Harlem Renaissance Essays (Examples)

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Harlem Jazz Genesis of Jazz

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24503973

The roots of such music can be traced back still further to the gospel hymns, work songs, and field calls that developed amongst slave populations in the south during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Scholastic 2011). The Southern and decidedly African-American sounds of blues and early jazz were brought along with the Great migration, where New Orleans styles like Dixieland met with the calmer strains of the Mississippi blues and other styles (Scholastic 2011). In New York, with the greatest concentration of African-Americans, new collaborations and iterations sprang up quite rapidly.

The Harlem enaissance, named for the neighborhood in Manhattan where the African-American community was concentrated and centralized, was an explosion of artistic, literary, and musical expression largely because it represented the first major community of African-Americans located in a small geographical area (McDougal & Littell 2008). The jazz music that developed in New York as a part of this…… [Read More]

References

McDougall & Littell. (2008). Creating America. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Kw-WjacYGhEJ:www.quia.com/files/quia/users/nygardgeo/RoaringTwenties/The-Jazz-Age-and-the-Harlem-Renaissance+jazz+harlem+rennaissance&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiTwUV7ZR1UBvIK6Wk5zZj1K7s9dsOtMZZ6U19HXCPtpQ_GchKhK8HsMmQd0Ib5OHiIHJZ7qB5DfaCxk-krvFwwG8-j9-TKWEbF3mkOJwo4-Gn-nejkpsjMWjvQjS66vTchyieT&sig=AHIEtbRLiTwGmw1QGRN1drC4BnuJ9VD4bw

Mintz, S. (2006). The Great Migration. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=443

Scholastic. (2011). History of Jazz. Accessed 6 June 2011.  http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/history_of_jazz.htm
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Harlem Renissance and Negritude Writers

Words: 2280 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2139158



Secondly, even the beginning of the film presents an African motif. The drums that open the scene are representative for the ancient tribal singing and dancing. The same drums are present in Cullen's poetry, revealing a deep African symbol. Moreover, the drums also make the passage from the contemporary life in which the film is first set, to the imaginary and ancient time of slavery.

The characters are as well particularly chosen. For instance, Joe, a white skinned slave is important for pointing out the traditional individual that tries to escape his past, through all means possible. He rejects his mother, who is the embodiment of the African spirit, he worships a white God, Virgin Mary, and in the end, he takes on a position that implies behaving in a similar manner as the white oppressors.

Joe's mother, Nunu, represents in the film the symbol of the African heritage. She…… [Read More]

References

Cesaire, a.(1984) Africa. In Aime Cesaire: The Collected Poetry.Translated by Clayton Eshleman and Annette Smith, University of California Press.

Cullen, C. (1928). Harlem Wine. Retrieved 2 November 2007, at  http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/52567-Countee-Cullen-Harlem-Wine 

Cullen, C. (2007). Heritage.retrieved 2 November 2007, at  http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/heritage/ 

Hughes, L. (2007) the Negro speaks of Rivers. Poets.org. Retrieved 2 November 2007, at http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15722
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Harlem During 1920-1960 the United

Words: 8300 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50358846

This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,

On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."

In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential…… [Read More]

References

African-American Odyssey. "World War I and Postwar Society." Library of Congress Web site:  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart8b.html ,(accessed 16 September 2007)

Ames, William C.. The Negro struggle for equality in the twentieth century. New dimensions in American history. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.. 1965, 90-1

Black Americans of Achievements. "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.." Home to Harlem website. http://www.hometoharlem.com/harlem/hthcult.nsf/notables/a0d3b6db4d440df9852565cf001dbca8,(accessed 16 September 2007)

Capeci, Dominic. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
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Harlem 1920-1960 Culture of the

Words: 9936 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29403060

Their main arguments are based on historical assumptions and on facts which have represented turning points for the evolution of the African-American society throughout the decades, and especially during the evolutionary War and the Civil War. In this regard, the Old Negro, and the one considered to be the traditional presence in the Harlem, is the result of history, and not of recent or contemporary events.

From the point-of-view of historical preconceptions and stereotypes, it would unwise to consider Harlem as being indeed a cancer in the heart of a city, taking into account the fact that there is no objective comparison being made. Locke points out the fact that the Negro of today be seen through other than the dusty spectacles of past controversy. The day of "aunties," "uncles" and "mammies" is equally gone. Uncle Tom and Sambo have passed on, and even the "Colonel" and "George" play barnstorm…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Karen Tucker. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers during World War II" in the Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Jun., 1982), pp. 82-97.

Barnes, Albert C. Negro Art and America. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html

Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Touchstone, 1999.

Charles S. Johnson. Black Workers and the City. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/JohWorkF.html
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Hughes and Mckay Harlem Poetry

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29076035

Harlem enaissance

Harlem's Poets

Claude McKay and Langston Hughes became like two poster boys for the Harlem enaissance. They burst from the "Harlem Shadows" and underground jazz world into the mainstream, crossing the racial divide to find support and fame not only in America but all over the world. Their poems, however, like African-American music, were co-opted by white culture and exploited for aims entirely divorced from the ethnicity that justified the poems existence in the first place. And, as McKay's own life shows, when the poetry took a deeper, less visceral, more theological turn, the poet was rejected by that same white (Protestant) establishment, which seemed to only want a "jungle fever" type of poetry. This demand of the surrounding white culture is what led the Harlem poets to have a "double consciousness" regarding their poetry. To make it to the top, they still needed the support of the…… [Read More]

Reference List

Hricko, M. (2013). The Genesis of the Chicago Renaissance. NY: Routledge.

Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political

Control. IN: St. Augustine's Press.

Sayre, H.M. (2012). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change. NY: Prentice Hall.
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Women Authors and the Harlem

Words: 4238 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4923057

Some artists, such as Aaron Douglas, captured the feeling of Africa in their work because they wanted to show their ancestry through art. Others, like Archibald J. Motley Jr., obtained their inspiration from the surroundings in which they lived in; where jazz was at the forefront and African-Americans were just trying to get by day-to-day like any other Anglo-American. Additionally, some Black American artists felt more comfortable in Europe than they did in America. These artists tended to paint landscapes of different European countries. Most of the latter, however, were ostracized for this because many black politicians felt they should represent more of their African culture in their work (Campbell 1994, Powell and Bailey).

Whatever the case, most African-American artists during this period of time had a similarity that tied them together. Black art was often very colorful and vivacious; having an almost rhythmic feel to it. This was appropriate…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Allego, D. "Margaret Walker: Biographical Note." Modern American Poetry. 1997. Cited in:

 http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/s_z/walker/bio.htm 

Beaulieu, E. Writing African-American Women: An Encyclopedia of Literature by and About

Women of Color. Greenwood Press, 2006.
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L A Renaissance in the 1940s

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91231607

Black ay, Kinloch, and the Spirit of the Los Angeles Renaissance

In Chapter One of the The Great Black ay: L.A. in the 1940s and the Lost African-American Renaissance, R. J. Smith describes John Kinloch, the up-and-coming young African-American editor of the California Eagle. A charming personality with erudite expression and a radio gig to boot, Kinloch made a particular impression on Los Angeles in the 1940s. He had the ears and eyes of society and his goal was to report what he saw and report it in such a way that people actually took notice. The thesis that Smith uses to frame the book is that L.A. was a thriving Mecca of black culture -- imported to some extent from the East, but completely moving in a unique direction that was more grassroots and organic than the elitist-led and white patronized Renaissance in Harlem had been. This thesis is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Smith, R.J. The Great Black Way: L.A. in the 1940s and the Lost African-American

Renaissance. NY: Public Affairs Publishers, 2007.
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Argue Themes in Two Poems

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25448088

Harlem Dancer" and "The eary Blues"

Times Change, but the Struggle is Still the Same

The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural and political movement during the 1920s and 1930s that sought to celebrate African-American culture through literary and intellectual means. Two of the era's prominent poets were Claude McKay and Langston Hughes. Their poetry helped to highlight the struggles that African-Americans were faced with. In "The Harlem Dancer," written by McKay, and "The eary Blues," written by Hughes, the poets use music as a backdrop for the narratives of their poems. Although the blues, as music, are not limited to African-Americans, the style emerged from the experiences of African-Americans. Furthermore, the Harlem Renaissance sought to celebrate these experiences by bringing together the struggles of past generations and juxtaposing them with the struggles that younger generations were going through. "The Harlem Dancer" and "The eary Blues" are depictions of the struggles…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Claude McKay." Poets.org. Web. Accessed 2 April 2012.

Hughes, Langston. "The Weary Blues." Web. Accessed 2 April 2012.

"Langston Hughes." Poets.org. Web. Accessed 2 April 2012.

McKay, Claude. "The Harlem Dancer." Web. Accessed 2 April 2012.
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Formative Work in the Development

Words: 1216 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66947217

" (Line 19) Her art creates joy but she still has to exist in the mundane world of everyday strife and problems.

e also find this concern with the strife and woes of the world in the second poem "The eary Blues." In this poem the art form is music and particularly 'blues' music, which echoes the suffering, problems and anxieties of human life and existence. The sense of being tired and troubled is emphasized through repetition and by the refrain " O. Blues!." The state of mind of the blues player is clearly depicted in the language of the poem; for example, the way that the blues swinger sways to the music.

Both these poems show how art forms such as music and dance can express the feelings of the soul of mankind. Both also suggest that art is also a way of transcending or going beyond the problems…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mckay, C. If We Must Die, Web. 27 April, 2012.

http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/if-we-must-die/ )

McKay, C. The Harlem Dancer. Web. 27 April, 2012. (http://www.poetry-

archive.com/m/the_harlem_dancer.html).
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Race Class Gender and Power

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57440008

Harlem enaissance was a true flourishing of African-American arts, music, and literature, thereby contributing tremendously to the cultural landscape of the nation. Much Harlem enaissance literature reflects the experience of the "great migration" of blacks from the rural south to the urban north. Those experiences included reflections on the intersections between race, class, gender, and power. Many of the Harlem enaissance writers penned memoirs that offer insight into the direct experience of racism, such as ichard Wright's "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow." Poets worked with classic literary devices like symbolism and imagery to convey the intense emotions linked to experiences of prejudice and violence. Emerging in conjunction with social and political justice movements such as women's rights and labor rights, the movement to empower black communities through the arts also spilled beyond the borders of the African-American community. For example, F. Scott Fitzgerald's novels and short stories addressed class…… [Read More]

References

Brown, S. Bitter fruit of the tree. Retrieved online: http://www.ronnowpoetry.com/contents/brown/BitterFruit.html

Wright, R. The ethics of living Jim Crow. Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma01/white/anthology/wright.html
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Social Times and the Culture

Words: 4845 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5402298

They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].

The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:

The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal

Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.

It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car

Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did

James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.

December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.

A wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_v._Board_of_Education.html>.
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Literature and History

Words: 8876 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51478975

tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)

rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.

The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…… [Read More]

Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.

Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.

Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.
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Workings of the Sharecropping System

Words: 3383 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86732366

his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.

he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and…… [Read More]

The Black Power Movement emerged as a separate approach to the issues of civil rights and racial inequality. Those who were frustrated with the status quo, and with the slow progress of the non-violent philosophy, were often quick to back the more militant wing of the Black Power Movement. Some African-Americans felt very strongly that in order to change the status quo there needed to be a real physical threat from African-Americans looking to secure their fair share of power and liberty in America (Cone, 1997). Nowhere was this more apparent than with the Black Panther Movement. These people believed that the power that had been stolen by the whites during and after slavery needed to be forcibly taken back. The national response to this movement was one of fear, and many people saw the Black Panther Movement as illegitimated by the violence they so often advocated.

The Black Power slogan enjoyed a multitude of functions. It functioned as a call to arms for the Black Panthers while also helping to solidify black capitalism and intellectual attitudes in America during this time period. Many consider the Black Power movement to be a direct reaction or result of the Civil Rights Movement, and felt as though stressing Black Nationalism and pride at every level was, to a lesser degree, successful in changing the attitudes of Americans toward African-Americans (Cone, 1997). The impact of this movement can still be seen today. The culturally popular and change-affecting "Black is Beautiful' movement came from the Black Power movement, as did many of the cultural, social, and political attitudes that modern day African-Americans hold relative to their perception of their place in society (Cone, 1997). The Black Power movement helped to define "blackness" as a positive identity, instead of something to be ashamed of. It often functioned as a rallying cry for African-Americans caught up in the struggle for cultural equality directly after the Civil Rights Movement.

Cited: Cone, JH. (1997). Black Theology and Black Power. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY.
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Romantic Poet the Characteristics of

Words: 1236 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11886416

In O'Connor short story, "A Good Man is Hard to Find," the antagonist is an outlaw, in keeping with the frequent use of alienated members of society in Romantic poetry and literature. The alienated member of society is contrasted with the crass materialism and superficiality of the family the Misfit kills. The child June Star is so poorly brought up that she says: "I wouldn't live in a broken-down place like this for a million bucks!" To the owner of the roadside restaurant the family stops at, and is punished dearly for her transgression by the author O'Connor with death.

Yet the grandmother, upon hearing of the story of the Misfit says: "hy you're one of my babies. You're one of my own children!" The grandmother is said to "reached out and touch" the Misfit him on the shoulder, but the Misfit is said to have "sprang back as if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Frost, Robert. "Fire and Ice." December 11, 2008.  http://www2.puc.edu/Faculty/Bryan_Ness/frost1.htm 

Holman, C. Hugh & William Harmon. "Romanticism." Definitions from a Handbook to Literature, Sixth Edition. Excerpt available on the web December 11, 2008 at http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/eng372/intro-h4.htm

Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." Poetry.org. December 11, 2008. http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15722

Hughes, Langston. "Negro." Poem Hunter. December 11, 2008. http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/negro/
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Art Qs the United States

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47628352

Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.

4)

The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…… [Read More]

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American Versions of Modernalisim the

Words: 1234 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25063287



Some writers had been overwhelmed by the sudden changes brought by the Harlem Renaissance and they preferred writing about certain things which didn't involve it. Sometimes they chose to write about a place in the U.S. which had a special effect on them at some point of their lives.

3. Black people had not been the only ones struggling to receive credit for their writings during the 1920s, as it had been also hard for women to become appreciated in a majority of men writers. Despite having to fight the severe gender discrimination which existed during the period, many American women writers managed to become successful.

Bess Streeter Aldrich is one of the women who succeeded in getting a positive feed-back from a public that had not been accustomed with women writers. Aldrich's writing "A Lantern in Her Hand" had won her international recognition for having created a great literary…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Laurie Champion, Emmanuel S. Nelson, "American Women Writers, 1900-1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook," Greenwood Press, 2000.
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Appealing to a White Christian

Words: 1926 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86492931

As a character, Celie's own experiences have not engaged her on the same levels that Shug's sexual experiences have. This is to say that Celie's life and collection of experiences have not been personally gratifying or freeing in the way that Shug suggest sexual experiences should or can be. To Shug, sex is more about the personal gratification and the freedom of bodily and emotional expression that comes with the act of making love (Selzer, 69). Since Celie's life has revolved around taking care of her children and making sure the men in her life are happy, she really hasn't had much time to develop her own personal sex life in a gratifying or selfish way.

It is important to make the distinction between acting selfishly as the men in Celie's life have and acting selfishly as Shug suggests Celie do. These are two separate things, and the act of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gates, Henry L. And Nellie Y. McKay. The Norton Anthology of African-American

Literature, 2nd Ed. New York: Norton, 2004.

Hamilton, Carole. "Dutchman: Baraka's Concept of the Revolutionary Theatre." Drama

for Students. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 1998. pp. 228-235.
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Feminist Lit the Changing Views

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55792525

e. women) (Millay 1611, lines 4, 2). But although the first and most commonly used definition of zest is "keen relish; hearty enjoyment; gusto," the word can also refer to "liveliness or energy; animating spirit" (dictionary.com). Taken this way, the seemingly passive and accepting sexuality seen in the beginning of he poem is disingenuous and even coy. This interpretation is borne out by another structural details of the poem -- the repeated use of so-called feminine endings in the closing six lines (or sestet). In adding an eleventh unstressed syllable to the end of a line of iambic pentameter, Millay is not simply marking the sonnet's structure as her own, but she is doing so in a way that coyly hints at the changing tide of feminine perspective -- the feminine endings in lines 9, 11, and 13 make the sonnet a feminine sonnet, just at the point where the…… [Read More]

Works Cited dictionary.com. "zest." Accessed 22 May 2009. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/zest

Norton anthology of American Literature, Volume D. Nina Baym, ed. New York W.W. Norton & Co., 2003.
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Distortion of the American Dream

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75502826

Disillusionment and the Harlem enaissance and Post-Modernism

Distortion of the American Dream

The American dream has been as old as the American constitution. From the text, there is a highlight of the American dream and its distortion over years. It is presented as an old dream, which is as old as the Constitution of the United States of America. According to the text, those who framed the American dream were engaged the country in a state where everyone will gain the good as from working hard. Through working hard, people will be able to make it possible to attain different levels of their fulfillments. Nonetheless, today many things have changed with the changes in time (Hemingway, 2013). With the aspects of capitalism and materialism taking root in every society, the dream has been distorted. The possible supports for a statement that many of the people live within their required states…… [Read More]

References

Hemingway, E. (2013). Hills Like White Elephants: Short Story. Toronto: HarperCollins Canada.

Wicks, R. (2003). Modern French Philosophy: From Existentialism to Postmodernism. Oxford: One world Publications.
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Stephanie Queenie St Clair Stephanie

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37392072



They reasoned that reputable people would take precautions against being arrested. If the workers were discreet and protective of their jobs, it follows that they would, in return, protect the policy operation. Teachers and unemployed wives of prominent community leaders, people who would feel a lasting shame to be arrested, worked in policy banks. ("Harlem Policy ackets" website)

Yet, despite all the struggles in her life she did not fail to have the last word, over Dutch Shultz. She sent him a telegram, on his death bed, after he had been shot during one of his many illegal activities. The telegram simply stated: "As ye sow, so shall ye reap." From "The Queen of Policy." ("Dutch Shultz is Dead" website)

eferences

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001557345

Arnold, G. (1997, August 29). Bumpy oad for Star: Fishburne's 'Hoodlum' ecalls Harlem Thug. The Washington Times, p. 12. etrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101010770…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001557345

Arnold, G. (1997, August 29). Bumpy Road for Star: Fishburne's 'Hoodlum' Recalls Harlem Thug. The Washington Times, p. 12. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101010770

Bailey, F.Y., & Green, a.P. (1999). Law Never Here: A Social History of African-American Responses to Issues of Crime and Justice. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Dutch Shultz is Dead" web site: http://members.tripod.com/~eviljoe/dutch / http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98601565
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Political Poetry of Wilfred Owen

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97917031

e are consuming too many of our natural resources and our use of fossil fuels threaten the survival of our planet. The developing world seems to placing further strains upon the earth, with no signs of abatement in population growth or industrialization. e are torn apart by nationalism rather than united as a species, in the Middle East, in Africa, and Eastern Europe. e have more material goods, but less spiritual satisfaction.

In answer to all of these questions, we must look to the persona of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi, first and foremost, grappled with issues afflicting the region, and the cultures and faiths that are most troubling to the geopolitical crisis of today, namely the tensions between the Muslim and Hindu populations of East Asia. He also provided many solutions to all peoples, not just his own. His philosophy of nonviolence inspired Martin Luther King Jr. He also embraced people…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hughes, Langston. "Harlem." Langston Hughes. 12 Mar 2008. http://members.aol.com/olatou/hughes.htm

Owen, Wilfred. "Dulce et Decorum Est." Emory University. 12 Mar 2008.  http://www.english.emory.edu/LostPoets/Dulce.html
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Angry Andy

Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26434479

African-Americans: Harlem Renaissance and the Black Power Movement

History does show that America has been a nation that has been seeing itself do some changes that have been happening over and over again. Also, America is recognized as being the home of the free and the brave. However, this nation that is considered to be beautiful has not at all times been this way. America has had to gone through a lot of ups and many downs to become the beauty that many look at today. Racial discrimination had a very strong part in American society. Although today, there are still racial dissimilarities. These racial dissimilarities are not as bad as they were in the back in the days of slavery and afterwards. Two of the main explanations that positive steps have been made in the direction of removing racial disparity is the Harlem Renaissance and the Black Power Movement.…… [Read More]

Countee Cullen was another individual who played a part in the Harlem Renaissance. His works attracted critical attention at New York University. COLOR which was his first collection of poems, (1925), was printed before he completed school. Countee was recognized as being a part of the fresh generation of new authors that came out in the renaissance. Countee in 1927, printed two more books of verse - The Ballad of the Brown Girl and Copper Sun - and revised a collection of Negro poetry called Caroling Dusk. By 1928, he was the receiver of the Guggenheim comradeship and made the decision to do some work in Paris. In Paris, Cullen found a way to live for two years and went through fairly any racial discrimination there (Lewis, 2011).

During the era of the renaissance men were not the only active writers but women played a huge part as well. For instance, Zora Neale Hurston was a female that was known for being flamboyant and a colorful figure that brought in a lot of disagreement whenever and wherever she came on the scene. Hurston was a significant African-American woman author of the Harlem Renaissance. Also, she received the most acknowledgement for achievements and was the most productive of the women in the Renaissance era. Different the other authors of the Renaissance, Hurston was not really considered to be a writer by training. Moderately, she was an anthropologist and was trained to observe. This training is what makes her literary contributions so unique. Hurston developed skills in careful observation, recording such observations and presenting them intact to a reading audience. In this sense, she was more than just another writer. She was a folklorist as well. In this was her strength.

There were many achievements during the "roaring twenties" by African-Americans. They excelled in all forms of art during the time known as the Harlem Renaissance. Without this period of time, our modern day arts could have been quite different.
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Psychological Testing of African Americans in the Army

Words: 3356 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90981843

American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).

Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:

Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile

ace

1940

1950

1960

1970

1970

White

40

49

56

68

78

Black

11

18

33

49

60

(Source: Binkin, p.94)

How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL

http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/01/assessment.html

Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.

Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
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Jews Left Russia and Eastern

Words: 3310 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93211231

about.com/cs/harlemrenaissance/a/harlemren.htm

From Jessica McElrath, Your Guide to African-American History)."

In addition to the renaissance the new found self-confidence and pride that was found by Southern Blacks who moved north also impacted the work environment.

Social protest was not only possible it was available to those who were not happy with their working conditions in the North (the BLACKS and the UNIONS (http://www.socialdemocrats.org/blktu.html).While it was extremely oppressed compared to the life of African-Americans today, it was still a far cry and significantly better than anything they had experience in the south up to that point.

Currently the nation is facing a social crisis when it comes to the plight of Mexican immigrants. Whether they are here legally or illegally there are an estimated 12 million Mexicans working and living inside the American boundaries. If one were to compare their plight to those of the Southern blacks they would find several similarities.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

People at Risk

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/alt/polish5.html

Harlem Renaissance http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/harlemrenaissance/a/harlemren.htm

THE BLACKS and the UNIONS
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Patriarch Nothing Stays With Us in Life

Words: 4845 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81294708

Patriarch

Nothing stays with us in life as powerfully as the images of our parents we take with us into adulthood. A harsh father, a loving mother, a single parent who was on the edge of exhaustion, but always available... The emotions attached to these memories affect our adult decisions. These recollections influence how we see ourselves, who we believe we can be in the adult world, and who we see when we look in the morning mirror.

In the equity of the universe, it seems unfair that the species which spends the most time in its home before heading into the world is most influenced by its parents. When looking across the animal kingdom, lion cubs are ready to hunt for themselves after a number of months. Sea turtles are born on the beaches, devoid of any parental influence.

Those lucky enough to make it back to water are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bloom, Harold. Blooms Major Poets: Langston Hughes. PA: Chelsea House, 1999

Cooper, Floyd. Coming Home from the Life of Langston Hughes. NY: Philomel Books.

The Holy Bible, American Standard Version. IA: Parson's Technology Inc. 1998

Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea. NY: Knopf. 1940
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City and the Country Oz and Trading Places

Words: 3433 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98508848

OZ and Transition

The izard of Oz provides Americans with a text that helps them make the transition from the country to the city and sets the stage for the commodified American popular culture of the 20th century. This paper will show how, thanks to its pristine (Emerald) beauty and adventurous episodes, Oz makes "the city" much more appealing than the muted, old-fashioned of America. It will also explain why Dorothy returns to Kansas (someone has to take back home the message of how amazing "the city" is).

Baum's Oz shows that everyman can become a king if he pursues his own desires: thus, the Scarecrow is awarded leadership over the Emerald City, the Tinman leadership over inkie County, and the Cowardly Lion kingship over the forest. Each character, of course, rises to meet his own personal challenge -- but, nonetheless, these are clear examples of how the American Dream…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baum, F. The Wizard of Oz. Chicago, IL: George M. Hill Company, 1900.

Corey, Lecture

Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. NY: Random House, 1952.

Jones, E. Michael. Sexual Liberation and Political Control. South Bend, IN: St.
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Play Tambourines to Glory by Langston Hughes

Words: 1095 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79280672

play "Tambourines to Glory," by Langston Hughes. Specifically it will discuss the significance of the work, and what Hughes was trying to say through his fiction.

TAMBOURINES TO GLORY

This is a comic book about religion and morals, not often subjects of comedy. Critics have often called Hughes dramatic works "folk plays," and "Tambourines to Glory" is no exception. In fact, Hughes himself said about the work in the program notes, it was "a fable, a folk ballad in stage form... -- if you will, a comic strip, a cartoon -- about problems which can only be convincingly... presented very cleanly, clearly, sharply, precisely, and with humor'" (Peterson 346).

The protagonists are two women who pose as sisters and decide to start a church, not for spiritual salvation or a great belief in the Lord, but for money. "Money! I sure wish I had some. Say Essie, why don't you…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom, Harold, ed. Black American Poets and Dramatists of the Harlem Renaissance. New York: Chelsea House, 1995.

Bloom, Harold. Black American Poets and Dramatists: Before the Harlem Renaissance. New York: Chelsea House, 1994.

Dickinson, Donald C. A Bio-Bibliography of Langston Hughes, 1902-1967. Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1967.

Hughes, Langston. Tambourines to Glory. New York: John Day, 1958.
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Temper Lynn Dumenil Modem Temper

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26254639

" Prohibition, the Red Scare, and the Klan were responses to the flapper, reflecting anxieties about newly pluralistic demographics in the form of Mexican and Japanese immigrants as well as Africa-Americans and religious minorities such as Jewish people and Catholics. Many Americans saw modernity, as they conceptualized it, as a curse, not a blessing. The causes of the "Modern Temper were thus a culture clash of old and new, of a reaction to Progressivism as well as a desire to kick up the nation's heels at the end of World War I and a delight at the ability of more individuals to enter the more leisured consumer class. The national focus shifted to private solutions for social problems, such as women's interest in work rather than winning the vote, the Harlem Renaissance's emphasis on literature and newspapers to give Blacks a voice, and the retreat of organized labor and government's…… [Read More]

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Social Black Experience

Words: 3284 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58353729

" (Adams et al.)

hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.

The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.

And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."

1996. Web. 8 June 2011.

Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.

Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
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Imagery Helps Communicate Its General Theme Imagery

Words: 1625 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31516508

Imagery Helps Communicate Its General Theme

Imagery in Jean Toomer's "Reapers"

Jean Toomer's poem, "Reapers" (1923) contains many darkly powerful images, physically and metaphorically, based largely (although not entirely) on the poem's repeated use of the word "black," in reference to both men doing harvesting work in the fields, and the beasts of burden that help them. ithin this poem, Jean Toomer effectively employs repetitions of key words, phrases, and ideas, thus evoking within the reader feelings of both monotony and starkness, as the "Reapers" of the title go about their work. Toomer also creates, through the poem's images, a sense of unceasing mechanical motions (i.e., motions by human beings as well as by the sharp harvesting machinery itself), and equally mechanical, unfeeling scenes of death, such as when a field rat is chopped up by a mower drawn by black horses. The rhythmic, monotonous feeling of the poem is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gibbons, Justin. "Studying Sounds of Scythes." Retrieved October 19, 2005,

from: .

"Jean Toomer." Wikipedia. Retrieved October 20, 2005, from:
wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Toomer.html>.
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Progress of African-Americans Historical Progress

Words: 3045 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9188025

e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.

The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)

The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…… [Read More]

References

Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley

Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.

Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia

Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.
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Cullen Poem Cullen's For a Lady I

Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11607365

Cullen Poem

Cullen's "For a Lady I Know": Biography in Poetry

Counte Cullen, a prominent poet of his time and a standout from the Harlem Renaissance, illuminates the extremely controversial issue of racism towards African-Americans as well as societal class issues in "For a Lady I Know." His short poem (only two stanzas) is terse as it illustrates the inequalities African-Americans face as well as the ignorance and superior attitude rich white people often have towards them. It is not often that such a short work can accomplish conveying copious amounts of information and elicit numerous feelings in one reading but "For a Lady I Know" certainly does.

As popular as he was, it is interesting to learn that Counte Cullen's life is shrouded in mystery. He was born Cullen Porter in 1903 but the location of his birth is much debated even today. New York City and Baltimore have…… [Read More]

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Hughes' Poems Don't Tell Us About Theme

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32983683

Hughes' poems. Don't tell us about theme or how you relate to it. Tell us about the form of the poem. Name and define some of the elements of the form. Tell us about its attributes and history, what Hughes' influences were in this poem, and so on. Can you find Whitman's influence here, where and how?

Langston Hughes was one of the great artists of this period, and the themes of Black identity and frustration against slavery and discrimination can be seen in many of his poems as, for instance, the famous one of "Bound No'th Blues"

In the poem "Bound No'th Blues" (http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/bound-no-th-blues/), the rhythm supports the pome's theme of the woman's fatigue and loneliness. The poem reiterates: "Road, road, road, O!

Road, road…road…road, road!

Road, road, road, O!"

The road is ongoing and eternal; there is no end to this.

The words are truncated. The sentences are…… [Read More]

Sources

Wintz, C. Analysis and Assessment, 1940-1979 (Vol. 1) Taylor & Francis, 1996, p.84

Bio.classroom. Harlem Renaissance

http://www.biography.com/tv/classroom/harlem-renaissance

"Bound No'th Blues"
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Art Exhibition Review

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87819531

Myrna Colley-Lee was a collector of art who traveled the world to enhance her collection. She was a pioneer of Black Theater and Costume design and established the SonEdna organization that promotes literary arts. Reflections is a personal story of her discovery of African-American life and community; including 50 works of art including painting, paper, photography and fabric. The works are on tour from 2013 to 2015 (International Arts and Artists, 2013).

One of the more interesting works in this collection was Barefoot Prophet by James Van Der Zee. This is a silver gelatin print from 1929, an older style of photography. Van Der Zee (1886=1983) was an African-American photographer best known from his portraits of New Yorkers. He was active in the Harlem Renaissance, the resurgence of Black artistry during the 1920s-1940s in New York City. He was known for experimenting with double exposures, retouching negatives and the manipulation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

International Arts and Artists. (2013, January). Reflections: African-American Life from the Myrna Colley-Lee Collection. Retrieved from artsandartists.org: http://www.artsandartists.org/exhibitions-reflections.php

Jackson, R. (2011, July). James Van Der Zee -Great Photographs. Retrieved from twitpic.com:  http://twitpic.com/40rz2j 

McCollum, S. (2012, June). Photographer James Van Der Zee. Retrieved from Scholastic.com: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/photographer-james-van-der-zee
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Literature Poetry

Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9575290

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) wrote his 1913 poem "e ear the Mask" in open defiance of the commonly accepted fallacy of his day that African-Americans were happy in the subservient roles they were forced to assume in the face of white racism. Dunbar, through the use of irony, through inverting the positive connotations of smiling, and through the religious rhetorical tropes of exclamation and crying out to God, conveys the cognitive dissonance between the false face African-Americans were forced to portray to earn a living in white society.

The title of Dunbar's and first lines of the poem may at first suggest a mask that an actor or a performer wears. "e wear the mask that grins and lies, / It hides our checks and shades our eyes." (Lines 1-2) However, the next lines of the poem suggest that the nature of the mask that is worn is far more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DuBois, W.E.B. "Of the Sons of Master and Man" from The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Penguin Classics, 1989.

Dunbar, Paul. "We Wear the Mask." 1913.

King, Martin Luther. Why We Can't Wait. New York: Penguin Books, 1963.

Harlem Renaissance. Web Site accessed July 11, 2002. http://csis.pace.edu/amlit/proj3d/harren.html
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Street by Ann Petry Racism

Words: 1932 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88997940

The gothic elements in the novel serve to portray even better the squalor and the fierceness of the environment in which they were impelled to live. Even though Harlem was an African-American community, the life of the black woman was by no means improved by this fact. The place itself was degenerate and full of crime and as such, it did not offer any protection. All this was due to the racial discrimination of the white people against the black. Although the black had some economical and political rights, the society was very far from equality. The white people simply considered them less than human, and persecuted them only in a subtler way than during the years of slavery. A black person could not rise to a better social or economical statute simply because the prejudices against him or her were permanent obstacles. As Petry shows, the condition of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Petry, Ann. The Street. New York: Mariner Books, 1998.
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American History Changes That Have Occurred in

Words: 2934 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44982136

American history [...] changes that have occurred in African-American history over time between 1865 to the present. African-Americans initially came to this country against their will. They were imported to work as slaves primarily in the Southern United States, and they have evolved to become a force of change and growth in this country. African-Americans have faced numerous challenges throughout their history in this country, and they still face challenges today.

After the Civil War ended in 1865, African-Americans were freed from slavery. However, that did not end their struggle for freedom. In fact, in many ways, it only made their situation worse. Many slaves who were in fairly decent situations were thrust out to fend for themselves, or they became sharecroppers for their former masters, barely making enough money to stay alive. This was the time of "reconstruction" in the South, and it was recovering both politically and economically…… [Read More]

References

Adeboyejo, B. (2005, May/June). Q & A: Curating African-American history for the nation. The Crisis, 112, 7.

Dagbovie, P.G. (2006). Strategies for teaching African-American history: Musings from the past, ruminations for the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 635+.

Editors. (2010). African-American history timeline. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Peterson Education Web site:  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtimeline.html .

Editors (2008). African-American odyssey. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Library of Congress Web site:  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart7.html .
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Transforming Oneself in the Great

Words: 3659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29215025

My appearance was always good and my ability to play on the piano, especially ragtime, which was then at the height of its vogue, made me a welcome guest."(Johnson, 139) Nevertheless, this only increases his feeling that he does not belong to his own race, and his sense that everything is a bitter irony. As the hero passes as a white man, he is forced many times to listen to unjust commentaries that are made against the black race and he realizes that he himself is ironically a disproof of these unfavorable remarks and an evidence that blackness does not render a man 'unfit': "The anomaly of my social position often appealed strongly to my sense of humor. I frequently smiled inwardly at some remark not altogether complimentary to people of color; and more than once I felt like declaiming, 'I am a colored man. Do I not disprove the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fitzgerald, Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Modern Library, 1934.

Johnson, James Weldon. The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1927.

Wald, Gayle. Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in Twentieth- Century U.S. Literature and Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.
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Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement by Barbara Ransby

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82718590

Ella Baker

Barbara Ransby has written a thoughtful, analytical and very readable account about the uniquely important political life of American civil rights activist Ella Josephine Baker. The work is incredibly significant because Baker is one of those handful of people to whom very much is owed by very many. Beyond the documentation of a critical era in American history, the book is a seminal investigation of the history of the African-American freedom and civil rights movement in America. This is not to mention that Ransby has added immeasurably to the understanding of black women's history as well. In the age of the teleprompter and prepackaged news, original thinkers like Baker are a rarity and their stories need to be treasured like gold. She is proof that even little people can have an impact for good. Truly, her activism provides a template for anyone who wants to have an impact…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ransby, B. (2005). Ella baker and the black freedom movement: A radical democratic vision . Chapel

Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.
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Dudley Randall A Poet's Poet

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7561290

"Ballad in Birmingham" expresses this sentiment eloquently. Love can also be something intimate that only two people can share. In addition, an artist must love his or her work in order to be successful.

Dudley Randall is a poet's poet. His work illustrates just what a poet should be: compassionate, passionate, open, honest, and real. His work brings his messages home to the reader and through imagery, symbolism, and rhythm. "Ballad of Birmingham," "A Poet is Not a Jukebox," and "The Profile on the Pillow" are excellent examples of Randall's techniques and style. e will always remember the image of the mother who discovers her daughter's shoe as well as the image of the poet that refuses to told what to say. Love becomes a theme in his works, as he always comes back to the notion that we will only survive as a people when we are open to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Randall, Dudley. "Ball of Birmingham." Calvin Thomas Adams Online. Mr. Africa Poetry.

Information Retrieved August 4, 2009.  http://www.ctadams.com/dudleyrandall4.html 

-. "A Poet is Not a Jukebox." Calvin Thomas Adams Online. Mr. Africa Poetry. Information Retrieved August 4, 2009

-. "The Profile on the Pillow." Calvin Thomas Adams Online. Mr. Africa Poetry. Information Retrieved August 4, 2009.
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American Literature Adding Richness and Variety to Our Literary Tradition

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53681260

Shannon, Jr.

"Outsiders" in a Multicultural Society

The United States is generally recognized for the multitude of cultural values present in the country as a result of the wide range of ideas that have been introduced here across the years. hile the majority of individuals in the country have often discriminated against people that they considered "outsiders," many notable non-white persons in the country's history have managed to emphasize the fact that they too are an active part of its culture and that they are able to contribute to making society as a whole acknowledge its complex nature. Langston Hughes and Jhumpa Lahiri are two of the most prominent artists responsible for making the American community accept its multicultural character and for influencing Americans to adopt less discriminatory attitudes concerning non-white individuals. Hughes got actively involved in changing the way that the masses and African-Americans in particular saw discriminated groups…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hughes, Langston. "Song for a Dark Girl." Create ed. McGraw-Hill, 2011. 223. Print.

Lahiri, Jhumpa. "The Third and Final Continent." Create ed. McGraw-Hill, 2011. 417-430. Print.
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Multi Ethnic Literature

Words: 3326 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33967127

Multi-Ethnic Literature

The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.

A Rose Grows From Concrete

One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:

Things that make hearts break.

Pretty smiles

Deceiving laughs

And people who dream with their eyes open

Lonely children

Unanswered…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+(1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008

Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
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Hurston and Hughes the United States Has

Words: 1517 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96297186

Hurston and Hughes

The United States has a history of racist policies towards African-Americans and other minorities. The predominant ruling class of this country has always been wealthy white Christian men. In order to sustain this position of power, all other minorities whether those be based on skin color, gender, or religion have been marginalized and classified as other. This othering has engendered a feeling in those people of the marginalized groups a feeling that in the United States, particularly in the first one hundred years of the nation's history, those othered people have minimal importance and are inferior to the people in power. riters Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston were both part of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and their works reflected the mentality of the oppressed African-Americans living in the United States at a time when they were still a marginalized people. Using her short story…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hughes, Langston. "I, Too." Print.

Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." Print.

Hurston, Zora Neale. "How it Feels to be Colored Me." Print.