Hand Hygiene Essays (Examples)

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Critical Appraisal of Practice Guidelines

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64898841

Guideline Evaluation According to Agree II
Guideline In Question: WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. Geneva: WHO, 2009.
DOMAIN 1. SCOPE AND PURPOSE
The overall objective(s) of the guideline is (are) specifically described.
Strongly Disagree 12 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Agree
Comments: Numerous sources and studies have demonstrated the importance of cleanliness of the hands, and that when hand hygiene is complete, patient outcomes are more positive and surgeries are safer. (Grol et al., 2003) (Sax et al., 2007) (O’Boyle, 2001)
2. The health question(s) covered by the guideline is (are) specifically described.
Strongly Disagree 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Agree
Comments:
This guideline could be more specific in detailing all specific health questions this pertains to, though perhaps their lack of specificity was directly connected to the fact that hand hygiene impacts nearly every health condition.
3. The population (patients, public, etc.) to…… [Read More]

References

Grol, R., & Grimshaw, J. (2003). From best evidence to best practice: effective implementation of change in patients\\\\' care. The lancet, 362(9391), 1225-1230.

O\\\\'boyle, C. A., Henly, S. J., & Larson, E. (2001). Understanding adherence to hand hygiene recommendations: the theory of planned behavior. American journal of infection control, 29(6), 352-360.

Pittet, D., Allegranzi, B., Boyce, J., & World Health Organization World Alliance for Patient Safety First Global Patient Safety Challenge Core Group of Experts. (2009). The World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care and their consensus recommendations. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 30(7), 611-622.

Sax, H., Allegranzi, B., Uckay, I., Larson, E., Boyce, J., & Pittet, D. (2007). ‘My five moments for hand hygiene’: a user-centred design approach to understand, train, monitor and report hand hygiene. Journal of Hospital Infection, 67(1), 9-21.


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Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing

Words: 3599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7707917

Hygiene as a pivotal method of preventing infection in a health care setting

Hand Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing Infection in a Healthcare Setting

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).

Nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. American journal of infection control, 36(6), 430-435.

To increase the chances of survival of VLBW infants, there are continued improvements in neo-natal management. However, the risk of infection during their stay in hospital is especially because they undergo diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In order to eliminate the infections, and provide more chances of survival, the article suggests that hand washing is the only effective measure to prevent the transmission of microorganisms. In addition, it suggests that it is the most important precaution in infection control. In the study, sixteen VLBW infants, in the "before" period and five others in the "after" period…… [Read More]

References

Allerganzi, B., Pittet, D. (2009). The role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention. Journal of hospital infection, 73, 305-315.

Andrej, T., & Andreas, W.F. (2004). Hand hygiene: A frequently missed lifesaving opportunity during patient care. Mayo clinic proceedings, 79(1), 109-216.

Asare, A., Enweronu-Laryea, C.C., & Newman, J.M. (2009). Hand hygiene practices in a neo-natal intensive care unit in Ghana. Journal of infection in developing countries, 3(5), 352-356.

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).
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Hygiene Proposal World Health Organization 2007 Estimates

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55741238

Hygiene Proposal

World Health Organization, (2007) estimates that more than 1.4 million people suffer form one disease to the other and HAI (Health care-associated infections) are the most important infections that occurs globally. In advanced countries, between 5% and 10% of patients acquire one or more infections within the hospitals environment while between 15 and 40% of patients-to-critical-care are estimated to be affected. In the United States, one out 136 patients acquire one or more infection in hospital, equivalent to 2 million cases yearly. In the UK, HAI causes 5000 attributable deaths yearly. There is substantial evidence that hand hygiene reduces the incidence of HAI and hand hygiene is the fundamental action that enhances patient safety. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, there is still an unacceptable low compliance with the hand hygiene policy within the universal healthcare system. (World Health Organization, 2007).

Fundamental objective of this project is to…… [Read More]

References

Dubberke, E.R. And Gerding, D.N. (2011).Rationale for Hand Hygiene Recommendations after Caring for a Patient with Clostridium difficile Infection. The Joint Commision. USA.

Klavs, I. et al. (2003). Risk factors and Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Slovenia -- results of the first national survey, 2001. Journal of Hospital Infection. 54:149 -- 157.

Klevens, R et al. (2007).Estimating health care -- associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Report. 122:160 -- 166.

Provincial Infectious Diseases Advisory Committee (2010). Best Practices for Hand Hygiene in All Health Care Settings . Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
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Hygiene and the Theory of Planned Behavior

Words: 514 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52153399

Hygiene and the Theory of Planned Behavior

Describe the theory and your rationale for selecting the theory

Among healthcare subjects, hand hygiene falls under the theory of planned behavior. The act of engaging in proper hand-washing practices is of foundational importance to providing a safe, healthy and sanitary context for healthcare. However, according to the study by O'Boyle et al. (2001), many healthcare professionals simply do not comply with expectations in this area. This denotes the need for improved behavioral compliance among healthcare professionals. This need underscores the cause for selected the theory applied here. According to O'Boyle et al., "most health care workers (HCs) are aware of the rationale for hand hygiene procedures, yet failure to adhere to guidelines is common." (O'Boyle et al., p. 352)

Discuss how the theory works to support your proposed solution

This theory is particularly useful in moving toward the proposed solution of instituting…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

O'Boyle, C.A.; Henly, S.J. & Larson, E. (2001). Understanding Adherence to Hand Hygiene Recommendations: The Theory of Planned Behavior. American Journal of Infectious Control, 29(6), 352-360.
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Hygiene Proposal for Poverty Stricken Kids in Washington DC

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59908066

Preventing Disease Through Improved Hygiene:

Low-income children in the Washington D.C. schools

According to a 2011 study published in the American Journal of Infectious Disease Control, simple acts of good hygiene can have a lasting impact upon childhood health and school attendance. This issue is particularly critical for low-income students, for whom attendance at school can have a significant impact upon their future development, given the stresses that exist at home and the positive influence that attending school can provide. School attendance rates for at-risk youth can affect long-term success later on in high school. However, children in this demographic group face tremendous obstacles in getting to school: transportation, a lack of parental support, and also an increased risk of illness at home and at school. Low-income children are at particular risk for respiratory infections, which can be easily spread through inadequate hand-washing and sanitation at school. Combined with old…… [Read More]

References

Studies show hand hygiene correlates with decreased risk of transmitting infection. (2011).

American Journal of Infectious Disease Control. Retrieved October 27, 2011 at  http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/news/2011/08/studies-show-hand-hygiene-correlates-with-decreased-risk-of-transmitting-infection.aspx
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Epidemiological Study Proposal Nursing Hand

Words: 5318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85369119

These are questions dealing with attitude and are the most important questions when doing qualitative social science research to gauge relationships among events. In addition to construction questions about attitudes, it is important to have the questions drafted in the correct format (Nachmias, 2008).

The Quantitative methodologies will be the statistical tests designed for the overall model to incorporate the information provided through one, two or all of the Qualitative data analysis methodologies. The tests used to determine the relationship between these "qualitative" factors and increases in Infection rates, will be the Chi-Square, Student's T-Test, ANOVA (to test for variations among the data), the construction of a Linear Regression Model and the calculation of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, otherwise known as "R-Squared" (Nachmias, 2008).

These tests will be utilized in conjunction with a predetermined level of significance, or alpha. Since these tests will all be measuring the means and relationships…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Barrett, R. & Randle, J. (2008). Hand hygiene practices: nursing students' perceptions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(14), 1851-1857.

Beggs, C.; Noakes, C.; Shepherd, S.; Kerr, K.; Sleigh, P. & Banfield, K. (2006). The influence of nurse cohorting on hand hygiene effectiveness. American Journal of Infection Control, 34, 10, 621-626.

Larson, E.; Quiros, D. & Lin, S. (2007). Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates. American Journal of Infection Control, 35(10), 666-675.

Roberts, C.; Roberts, J. & Roberts, R.J. (2009). Investigation into the effect of an alcohol-based hand product on infection rate in a nursing home setting. Journal of Infection Prevention, 10(4), 138-142.
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Hygiene Factors in the Workplace

Words: 2893 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85407476

Workplace Hygiene

How Hygiene Factors in Job Context Affect Job Dissatisfaction

Everybody has to work and most people identify significantly with their work. It is no secret that occupation is one of the singularly most important factors in most lives. When people are asked about themselves they will generally first talk about who they are in relation to their job, and then about other factors. The workplace then is one of the most important places in the life if an individual, but it can become one of the most stressful also.

In 1959 Frederick Herzberg had been doing research on this very subject since 1957 and he determined that there were a few (five) satisfiers and eleven job dissatisfiers. A company could work to increase the satisfaction of employees because the, rightly, believed that a happy employee is a productive employee. Unfortunately, there were many theories about how to make…… [Read More]

References

Clements-Croome, D. (2006). Creating the productive workplace. London: Taylor & Francis.

Davies, S.J. (2007). Security supervision and management: The theory and practice of asset protection. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Gawel, J.E. (1997). Herzberg's theory of motivation and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 5(11).

Gitman, L.J., & McDaniel, C. (2008). The future of business: The essentials. Grand Rapids, MI: Cengage Learning.
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Handed to Ten Coffee Drinkers Visiting Panera

Words: 712 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67090531

handed to ten coffee dinkes visiting Panea Bead on a Satuday moning to analyze the habits of this paticula population.

Please ate the quality of Panea Bead coffee in the scale of 10 (whee 1 is unacceptable low quality and 10 is pleasantly high quality)

Please ate the hygiene of the Panea Bead in the scale of 10 (1 stands fo extemely dity and 10 is high standads of hygiene.

Please ate the Panea cews appoach to the customes in the scale of 10 (1 is extemely unfiendly and 10 is pleasantly fiendly)

Please compae the impotance of following items to be pesented at the Coffee stand in the ank of 10 (whee 10 is vey impotant to have and 1 is not impotant).

Half and Half Milk

Skim Milk

2% Milk

Milk Powde

Honey

Suga

Low Cal Suga

Heat Holde

Cup Lid

Tissue

What should be pesented at the…… [Read More]

references varied; however, muffins and cookies were slightly more preferred (see Table 3).

Conclusion

Overall results of the study showed that the customers were satisfied with the quality of Panera Bread products and services. In addition the ranking questions showed the expectations from the coffee stand and the bakery. Further analysis and questions are granted to understand the quantity satisfaction and its relation to quality satisfaction.
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Fredrick Herzberg Motivational Hygiene Theory

Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75906120

Table 1: Motivational Hygiene Theory

Each of the factors that comprise the model is briefly discussed here.

Achievement -- Often defined as the successful completion of a task, this attribute anchors the Motivators area of the Motivational Hygiene Theory model.

ecognition of achievement -- Herzberg meant for this to include recognition from anyone in the organization from a co-worker to a client to a superior. Herzberg mentions in his theories that recognition that combines the verbal and visual are the most effective (Herzberg, 1987).

The Work itself -- Only after a worker has been able to have their Hygiene factors met can they attain the level of satisfaction with the work itself, and this came out of the study of technical professionals cited earlier in this analysis (Backer, 1973).

esponsibility -- elated to the three most critical areas of learning and job achievement which are autonomy, mastery and purpose, responsibility…… [Read More]

References

Backer (1973) Motivating Workers. Johannesburg: McGraw-Hill

Baldonado, a., and J. Spangenburg. 2009. Leadership and the Future: Gen Y Workers and Two-Factor Theory. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 15, no. 1, (September 1): 99-103

Chapman, n.d.- Frederick Herzberg Motivational Theory [Online] Available from:  http://www.mftrou.com/frederick-herzberg-theory.html  Accessed on September 19, 2009.

Herzberg (1976) the Managerial Choice: to be efficient and to be human. Dow Jones-Irwin: Homewood, Illinois
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Case Study on Industrial Hygiene

Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35574451

Industrial Hygiene

A large New Orleans Hospital has been affected with a Katrina disaster, which has contributed to evacuation of staffs to Baton ouge. Six weeks after the event, I have been mandated with the responsibility of supervising a team that will return to the hospital since I am an Industrial Hygienist. This team will also be responsible for evaluating the situation and engaging in a plan to re-establish basic medical needs for the staffs involved in the recovery initiative. While the team comprises various leaders of the hospital, the Incident Commander or person in-charge of recovery is looking for guidance on safe entry, safe clean-up procedures, suitable PPE for all recovery employees, and a hazard assessment for the most crucial items. He also needs an assessment of operations that can contribute to acute or chronic health effects, disease, or illness. This process of supervising the team in the recovery…… [Read More]

References:

Kilgore, G. (2007, January). After Katrina -- A Firsthand Account of SH&E Issues in Refrigeration Recovery. Professional Safety, 52(1), 31-35.

Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2013, June 10). Keeping Workers Safe During

Hurricane Sandy Cleanup and Recovery. Retrieved from United States Department of Labor website:  https://www.osha.gov/sandy/sample_results.html 

Sigma Aldrich. (2009). Overview of Products for Air Monitoring. Retrieved August 31, 2014,
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Oral Hygiene Practices and Dental Services Utilization Among Pregnant Women

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56632525

Oral Hygiene Practices -- Pregnant omen

This paper delves into the research that has been conducted on pregnant women with regard to their use of proper oral hygiene practices. The paper is based on the research and findings from an article in the Journal of the American Dental Association (Boggess, et al., 2010).

Oral Hygiene Practices -- Dental Service Utilization -- Pregnant omen

There is ample available literature to justify Boggess' assertion that poor oral practices can lead to loss of teeth, gingivitis, periodontal infection and dental caries. And as Boggess writes on page 553, those oral diseases are found in disproportionate numbers in communities that are in the low-income category, and in communities where ethnic minorities reside. But also, these dental issues are found among pregnant women, in particular among "racial or ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status," Boggess continues (553). The question addressed -- why do…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boggess, Kim A., Urlaub, Diana M., Massey, Katie E., Moos, Merry-K, Matheson, Matthew B.,

and Lorenz, Carol. (2010). Oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization among pregnant women. Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol. 141, 553-561.
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Employee Satisfaction Hygiene Factors and

Words: 15085 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27698005

Motivation of workers is posing very big challenges to organizations. Herzberg ensures that an organization rewards its employees depending on the behaviors that the management would like to encourage.One of the widely known writers on motivation of workers is Frederick Herzberg. He is widely known for the two-factor theory that he came up with. The two factor theory is widely referred to as the hygiene motivation theory. As stated above, motivation of employees is a challenge. Nobody has brought evidence refuting the theories of Herzberg. Therefore, the ideas that are put forward by him may still be looked at.

Hygiene Factors and Dissatisfaction at Work

The hygiene factor in job satisfaction can best be explained using Herzberg's (1966) two factor theory (Motivation-Hygiene Theory).The hygiene factors refer to the factors that are majorly concerned with the work conditions. The factors are contextual features of conditions of work. They are however not…… [Read More]

References

Akintoye, I.R. (2000). The place of financial management in personnel psychology. A Paper

Presented as Part of Personnel Psychology Guest Lecture Series. Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Armstrong, DL (2006). When Employees Are Happy!

http://www.ldarrylarmstrong.com/9_2011_SEPTEMBER_FINAL____WHEN_EMPLOYEES_ARE_HAPPPY.pdf
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Becoming Influential

Words: 1422 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67999882

Hygiene in Medical Settings

My message will be on hand hygiene for everyone that comes to the hospital.

Hand hygiene for hospital guests is just as important as it is for hospital personnel. Everyday interactions and activities can lead to exposure to a variety of bacteria that can create illness. In a hospital setting, this means that guests with good intentions towards loved ones can inadvertently make an illness worse or introduce new germs into clinically sanitized environments. Bacteria and other illness causing agents are often picked up from external environments and surfaces and then transported through body parts such as the nose, throat, skin, and hair. Because the hands are one of the most active parts of the body, we also carry germs between our fingers and underneath fingernails. Therefore, it becomes important that everyone wash their hands properly and frequently to decrease the transmission of bacteria and other…… [Read More]

References

Kuo, C.C. (2011). What's your hand hygiene?. AAOS Now, 5(10), 17-18.

Smith, S.S. (2009). A review of hand-washing techniques in primary care and community settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(6), 786-790. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02546.x.
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Washing Haas Janet P And

Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29874060

Naturally, any problem that results in 1.7 instances of illness and 100,000 preventable deaths is automatically extremely clinically significant. What makes this topic especially clinically significant is that nosocomial infections are largely a function of behaviors that violate established principles of standard hygiene and antisepsis in clinical settings. If the information can be used to publicize the importance of reducing hospital acquired infections and to increase healthcare worker compliance with antiseptic protocols, it could greatly improve the safety and quality of the American healthcare system.

Primary Barriers to Hand Washing Compliance

The main barriers reported in connection with the low rate of hand washing compliance in U.S. hospitals include ignorance, laziness, habit, and convenience. Ignorance comes into play when healthcare providers fail to consider how vulnerable hospitalized patients are to infection and how easily bacterial infections can be caused by hand-to-hand or hand-to surface contamination. Laziness is an issue because…… [Read More]

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Caglar S Yildiz S Savaser S 2010

Words: 1935 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27292841

Caglar S; Yildiz S; Savaser S. (2010). Observation results of hand-washing by health-care workers in a neonatal intensive care unit. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(2), 132-137.

In this article the authors wanted to determine whether healthcare professionals were washing their hands and if they were doing so effectively. The researchers observed 344 incidents in which hand washing was warranted and found that nurses were 63% compliant and physicians were 53% compliant. However, when it came to making sure that the job was done thoroughly, physicians were able to do a better job than nurses at a 24% to 13% rate of success. Since hand washing has been proven to be the most effective and simplest method for preventing infection, it is imperative that healthcare professionals perform it as often as needed and thoroughly.

amos M.M., Schrader, ., Trujillo, ., Blea, M., & Greenberg, C. (2011). School nurse inspections improve…… [Read More]

Researchers are trying different techniques to increase the incidence of compliance with hand washing guidelines and in this study they used social pressure. Initially, compliance with hand washing regulations was deemed to be significantly below expected standard within the nursing staff. To hopefully combat this, researchers told the staff that they were going to weigh the soap dispenser bags to see if people were actually using them or not. The object of the study was to determine if this type of pressure would induce the staff into better compliance with hand washing regulations. The researchers found that this type of behavioral technique is very effective.

15. Parish, C. (2008). Patient campaigner calls for TV cameras to check hand-washing. Nursing Standard, 22(38), 6.

The author of the article looked at the compliance records of staff and whether patients and visitors used infection controls. The campaigner, Roger Goss, said that because MRSA and other similar healthcare-acquired infections were becoming more dangerous that staff and visitors needed to be monitored more closely to prevent spread. The man advocated that close-circuit televisions be used to determine compliance with regulations, and he encouraged staff to be fired and visitors not welcomed if they did not comply. The warning here to nurses is that people are watching whether they wash their hands properly, and they are ready to have them terminated if they do not.
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Best Practice Instructional Strategy

Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22359165

ationalism Politics Impacts Public's View

Web Article eview

The principle best-practice strategy elucidated within Louis DePaola's article entitled "Infection control in the dental office" is for practitioners to adhere to sanitary and hygiene mandates as noted within a pair of documents produced by the Centers for Disease Control. The first document is the Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care (which was published in 2011), and the companion Infection Prevention Checklist for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care. These documents have a number of specific measures for those working in dental offices to follow to reduce the incidence of healthcare associated infections (HAI).

In addition to denoting several of the key guidelines for practitioners to adhere to in order to ensure safety and reduce the rate of infection transmission, the author also reinforces several key facets of this literature that apply to dental office…… [Read More]

References

DePaola, L. (2012). "Infection control in the dental office." http://static.ow.ly/. Retrieved from http://static.ow.ly/docs/RICDE%20Infection%20Control%20in%20the%20Dental%20Office,%20Standards%20of%20Care%202012%20(CE%20Article%20PDF)_Mcl.pdf
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Self-Efficacy Theory Describe Theory Rationale Selecting Theory

Words: 520 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77804285

Self-Efficacy Theory

Describe theory rationale selecting theory. 2. Discuss theory works support proposed solution. 3. Explain incorporate theory project.

Self-efficacy theory and the promotion of hand-washing

According to the Centers for Disease Control, hand-washing is one of the most important ways in which to curtail the spread of a wide range of infections and bacteria. Hand-washing can reduce the risks of contracting the common cold, influenza, and other viruses (Wash your hands, 2012, CDC). It can also lessen the chances that bacteria such as E.coli and salmonella will be transmitted from the preparer of food to the diner, or that contaminants from raw poultry and other meats will be spread to fruits, vegetables, and other components of the meal. Hands should be washed thoroughly after preparing food, using the toilet, dealing with animals or children, or handling garbage. But many people fail to take this simple step.

Hand-washing is one…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Self-efficacy. About.com. Retrieved:

http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/self_efficacy.htm

Wash your hands. (2012). Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved:

 http://www.cdc.gov/Features/HandWashing/
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Nurse Lit Review Type of Research Study

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40827640

Nurse Lit eview

TYPE OF ESEACH STUDY - Quantitative or qualitative

Descriptive, correlational, experimental, quasi-experimental, phenomenological, grounded theory ethnographic, historical

SAMPLE METHOD & SAMPLE SIZE

Knoll, Lautenschlager & Lipp (2009). British Journal of Nursing.

Impact of workload on hygiene practices.

Quantitative.

Experimental.

trials of nursing staff.

Statistical.

Enforcing hygiene practices has practical healing benefits for nurses.

Souweine, B. et al. (2009). Intensive Care Medical Journal.

Compared hygiene practices. Hand rubbing vs. hand washing.

Quantitative.

Experimental.

person nursing staff.

Workers completed self report questionnaires.

Hand rubbing with alcohol is preferred to handwashing in some instances.

Creedon, S. (2006). International Journal of Nursing Technologies and Classifications.

Observe health worker compliance in handwashing guidelines.

Quantitative.

Quasi-experimental.

73 doctors and nurses in an Irish ICU.

Questionnaire responses.

Knowledge of handwashing guidelines can lead to positive outcomes.

Allen, L. et al. (2014). Nevada Nformation.

Compared hand washing with hand sanitizer.

Quantitative.

Descriptive.

Literature review.

Statistical.…… [Read More]

References

Allen, L., & et al. . (2014). Professionalism in Nursing. Nevada RNFormation, 18(1).

Creedon, S.A. (2005). Healthcare workers' hand decontamination practices: compliance with recommended guidelines. Journal of advanced nursing, 51(3), 208-216.

Evans, M.W., Breshears, J., Campbell, A., Husbands, C., & Rupert, R. (2007). Assessment and risk reduction of infectious pathogens on chiropractic treatment tables. Chiropractic & osteopathy, 15(1), 8.

Knoll, M., Lautenschlaeger, C., & Borneff-Lipp, M. (2010). The impact of workload on hygiene compliance in nursing. British Journal of Nursing, 19(16), S18-S22.
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Clinical Auditing and Governance

Words: 2506 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14301156

Clinical Governance and Auditing

Throughout this paper, an attempt has been made to demonstrate an understanding of the procedure of Clinical Audit (CA). The focus of this CA is the high risk area of patient safety, and with regard to how this is linked to patient safety, hand hygiene has been selected. The findings and the recommendations that follow combined with the CA tool and the selection criteria will be outlined in form of a Clinical Audit. For the purposes of improving clinical practice, CAs forms an integral aspect of clinical governance. It is indeed notable that CAs encapsulates practice which through analysis can result to quality enhancement, particularly for the patients. Various definitions of the term which are invariably the same and which tend towards verbosity exist, but a terse and precise definition is given by Coffey (2009) who puts forth that a CA is a systematic evaluation of…… [Read More]

References

Hart T. (2013).Promoting hand hygiene in clinical practice. Nursing Times; 109: 38, 14-15.

Tollefson, J. (2011). Clinical skills for enrolled/division 2 nurses. South Melbourne, Vic, Cengage Learning.

Scott, H.R., Blyth, K.G., & Jones, J.B. (2009).Davidson's Foundations of Clinical Practice. London, Elsevier Health Sciences UK..

Wilson, J. (2006). Infection control in clinical practice. Edinburgh, Elsevier, Baillie're Tindall.
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Nurse Implementation Plan Implementation Plan it Is

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84434897

Nurse Implementation Plan

Implementation Plan

It is important to understand that plans do not simply manifest themselves into existence and a specific implementation effort is needed to ensure that the evidence presented in research efforts can be used to practical ends. Although the solution appears to be clear and succinct, putting into this plan into action requires a plan of its own. To do this effectively, Lewin's model of change theory can assist in describing "how" this plan will be put into action and significantly complement "what" needs to be done in order to realize success.

The plan itself is simple and revolves around and addresses Lewin's trinity of components in his change Model. Lewin essentially proposed that change occurs in three distinct stages where an old idea is "unfrozen," then processed and eventually "refrozen." This simple model of understanding the mental processes apply both at a collective level and…… [Read More]

References

Jansson, I. et al. (2010). Factors and Conditions that Influence the Implementation of Standardized Nursing Care Plans. The Open Nursing Journal, 10 Oct 2010. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024554/ 

Jeanes, A. (2009). Improving hand hygiene compliance. Nursing Times, 18 Feb 2009. Retrieved from  http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2012/10/04/g/p/i/030218Improving-hand-hygiene-compliance.pdf 

Knutsen, R. (2013). Nurses, Hand Hygiene and Infection Control. Advanced Health Care Network, 6 Feb 2013. Retrieved from  http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Nurses-Hand-Hygiene-Infection-Control.aspx
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Reducing Nosocomial Infection Rates

Words: 1968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53557067

hygiene techniques with traditional soaps may or may not be more effective than using alcohol-based solutions concerning reduction in nosocomial infection rates in acute hospitals. With recent usage of alcohol-based solutions, use of traditional antibacterial soaps may be outdated and take longer. Nosocomial infections present as a major issue for acute care hospitals and require research in identifying the most effective way to sterilize hands to avoid increasing infection rates. While traditional handwashing with antibacterial soaps have been done for years, water availability and time taken to perform handwashing may not promote efficiency among hospital staff. Alcohol-based solutions require no water and additional washing or scrubbing. This research paper will focus on recent articles and studies that highlight which method works best.

Integration and Synthesis of the Evidence

Many articles and studies the past and in recent years attest to the effectiveness and efficiency of alcohol-based solutions. One 2012 studied…… [Read More]

References

Appelgrein, C., Hosgood, G., Dunn, A., & Schaaf, O. (2016). Ozonated water is inferior to propanol-based hand rubs for disinfecting hands. Journal Of Hospital Infection, 92(4), 340-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2015.08.029

Chen, S., Chou, C., Huang, J., Tang, Y., Kuo, Y., & Chien, L. (2013). Antibacterial effects on dry-fast and traditional water-based surgical scrubbing methods: A two-time points experimental study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 16(2), 179-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12082

Howard, J., Jowett, C., Faoagali, J., & Mckenzie, B. (2014). New method for assessing hand disinfection shows that pre-operative alcohol/chlorhexidine rub is as effective as a traditional surgical scrub. Journal Of Hospital Infection, 88(2), 78-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2014.06.013

Salmon, S., Truong, A., Nguyen, V., Pittet, D., & Mclaws, M. (2014). Health care workers' hand contamination levels and antibacterial efficacy of different hand hygiene methods used in a Vietnamese hospital. American Journal Of Infection Control, 42(2), 178-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2013.07.013
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Preventing VRE All Measures to

Words: 1874 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84626562

For its versatility in eluding new antibiotics, it can be life-threatening. One of these "superbugs" is VRE, which is transmissible by direct hand contact or through surfaces and equipment by anyone, including the health care worker (Capriotti, 2007). VRE has recently spread to the community and the health care sector.

New antibiotics continue to be synthesized to cope with the rapid mutation of the VRE bacteria, but the organisms continue to overtake the drugs (Akins & Haase, 2005). A study conducted on a series of VRE outbreaks in Germany revealed that an estimate of 1 million Euros could be saved with adequate prevention and control of the infection. The use of newer antibiotics is not as cost-effective as prevention. These antibiotics have to be administered with precision and require complementary hygienic precautions on the part of the health care worker. The rising incidence of and serious threats posed by the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Akins, R.L. And Haase, K.K. (2005). Gram-positive resistance: pathogens, implications and treatment options. Pharmacotherapy: Pharmacotherapy Publications. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/507658

Capriotti, T. (2007). Resistant "Superbugs" create need for novel antibiotics.

Dermatology Nursing: Medscape. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554935

Department of Health (2006). Fact sheet. New York State Department. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.health.stats.ny.us/diseases/communicable/v_r_e/docs/facts_sheet.pdf
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Team D Agreed to Focus

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38725445



Foreign key fields (i.e. The key that represents the value of a primary key in a related table) may exist in the case of CLEBSI speciment: date of diagnosis, date and time of specimen (where latter may replicate). Under 'Patient', CLEBSI line is a foreign key, too.

V. Atomic-level data

Atomic data would be the most reducible element of information (without elaboration). So for instance for hand hygiene it would be Chlorhexidine Skin Antisepsis Antimicrobial Dressing Placement

VI. Schemas of the database will be:

Patient with the attributes of name, age, medical record number (MN), diagnosis, central line; Central line with the attributes of medical record number, date of insertion, insertion site, date of removal, line days, inserting provider, the components Central Line Bundle compliance, antimicrobial dressing placement; and CLABSI infections with attributes of MN, date of diagnosis, date and time of specimen, organism detected. Central Line Bundle compliance will…… [Read More]

Reference

CDC (2010) Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) Event. Retrieved April 1, 2011 from www.cdc.gov/nhsn/PDFs/pscManual/4PSC_CLABScurrent.pdf

Databasics: A Database Dictionary. Retrieved April 1, 2011 from: http://www.geekgirls.com/database_dictionary.htm

Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (n.d.). Implement the central line bundle. Retrieved March 21, 2011, from http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Topics/CriticalCare/IntensiveCare/Changes/ImplementtheCentralLineBundle.htm

Moodle. Database Fields. Retrieved April 1, 2011 from http://docs.moodle.org/en/Database_fields#Field_name_and_description
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Nicu Nosocomial Infections Preventing Nicu Nosocomial Infections

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64406459

NICU Nosocomial Infections

Preventing NICU Nosocomial Infections

hine (2006) writes an editorial to appeal to clinicians staffing neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) to increase their awareness of patient safety measures because a large number of studies have shown that educating and training clinicians on how to prevent nosocomial infections (NI) can have a significant positive impact on patient outcomes. The author was motivated to write this editorial because of the findings from a NICU study completed at the University of Alabama in Birmingham (UAB). The main findings of this study were clinician education, especially concerning hand hygiene, together with NICU culture, can significantly reduce NIs in the NICU over the long-term.

The UAB NICU intervention capturing the attention of hine (2006) involved a number of steps, but it was unclear which ones were individually the most effective. The author admits this, while at the same time suggesting that a systematic…… [Read More]

References

Rhine, W.D. (2006). Eliminating nosocomial infections in the NICU: Everyone's duty. Journal of Perinatology, 26(3), 114-143.
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Reducing Nosocomial Infections through Planned Behavior Theory

Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86799842

Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviors to Nosocomial Infections

Identify a public health theory you will use to support the implementation of your prevention and health promotion activities. Provide evidence that supports the use of this theory within the program you designed

According to the tenets of the theory of planned behavior, individuals first think about a behavior (e.g., the intent to act) and only then proceed to act (Chambers & Benibo, 2011). The dependent variables of intent to act in the theory of planned behavior include individual attitudes, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and behavioral norms which are in turn dependent variables to the actual behavior demonstrated (Chambers & Benibo, 2011). The theory of planned behavior has been applied in a number of different settings, including in the context of nosocomial infections (Hughes, 2008).

In this context, the planned behavior theory conceptualizes individuals' intent to engage in handwashing as involving…… [Read More]

References

Bijari, R. & Abassi, A. (2014, January 1). Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern Khorasan hospitals. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 43(2), 197.

Chambers, V. & Benibo, B. R. (2011, October 1). Reactions to the 2008 economic crisis and the theory of planned behavior. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, 15(4), 17-20.

Davis, R. & Anderson, O. (2012, April). Predictors of hospitalized patients' intentions to prevent healthcare harm: A cross sectional survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(4), 407-415.

HAIs at a glance. (2017). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from   https://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/ index.html .
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Evidence-Based Project Proposal

Words: 1213 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75614056

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are typically the most prevailing healthcare-associated infection (HAI) in acute care facilities in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has estimated that up to 150,000 hospital-onset, symptomatic catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) occurred in 2013, resulting in as much as $161 million in excess direct medical costs (Kuntz, 2010, p. 319). Current research examines the reason for such a high occurrence of infection. oughly 75% of healthcare-associated UTIs are connected to improper use of indwelling urinary catheters, to which up to a quarter of hospitalized patients are exposed. Adult ICUs have the highest exposure rate for catheter use and reveal over 95% of UTIs related to catheter use.

In the last twenty years, various strategies have been implemented to aid in reducing the risk of CAUTI in healthcare settings. One of which includes identifying proper times to use catheters and proper care and insertion…… [Read More]

References

Deron, D.C., Edwards, J.R., Srinivasan, A., Fridkin, S.K., & Gould, C.V. (2011). Trends in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Adult Intensive Care Units -- United States, 1990 -- 2007. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 32(8), 748-756.

Flynn, M.B., Martins, S.A., Burns, S., Philbricks, D., & Rauen, C. (2013). Putting Evidence Into Nursing Practice: Four Traditional Practices Not Supported by the Evidence. Critical Care Nurse, 23(2), 37. Retrieved from  http://www.aacn.org/wd/Cetests/media/C1322.pdf 

Goeschel, C.A., Cosgrove, S.E., Romig, M., & Berenholtz, S.M. (2011). Prevention of Central Line -- Associated Bloodstream Infections: A Journey Toward Eliminating Preventable Harm. Current Infectious Disease Reports, 13(4), 343-349.

Kuntz, G. (2010). Guideline for Prevention of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections 2009. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 31(4), 319-326.
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Motivation and Morale Police administration

Words: 2271 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20352867

Abstract

The current study aims to examine the effect of the lack of supervision and detachment between administration and low-level supervisors and beat officers and how this leads to low morale and motivation. Imperatively, low level of morale and motivation results in low productivity, which might give rise to absenteeism and poor watch, adversely affecting the society through increased level of crime. A questionnaire will be designed to achieve the purpose of this research study and will be distributed to selected beat officers working in different police precincts. The number of questionnaires analyzed will be to different police precincts. Data collected will be analyzed through SPSS using both descriptive statistics, correlation and regression data.

Problem Statement

Organizations endeavor to have more productive personnel, who are deemed the most significant resources and a determining factor for success. Low levels of productivity can be linked to poor employee morale and motivation. The…… [Read More]

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Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Health Care

Words: 2673 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30716007

Methicillin-esistant Staphylococci (MSA), most common Healthcare Associated Infections

The PICOT question to be discussed is: For adult patients using catheters, does the use of sterilization practices reduce the future risk of health associated infections like MSA compared with standard procedure in one week?

The answer is yes.

The support given to answer the question will be based on peer-reviewed journals and scientific literature. A summary of the evidence will be availed in a chart plus a conclusion that summarizes evidence used will also be given.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSA) bacteria is resistant to several antibiotics. A significant proportion of MSA infections in the community are on the skin. It results in alarming infections of the bloodstream, surgical site infections and pneumonia in health facilities. Studies have revealed that one person in every three individuals have staph in the nose - most of the time they don't show any illnesses (General…… [Read More]

References"

1)

General Information About MRSA in the Community. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2015, from  http://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/community/index.html 

2)

Sydnor, E., & Perl, T. (2011). Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings. Clinical Microbiology Reviews,24(1), 141-173. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from  http://cmr.asm.org/content/24/1/141.full
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Nursing Is a Rewarding but

Words: 2016 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67198611



he Neuman Model is appropriate for senior care.

Studies necessary with other models.

Penrod, et.al.; Reframing Person Centered Care for Persons with Dementia

Research and heory for Nursing Practice

2007

Lit. Review, discussion

Lit. Review

Research shows individual personhood approach has positive effects on care.

Biomedical and psychological models must be merged for persons with dementia.

Integration models

Further study using different integration modeling.

Rajapaksa and Rothstein; Factors hat Influence the Decisions of Men and Women Nurses to Leave Nursing.

Nursing Forum

2009

Case Study

Qualitative, some quantitative analysis

For men, compensation largest barrier to remaining in nursing; for women dissatisfaction with career goals

Barriers to entry in profession for men and still social stigma

It is possible for hospitals and care centers to develop program to retain more nurses

Needs more demographic and psychographic variation.

Gillespie and Peterson; Helping Novice Nurses Make Effective Clinical Decisions

Nursing Education

2009

Case…… [Read More]

Their Experiences With a Refugee Population." Journal of Nursing Education.

46(8):380.

Watson, J. (2008). "Social Justice and Human Caring." Creative Nursing. 14 (2): 54+.
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Nurse's Knowledge Migrating Catheters Washing

Words: 2079 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62610661



As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.

ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aziz, a.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, a., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., & Mullin, B. (2009).

Sharps management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness.

British Journal of Nursing, 18(2), 92-98.

Billington, a., Crane, C., Jownally, S., Kirkwood, L., & Roodhouse, a. (2008).
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Childbed Fever

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62418387

deaths in childbirth were a major problem for the medical community (Ey). The most significant cause for the large number of women dying during this process was the occurrence of puerperal sepsis which was more commonly known as childbed fever. A variety of theories were offered to explain this phenomena but some dated theories surrounding the causes of diseases such as malaria and typhoid made progress toward reaching a cure for childbed fever more difficult. The prevailing thought was that both diseases were caused through contact with water and this fact, added to the lack of indoor plumbing, caused doubt to be raised when Hungarian born Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis first suggested his germ theory and its relationship to childbed fever.

Semmelweis, before Lister introduced his germ killing theory, began insisting that the failure to properly wash one's hands between procedures was the cause of infections and, therefore, the reason why…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Biddle, C. "Semmelweis revisited: hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation." AANA Journal (2009): 229-237.

Carter, K. Codell. Childbed Fever: A Scientific Biography of Igna Semmelweis (Revised Edition). Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2005.

Cork, D.P. "Remembering Semmelweis: hand hygiene and its importance on today's clinical practice." American Surgeon (2011): 123-125.

Ey, Bridson. "Iatrogenic epidemics of puerperal fever in the 18th and 19th centuries." British Journal of Biomedical Science (1996): 134-139.
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Dealing With Nosocomial Infections in a Long-Term Nursing Facility

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56986473

Long-Term Nursing Facility Management Risks

FACILITY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

Long-Term Nursing Family Management Risks

The major risk management issue of our hospital is the spread of nosocomial infections, more popularly known in the medical circle as hospital-acquired infections. This infection is something that a patient can contract or develop besides the condition for which he is admitted (Duel et al. eds, 2004). The include infections, which surface after discharge and occupational types among the workforce of the facility. These are widespread globally and assert strong impact among patients and facility workforce. The most common sites, according to a recent survey, are the urinary tract, the catether site, respiratory tract, bacteremia, skin and soft tissue, lower respiratory, surgical and the eyes (Duel et al., eds).

In our 150-bed facility in Chicago, pneumonia is a critical respiratory nosocomial infection concern. Our facility is a component of one of the biggest network of medical care…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, BM. And Roschm N, (2000). Hospital-acquired infections in Norwegian long-

term care institution. Vol. 46 Issue 4, Journal of Hospital Infections: The Hospital

Infection Society. Retrieved on March 18, 2015 from http://www.lofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(00)90840-5/abstract?showall=true=

Conly J. And Johnston, L. (2001). The impact of health care structures on nosocomial infections and transmission of antimicrobial and resistant organisms. Vol. 12 # 5,
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Issues Associated With the Controlling of Infection in a Healthcare Setting

Words: 847 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64126557

Infection Control

Question 1; Describe different types of infection control precautions. Why is it important to follow infection control guidelines? Describe the importance of hand washing.

Infection control requires strategies that will prevent the movement of potential infections from one source to a new source. Different types of infection control precautions may be undertaken. The primary approaches include hand hygiene, including washing, as well as the use of alcohol gel, the process that will prevent the transfer of infection by eliminating harmful bacteria and viruses (CDC, 2011). Infection control also requires attention patients to be minimised through the cleaning and sterilisation of any equipment and resources that come into contact with patients, for example scissors. The cleaning of equipment also applies to the general cleaning of the healthcare environment, to avoid potential buildup of dust which may harbour harmful microbes, as well as sterilisation specialised equipment, such as respiratory equipment,…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous, (2015), Proper Body Mechanics, Re trieved 15 September 2015 from http://www.drugs.com/cg/proper-body-mechanics.html

CDC, (2011), Basic Infection Control and Prevention Plan for Outpatient Quality Settings, retrieved 15 September 2015 from http://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/guidelines/basic-infection-control-prevention-plan-2011.pdf

Lippincott Nursing Center, (2015), infection prevention: dress up for safety with PPE, retrieved 15 September 2015 from http://www.nursingcenter.com/static?pageid=811924

Waeckerle, Joseph F. MD; Seamans, Sandra MA; Whiteside, Mary PhD; Pons, Peter T. MD; White, Suzanne MD; Burstein, Jonathan L. MD; Murray, Rick, (2001), Developing objectives, content, and competencies for the training of Emergency Medical Technicians, Emergency Physicians, and Emergency Nurses to care for casualties resulting from Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical (NBC) incidents, Annals of Emergency Medicine, 37(6), 587-601
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Using Evidence Based Practice to Resolve a Nursing Issue

Words: 2340 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29219881

Refinement of a Nursing Concern into an Evidence-based Practice Proposal Using the Research Process

Overview

Research is mainly used to generate new knowledge or for the validation of existing knowledge based on a theory. Evidenced-based practice (EBP) is the translation of evidence and applying the evidence to clinical decision-making. Most of the evidence used in EBP stems from research. However, EBP will go beyond the use of research and it will include clinical expertise together with patient preference and values. EBP will make use of the evidence developed or knowledge discovered using research to determine the best evidence that can be used or implemented in clinical practice. Research and EBP go hand in hand in that while one will generate new knowledge, the other will make practical use of the knowledge and make use of the knowledge by implementing it into clinical practice. EBP is supported by research since any…… [Read More]

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Evidence-Based Solution to Reducing Incidence the Goal

Words: 2666 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63294087

Evidence-Based Solution to educing Incidence

The goal of this assignment is to increase my ability to appraise and synthesize evidence to provide experience a logical argument in support of a proposal for practice change, and to provide experience in designing a detailed implementation and evaluation plan for my project. I need to discuss my project plan with you.

An evidence-based solution to reducing incidence of hospital acquired infections through indwelling medical devices

Hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections are the fourth leading cause of disease in developed countries. The increased insertion and implanting of prosthetic or indwelling medical devices is a leading cause of these infections since the introduction of a foreign body significantly reduces the body's immunity and decreases the number of bacteria needed to produce an infection. Prosthetic or indwelling medical devices such as urethral catheters, suprapublic catheter, nasogastric tubes, hemodialysis catheters, central venous catheters, and tracheostomy tubes are associated…… [Read More]

References

Chambless, J.D., Hunt, S.M., & Stewart, P.S. (2006). A three-dimensional computer model of four hypothetical mechanisms protecting biofilms from antimicrobials. Appl Environ Microbiol, 72(3), 2005-2013. doi: 10.1128/aem.72.3.2005-2013.2006

Chu, V.H., Crosslin, D.R., Friedman, J.Y., Reed, S.D., Cabell, C.H., Griffiths, R.I., . . . Fowler, V.G., Jr. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes. Am J. Med, 118(12), 1416. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.06.011

Cookson, S.T., Ihrig, M., O'Mara, E.M., Denny, M., Volk, H., Banerjee, S.N., . . . Jarvis, W.R. (1998). Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 19(1), 23-27.

Digiovine, B., Chenoweth, C., Watts, C., & Higgins, M. (1999). The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. Respir Crit Care Med, 160(3), 976-981. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.3.9808145
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Hospital Acquired Infections a Discussion

Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49934314

Nurse burnout is a common occurrence. This can exacerbate an ongoing problem that is seen in hospitals, nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections remain prevalent for patients with extended hospital stays like those in intensive care units. An infection that starts roughly 48 hours after admission, those in intensive care units (ICUs) experience a continued rate of infection leading to increase length of stay, mortality, and morbidity. The number of patients that develop a nosocomial infection are from 7 to 10% internationally (Dasgupta, Das, Hazra, & Chawan, 2015). As such, hospitals have decided to classify nosocomial infection sites based on clinical and biological criteria.

esearch has led to the discovery of several bacterial strains that involve the formation of nosocomial or hospital acquired infections. "The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members,…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (n.d.). HAI Data and Statistics. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/ 

Cheng, C., Bartram, T., Karimi, L., & Leggat, S. (2016). Transformational leadership and social identity as predictors of team climate, perceived quality of care, burnout and turnover intention among nurses. Personnel Review, 45(6), 1200-1216. doi:10.1108/pr-05-2015-0118

Cimiotti, J. P., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., & Wu, E. S. (2012). Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care -- associated infection. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(6), 486-490. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2012.02.029

Dasgupta, S., Das, S., Hazra, A., & Chawan, N. (2015). Nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit: Incidence, risk factors, outcome and associated pathogens in a public tertiary teaching hospital of Eastern India. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 19(1), 14. doi:10.4103/0972-5229.148633
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Bacteria and Viruses

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58077988

What are Bacteria and Viruses?

The most palpable variance between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which implies that they can be solely perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to proliferate. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Causes

Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release toxins into the blood stream whereas…… [Read More]

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Public Health information

Words: 2455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584020

What are Bacteria and Viruses?

The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Causes

Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…… [Read More]

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Theory vs Practice Explained

Words: 3612 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45212383

Theory vs. Practice

When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…… [Read More]

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Theory vs Practice in Small Business Setting Essay

Words: 3923 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within the so-called ivory…… [Read More]

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Systematic Review of Isolation Policies in the

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66768452

Systematic review of isolation policies in the hospital management of methicillin-esistant Staphylococcus aureus: A review of the literature with epidemiological and economic modelling

The rise of MSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) continues to be a problem in hospitals throughout the world. In the article entitled "Systematic review of isolation policies in the hospital management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus" Cooper (et al. 2003) conducted a literature review of various containment efforts in the UK. Isolation wards proved to be the most common method of containment but studies were conflicting as to their efficacy. The use of a common isolation ward at one hospital "reduced infection, one did not and one resulted in control for many years until a change in strain and/or an increase in the number of patients colonised on admission [and] overwhelmed the institution" (Cooper et al. 2003: 5). There was limited evidence that more proactive efforts at containment such…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, G.F. (et al. 2003). Systematic review of isolation policies in the hospital management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A review of the literature with epidemiological and economic modelling. Health Technology Assessment, 7 (39).

Iowa model. Retrieved: http://i300.photobucket.com/albums/nn1/dawnhaynes/Iowa_Model.jpg
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Routine Oral Care Positioning to

Words: 2436 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77539372

(Schleder, 2003)

Elevating heads of beds for patients on mechanical ventilation

Along with the recommendations for removal of plaque, there is also a guideline made by CDC that for proper treatment to "elevate at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees the head of the bed of a patient at high risk for aspiration." The benefits elevation of the head of the bed is on the theory that then gravity will reduce the possibilities of regurgitation that exists in an overly distended stomach. The recommendation by CDC also clearly states that the patients should not be lying flat unless there is some clinical need for that. At the same time, some medical authorities feel that this is likely to make the patients uncomfortable, though the recommendation is from CDC. This makes them reduce the angle of laying the patients bed at a lower angle than the angle specified by CDC.…… [Read More]

References

Afessa, Bekele. (May, 2004) "From pro and con debate to evidence-based practice: ventilator- associated pneumonia" CHEST. Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0984/is_5_125/ai_n6094553. Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Caffery, Lisa. "Preventing Ventilator associated Pneumonia" Retrieved from www.genesisheart.com/clinical_staff/ventilator_pneumonia.pdf+elevating+patient's+beds+for+ventilator+acquired+pneumonia&hl=en" http://www.genesisheart.com/clinical_staff/ventilator_pneumonia.pdf. Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Chulay, Marianne. (1 March, 2005) "VAP Prevention: The latest guidelines" Retrieved at http://rnweb.com/rnweb/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=149672Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Geyer, Sherree. "Breathing easy" Retrieved from www.matmanmag.com/matmanmag/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=AHA/PubsNewsArticleGen/data/0407MMH_FEA_Cover_Story&domain=MATMANMAG
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Quality Evidence From Rickard C M Et Al

Words: 2080 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62044587

Quality Evidence From ickard, C.M., et al. (2012)

The objective of this study is to critically appraise quality evidence in the work of ichard, et al. (2012) which focuses on routine vs. clinically indicated replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters: A andomized Controlled Equivalence Trial. The focus of the critique will be on the methodology, results, implications for clinical practice and further research.

Schultz et al. (2010) reports that randomized controlled trials "when they are appropriate designed, conducted, and reported, represent the gold standard in evaluating health care interventions." (p.1) However, the absence of methodological rigor results in biased results in randomized trials. In order for a trial to be accurately assessed, there must be clear and transparent information presented in the study's methodology and findings. Due to the absence of adequacy in the reporting of studies, the Consolidated Standards of eporting Trials (CONSOT) was developed in 1996 and revised in…… [Read More]

References

Rikard, CM, et al. (2012) Routine vs. clinically indicated replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters: a randomized controlled equivalence trial. The Lancet. Vol. 380. 22 Sept. 2012.

Schulz, KF et al. (2010) CONSORT 2010 Statement: Updated Guidelines For Reporting Parallel Group Randomized Trials. Open Medicine 2010;4(1);E60.
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Needle Stick Injuries

Words: 4119 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98811208

Patient Identifiers

The Importance of Patient Identifiers

Adverse events as a consequence of medical treatment are now recognized to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality around the world (World Health Organization [WHO], 2005). Somewhere between 3 and 5% of all hospital admissions in the United States result in an adverse event, and in 1999 it was estimated that the majority of the 44,000 to 98,000 deaths caused annually by medical mistakes could have been prevented (reviewed by Leape, 2000, and WHO, 2005).

The sources of adverse events can be divided into clinical practice, defective or poorly maintained products, improper procedures, or an organizational system. The World Health Organization (2005) concluded that systemic failures are the primary source of adverse events, and can be attributed to a particular organization's patient care strategy, culture, attitudes toward managing quality of care and risk prevention, and the ability to learn from mistakes.…… [Read More]

Resources. When taught in-house, hospital PHI guidelines will be included as course material. A formal 2-hour lecture will be presented, followed by a specified period for home study of the course material. A 1-hour supervised exam will then be administered to test the student's comprehension of the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules, and the significance of PSQIA.

Notes

Association of Surgical Technologists. (2006). Recommended Standards of Practice for Patient Identification. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from  http://www.ast.org/pdf/Standards_of_Practice/RSOP_Patient_Identification.pdf 

Brady, Anne-Marie, Malone, Anne-Marie, and Fleming, Sandra. (2009). A literature review of the individual and systems factors that contribute to medication errors in nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 679-697.

Brady, Anne-Marie, Redmond, Richard, Curtis, Elizabeth, Fleming, Sandra, Keenan, Paul, Malone, Anne-Marie et al. (2009). Adverse events in health care: a literature review. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 155-164.
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Sepsis

Words: 2976 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28003603

New Sepsis Guidelines and Nurses: Factors, Compliance and Consideration

Introduction to Sepsis

Sepsis refers to the body’s dangerous reaction to an existing infection. Sepsis is extremely serious and if not treated swiftly with appropriate action it can lead to fast tissue and organ damage and death. The medical community has long been focused on getting better control of sepsis, as it is a damaging and debilitating condition that contributes to a host of preventable deaths. In fact, sepsis is one of the primary reasons for death in the number of hospitalized patients and is the cause of 20% of all admissions to intensive care units. (Ferrer et al., 2008). This data clearly indicates that sepsis is an aggravated problem that experts need to have better protocol for and preventative measures to counteract. In America, the rate of death from sepsis is one of the highest rates in the world with…… [Read More]

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indwelling urinary catheter care

Words: 3095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59934499

Research Proposal for Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) affects timely reimbursement and prolongs patient stays in the healthcare facility. Many hospitals strive for ways to reduce CAUTIs and take specific medical measures to aid patients in recovery from the same and avoid recurrence of the cases of CAUTIs. These deliberate measures ensure so they can have better patient outcomes and improve patient care. This also improves the reimbursement received from insurance providers.

Research question

The research seeks to investigate the effect of frequent CAUTI education, among the in-hospital patients with indwelling urinary catheter, conducted over six months.

Background and Significance of the Problem

It is common medical knowledge that urinary catheters have the potential to cause urinary tract infections, known as catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Indwelling catheters are a part of many plans of care, specifically for emergent and critical care patients within…… [Read More]

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Coronary Bypass Nurse Training for

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7176434



Learning Objectives:

In support of the Terminal Objective, several key learning objectives will drive the content and curriculum for nurses undergoing the present training course. Primary among them, the training course is designed to create a standardized set of behaviors amongst nurses that conform with existing and evolving best practices in the perioperative care of CABG patients. This means that course content and design will be geared toward achieving procedural and professional consistency amongst attending nurses where preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care are concerned.

An additional learning objective is to ensure that outgoing students are informed in the ethical and personal dimensions of the profession. Coronary surgical procedures are inherently serious in nature as are the heart and circulatory conditions that typically require such procedures. Therefore, it is of critical importance that nurses are trained in the proper bedside manner to approach patients, families and extended support systems with potentially…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aroesty, J.M. (2010). Patient information: Recovery after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Up To Date, 19(2).

Cleveland Clinic (CC). (2011). Diseases and Conditions. my.ClevelandClinic.org.

Kulick, D. & Shiel, W.C. (2011). Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. MedicineNet.com.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (2010). What is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. National Institute of Health.
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Making a Change in Nursing

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69612534

Nurse atio

Lowering the Nurse/Patient atio: A simple Step for Improving Care

Nursing is far from a static profession or discipline, and is in fact in a constant state of progression and change. Not all of these changes are necessarily for the better; increased healthcare demands, decreased abilities to pay for many patients and institutions, and a host of other factors can contribute to negative changes in the nursing work environment. When such factors arise it becomes all the more important for effective nursing researchers and practitioners to identify and advocate positive changes to the practice and the profession of nursing that can help combat the negative factors and ensure a consistent quality of care. In the current era of an ongoing shortage of nurses n the face of increasing demand and the approaching depletion of available nurses due to the aging population of nurses themselves, addressing the nurse-to-patient ratio…… [Read More]

References

Adomat, R., Dip, P. & Hewison, A. (2004). Assessing patient category/dependence systems for determining the nurse/patient ratio in ICU and HDU: a review of approaches. Journal of Nursing Management 12(5): 299-308.

Hassan, Z., Pryor, E., Autrey, P. & Turner, J. (2009). Hand Hygiene Compliance and Nurse-Patient Ratio Using Videotaping and Self Report. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 17(4): 243-7.

Kane, R., Shamliyan, T., Mueller, C., Duval, S. & Wilt, T. (2007). The Association of Registered Nurse Staffing Levels and Patient Outcomes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medical Care 45(12): 1195-204.
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Tourism in Southeast Asia Since SARS Outbreak

Words: 2262 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60463974

2003 was marked by a number of natural disasters throughout the world, but none more devastating and threatening than the outbreak of a new virus now known as SARS. In this paper, I will focus primarily on the economic affect of the disease to the tourism industry in Southeast Asia. I argue that the magnitude of the affect SARS had on the tourism industry is attributable to three factors: the nature of the virus, the reaction by World Health rganization officials, and finally, the inadequacy in which local governments (specifically the Chinese) handled the epidemic. Finally, I will touch on the affects SARS has had on the tourism industry thus far, and its future implications.

In order to understand the effects of SARS in the world economic climate, specifically that of tourism, it is important to explore the disease itself. SARS (Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome) is a form of pneumonia…… [Read More]

Online Version)  http://209.157.64.200/focus/f-news/898390/posts .

Runckel, Christopher. Tourist Arrivals Plunge as Government Tries to Restore Region as Touris

Destination. Business in Asia Website. Accessed June 24, 2003. (Online Version) http://www.business-in-asia.com/sars_article1.html.
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People Die Each Year of Cardiac Related

Words: 1615 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41112606

People die each year of cardiac related health problems. Some die of heart attacks and others of congestive heart failure and so forth. This research proposal highlights five peer reviewed journal articles that show how to improve, step-by-step, the infrastructure of a hospital cardiac program. Quantitative data from the studies along with in-hospital data will reveal the need for quality improvement as well as how successful certain methods are when implemented among specific populations. Information was gathered through the search engine Google Scholar and PubMed. All articles are less than four years old and reveal ways to not just improve the safety and care of patient's but also how to improve surgical outcomes and enhance IT infrastructure, all of which are essential to running a great hospital cardiac program.

Introduction

Several patients in (Hospital Name) have come in complaining of cardiac related health problems. Some have had issues with cardiothoracic…… [Read More]

References

Elliott, M.J. (2012). The role of information in ensuring quality and patient safety. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology, 33(1), 5-10. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1058981311000853

Grace, S.L., Poirier, P., Norris, C.M., Oakes, G.H., Somanader, D.S., & Suskin, N. (2014). Pan-Canadian Development of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Secondary Prevention Quality Indicators Endorsed by the Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 30(8), 945-948. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0828282X14002335

Guillamondegui, O.D., Gunter, O.L., Hines, L., Martin, B.J., Gibson, W., Clarke, C., Cecil, W.T. (2012). Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the Tennessee Surgical Quality Collaborative to Improve Surgical Outcomes. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 214(4), 709-714. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1072751511013287

IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, & IEEE Computer Society. (2011). Educating software engineers of the future: Software quality research through problem-based learning. In CSEE&T 2011: Proceedings (pp. 91-100). Los Alamitos, California: IEEE.
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Analyzing the Management Theories

Words: 849 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20645877

Management Theory and Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Infection of the urinary tract constitutes a great share of all infections acquired in hospitals (Klevens, Edwards, & ichards, 2007); of these, most cases are of CAUTI or catheter-associated urinary tract infection, which is "reasonably preventable," according to the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). CMS doesn't reimburse medical facilities for this disease any more. Of the best strategies to reduce CAUTI is ensuring never to employ urinary catheters unless one perceives an appropriate symptom.

Several research works, some even dating back many decades, can be found, of ways to decrease or prevent the development of CAUTI. Over the years, a few of the recommendations have reformed; for instance, at one time, routine catheter irrigation was recommended; however, presently, the medical profession deems it as a practice that must be avoided. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare organizations to make sure their…… [Read More]

References

Barnard, C.I. (1952). Leadership and the law. New York University Law Review, 27(1), 112-116

Fanning, M., & Oakes, D. (2006). A tool for quantifying organizational support for evidence-based practice change. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 21(2), 110-113.

IHCI. (2011). How-to guide: Prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Cambrige, MA. Retrieved from http://www.mnreducinghais.org/documents/CAUTI_How_to_Guide.pdf

Klevens, R. M., Edwards, J. R., & Richards, C. L. (2007). Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep, 122(2), 160-166.
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Hurricane Aftermath Returning to Work

Words: 1847 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85758185

Industrial Hygiene

Being that it is an operation that is being conducted in an industrial area, and in an industry that dealt with compressed gas, it is critical that all the safety measures are taken into account in a categorical and safe manner in the bid to re-enter the after the terrible hurricane. For instance there are various experts who are present and I would recommend that their individual expertise be put to use in the recovery process. First, the entire employees' body must be informed of the extent of the damage and the seriousness of the problem at hand and instructed not to venture into any area within the firm without the clearance and subsequent communication through a central communications office that they have to be informed of. I would also suggest to the Incident Commander to have a formal written process for the recovery of the firm. This…… [Read More]

References

Biophica Inc., (2011). The "Chlorinated" Water Issue and the Water Ionization Alternative using

Colloidal Copper or Colloidal Silver Nanocrystal Ionization. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from  http://www.biophysica.com/chlorine.html 

Healthy Working Lives, (2010). Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Retrieved October 19,

2011 from http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/advice/minimising-workplace-risks/ppe.aspx
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Performance and Social Responsibility

Words: 2734 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61904780

nurses play a very important role in the emotional, spiritual, and physical care of the patient with different illness. When it comes to nursing homes, nurses are responsible for the well-being of the individuals there. Even though majority of the persons there are not critically there, they still depend on nurses for their care both medically and emotionally.

Sanghine (2013) reported that two nursing home nurses managed to turn off the alarms of nineteen patients at night so they would not be disturbed during their sleep. They were caught when the care home manager checked up on them in the middle of the night. IT was reported that elderly patients in ages 75 to 100 were not able to call for help. Not only that, they also reported ill treatment to the persons only because they preferred their own comfort and sleep before their duty at the nursing home.

The…… [Read More]

References

Baldwin, P., Dodd, M., & Wrate, R. (1997). Young doctors' health -- I. How do working conditions affect attitudes, health and performance?. Social Science & Medicine, 45(1), 35 -- 40.

Bates, D., Boyle, D., V, er Vliet, M., Schneider, J., & Leape, L. (1995). Relationship between medication errors and adverse drug events. Journal Of General Internal Medicine, 10(4), 199 -- 205.

Chaudhury, H., Mahmood, A., & Valente, M. (2009). The effect of environmental design on reducing nursing errors and increasing efficiency in acute care settings a review and analysis of the literature. Environment And Behavior, 41(6), 755 -- 786.

Hughes, R., & Rogers, A. (2008). The effects of fatigue and sleepiness on nurse performance and patient safety. Agency For Healthcare Research And Quality (U.S.).
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Direct Examination of Subjects for

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80339430



Instruments

Instrumentation needed for the research study will be relatively minimal and straightforward; necessary equipment for a standard checkup to determine cardiovascular health and other basic signs of chronic disease as well as scrapers, swabs, and vials for the collection of bacterial samples will be needed. It is possible that culturing of the bacterial samples will be desired, in which case additional instruments and controlled environment equipment will also be needed for the full completion of the study. In order to assess the exclusionary criteria related to weight, a standard scale and height ruler will need to be utilized along with caliper measurements to determine body mass index. Other than this and the instruments necessary for recording and analyzing the data collected using these instruments, it is not expected that any other resources will be necessary for this research study.

Procedure

ollowing initial measurements to determine suitability for inclusion in…… [Read More]

Following these general examinations and the more extensive examinations of cardiovascular health, specifically identified areas in participants' mouths will be variously swabbed or scraped to obtain bacteria samples, and levels of bacteria in these areas and in the mouth as a whole will be measured using a variety of techniques. If necessary, the bacteria collected through this direct methodology will be cultured in an appropriate lab setting using standard equipment, with twenty-four hours being sufficient time for the culture to grow to be identifiable in most instances. Examination of bacteria types, growth patterns in the mouth, and correlation with cardiovascular disease will be identifiable with the data collected via these methods, enabling appropriate analysis and a determination of correlation.

Data Analysis

The latest available version of SPSS software operated by an experienced statistician, under the observation and supervision of the lead researcher, will be utilized to analyze the raw data collected in this study. Specifically, regression analyses will be utilized in order to determine the correlation, if any, that exists between the existence of certain types or levels of bacteria in the mouth or in certain areas of the mouth and cardiovascular disease. The Mann-Whitney test will also be used to determine which if any variables are statistically different between the participant group with cardiovascular disease and those without. Again, this is in keeping with similarly designed studies already successfully completed (Johansson et al. 2008).
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Washing and Use of Testosterone The Action

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41458739

Washing and Use of Testosterone:

The Action of Hand Soap Bacteria:

Hand washing is an important practice for body hygiene because of its seeming effectiveness in preventing the transmission of bacteria. Actually, it is believed that hand washing helps to lessen the risk of bacterial infection through removing and destroying bacterial cells. Generally, the use of hand soap while complying with the good washing practices help an individual to destroy bacteria in the hands, which in turn decreases the spread of diseases or illnesses. The need to wash hands using hand soap is attributed to the accumulation of bacteria on the surface of a person's hands because of numerous opportunities brought by day-to-day activities. For instance, a person encounters bacteria every time he/she touches another individual, touches raw meat, and handles money. The bacteria can get into the individual's hands and under his/her fingernails and spread if he/she touches any…… [Read More]

References:

Angkadjaja, S. (2012). What Makes Antibacterial Soap Antibacterial? Retrieved from Illumin

University of Southern California website:  http://illumin.usc.edu/printer/68/what-makes-antibacterial-soap-antibacterial/ 

Singer, N. (2006, August 10). Does Testosterone Build A Better Athlete? The New York Times.

Retrieved December 4, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/10/fashion/10Fitness.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
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Ethics Project

Words: 4363 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61479708

Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D

Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…… [Read More]

References:

Court backs right to die | terminally ill have right to refuse medical life support. (1984, Dec 28). The San Diego Union, pp. A.1-1.

Ackerman, T. (2005, Mar 27). Life support battle shifts / A decade ago, patients families had to press for 'right to die. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-B.1.

Allen, P. (2000, Oct 07). Right to die upheld despite new euro law, doctors can end life support rules judge. Daily Mail, pp. 33-33.

Dolan, M. (2001, Aug 10). Justices deal setback to right-to-die movement; health: State court bans removal of life support from conscious patients whose wishes are not clear. Los Angeles Times, pp. A.1-A.1.