990.
Hamlet. Dir. Kenneth Branagh. Screenplay by Kenneth Branagh. Prod. David Barron. Perf.
Kenneth Branagh and Derek Jacobi. Castle Rock Entertainment, 1996. DVD.
Hamlet act3 sene3 Machiavelli chapter 7-15-25-26 Lens Machiavelli concept Hamlet Intro - text author, content, method Paragraph1- Machiavelli concept explain applied hamlet compare Hamlet act3 sene3 Machiavelli chapter 7-15-25-26 work enables misunderstand play's ending significant relevant divergence hamlet Machiavelli Second essay compare Hamlet act 4.
Unlike Prince Hamlet, who is a man who is concerned with the morality of kingship as well as is an aggrieved son avenging his father, King Claudius of Shakespeare's Hamlet is primarily concerned with holding onto his power. Claudius does have some moral qualms about his actions, but not enough to repent. This is seen when Claudius tries to pray for forgiveness but is unable to do so: "O, my offence is rank it smells to heaven" (3.3). However, the political theorist Niccolo Machiavelli would diagnose Claudius' problem as being insufficiently ruthless up to this point in his dealings with his nephew. Claudius…
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Written c. 1505, published 1515. Translated by W.K.
Marriott, 1908 [13 Dec 2012]
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. MIT Shakespeare Homepage. [13 Dec 2012]
Hamlet" by William Shakespeare
The play "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare has a story that revolves around the main themes of revenge and search for the truth. Shakespeare's male characters, in particular, are portrayed somewhat villainously because of the element of revenge inherent in each character's motivations in the play. Among the male characters in the play, the characters of Hamlet, Laertes, and Fortinbras emerge as the most remarkable among the numerous character in Shakespeare's piece. Many characteristics are shared among these three primary male characters. The first characteristic is that they possess the vitality of their youth, and the second one is that all of them face the world in an idealistic and somewhat naive perspective. Their being young, naive, and idealistic are the main reasons why, throughout the play, they have resorted to radical actions and behavior that will cause either their victory or downfall.
This paper will conduct…
Character Analysis." 2003. Available at http://www.geocities.com/julie51903/analysis.html.
Hamlet." 2001. Theatre History Web site. Available at http://www.theatrehistory.com/british/hamlet001.html .
Passage Analysis of Hamlet 5.2." University of Toronto Web site. Available at http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~cpercy/courses/220Passage2Keyke.htm .
Shakespeare, W. E-text of "Hamlet." Available at http://www-tech.mit.edu/Shakespeare/Tragedy/hamlet/full.html .
Ghost of Hamlet and the Sanctity of Death
The play Hamlet occupies such an important and fascinating place in public consciousness and in all of world literature for good reason: it explores some of the most eternal themes that the human condition has ever encountered. The themes presented throughout Hamlet tough upon some of the most timeless issues the human race has ever encountered -- these are themes like love and honor, along with death and eternality, obligation and duty, and most of all, vengeance. While the major characters of the play often visibly struggle with these themes, the minor characters of the play work towards the plays resolution, also not only moving the plot forward, but shedding light on issues that also must be given a longer look. The ghost of King Hamlet functions precisely in this regard and works to remind the spectator and the reader of the…
Shakespeare, W. Hamlet. Retrieved from mit.edu:
http://shakespeare.mit.edu/hamlet/ full.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Shakespeare's Hamlet and Herman Hesse's Siddhartha meet the words Eliot's "Little Gidding"
One of T.S. Eliot's most famous poetic protagonists, that of J. Alfred Prufrock, may lament that he is not Prince Hamlet, only a fool like Yorick or Polonius of the tragedy that bears the prince's name. But a closer examination of Shakespeare's play highlights the fact that the noble Prince Hamlet, is not really so noble at all, but begins the play in a state of adolescent moodiness, mourning his dead father, even though in the words of his uncle Claudius "your father lost a father, and your father lost his." Hamlet begins the play, not a young anointed king-to-be but a man angered at the limited, fleshy nature of human existence as well as the dissatisfactory reconstruction of his own family.
Hamlet sees falseness wherever he goes. He sees his mother whom once followed like "Niobe, all…
Of course, the last thing on Hamlet's mind would be marriage since he is wrestling with the tragedy of his father's death and his mother's betrayal. In light of all of these facts it is very unlikely that Polonius would be wrong, and it seems that his observations and expectations of his daughter are quite astute.
On the opposite end of Ophelia's situation is Hamlet, who is very much the Id. Hamlet himself is extremely emotional and impulsive, allowing his Id to overcome him in many situations. He wrestles with his own conscious, and as a character, he is truly one of the most fully developed, showing evidence of the inner conflict that Freud set out to illustrate with his components of personality. However, when it comes to his relationship with Ophelia, he is very much her Id. Though she has convinced herself that Hamlet loved her, he himself states…
Shakespeare's Hamlet and Herman Hesse's Siddhartha meet the words Eliot's "Little Gidding"
We shall not cease from exploration/And the end of all our exploring/Will be to arrive where we started/And know the place for the first time," writes T.S. Eliot in his Fourth Quatrain entitled "Little Gidding." In the tragedy that bears his name Prince Hamlet begins and ends in the same place, namely the court of his late father and the living King Claudius. He also begins and ends in the play in the hall of the court in a state of alienation from the rest of the court. However, while at the beginning of the play this alienation takes the form of a state of adolescent moodiness and mourning for his dead father at the end of the play Hamlet has a more reasoned and larger philosophical understanding of how his own family tragedy has a resonance with…
illiam Shakespear - Hamlet
Hamlet's responsibility for crimes occurring in "The tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark"
"The tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark" is one of illiam Shakespeare's greatest works and an inspiration for the world for the last four centuries. The play generates much controversy as audiences are encouraged to get actively involved in interpreting it as a consequence of the multitude of emotions it contains. Considering ideas like blame or responsibility in this play can be a very intriguing act, taking into account the ease with which one can falsely attribute them to a character. hile the easiest thing to do is to believe that Hamlet is to blame for much of the suffering that occurs across the tragedy's duration, the reality is that the play is too complex for that, with the Prince actually being a victim -- he was unable to understand the situation he…
"Hamlet," Retrieved November 26, 2014, from http://nfs.sparknotes.com/hamlet/
Hamlet and Horatio
The relationship between Horatio and Hamlet is one based on extraordinary trust and confidence. It is this trust that allows the two to share everything and to not fear being labeled. This is a very important and critical feature of the foundation on which this friendship is based. While there are others who love Hamlet, most of them are quick to judge and label Hamlet. Horatio is not that interested in dismissing Hamlet's actions as acts of lunacy. He is aware of what Hamlet is doing and cares about it despite that. He is genuinely interested in Hamlet's welfare and Hamlet recognizes this. At one point in the play, he praises Horatio lavishly to make it clear that he values their friendship. In Act 3, Scene 2, Hamlet calls for Horatio in his preparation for the play. Horatio is quick to answer his call to which Hamlet…
Is Hamlet reasonable?: Murder and death in "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare
In the play "Hamlet," playwright William Shakespeare portrayed the character of Prince Hamlet as a trusting individual who later changed to become a vengeful man when he learned that his stepfather had murdered King Hamlet, his father. Considered a classic tragedy, "Hamlet" highlights the metamorphosis of Hamlet from being an indecisive leader of the kingdom to being a vengeful, wise, and ultimately, reasonable individual. This change in character had occurred towards the climax of the play, wherein it was revealed to him through the ghost of Old Hamlet who the real murderer of his father was.
In the course of metamorphosis, Hamlet is already portrayed as a reasonable individual. Despite Shakespeare's apparent infusion of an emotional being in Hamlet's character, his was a character that was initially molded from a leader's rational personality, then later into being an…
This sudden tragedy occurs, no less, just as Ophelia is to happily crown the hanging boughs of the tree, which symbolically represents the happy instance that must have occurred just prior to the play's opening -- Hamlet's engagement to Ophelia. As on the bank of the brook, so too with Hamlet -- an "envious sliver broke"; the "rash" and "intruding" Polonius interjected himself and denied Ophelia what her nature so plainly made her for: to love. He teaches her, rather, to doubt and to suspect. Ophelia falls victim to the plague of Elsinore, which may be stated as the conflict between truth and falsehood.
The Man's Nature
Hamlet engages in this conflict in an altogether different manner, however. If Ophelia and Gertrude approach it from the direction of love, Hamlet approaches it from the direction of reason. Gertrude and Ophelia intuit; Hamlet rationalizes. Ophelia, for example, appreciates Hamlet's predicament immediately…
Battenhouse, Roy W. "The Ghost in Hamlet: A Catholic 'Linchpin'?" Studies in Philology vol. 48, no. 2, 1951, 161-192. Print.
Dane, Gabrielle. "Reading Ophelia's Madness." Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies, vol. 10 (1998): 405-23. Print.
Garner, Shirley Nelson. "Shakespeare in My Time and Place." Shakespearean Tragedy
and Gender (ed. By Shirley Nelson Garner). Indiana University Press, 1996. Print.
In this passage, Shakespeare brings into lucidity Hamlet's tragic flaw: as he delayed his plan to avenge his father against Claudius, Hamlet opens an opportunity for the murderer of his father (Claudius) to plan ahead and instead, turn the tables against Hamlet, which eventually results to his death.
It was only at the end of the play that Hamlet redeems himself from his mistakes in life. This is when he achieves "catharsis," the "end or goal of tragedy" (1186). Hamlet finally kills Claudius before he dies himself, and Fortinbras best illustrates his redemption by exulting him by saying, "Let four captains Bear Hamlet like a soldier to the stage, for he was likely, had he been put on, to have proved most royal, and for his passage, the soldiers' music and the rite of war Speak loudly for him" (1345).
Although Oedipus in the play "Oedipus the King" can be…
Roberts, E. And H. Jacobs. (1998). Literature: an introduction to reading and writing. (5th ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hamlet, however, is full of hesitation. He does not experience the type of confidence Antigone does and suffers because of it. These characters are not abnormal; they are exaggerated or comical in a way audiences cannot relate to them. They are uniquely human and that is why they are still popular today -- because they are real enough that audience members feel as though they have known these types of personalities before. Through these characters, the playwrights show the audience how important it is to be true to self above all else. From Creon, who loses his sense of self when he sells out to power to Hamlet, who loses his sense of self when he falls into depression, to Antigone, who gladly gives her life for what she believes, we see the power of the sense of self and the importance of how it should be respected.
Blits, Jan. Introduction to Deadly Thought: 'Hamlet' and the Human Soul, pp. 3-21. Lanham:
Lexington Books, 2001. Information Retrieved July 01, 2010.
Sophocles. Antigone. Three Theban Plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus and Colonus.
Robert Fagles, trans. New York: Penguin Books. 1980.
Life is something man share with all other creatures of the earth; however, possessing a soul "distinguishes him from them" (Blits). This gives man incredible latitude, say Blits, and a man can be good or he can be a beast. He can use his "godlike reason" (IV.iv.40) and rise above his natural instincts when he needs to or he can fail in using his reason. In failing, he sinks to the level of a beast. This struggle presents a double for Hamlet, an "equivocal nature" (Blits), according to Blits. This duality gives man a purpose and "thinking and life have a single cause" (Blits), thus man is a "whole because his nature, though composite, is one" (Blits). Hamlet fails to keep the "soul's two functions together. He thinks without acting…and acts without thinking…even while he thus sets motion and thinking apart, Hamlet tends to collapse the former into the latter"…
Blits, Jan H. "Introduction." Deadly Thought: 'Hamlet' and the Human Soul. Lanham: Lexington
Books, 2001. 3-21. Rpt. In Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Lynn M. Zott. 2003. Gale
Literature Resource Center. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. http://go.galegroup.com Web.
Bloom, Harold. Hamlet: Poem Unlimited. New York: Riverhead Books. 2003.
illiam Shakespeare's Hamlet, there are several distinct characteristics of misery and madness that abound in both Hamlet and Ophelia. Their lunacy each stems from similar sources of grief, but the true evolution of their madness is methodically different due to their gender and their status in Elizabethan society.
Throughout Hamlet, Ophelia appears in a mere five scenes and is only one of two females present in the play and therefore stands not to pose as a prominent member of the play. Ophelia's father, Polonius, whom is the chief advisor to the new King Claudius, and a highly respected man, demands that his daughter tell Hamlet that she can no longer be with him even though she desperately is in love with him.
I would not, in plain terms, from this time forth have you so slander any moment leisure as to give words or talk with the Lord Hamlet. Look…
Shakespeare, William. The New Folger Library: Hamlet. New York. 1992
To be honest, as this world, is to be one man picked out of ten thousand." (http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/hamlet/themes.html,2004).
The ghosts symbolize the fear, angst and anger in each of the major character's heart on the play Hamlet. Ghosts are not proven real and nobody can prove the existence of it. Like anger, fear and angst, nobody would ever dare that a person has these feelings in his/her heart. The characters in the play maintain such feelings but nobody has even dared to show up and resolved such feelings. They remained growing and hurting inside each of the character's hearts and minds.
In Hamlet, the characters had no way of turning back. Nobody has even dared to correct the thoughts that have been going through the major characters' minds. To quote:
Let Hercules himself do what he may,
The cat will mew, and dog will have his day." - Hamlet (http://www.hamlet.org,2006)
Analysis of Major Characters. 2004. Sparknotes LLC. [online] available at http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/hamlet/canalysis.html
Bartlett's Familiar Quotations: A Collection of Passages, Phrases, and Proverbs Traced to Their Sources in Ancient and Modern Literature. 2000. The Literature Network. [online] available at http://www.onlineliterature.com/quotes/quotation_search.php?author=Shakespeare&from=Hamlet
Themes, Motifs & Symbols. 2004. Sparknotes LLC. [online] available at: http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/hamlet/themes.html
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. [online] available at: http://www.hamlet.org/
Adultery and any sort of infidelity turns out to be a different story for men as Rosenthal stresses: "prohibition against adultery is not about property, pregnancy, misdirected male desire, or bloodlines, as one might have thought, but about the prevention of female comparison" (Rosenthal, 2008) as sharing men would be established by the size of their sexual organs.
A recurrent theme in the play from a gender perspective relates to the fact that the play is generally a patriarchal type of play in which paternal figures are predominant and the evolution of the other characters is a direct result of this way of using power. The women in this play, especially Doralice and Melantha are victimized as women had lesser rights to speak their minds or act according to their decisions. The paternalistic environment is also observed in the way Palamede and Rhodophil behave, as all four of them find…
Denman, J. (2008) "Too hasty to stay": Erotic and Political Timing in Marriage a la Mode. Restoration: Studies in English Literary Culture, 1660-1700, Volume 32, Number 2, pp. 1-23
Dryden, J. (1981) Marriage a la Mode. University of Nebraska Press
Frank, M. (2002) Gender, Theatre, and the Origins of Criticism: From Dryden to Manley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Hansen, C. (1993) Woman as Individual in English Renaissance Drama: A Defiance of the Masculine Code. New York: Peter Lang
Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark, is a complex character full of intrigue and non-linear dispensation. He is well aware of it though, for he starts his quest by pretending to be confused, a cloak, he cannot always easily shed or even distinguish his real self from the assumed role-playing as he himself observes in Act 1, 13-14 "Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother, Nor customary suits of solemn black, Nor windy suspiration of forced breath, No, nor the fruitful river in the eye, Nor the dejected 'havior of the visage, Together with all forms, moods, shapes of grief, That can denote me truly." Hamlet insists on having a multi-psychological facet notwithstanding that he demonstrates difficulty in understanding and accepting all his layers.
Aspects of Hamlet's Character that are Admirable
Hamlet is not reckless or impulsive. He weighs his action and thoughts through all perspectives. He is…
Bonjour, Adrien. "The Question of Hamlet's Grief," in English Studies: A Journal of English Letters and Philology 43 (1962): 336-43.
Calderwood, James L. "Hamlet: The Name of Action," in Modern Language Quarterly 39, No. 4 (December 1978): 331-62.
Craig, Hardin. "Hamlet as a Man of Action," in The Huntington Library Quarterly XXVII, No. 3 (May 1964): 229-37.
Dessen, Alan C. "Hamlet's Poisoned Sword: A Study in Dramatic Imagery," in Shakespeare Studies V (1969): 53-69.
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.
Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.
Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
Shakespeare's "Hamlet" is perhaps one of the most famous and hotly debated literary artifacts ever written. However, because literary critics and historians have discussed the work so often, it is easy to forget that Shakespeare wrote his tragedy as a play to be performed in the context of an Elizabethan production, to an Elizabethan audience. It is a refreshing antidote to some of more modern textual analysis of this performed text, which views the central character as a kind of an early existentialist, to consider "Hamlet" in light of its original audience.
Stephen Greenblatt's book Hamlet in Purgatory attempts to accomplish this. Greenblatt advances the theory that Hamlet, rather than simply being a tragedy about a man who could not make up his mind, is really about a man wrestling with the shifting religious climate of early Protestant England, a country still in great religious flux. Greenblatt states that for…
Greenblatt, Stephen. Hamlet in Purgatory. New York, 2002.
Greenblatt, Stephen. "Hamlet." Introductory essay to the play from The Norton Shakespeare, edited by Greenblatt, Stephen. New York: Norton & Company, 1997.
Gurr, Andrew. The Shakespearean Stage 1574-1642. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Mullaney, Steven. "Civic Rites, City Sites: The Place of the Stage." From Staging the Renaissance, edited by Kastan, David Scott and Stallybrass, Peter. New York: Routledge, 1992; 17-26.
Characterization of Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet
In illiam Shakespeare's play Hamlet, the character of Ophelia is perhaps the most tragic, as her wishes and desires are constantly sublimated in favor of the scheming characters around her. Essentially she is used as bait for Hamlet, and when her father dies, she is left to her own madness and death (a death whose circumstances leave open the possibilities of accident or suicide). By examining the characterization of Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet, it will be possible to see how the play uses her conversations to heighten the tragedy of her death and subsequently implicate the other characters, and especially Polonius and Gertrude, more fully in her breakdown and death, thus revealing the destructive nature of gender stereotypes and the social roles they reinforce.
Before examining the character of Ophelia in more detail, it will be useful to briefly examine previous critical work on…
Hunt, Maurice. "Impregnating Ophelia."Neophilologus. 89.4 (2005): 641-663. Print.
Peterson, Karaa. "Framing Ophelia: Representation and the pictorial tradition." Mosaic: a Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature. 31.3 (1998): 1-24. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Shakespeare Navigator. 2011. Web. 31 May 2011.
Faustus, who sees his time also coming to a close, becomes a kind of Hamlet-figure and doubts that he can be forgiven. Faustus' problem is more than a life of misdeeds -- it is a problem of lack of faith. The faith of Everyman may have been lukewarm, but it was not corrupt. The faith in the time of Everyman has been polluted by Lutheran and Calvinist doctrines.
Considering the form of the narrative, this is not surprising: Faustus is obsessed with fame and renown. Everyman has no name proper -- and neither does his author. That the author of the medieval morality play should be anonymous is nothing out of the ordinary, and indeed seems all the more fitting when one considers that the second most printed book after the ible was The Imitation of Christ, a work whose author never put his name on the original (and which…
Craig, H. Morality Plays and Elizabethan Drama. Shakespeare Quarterly 1(2), 1950, 64-
72. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/2866678
Everyman. NY: Fox, Duffield and Company, 1903.
Gardiner, H. Introduction. The Imitation of Christ (Thomas Kempis). NY:
For example, the scene in which Andrea stands before the statue of Marat and sings "Credi al destino" fails to evoke for me any real sensation. Perhaps it is because, as Grout suggests, the opera is "laden with harmonies that are heavy and oldfashioned [and] has little of special interest" (p. 495). Such could explain why the scenes feel at time clunky and abysmally lacking in flair. Still, at other times, they are vibrant and alive with life -- and those times are when the drama calls for gaity (not for fatalism or idealism).
The opera may, therefore, be interpreted as a political piece -- but I do not wish to convey that interpretation, for I think there is already too much omanticism in contemporary politics today. I think Andrea fits better as a period piece that should be left in the period for which it was written: one that…
Andre Chenier. (2011). YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDiBdeUxYfk
Badaire, J. (1926). Review of French Literature. DC: Heath and Co.
Beacham, R. (1996). The Roman Theatre and Its Audience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Bregenzer Festspiele. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.bregenzerfestspiele.com/en/mainmenu/programme/opera-lake/andre-chenier
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Of the alleged chief tragedies penned by Shakespeare, Othello has led to a certain degree of embarrassment. This 'domestic tragedy' lacks the dynastic and political consequences that characterize Macbeth, Hamlet, and Lear. The protagonist, Othello, behaves like a blockhead. eaders are led into doubting his claims to greatness right from the start. The Bard of Avon is famous for his interest in identity issues. Antagonists may cruelly impose themselves on other characters and assert their self-identity, but sensitive characters require external identity confirmation (ees). Othello's unique rawness stems from the way the playwright has dramatized the normal and ordinary, and exposed such normalcy as intrinsically cruel and horrific. A number of contemporary critics account for Othello's conduct by claiming it arose from the black Othello's insecure feelings in a white racist society. But I personally believe this tale compellingly fights racism (a theory that hypothesizes an essential difference between…
Corbett, Lisa Ashley. "Male Dominance and female exploitation: A study of female Victimization in William Shakespeare Othello, Much Ado about nothing, and Hamlet." ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library (2009). Thesis.
Djundjung, Jenny M. "Iago and the Ambiguity of His Motives in Shakespeare's Othello." Jurusan Sastra Inggris (2002): 1 - 7. Journal.
Goll, August. "Criminal Types in Shakespeare." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1939): 22 - 51.
Rees, Joan. "Othello as a Key Play." The Review of English Studies - Oxford University Press (1990): 185 - 190.
Racine's Phaedra -- Compared to Blake's "Lamb" and Melville's Billy Budd
As Bernard Grebanier states, Racine's Phaedra speaks "with the violence of life itself" (xiv). If one were to compare the French playwright's most famous female lead to the English-speaking world's most famous male lead (as Grebanier does), it would have to be to Hamlet, whose passionate assessment of life is likewise problematic. Indeed, Phaedra raises many themes, including the importance of origin, innocence, and sin -- themes that may be found in as seemingly disparate works as illiam Blake's "The Lamb" and Herman Melville's Billy Budd. hile Racine's Phaedra is the tale of a woman, torn by a passion that possesses her so cruelly that it destroys not only her life but the lives of others around her -- including the innocent man who is her obsession, Hyppolytus; Blake's poem deals with the triple theme of origin, innocence, and…
Blake, William. "The Lamb." Songs of Innocence and Experience. UK: Oxford
University Press, 1992. Print.
Grebanier, Bernard. Phaedra: An English Acting Version. NY: Barron's Educational
Series, 1958. Print.
If he had love, he had no pot in which to plant it. And so it stayed trapped in his mind, separate from any object -- for Kant insisted on the gulf between faith and reason. If one had to accept certain truths on the authority of the one revealing them -- Kant wanted no part in it. According to Kant, one should accept only that which can be reasoned. According to Aquinas, it is not unreasonable to accept that which is revealed.
In a sense, many of us today are Kantian rather than Thomistic. We are Hamlet figures, forever trapped in doubt. What Aquinas allows us to do is put away doubt. He allows us -- in fact, implores us, to act. He is now to us like the ghost of Hamlet's father -- reappearing to urge his son to action. Still, Hamlet delays. What happens to Hamlet --…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Contra Gentiles. London: Burns and Oates, 1905.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. UK: Fathers of the English Dominican
McInerny, Ralph, ed. Thomas Aquinas: Selected Writings. England: Penguin, 1998.
Olivier's philosophy of taking a body of work, molding it into an actor's own style and visual taste, and then regurgitating it in a way that incorporates both classical theater and modern dramatic actions and reactions, was something he was famous for. He remained true to Shakespeare's intentions of his plays acting as both entertainment and as warnings to humankind that in the proper settings and situations, human interactions can become quite insane or illogical. This is the eternal message that Shakespeare intended be delivered by the actors that would play his roles both in the old times and in more modern times (Cottrell, 199). Olivier makes good on his promise as an actor to deliver these messages of humanity to every audience member.
Overlap and Conclusion
Nearly all of Olivier's work overlaps in some ways. Many impersonators, including Peter Sellers were able to take Olivier's style and dramatic character…
Cottrell, John. Laurence Olivier. London: Hodder Stoughton Ltd., 1977.
Spoto, Donald. Laurence Olivier: A Biography. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Francis Bacon's Advancement Of Learning
An Analysis of Bacon's Rationale for riting the Advancement of Learning
hen one analyzes Francis Bacon's Advancement of Learning, he does so by first entering into an era that was primarily dedicated to overthrowing the Learning of the past -- that is to say, it was breaking with the old world and advancing the new. That old world was one of scholasticism, with men like Thomas Aquinas incorporating Aristotelian philosophy into the medieval world and using the pagan to prove the Christian. It was a world where religious truths were accepted on the authority of the Church, and a world where that authority was still in place and still in power. In the 14th century that authority would begin to corrupt (with the papacy's abduction and removal to Avignon) and the natural catastrophe that was the Black Plague. These events (though soon over) left their…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Trans. Fathers of the English Dominican
Province. Thomas Aquinas. Christian Classics Ethereal Library,1998. Web. 22
Bacon, Francis. The Advancement of Learning. (Stephen Jay Gould, ed.). NY: Modern
Priori vs. A Posteriori
An Analysis of Morality via A Priori and A Posterior Reasoning
As Thomas Reid indicates, the terms a priori and a posteriori have undergone a disignification in modern times: "Previously to Kant the terms a priori and a posteriori were, in a sense which descended from Aristotle, properly and usually employed, -- the former to denote a reasoning from cause to effect -- the latter, a reasoning from effect to cause" (762). However, Kant used the old terms but in a peculiarly new way and "a priori came…to be extended to any abstract reasoning from a given notion to the conditions which such notion involved" (Reid 762). Essentially, while construction of the notion demanded some sort of experiential observance, such arguments were not defined as a posteriori but as a priori. This paper will use the traditional definitions of a priori and a posteriori to show…
Jevons, William Stanley. Elementary Lessons in Logic. NY: MacMillan & Co., 1889.
Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of Pure Reason. UK: Simpking, Marshall, & Co., 1881.
theater and particularly its musical performances, have changed dramatically over the years. Their tone and style have reflected historical and cultural changes as well as shifts in attitudes toward musical theater. Recent productions like Book of Mormon and Hamilton would have been inconceivable just a generation ago. Broadway musicals are unique in that they straddle the line between popular and high culture. They have popular culture appeal, packed within the fine art of theater. In some ways, musical theater is a popular culture version of the opera. Broadway theater has matured and expanded its repertoire considerably, moving from the relatively limited domain of Steven Sondheim and Andrew Lloyd eber productions towards a more diverse and creative one. As Lewis points out, "How sadly limiting that was; it surely took some kind of toll on alternative voices trying to break free of cliche expectations," (2). Broadway has broken free, finally, and…
Lewis, David H. Broadway Musicals. Mcfarland, 2002.
Perpetua, Matthew. "The Book of Mormon,' Triumphs at the Tony Awards." Rolling Stone. Retrieved online: http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/news/the-book-of-mormon-triumphs-at-the-tony-awards-20110613
Schutte, Harm K. and Donald G. Miller. "Belting and Pop, Nonclassical Approaches to the Female middle voice: Some preliminary considerations." Journal of Voice, Vol 7, No. 2, 1993, pp. 142-150.
Stone, Matt and Parker, Trey. Book of Mormon.
Analysis of Michael Almereyda's interpretation of the Ghost in Hamlet 2000:
The Micheal Almereyda version of Hamlet, released in the year 2000, has a contemporary setting. The story takes place in New York City with a modern and corporate twist. Hamlet in this film, is depicted as a lonely, twenty-something aspiring artist, who father was the head of the "Denmark Corporation," had passed away some time ago.
The ghost first visits Hamlet in this version, in his apartment, where he appears on the television screen. The film being set in the modern technological era, with cell phones and credit cards, this seemed appropriate. The ghost in the film appears as a specter. As in life, the Ghost is high up in the corporate ladder at the Denmark Corporation, he is dressed to fit. He commands his son in the same manner in his death as in his life. The level…
Burnett, M.T. (2003). "To Hear and See the Matter": Communicating Technology in Michael Almereyda's "Hamlet" 2000. University of Texas Press.
Ebert, R. (1997). Hamlet. Chicago Sun Times.
Goldman, P. (2001). Hamlet's Ghost: A Review Article. Anthropoetics - the Journal of Generative Anthropology .
Heroajax. (2008, July 10). Top 10 Greatest Shakespeare Plays. Retrieved from List Verse: http://listverse.com/2008/07/10/top-10-greatest-shakespeare-plays/
Shakespeare's Hamlet, Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy and Saxo Grammaticus's The Historia Danica have so many points of resemblance that it is hard to comprehend that these three stories were written by three separate writers. The stories of Hamlet and The Spanish Tragedy introduce to the audience a theme of revenge and hatred. The plots found in Hamlet are very much similar to The Historia Danica. Hence, Shakespeare's Hamlet contains an allegory and this suggests that Shakespeare was very well aware of the astronomical revolutions of his time and the time before him. All three novels enjoy the essence of dramatizing the triumph of the heroes of the plays towards the end.
In The Spanish Tragedy, the villain makes use of murder to fulfill his evil motives. He very much acknowledges that the "end justifies the means" (Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy). The villain successfully hides his evil from the…
Thomas K. And David M.B. The Spanish Tragedy. St. Martin's Press. Jul. 1996.
Sara J. History Of Ideas. 2002. Available on the address http://www.hamlethaven.com/philosophical.html . Accessed on 28 Mar. 2004.
William S. Hamlet. Washington Square Press. 1 Aug. 1992.
Cain's crime was committed over jealousy, as was Claudius's murder of King Hamlet. Claudius knows that he must be forgiven of his act in order to enter heaven, but he shows doubt that he can be forgiven fully for the act that he has committed. He doubts what his faith tells him, that if one asks for to be forgiven, then forgiveness is complete, without exception. hen Claudius says,
"Forgive me my foul murder"?
That cannot be, since I am still possessed.
Of those effects for which I did the murder," (Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 3, lines 52-54).
As when Cain murdered Abel, although God may forgive Claudius, he will have to live with the consequences of what he has done for the rest of his life.
Claudius questions his ability to be forgiven for his sins. He pleads for forgiveness, but continues to have doubts as to whether true…
Alexander, Peter, ed. William Shakespeare: The Complete Works. London and Glasgow: Collins,
1951. 1 vol.
Hirsch, E., Kett, J., and Trefil, J. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. 3rd. Ed. Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company. 2002. < http://bartleby.com/59/6/hamlet.html > Accessed
Storni, Alfonsina. "You ant Me hite." The Norton Anthology of orld
Vol. F. Ed. Sarah Lawall and Mayard Mac. New York: Norton, 2002. 2124-2125
The poem titled "You ant Me hite" written by Alfonsina Storni explores the issue of women mistreatment by men. The women complain how men expect them to be virgins when they (men ) are not.
Atwood, Margaret and Martin, Valerie.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
In this book the author portrays how women are only valued for their fertility and they are allowed access to education in the patriarch society. This work is important to the research since it shows how women were mistreated by being regarded as sex symbols as well as not being allowed access to education.
Staves, Susan. Married omen's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
This work is a recollection of the actual case studies and examples of various…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Oxford: Heinemann, 1996.
Atwood, Margaret.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
Staves, Susan. Married Women's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
Stewart, Maaja A. Domestic Realities and Imperial Fictions: Jane Austen's Novels in Eighteenth-Century Contexts. Athens: U. Of Georgia P, 1993.
He feels guilty when he is copying the play and accidentally distracts the attention of the actor who is supposed to fire a cannon, causing the cannon to be misdirected and start a fire (Blackwood 64). idge takes acting seriously -- when he first appears on stage he is terrified of forgetting his lines, and wants to do a credible job. He becomes a valuable apprentice actor and stagehand. For the first time in his life, his verbal talents are appreciated. idge's story illustrates how sometimes the most truthful people are actors, who try to reveal unexplored aspects of the human mind through 'pretending.' Acting also gives idge the ability to find his true, moral identity through 'pretending.'
Despite his intelligence and curiosity, at the beginning of the novel idge is very naive. He understands little of London and acting, as he has grown up for most of his life…
Blackwood, Gary. The Shakespeare Stealer. New York: Puffin, 1998.
contemplated an individual's relationship with his or her environment. In Oedipus Rex and Antigone, Sophocles explores the relationship an individual has with the world and society. In each of these plays, Sophocles juxtaposes divinity and humanity and investigates the role of each within Theban society as well as looks into conflicts that arise when the laws of man conflict with divine laws. Through their narratives, Oedipus Rex and Antigone posit man is intended to serve others, including gods, and that they do not exist to be self-serving.
Oedipus Rex revolves around an eponymous anti-hero who by saving the city of Thebes from a Sphinx inadvertently and simultaneously brought forth a plague upon it. By defeating the Sphinx, Oedipus secured his place upon the Theban throne and as such was not only responsible for ensuring laws were abided, but was also responsible for protecting Thebes' citizens. Because of the plague that…
Sophocles. Antigone. The Complete Greek Tragedies. Eds. David Grene and Richard Lattimore.
2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991. pp. 160-212.
-. Oedipus Rex. The Complete Greek Tragedies. Eds. David Grene and Richard
Lattimore. 2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991. pp. 10-76.
A broader music discourse of English culture of early modern is reflected in the use of music dramatically with unrelenting relations between excess, music and feminine (Dane 435). Christian and platonic thought presents music ideologies which are conflicting and are being contented by the British writers of the early modern: Semantic indeterminacy and sensuous immediacy are presented by music and also the divine order earthly embodiment presented by music. A feminism depiction is seen here whereby the Pythagorean harmony is the positive aspect of music or its masculine aspect and the cultural dissonance is the negative attribute or the feminine aspect. The marginalities are expressed through the singing of Ophelia which is allowed to be not only literal but also dissonance figuratively. Jacobean and Elizabethan stages gender types inspires Ophelia representation. omen's song cultural constructions is problematic through Ophelia singing which lets the 'woman out', her disturbing feminine energy must…
Adelman, Janet. "Man and Wife Is One Flesh: Hamlet and the Confrontation with the Maternal
Body." Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare's Plays, Hamlet to The Tempest. By Adelman. New York: Routledge, 1992. 11-37.
Aguirre, Manuel. "Life, Crown, and Queen: Gertrude and the Theme of Sovereignty." Review of English Studies 47 (1996): 163-74.
Dane, Gabrielle. "Reading Ophelia's Madness." Exemplaria 10 (1998): 405-23.
This suspicion becomes even more ironically clear as we read further. As we progress with the analysis of the protagonist's description of his love we find even more apparently negative comparisons. For example, he states that that in comparison to perfumes his "mistress reeks" and that music has a much more "pleasing sound" than her voice. He also states that she is no goddess in the lines,
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground
However in the final couplet of the sonnet there is a dramatic change of tone and a radical change in our perception of the loved one. The final two lines read as follows.
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.
These two lines should be carefully considered as they ironically overturn the meaning and intention of…
3.47-51). hile Ophelia clearly is intelligent enough to take care of herself as well as offer her own rebuttals against the male characters' altogether creepy insistence on controlling her sexual life, she suppresses this intelligence and ability out of deference for her father. Thus, her eventual fall is inevitable and largely her own fault, because by allowing her relationship to her father to overshadow everything else, including her own thoughts and desires (revealed explicitly when she says "I do not know, my lord, what to think"), she sets herself up to be utterly devastated following her father's death (and abandonment by Hamlet) (1.3.104).
The circumstances surrounding Ophelia's death are somewhat murky, as they are only related second-hand via the Queen, and the reasons for Ophelia's madness are only ever truly "explained" by the king. Although Ophelia does state that she "cannot choose but weep" at the thought that her father…
Shakespeare, William. "Hamlet." Shakespeare Navigators. Web. 4 Aug 2011.
literacy -- that which is mastered only by Prospero and Miranda, and sought after by Caliban who is considered illiterate in comparison to the pair. Caliban's antagonistic relationship with Prospero is one which the author believes is waged over this literacy and which is so crucial because it is both literal and figurative. Literally it represents the smoothness of language which the aforementioned pair possess; figuratively it involves the books that Prospero has which endow him with magical abilities to cast spells and actuate spirits such as Ariel. The author buttresses this opinion by ascribing significance to Caliban's attempts to counteract Prospero's powers by destroying his books, thereby making Prospero's literacy on par with his own illiteracy.
The most interesting aspect of this article is that its focus on literacy is one which is only shared between the previously denoted three characters (and perhaps Ariel) whose fate is linked to…
An Analysis of Love in the Renaissance Art of Sidney, Shakespeare, Hilliard and Holbein
If the purpose of art, as Aristotle states in the Poetics, is to imitate an action (whether in poetry or in painting), Renaissance art reflects an obsession with a particular action -- specifically, love and its many manifestations, whether eros, agape or philia. Love as a theme in 16th and 17th century poetry and art takes a variety of forms, from the sonnets of Shakespeare and Sidney to the miniature portraits of Hilliard and Holbein. Horace's famous observation, ut picture poesis, "as is poetry so is painting," helps explain the popularity of both. Indeed, as Rensselaer . Lee observes, the "sister arts as they were generally called…differed in means and manner of expression, but were considered almost identical in fundamental nature, in content, and in purpose" (Lee 196). In other words, the love sonnets…
Aristotle. Poetics (trans. By Gerald Else). MI: Ann Arbor Paperbacks, 1970. Print.
Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World. NY W.W. Norton, 2004. Print.
Hogan, Patrick. "Sidney and Titian: Painting in the 'Arcadia' and the 'Defence.'" The
South Central Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 4. (Winter, 1967): 9-15. Print.
The fact that most men sublimate this feeling, and instead identify with their father to obtain the maternal figure in the form of another woman, is the reason the Oedipus myth was generated in the first place.
Freud's theory was popular not only 'on the couch' but in literary theory. Ernest Jones suggested that it is the reason Hamlet cannot bring himself to kill his uncle: "Now comes the father's death and the mother's second marriage. The long 'repressed' desire to take his father's place in his mother's affection is stimulated to unconscious activity by the sight of some one usurping this place exactly as he himself had once longed to do… the two recent events, the father's death and the mother's second marriage . . . represented ideas which in Hamlet's unconscious fantasy had for many years been closely associated" (Jones 98-99).
Regardless of the merit of Freud's theory,…
Dunkle, Roger. The Classical Origins of Western Culture, the Core Studies 1 Study Guide.
Brooklyn College Core Curriculum Series. Brooklyn College, the City University of New York, 1986.
Jones, Ernest. "The Oedipus-Complex as an Explanation of Hamlet's Mystery:
A Study in Motive." The American Journal of Psychology. January, 1910
Software Processing Methodology
Understanding the Problem
Klyne Smith, DSE Candidate
Dr. Frank Coyle
esearch and Contribution Methods
Software Processing Methodologies
Where do we go from here (Spring 2010)?
Define measurement data points for Test Case analysis
Creation and Validation of the predictive model
Articles / Web Information
Software Processing Methodology:
Understanding the Problem
In this work, I examine three different Software Processing Methodologies. I start with the iterative model, followed by the spiral model, and conclude with the V-model. Each of these methodologies are discussed in length to gain a clear understanding of their similarities and differences. This paper focuses on gaining a key understanding of the methodologies and when it is best to utilize each.…
Alexander, Ian and Beus-Dukic, Ljerka (2009). Discovering Requirements - How to Specify Products and Services
Bass, Len and Clements, Paul, and Kazman, Rick (2003) - Software Architecture in Practice (2nd Edition)
Boehm, B.,(1976) Software Engineering, IEEE Trans. Computer, C-25,12,1226-1241
This intellectual error thus prevents Othello from thinking clearly about his wife after Iago has planted the idea that Desdemona has been unfaithful to him. Furthermore, "The Fall of Othello," John Arthos notes, "Othello fell into chaos before the murder was done" (95). Othello's confusion is evident as he tells Iago, "I think my wife be honest and think she is not;/I think that thou art just and think thou art not (Shakespeare 3.3.385-386). Iago manipulates Othello into believing women cannot be trusted based on his own prejudices against them. Iago, in a conversation with his wife Emilia claims that women "are pictures out of doors,/Bells in your parlours, wild-cats in your kitchens,/Saints in your injuries, devils being offended,/Players in your housewifery, and housewives in your beds" (2.1.111-114).
Iago further exploits Othello's uncertainties about Desdemona to the point where he eventually convinces him that he must kill Desdemona for her…
Arthos, John. "The Fall of Othello." Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Spring, 1958), pp.
93-104. JSTOR. 30 May 2013.
Golden, Leon. "Othello, Hamlet, and Aristotelian Tragedy."
Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Summer, 1984), pp. 142-156. JSTOR. Accessed 30 May 2013.
structure of ancient and modern dramas to highlight their differences and similarities. The paper also shows how drama evolved over the centuries with references to Greek, Elizabethan and Modern plays.
MODEN AND ANCIENT DAMA: A COMPAISON
Drama has an inherent ability to adapt itself to the thinking and wishes of the society in which it takes birth. Therefore modern drama with all its intensity, relevance and eloquence is certainly more popular among modern audiences than its ancient counterpart. Still we cannot deny the importance of ancient dramatic concepts, models and devices in the development and evolution of modern drama. While ancient plays are mostly remembered for their grandeur and myths, close analysis reveals that there is more to them than meets the eye. All ancient Greek tragedies contain some similar elements, which set them apart from tragedies of later eras. While they basically concentrated on highlighting the significance of myths,…
Aristotle The POETICS Book XIII: 350 BCE Translated by S.H. Butcher Online version:
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman, 1949 Penguin USA, 1 edition, October 6, 1998
Arthur Miller, "Tragedy and the Common Man," from The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller (Viking Press, 1978)
Sing with the Pigs is Human
According to the dictionary, 'anthropology' is the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings. The Kaulong peoples of Papua New Guinea devote their lives to moving from the lowest status to political "big men" and "big women," by displaying their accumulation of knowledge at all-night singing competitions ending in pig sacrifice and feasting. In the course of her fieldwork with the Kaulong, who live on the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea, Jane Goodale discovered and catalogued that everything of importance to them - every event, relationship, and transaction - was rooted in their constant quest for recognition as human beings. Goodale takes considerable time to determine both the Kaulong definition of 'human' and catalogue the tribal rituals and relationships that build into the Kaulong definition.
Her book is the result of her field work, living with…
Goodale, Jane. To Sing with the Pigs is Human. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1995
In addition to the fact that it reveals the strongest benefits, it also has the advantage that most of its limitations can be easily overcome. In this order of ideas, both time and resource consumption can be reduced by using the previous FedEx campaigns. This strategy does not imply a lack of creativity and originality, but it is based on several advantages, as follows:
Along its existence, parent company Federal Express has created numerous marketing campaigns which have managed to attract both employees as well as customers -- this expertise is vital for the success of the Kava-based subsidiary, Pacific Express
FedEx still possesses its previous campaigns and can readjust one to suit the recruitment requirements of PacEx
The endeavor would materialize in the benefits of reduced time in creating a new campaign, combined with the decade long expertise of FedEx
The campaign would be modified and adjusted to the…
2009, Cost / Benefit Analysis, Mind Tools, http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_08.htm last accessed on August 17, 2009
2009, Decision Making, Management Help, http://managementhelp.org/prsn_prd/decision.htm last accessed on August 17, 2009
2009, Website of the FedEx Corporation, http://FedEx.com/us / last accessed on August 17, 2009
This was followed by the enactments by House of Lords in 1897 in Solomon v. Solomon & Company. The concepts of corporate entity and limited liability were incorporated in English law in the same period. In this case, the head court announced that a company is a separate legal individual completely different from the members or shareholders.
From this announcement, we can say that a company is a separate legal entity having a separate life, different from its members. A company can be an owner of any property, can sue anyone, can be sued by anyone and has a life just as any going concern. It is a commonplace of the law, is a very heavy veil drawn between the two can be lifted in many cases; it seems that only a limited number of changes is based on current judicial thinking.
2.2 Some doctrines about Corporate Veil
AW Machen, "Corporate Personality" (1910) 24 Harvard Law Review 253
J Dewey, "The Historic Background of Corporate Legal Personality" (1926) 35 Yale Law Journal 655
C Alting, "Piercing the corporate veil in German and American law - Liability of individuals and entities: a comparative view" (1994 -- 1995) 2 Tulsa Journal Comparative & International Law 187
AA Berle, "The Theory of Enterprise Entity" (1947) 47(3) Columbia Law Review 343
Because of the differences in their social status to Robert/Travis', they cannot conceive of Harriet/Tai's attraction to and ultimate love for him, the one due to his wealth and the other due to his habits. This change is necessary for the sympathies of the audience to remain intact. Had Cher objected to Travis simply on the grounds of his financial standing, the audience would not have any sympathy for her. But because he is a stoner and somewhat stupid, her desire to find Tai someone better makes some sense. In Austen's time, class and money were everything; people could be cut off for marrying beneath them, so such a seemingly shallow stance on Emma's part would have been not only understood, but expected.
Character is by no means the only -- or even the most important -- adjustment that Heckerling made in adapting Emma into the movie Clueless. The entire…
Austen, Jane. Emma. New Milford: Toby Press, 2003.
Green, Lindsay. Emma, by Jane Austen, and Clueless, Directed by Amy Heckerling. Sydney: Pascal Press, 2001.
Guney, Ajda and Yavuz, Mehmet Ertug. "The Nineteenth Century Literature and Feminist Motives in Jane Austen's Novels." New World Sciences Academy, Vol 3, Iss. 3 (2008). 523-31. Accessed via Ebsco Host 9 November 2008. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=11&hid=6&sid=49eaeb54-778c-4498-ba7a-4cd389bb44d2%40sessionmgr104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&an=33019184
Macdonald, Gina and Macdonald, Andrew. Jane Austen on Screen. Boston: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Nelson's violent images call upon the reader to behold the corpse of Till, forcing the reader into a state of seismic cultural shock, as America has long been eager to forget its racist legacy (Harold, 2006, p.263). Trethewey's first lines of her book are gentler, but there is always the urge to remember: "Truth be told, I do not want to forget anything of my former life" (Trethewey, p.1)
The calls her poetic collection an act of memory "Erasure, those things that get left out of the landscape of the physical landscape, things that aren't monumented or memorialized, and how we remember and what it is that we forget. I wanted to kind of restore some of those narratives, so those things that are less remembered (Brown, 2007). Her use of the sonnet form over her cycle of poems is not as perfectly consistent as Nelson's, but repetition and remembrance…
Black Soldiers in Blue: African-American Troops in the Civil War Era. Edited by John
David Smith. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Brown, Jeffery. "Pulitzer Prize Winner Trethewey Discusses Poetry Collection."
Transcript of Online New Hour. 25 Apr 2007. 6 Jun 2007. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june07/trethewey_04-25.html
This paper examines the death penalty as a deterrent and argues that states have not only the right but the duty to apply the death penalty to criminal cases because it is incumbent upon states to back the law with force. The death penalty acts as a forceful and compelling consequence for those who should choose to violate the law and commit murder. For that reason it can be said to be a deterrent. This paper also examines the opposing arguments and shows that those would say it is not an effective deterrent cannot offer any quantitative proof for this argument because no measurements exist that could possibly render such a claim factual or provable. The paper concludes by showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice.
While it may seem ironic that the death…
Born Mel Colm-Cille Gerard Gibson in January of 1956, Mel Gibson is one of the most controversial but well-known actors and filmmakers in America. When Gibson was a teenager, his parents moved the family—including Mel and his ten siblings—to Australia, ostensibly to prevent their children from being drafted into the Vietnam War (“Mel Gibson Biography”). Mel Gibson completed his high school and university education in the Sydney area, where he also became involved in theater. His forays into acting eventually earned him a role in Mad Max, his first major acting role. The first Mad Max movie came out in 1979; by the third sequel Mad Max: Beyond Thunderdome in 1985, Gibson was earning over a million dollars for his acting performances (“Mel Gibson Biography”). In 1987, Gibson starred alongside Danny Glover in the buddy action movie Lethal Weapon.
Gibson made his directorial debut with The Man Without…