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Harvard Business School Case Study: Parker's Biscuits
China is quickly becoming just as much of a consumer as it is a major international manufacturer. This has led many foreign companies to begin working in China, not just to manufacture and export goods, but to sell to Chinese consumers as well. The food industry had slowly begun bringing in foreign snacks and goods to serve this growing Chinese consumer base, showing that there was a great opportunity within China. Parker's Biscuits was looking to expand its empire by possibly entering into a joint venture with China to manufacture and produce their cookies and biscuits. Although the company does need to build some of its core competencies to succeed, it already has experience working with joint ventures in Asia and therefore has a competitive advantage over other foreign companies with less knowledge and resources in terms of working within the Asian nation.…
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. (1994). Collaborative advantage. Harvard Business Review.
Parker's Biscuits, Inc.: Venturing into China. (1997). Harvard Business School.
By te same token, an American citizen, say of Iranian decent as very little coice in self-defining teir "etnicity" since tere is not a category for Arab-American -- instead, tey must be Wite/Caucasian, wic in some cases, is ow tey self-view, in oter cases, not at all accurate for a political "count." Te task ten, for political leaders, is to ensure tat numbers, used for judgment, dividing, and even balancing, do not become te ends to te means -- but more fundamentally utilitarian -- a way towards a goal (text; see also: Bell and Coen, eds. 2009).
#3. Give an example of te types of Casual Teories.
Causal decision teory olds tat te expected outcome of any action sould be evaluated based on te potential causes of tat action -- as opposed to te outcome of te action (evidential decision teory). Wen tinking about political teory, we tend to see…
The history of sustainable development and environmentally sound policies is long and complex. It can, however, be broken down into five major components, all a reflection of the culture of the time: 1960-70 as Industrial Environmentalism. Industries resisted pressures for regulations and environmentalists were not viewed as credible sources; 1970-1982 as Regulatory Environmentalism. The EPA becomes mediator between industry and science; environmental protection was considered at best a necessary evil, at worst a temporary nuisance; 1982-1988 as Environmentalism as a Social Responsibility. By 1982 the EPA had lost credibility, but activism was up; industry finally became aware that cooperation was cheaper than adversarial legal suits; 1988-1993 as Strategic Environmentalism. Industry progressed into a proactive stance, still wary on spending to protect the environment; 1993 to Present Day as Environmental Management as an Opportunity. Business schools are now teaching that environmental protection is not a threat, but an opportunity to increase competitive advantage. Going green can save money and glean customers. See: Hoffman, 2001; Senge, 2010.
"Copenhagen Pork," in Global Warming Hoax, (December 18, 2009), Globalwarming hoax.com. Cited in: http://www.globalwarminghoax.com/comment.php?comment.news.128
There was no underlying structure for streamlining data transferrable and storage that helped keep control in a situation with little human involvement. The network that was created did not allow strong manipulation and control by the individuals in charge of it governance. Unable to make adjustments to the network configuration, the problem only continued to persist until it caused the ultimate collapse of the system.
John Halmaka learned a number of crucial lessons from the horrifying experience. First, I was crucial to keep experts involved in the maintenance of the network. Secondly, it was crucial for the organization to not allow a single piece of the it strategy be the "sole point of failure," (McFarlan & Austin 2005 p 10). Then, the it department had to learn to keep up-to-date with everything and to beware of potential internal threats in the form of users who know to much about the…
McFarlan, F. Warren & Austin, Robert D. (2005). CareGroup. Harvard Business School Case Studies. Harvard Business School.
Shouldice Hospital: A Case Study in Expansion
The Shouldice Hospital, as it is described in the case analysis serving this discussion, is a highly progressive hernia treatment facility which not only specialized in this particular surgical procedure but which also provides a unique setting for convalescence. Through the promotion of ambulatory recovery and the creation of a context which is both clinically excellent and highly social, Shouldice offers a positive healing environment. The hospital experiences good results, positive patient feedback and a successful business model. Indeed, as confirmed by the Navjeevan Hospital (2011) sponsored Hernia Help Center, "Ambulatory Hernia surgery allows patients to walk as much as possible, which helps in faster recovery." (Navjeevan Hospital, p. 1) The positive outcomes and glowing reputation associated with the mode of surgery and the Shouldice Hospital respectively are central to this discussion. As the account hereafter will demonstrate, the greatest challenges…
Dhumale, R.; Tisdale, J. & Barwell, N. (2010). Over a thousand ambulatory hernia repairs in a primary care setting. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 92(2), 127-130.
Heskett, J. (2003). Shouldice Hospital Limited. Harvard Business School.
Lambert, V. (2009). Why Are Men Being Refused Surgery For Their Hernias? Daily Mail Online.
Landro, L. (2012). A Secret for Patients Undergoing Hernia Repair. Wall Street Journal.
Harvard Business eview
Assessment task: strategic planning
Over the past decades, the strategic plan has become an important human resource management tool. Several researchers have written and published a lot in this field of strategy, and subsequently, on the subject of strategic planning. In the year 1970-80, planning was the core activities of modern firms because the management believed it would enable them achieve a competitive merit. Many of the studies during this time reveal the thoughts of managers towards strategic plans. Into the bargain, research from the past two decades has managed to identify the "pitfalls" of strategic planning. For example, the link between strategic planning and organizational performance has not produced conclusive findings, which has further made a synthesized stream of research difficult to achieve (Grant 2003).
From a planning point-of-view, strategic planning primary objective should achieve long-term survival. In a company's endeavors to achieve a competitive advantage,…
Reeves, M., Love, C., & Tillmanns, P. 2012. "Your Strategy Needs a Strategy," Harvard
Business Review 90, pp.76-83.
Nauheimer, M. 2007. "On Studying Strategic Planning Process in Large companies: Theoretical
Perspectives and Evidence." Doctorate Diss, University of St. Gallen.
Harvard Business School case - "Zara: Fast Fashion," due a hard copy submitted Oct. 7. In write-, address question: Q: Assess adding potential arbitrage Zara. Should Zara increase arbitrage considers expansion prospects U.S. I concise write- exceed single spaced pages.
Zara: 'Fast Fashion' case study
Zara: 'Fast Fashion' case study
Assess the value adding potential of arbitrage for Zara. Should Zara increase its use of arbitrage as it considers expansion prospects in the U.S.
Arbitrage is defined as the practice of capitalizing upon a price differential that exists within two markets (Arbitrage, 2010, Business Dictionary). The Spanish-based clothing store Zara has based its business model upon volume-based trade in inexpensive clothing. Zara only stocks a few in-demand items and its inventory levels thus exhibit a high rate of turnover. Zara uses couture designs made from inexpensive fabrics and produces the items as cheaply as possible, with young, largely unknown Spanish…
Arbitrage. (2010). Business Dictionary. Retrieved October 6, 2010 at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/arbitrage.html
Ferdows, Kasra, Michael A. Lewis & Jose Machuca. (2005). Zara's secret for fast fashion.
Harvard Business Case Study. Retrieved October 5, 2010 at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/4652.html
Lessard, Donald. (2008, March). Integrating global supply and marketing chains. Global Strategy and Organization Sloan Fellows Program. MIT Sloan School of Management.
Harvard Business School Case Study: "TW's Information Services Division: Strategic Human esource Management
The Strategic human resource management process initiated by Will Sproule was a very smart initiative for the purpose of increasing the organizational effectiveness of the company. However, there were some issues that need to be addressed. As discussed in the case, when this change process was initiated, it faced several hurdles which made the achievement of objectives more difficult. There were several reasons because of which Sproule found it difficult to initiate the change process. The primary reason that creates barriers to the effective execution of the change process is that those who are going to be affected by the change are usually unwilling to cooperate because they fear that any such change may decrease their importance in the organization or they will eventually loose their jobs. Some other causes may be that the management might not…
HBS Case Study by Beer, Gregory C. Rogers: TRW's Information Services Division: Strategic Human Resource Management: HBS Number: 9-496-003:
. Indian elevator market growth is very promising in the 1995 timeframe,
which is when this case study takes place. The low-end of the Indian
elevator market is experiencing 27% increases in unit shipments, and
17% unit increases overall.
. The market itself is highly fragmented for elevators in India. 70% of
the demand for elevators is at the low-end of the market; 20% at the
middle-end, and 10% at the top-end.
. High levels of recurring revenue are possible in the Indian elevator
market due to the large installed base of elevators and the high
maintenance fees Otis Elevator and other competitors have been able to
. As the Schindler Elevator learned in their strategies to enter the
Indian market with elevators (Columbus, 2005) the capricious and very
damaging effects of fluctuating tariffs can put a halt to any light
manufacturing or assembly in addition to…
Columbus (2005) - Selling Into India: Lessons Learned From Silvio Napoli.
CRM Buyer Magazine, April 22, 2005. Downloaded from the Internet on
January 23, 2007 from: http://www.crmbuyer.com/story/42512.html
Harvard Business School (2003) - Silvio Napoli at Schindler India (A).
Publication Date February 12, 2003. Purchased from the Harvard Business
School online store on January 23, 2007 from:
De Geus, Arie. (2002). The Living Company. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Instead of being a typical management book on what should and should not be done to perpetuate the status quo, author Arie de Geus drew on his experiences within Royal Dutch/Shell, research from biologists and psychologists, and the study of multinational corporations or companies with a great deal of longevity. Instead, De Geus believes that companies that want to succeed commit to develop all their employees at all career stages to their maximum potential. The four major principles to this are:
Sensitivity to the corporate environment -- Long-lived companies pay attention, learn, adapt, and evolve as circumstances require.
Persona -- Successful organizations are cohesive and have a strong sense of identity that helps them build a shared community.
Tolerance -- These successes are patient, typically more decentralized, less hierarchical, and give a wider spread of decision…
John Hamm in the Harvard Business Review. This will be followed up by a two page analytical report comparing and contrasting the content of the Hamm article to selected principles, concepts or theories in chapters 10 through 13 in the our text book, Management of Organizational Behavior.
In "The Five Messages He holds that any leader has just one job. This is inspiring his followers to make a difference and a better future for the organization. Effective communication skills are a critical tool that is needed for the accomplishment of this task. In Hamm's summation, business need to employ leadership in the way a SAT team or an emergency staff organizes itself. Everyone knows what to do and time is analyzed efficiently to its fullest potential.
For a leader to inspire your their workforce followers, Hamm to greatness, suggests absolutely clear communication regarding the following five topics:
A. Organizational Hierarchy:…
Hamm, J. (2006). The five messages leaders must manage. Harvard Business Review.
Hersey, P.H., Blachard, K.H., & Johnson, D.E. (2007). Management of organizational behavior . (9 ed.). New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.
The company's objective is to develop capabilities in the Reseach and Development aeas as well as ensuing poducts that can be sold and distibuted in the Euopean and Ameican makets. It should be noted, howeve, that such a move must be taken with caution and cae; appoaching the Euopean business maketplace may not wok in the same manne as othe business envionments. As one expet ecently wote "appoaching the Euopean makets without ecognizing the impotance of national languages and cultues in daily life is a cucial mistake" (Robet, 2010, pg. 31). It would be wise fo the company to emembe Robet's wods due to the unique natue of the Euopean makets and Gemany in paticula; since that is the county this pape ecommends the company conducts its business.
It is impotant to note that choosing a county to base the company's opeations is a delicate and time-consuming matte that…
references of political actors, German Politics, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 281-300
Dickman, M.; (2003) Implementing German HRM abroad: Desired, feasible, successful? International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 14, Issue 2, pp. 265 -- 283
Dunning, J.H. & Lundan, S.M.; (2008) Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy, London: Edward Elgar Publishing
Federal Republic of Germany (2003) Background Notes on Countries of the World 2003, pp. 1 -15
Grewal, R.; Chandrashekaran, M.; Dwyer, F.R.; (2008) Navigating local environments with global strategies: A contingency model of multinational subsidiary performance, Marketing Science, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 886 -- 902
The existence and specialization of these three competitors materializes in the need for Creativity Sure to excel in the offering of the three types of products and services offered by challengers Karina Advertising, Falling Agency and Dorna PLC.
4.2 PEST Analysis
Political forces: The development of a full legislation within the advertising field has yet to become a complete process. ecent efforts have however limited the operations of advertising campaigns in the meaning of having eliminated all features that are not compatible with the product or which promise unrealistic outcomes, such as the tremendous loss of weight. Other issues regulated by the new laws refer to truth-in-advertising, product labeling requirements, online advertising and marketing, the advertising of specific products, telemarketing and direct marketing, and finally, regulations relative to environmental marketing (The Official Business Link to the U.S. Government, 2009). The new Obama administration has yet to take a new stand…
Chesbrough, H.W., 2003, Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Harvard Business Press School, ISBN 1578518377
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471234842
Kellner, H., Heuberger, F.W., 1994, Hidden Technocrats: The New Class and New Capitalism, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1560007877
LeClaire, J., 2000, Benefits of Advertising in Any Economy, Sign Industry, http://www.signindustry.com/management/articles/2002-10-31-JL-AdvertInDownEconomy.php3 last accessed on May 5, 2009
For a product configuration system to be effective it must be able to submit orders directly into production while at the same time being able to determine what the Available-To-Promise (ATP) ship dates are (Mendelson, Parlakturk, 2008). Instead of just giving the standard four to six weeks I'd also integrate the product configuration systems to supply chain systems to ensure that accurate Available-To-Promise (ATP) dates (Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2009). I'd use this as a competitive differentiator to ensure that customers could be very well informed as to when their sofa or furniture was going to arrive. All of these systems would also be integrated to an analytics system so it would be possible to know what the status of orders and shipments were on a continual basis.
Gunasekaran, A., & Ngai, E.. (2009). Modeling and analysis of build-to-order supply chains. European Journal of Operational esearch, 195(2), 319.
Johansson, Johny K.,…
Gunasekaran, A., & Ngai, E.. (2009). Modeling and analysis of build-to-order supply chains. European Journal of Operational Research, 195(2), 319.
Johansson, Johny K., & Nonaka, Ikujiro. (1987, May). Market Research the Japanese Way. Harvard Business Review, 65(3), 16.
Kate Maddox. (2006, April). Microsoft research paves way for 'People Ready'. B to B, 91(4), 62.
Lorne McMillan & Brenda Ng. (2007). Ethnography within consumer research -- a critical case study of Consumer Film Festivals. International Journal of Market Research, 49(6), 707-714.
For example, someone interested in green technology from a cost perspective might value operational excellence in a company -- seeking the lowest price replacement windows in the least amount of time with the least amount of disruption to their family. Someone interested in the greenest home possible may be interested in innovation, and still others might be attracted to the idea of a custom-built home. Just as there is no one housing market, even within the market of green housing consumers, many different segments and demographics exist, along with conceptions of what conveys value.
Treacy, Michael, iersema, Fred. (1993, January). Customer intimacy and other value disciplines. Harvard Business Review, 71(1), 84. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from ABI/INFORM…
Treacy, Michael, Wiersema, Fred. (1993, January). Customer intimacy and other value disciplines. Harvard Business Review, 71(1), 84. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1102472).
Proposed Plan for Improvement
The above assessment of the current personnel management challenges facing the organization indicates that there are a number of pertinent issues that must be addressed if the organization is to effectively optimize its human resource capabilities and help facilitate the development of change in the organization. With this in mind, the proposed plan for organizational development focuses on two specific areas for improvement. First, the proposed plan considers the need for the strategic development of human resource practice in the organization. Strategic human resource management will enable the organization to embed human resource function into the process of facilitating organizational objectives. Second, the proposed plan considers the need for a comprehensive change management program which will facilitate H integration while building the necessary organizational infrastructure to help improve change outcomes.
Strategic Human esource Management
Strategic human resource management or SHM is the process by which human…
Acquaah, M., 2004. "Human factor theory, organizational citizenship behaviors and human resources management practices: An integration of theoretical constructs and suggestions for measuring the human factor," Review of Human Factor Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 118-151.
Boswell, W., 2006. "Aligning employees with the organization's strategic objectives: Out of line of sight, out of mind," International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1489-1511.
Breen, V., Fetzer, R. & Howard, L., 2005. "Consensus problem-solving increases perceived communication openness in organizations," Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 215-229.
Change management: The HR strategic imperative as a business partner," 2007. HR Magazine, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1-9.
The graphic shown in Figure 1 was also provided in the article (Porter, 2008).
Figure 1: Five Forces Model
This model's effectiveness does not however capture the increasingly critical role of tacit and explicit knowledge in businesses. The tacit knowledge, of the type that is learned from the continual streamlining of core processes, is not easily captured and communicated. It is often called tribal knowledge as this type if intelligence often stays within workgroups where it originates and seldom is captured for broader use. Specific knowledge, or the type of intelligence that can easily be captured and communicated, is often not used to its full potential as well. Studies in the auto industry suggest that knowledge, not products or pricing, is the new competitive advantage (Dyer, Nobeoka, 2000). The Five Forces Model does not recognize how important knowledge is as a competitive force in the definition of competitive…
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
Ormanidhi, O., & Stringa, O.. (2008). Porter's Model of Generic Competitive Strategies. Business Economics, 43(3), 55-64.
Michael E. Porter. (2008, January). THE FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES THAT SHAPE STRATEGY. Harvard Business Review: Special HBS Centennial Issue, 86(1), 78-93.
Core Competency or Unique Strength of the Business
MESIC's have been singularly unsuccessful, and have been deemphasized in recent years.
Related to this are: State-sponsored venture capital investments. Countries and regions invest in venture capital funds as Limited Partners, meaning that they have the same or similar financial returns as all other investors in a Fund. In many cases, such state investments require some conditions on the privately-run venture fund. The most popular conditions include:
fixed percentage threshold of investment in the region or country, or certain number of jobs to be generated by their investments, or Attracting a certain multiple of investment from outside the state or region into the fund, or Limiting the venture investments to the types of technologies and industries which are of greatest interest to that state or region.
Examples of the above can include the Indiana Futures Fund, in which the State of Indiana invested $100 million in several venture funds. Among…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Balzac, M. "Recent Trends in the Research on National Innovation Systems." REPEC. November 26, 2007. http://ideas.repec.org/p/aug/augsbe/0254.html (Accessed November 28, 2007).
Birch, D.L. MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987.
Christensen, C. The Innovator's Dilemma. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995.
The Inclusive orkplace
In the modern business world employees expect more and have more rights than ever. To accompany this, employees are seen as core contributors to an organization. The workplace has changed from one where employees blindly follow the guidelines of the company to complete tasks, to one where employees are central to the organization. Employees are also more educated than ever before.
In recent decades, issues like employee empowerment, collaboration, teamwork, self-managed teams and cooperation have all become important. Each of these issues have the idea of giving more and getting more at their basis. In Ideas that will shape the future of management practice (Bohl 1996, 8), human resources is described as being the way of the future, "e will see a more mature articulation of the importance of people as a firm's only sustainable competitive advantage." The change is described as giving high reward for…
Berlin, R. (2002). Sexual harassment in the workplace defined. AllLaw. Retrieved October 24, 2002. URL: http://www.alllaw.com/articles/employment/article37.asp
Billsberry, J. (2000). The Effective Manager: Perspectives and Illustrations. London: Sage Publications.
Bohl, D.L., Luthans, F., Hodgetts, R.M., & Slouch, J.W. (1996). Ideas that will shape the future of management practice. Organizational Dynamics, Summer, 7-13.
Cherkasky, S.M. (1992). Total quality for a sustainable competitive advantage. Quality, August, 22-28.
Finally, the universalizing stage is often referred to as enlightenment, or having achieved a true understanding of the nature of good virtue. (Fowler, 1995; p.p. 73-145).
Clearly, my personal ethical values are heavily influenced by my stage of personal development. As I continue to grow, my values will evolve and adapt to my new way of looking at the world. The way that defining moments influence me will also be controlled by my ethical level of development. However, having at least a conscious understanding of my level of development allows me to better understand my ethical influences, work to overcome the obstacles my ethical development stage creates, and better work to be a better employee and leader.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard usiness School Publishing.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through…
Badaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Badaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through Literature. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Fowler, James W. (1995): Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Gilligan, Carol. (1993): In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Business Decision Analysis -- Cipla
Yusuf Hamied pioneered the Chemical, Industrial and Pharmaceutical Laboratories, which is more popularly known as Cipla, in India. The main function of Cipla was to reverse engineer some of the most demanded medications in the market and then reconfigure or re-synthesize them in a different manner (to avoid patent law suits) and sell them to the masses at affordable rates. The problem for Dr. Hamied, though, was a recent upgrade in patent laws that were meant to be applicable from 2005 in India. This new upgrade was being implemented on a global scale by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and was officially called Trade elated Aspects of Intellectual Property ights (TIPS) and it mainly required India to accept the patent laws with regards to pharmaceuticals and other intellectual inventions that had been standardized for over 2 decades. This would mean that a majority of the…
Deshpande, R. (2006). Cipla. Harvard Business School, President and Fellow Of Harvard College, 9-305-085.
Confidence in Hong Kong's legal system is a direct result of its links with the rest of the world. if, in our haste to use Chinese, we change the standard and the meaning of the law, and non-Chinese speakers get pushed out of practice, then we risk losing those links.' The traditional Chinese structure has focused on mediation for civil and commercial cases, with lawyers widely viewed as troublemakers, and on executive punishment for criminal cases; there has been no history of justice through an adversarial process. As the Asian Wall Street Journal warned, "A drift into linguistic balkanization -- part English and part Cantonese, plus jargon grafted from the Chinese mainland -- could unmoor Hong Kong from the international business community." (Callick, 1998, p. 84)
Part of doing business with a foreign county is seeing how they see you. It was essential to impress upon the American companies with…
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the social contract: constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino.'." Papers on Language & Literature 32.4 (1996): 410+.
Hong Kong Telecom
The basic objectives of Information Systems in the future will be to focus on the design, construction and use of internal software and computer systems so as to increase the company's output from their people and technology. The internet has allowed IS to refocus its attention to what they historically have done best. When IS was focused on the needs of external systems development, they more than often were less than ideal so they did not facilitate optimum system implementations. The internet has reduced the need to focus on external program implementation and therefore internal processes benefit.
In conclusion, this report aimed to come back with an answer to the question of why so many Enterprise esource Planning projects fail and to focus on how the Internet has provided an opportunity to have businesses focus on the development of their internal applications.
Koch, Christopher. "The ABC's of EP." CIO…
Koch, Christopher. "The ABC's of ERP." CIO (2005): Retrieved on 18 March 2005, from http://www.cio.com/research/erp/edit/erpbasics.html .
Ross, Jeanne w. And Weill, Peter, "Six it Decisions Your it People Should Not Make" Harvard Business Review, Nov 2002, vol. 80 issue 11, p84, 8p.
Businesses make decisions on a daily basis. Some of these decisions affect man people in the organization, where other decisions are minor and only impact a few people. A decision-making procedure based on sound information and data leads to effective conclusions. Today's fast-paced business environment demands the making of informed decisions based on critical thinking skills. It is our thinking that determines the extent to which we think through the implications of the decisions we make. It is our thinking that determines whether we can identify the assumptions we are making, and whether we should questions those assumptions. A number of different decision-making processes have been suggested. Depending on the type of decision faced, some techniques are more appropriate than others. As a supervisor for United Parcel Service, overseeing 40 individuals who must process and drive thousands of packages to the San Diego airport each morning at 6:30am, organization is…
Foreman, Charles W.L., "Modeling and Improving Human Decision-Making," from the Management Course for Presidents, 3-4.
Prokesh, S.E. "Unleashing the power of learning: an interview with British Petroleum's John Browne." Harvard Business Review, 75 (September -- October 1997), 146 -- 168.
Robinson, Alifantis, et. al. "Modeling and Improving Human Decision-Making with Simulation." Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference,
B.A. Peters, J.S. Smith, D.J. Medeiros, and M.W. Rohrer, eds.
hy does crafting strategy have a strongly entrepreneurial character?
Courtney (2) notes that in a rapidly changing environment, this year's indicators are not a good measure of what will happen in the future. Instead, there is a need to develop foresight. This involved looking to the future and spotting potential opportunities and potential threats before they are actually present. This is entrepreneurial in the sense that it involves looking to the future and seeing things before they are actually present. Crafting strategy also involves a new approach to business where the focus is on managing and risk and choosing the best kind of action, while there remains a level of certainty. These aspects of crafting strategy have a strong entrepreneurial character. Finally, crafting strategy requires vision and creativity. It differs from traditional management strategies because there are no certainties. Organizations cannot simply accept the environment as it is and…
Courtney, C. 20/20 Foresight: Crafting Strategy in an Uncertain World. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2001.
Thompson, A.A., & Strickland, A.J. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2003.
There is one platform that supports the downloaders, however. Studies have indicated that downloading music for free actually helps sell music in the long run. The music industry cites fallen revenues for the last four years as evidence that illegal downloading is cutting into their profits. However, a study by two academic researchers finds that some people who download music illegally eventually purchase the music they have downloaded. A reporter writes, "In fact, illegal downloading may help the industry slightly with another major segment, which Oberholzer and Strumpf call 'samplers' -- an older crowd who downloads a song or two and then, if they like what they hear, go out and buy the music" (Silverthorne, 2004). However, the researchers also discovered that the majority of downloaders are teens and college students who have plenty of time to download, but do not always have the resources to eventually buy the music…
Editors. (2007). Minn. woman to pay for illegal music downloads. Retrieved from the NPR.org Web site: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1503722320 Oct. 2007.
Editors. (2007.) Terms & conditions. Retrieved from the Napster.com Web site: http://home.napster.com/info/terms.html20 Oct. 2007.
Silverthorne, S. (June 21, 2004). Music downloads: Pirates -- or customers? Retrieved from the Harvard Business School Web site: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4206.html20 Oct. 2007.
Primedic? Why has this venture attracted so much interest from Endeavor and IGNIA?
When Decanini founded Primedic in 2002, about half of the population of Mexico was uninsured. Decanini's vision for Primedic was to improve access to healthcare insurance for the population of Mexico, a lofty goal. The initial plan was to offer Primedic services to employees of corporations and therefore Primedic would be working directly with enterprises. However, the IGNIA investment helped Decanini and his colleagues achieve the more ambitious goal of offering insurance to the vast numbers of individuals who did not have the types of stable jobs with companies that provide insurance coverage to their employees. The basic Primedic model was to get the lowest rung of the Mexican socio-economic ladder into preventative care so that health outcomes could be improved. Therefore, Primedic is a company with a grand vision, making it attractive on the level of…
Business Source Premier (Nielson Library) deals marketing issues. The article current ( month). efer text chapter titles heading topic suggestions. Make include article attachment include UL I refer article.
Business Article Analysis
The article that is reviewed in this paper is titled "Off and unning: Professors Comment on Olympics" and presents certain important opinions on the Olympic games. The article presents the comments and opinions of important specialists that focus on marketing and business administration, like Stephen Greyser, John Macomber, and John Gourville. These are some of the most important professors at the Harvard Business School. The most important points of this article refer to the explanations these experts try to provide on the marketing success of the Olympics in comparison with other sports competitions. In addition to this, they try to identify some of the factors that determine the success of the organizers (Greyser et al., 2012). The pricing…
1. Greyser, S. et al. (2012). Off and Running: Professors Comment on Olympics. Harvard Business School. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/7072.html .
2. Blanding, M. (2012). Why Good Deeds Invite Bad Publicity. Harvard Business School. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/7001.html .
Sustainability is a term that is often used in reference to environmental responsibility. This is the most common use of the term that many people have come to associate with "sustainability." Seldom do people consider sustainability to be associated with other areas of the business environment. Upon reading the article by Swartz (2010), two different connotations of sustainability stood out in my mind. The issue that Swartz addressed which created his very long day was accusations that Timberland was engaging in corporate irresponsibility concerning the environment. This is the only definition of sustainability that many people consider.
Swartz's reaction to 65,000 emails made me think about what I would have done as a CEO, if I had been the one to open my own e-mail inbox to find 65,000 angry emails. Upon reflection of Schwartz's response, I feel that he acted in the best way possible. First, he knew that…
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 32-33 (and then continued on pages 122 -- 126). Story of Stuff ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8 )
Porter, M.E., & Reinhardt, F.L. (2007). A strategic approach to climate. Harvard Business Review, 85(10), 22-26.
Swartz, J. (2010). "Timberland's CEO on standing up to 65,000 angry activists." Harvard Business Review, 88(9), 39-43.
Employees are being rewarded for their honesty, and managers continue to encourage communication between supervisors and subordinates. Management is also looking for ways to encourage employees to tell the truth about other employees who may be involved in something dishonest or illegal (Jones, 1982). Not all employees will take advantage of this, of course, because some still believe that they will face punishment for being a 'whistle-blower', but there are laws in place now to protect the rights of employees who blow the whistle on other employees or their employers.
Employee rights have become increasing important over the last 20 years, and this is another area in which Enron had difficulties. Those people who advocate employee rights make two different arguments. The first argument is that tougher laws and regulations are needed to ensure that employees get the rights that they deserve. It cannot be left up to the companies…
Bernstein, S. (2000). "Shell in Nigeria." Business Students Focus on Ethics. Eds. Ryan, Leo V., Wojciech W. Gasparski, & Georges Enderle. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
Donaldson, T. & Gini, a.R. (1984). Case Studies in Business Ethics. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Garrett, T.M., and Klonoski, R.J. (1986). Business Ethics 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Goodpaster, K.E. (1984). Ethics in Management. Boston: Harvard Business School.
PGE "Introduction and How it Fits into MB"
The development of this plan is critical for the enhancement of my MB studies. In this study, I will try to develop a "for profit" (as opposed to non-profit) company to compete in the U.S. food industry. My organization will be a C Corporation in order to raise money from ngel investors and perhaps Venture Capitalists as we grow. It is my understanding that VC's and ngels prefer C Corporations for a myriad of reasons, but most importantly because of the flexibility of the different classifications of stock that C Corporation afford to its shareholders. In addition, the rationale behind choosing this company is based on the concept that sweet treats and refreshments seem recession proof, and that people will always use their disposable income for sugar or refreshment in. I saw on CNBC a documentary on Coca Cola, which…
Although Marshal Healthy Foods will show improvement over other retailing organizations in the present economy, its reputation and image are genuinely influenced by criticisms from environmentalist and labor unions. Marshal Healthy Foods is likely to be accused of various claims on distinctive issues such as bad working conditions, issues pertaining to child labor, wage issues and discrimination (Manian, 2007).
Marshal Healthy Foods will have internal labor relations issues besides confronting some outside threats postured by the economy and its rivals. Since Marshal Healthy Foods will have constantly great sales performance, certain areas are expected to be affected by sales problems. The sale of some areas is likely to decline from 5% to 15% all through the pastries line. This decline will not harm traditional pastry retailers like La Baguette Bistro but hurt the sale in Marshal Healthy Foods.
The market analysis is provided in Table 2.
Table 2: Market Analysis
The company will also use different market strategy to achieve its business goals. Ivy Discover will run a very attractive advertising banner on different websites, which are constantly being visited by target customers, and the business will use several different form of promotion to attract potential customers. The promotion strategy will include discounted package deal. The sale process will include several criteria such as product presentation, relationship building, customer requirements, or needs. The company will build technical products that…
Chaffey, D. (2002) E-business and e-commerce management. Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Harlow, UK.
Cote, L. Vezina, M.and Sabourin, V.(2005). The Strategic Management Process in E-Business. Ivey Business Journal.
Kooten, M. (2009).Software Industry Defies Economic Crisis. Top 100 Research Foundation.
Chantrill, C. (2012). U.S. Real GDP Chart. Government Spending.USA.
As costs continued to escalate and IT was not creating any significant cost reductions through efficiencies, the focus shifted to outsourcing non-critical functions that were routine in nature and could be therefore replicated easily. In 1991, BP senior executives chose to begin outsourcing operations, telecommunications, systems development and IT maintenance. This strategy, along with the recentralization of IT led to the company eventually cutting their IT budget in half from $360M to $170M. BP also was able to redefine their entire centralized spending strategy for IT, with 70% of their budget going for core applications critical to their business including geophysical analysis software and core technologies to help the company be more effective in discovering new energy sources (Cross, Earl, Sampler, 1997). What had been so elusive for BP for decades of IT spending had been hidden in the high costs of duplicated enterprise software licenses that were spread across…
Ball, Alasdair J. (1995). Process Innovation - Reengineering Work Through Information Technology. R & D. Management, 25(4), 421.
Barrett, J.. (2007, November). Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, 49(6), 14-19,5.
John Cross, Michael J. Earl, & Jeffrey L. Sampler. (1997). Transformation of the IT function at British Petroleum. MIS Quarterly, 21(4), 401-423.
Davenport, Thomas H. (1993). Need radical innovation and continuous improvement? Integrate process reengineering and TQM. Planning Review, 21(3), 6.
business pertains to what that business does and what it is, as a whole. The kind of philosophy it has, the products it makes or services it provides, and the all-encompassing theme o the entire business make up its definition (Sullivan & Sheffrin, 2003; Swarming, 2006). The mission and goals, however, are only a part of that business definition. The goals are specific, concrete, and attainable, and they keep the business moving forward (Christensen, 1997). They can be made public, so the community has an idea of what the business wants to accomplish, or they can be kept private. Either way, they have to be realistic, and they must be worked toward steadily and revised at various intervals until they are achieved. Then, new goals can be set that build on the original goals the business had. The mission of the business is its statement to the public about the…
Christensen, C.M. (1997), The innovator's dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail, Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard Business School Press
Dev, C.S. & Schultz, D.E. (2005). In the mix: A customer-focused approach can bring the current marketing mix into the 21st century. Marketing Management, 14(1)
Joshi, R.M. (2005) International marketing, Oxford University Press, New Delhi and New York
Guiltinan, et al. (1996). Marketing management: Strategies and programs. New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin
Strategic Planning in IT
IT Impact on Service Industry Performance
Implementation of IT Innovations
1992 U.S. VALUE-ADDED AND EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY
AVERAGE ANNUAL GROTH IN GDP PER HOUR,
MAJOR SECTORS OF THE U.S. ECONOMY
Management TASKS IN BUREAUCRACY VS ADHOCRACY ORGANIZATIONS
This paper addresses the following problem statement: "ithout information technology (IT), a business will not be able to compete globally in any industry, nor in any market it wants to enter. It will not be able to effectively and efficiently optimize its success."
In order to evaluate this statement, a number of issues were examined. The rapid pace of technological change and the effects of technology revolution have launched the world into an era of organizations that are experiencing extraordinary growth in both the development and the dissemination of information and communications technologies. This paper reviews the current literature on the subject of the integration…
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Company.
Andreu, R., Ricart, J.E., and Valor, J. (1991). The Strategic Dimension of Transactional Information Systems: Some Organizational Implications. Journal of Information Systems, 1, 223-32.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bailey, M.N. And Quinn, J.B. (1994). Information Technology: The Key to Service Performance. Brookings Review, 12 (3), 36+.
.....ethical dilemma you know of, and how it was dealt with by management.
Recently, Harvard Business School itself was involved in an ethical scandal when it turned out its dean might be involved in a gross case of conflict of interest (Galani, 2016). Conflicts of interest similar to this one at HBS happen often in organizations of all sizes. I was recently made aware of a case in which a local organization experienced an ethical dilemma involving a conflict of interest. One member of the board of directors had previously served on the city council, and still retained strong connections with the local community. Because the company was a real estate development company, the organization's leadership came under considerable pressure for what appeared to be a conflict of interest and corruption -- using the former councilman's political ties for facilitating development projects and accepting additional advice and contracts.
Accounting for Disruptive Technologies
There is a significant amount of insight found in Christensen and Overdorf's "Meeting the challenge of disruptive change," especially for those in a managerial position or studying to be in such a position. The article is useful because it combines theoretical knowledge with a solid application of real-world examples, so that the reader is best able to grasp the author's concepts. Moreover, the article takes a wide and integrative approach at addressing the various challenges and potential solutions organizations can implement pertaining to a very real facet of conducting business in the 21st century, "disruptive changes," typically in the form of technological innovations.
Quite frankly, however, a number of points that the authors make are trenchant and can aid those who are looking to prevent disruptive change from ruining their organization or its method of conducting business. One of the more notable of these is the…
Bower, J.L., Christensen, C.M. (2000). Disruptive technologies: catching the wave. Harvard Business Review.
Christensen, C.M., Overdorf, M. (2000). Meeting the challenge of disruptive change. Harvard Business Review.
Questions to be answered throughout this process include "What is the salary range for the position? What is the hiring salary range for the position? Do you (the company) ever pay higher that that range? If so, for what reason? What is the average increase being given? After one year?... How often is the employee reviewed? For performance? Salary" (Krueger, 2008).
Negotiation should be used for both salary raises, but also the granting of premiums and benefits. Some of the most notable benefits of engaging in negotiation include the creation of better communication networks between staff members and management (Hinkel, 2005). Then, the levels of trust between the parties increase and finally, as the employee gets a sense of being valued and listened to within the organization, his efforts, performances and commitment to the organizational goals are likely to register significant increases.
The executives at Final Touch should also consider…
Becker, B.E., Huselid, M.A., Ulrich, D., 2001, the HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy and Performance, Harvard Business Press
Hinkel, E., 2005, Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, Routledge
Krueger, B.D., 2008, the College Grad Job Hunter: Insider Techniques and Tactics for Finding a Top-Paying Job, 6th Edition, Adams Media
2009, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet-data_tool=latest_numbers&series_id=JTS00000000TSRlastaccessed on March 23, 2009
Importance of Effective Change Management
An old adage goes that "change is inevitable." It is a constant phenomenon. Organisations exist in an ever-changing world. Factors such as competitive pressure, regulatory changes, shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, technological advancements, workforce changes, globalisation, and industry adjustments compel organisations to initiate change initiatives targeting strategy, leadership, management, workforce, structures, and processes (Lam, 2009; Nehar, 2013). The initiatives are primarily aimed at improving organisational efficiency, productivity, and performance. Indeed, the ability to adapt to change has been termed as an important source of competitive advantage in today's world (Nehar, 2013). This largely explains why the subject of change management has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention in the last few decades. Nonetheless, managing change may often not be an easy undertaking for organisations. If improperly managed, change may not generate the desired outcomes. In fact, many change initiatives have failed due to…
Mentoring Process in a Business Setting
In most professions, the first years in a new position are fraught with uncertainties and problems. The need for supporting teachers and people in other professions was cited as far back as the Conant eport (1963). During the next twenty years, many attempts were make to put effective mentoring programming in place throughout the business world. This study will address the level of mentoring which exists in different professions, specifically, education, medicine, and law.
As early as 1962, induction programs that provided assistance to beginning teachers were being described (Shaplin, 1962). Mentoring in a business setting is described as being very desirable and conducive to interaction among the protege' and the established workers (Young & Adams, 2000). Medicine has long had a system of mentoring in place which is called residency. Whether nor not the condition of this process is optimal depends upon to…
Anderson & Shannon. (1988). "Toward a conceptualization of mentoring." Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 38-42.
Barnett & Kirkpatrick. (1986). California's Mentor Teachers: Two Years of Learning.
San Francisco, CA: Far West Laboratory for Research and Development.
Bolton, E. (1980). "A conceptual analysis of the mentor relationship in the career development of women." Adult Education, 30 (4), 195-196.
The difficulty for most contemporary leaders (and frankly most managers at all levels), is to encourage proactive and positive dissent without feeling threatened by it -- part of the ability to ask the right questions that tend to engender new and creative answers. A wise CEO thus says, "I don't shoot messengers -- that's why I have them."
Clearly, globalism has changed the world of business in all aspects. Gone are the days in which visionary leaders simply set the strategic plan in a well-orchestrated seminar. Instead, leadership becomes an even more all-encompassing and difficult paradigm shift. The modern world is adaptive, and requires individuals who can adapt proactively, positively, and without becoming mired in bureaucracy. The modern leader must certainly be innovative, relatively charismatic, and certainly informed. But that same leader must understand that leadership is not the responsibility of the few, but the many. Dissent should be encouraged…
Heifetz, R. And Laurie. R. (January-February 1997). The Work of Leadership. Harvard Business
Review. Retrieved from:
Business sustainability is about realizing the pathway to preserving and protecting profits, people, and the planet. It is expressed through a company’s focus on the triple bottom line, also defined as the management of financial, social and environmental risks, duties and opportunities. Firms that engage in sustainable practices typically have some form of corporate social responsibility (CSR) program or policy in place that allows them to support and promote initiatives that are considered to be important either to the communities in which the firm operates or else good for the overall environment as a whole. Sustainable practices that businesses focus on can include anything from “going green,” reducing one’s environmental footprint, protecting water supplies, promoting scholarships in communities where economic disadvantages are high, and so on. Engaging in sustainable practice is the essence of maintaining a commitment to culture and to one’s core values. This paper will define the term…
The success of any business enterprise depends on a multitude of crucial factors, one of them being the ability of its administrators to communicate in a clear and effective manner. The quality of business communications therefore, having a direct impact on the economic act, is hereby studied at four specific levels, as follows:
Interpersonal business communication
Conflict management, and last
Inter-cultural business communication
Interpersonal business communication
Melinda Knight starts her 2005 article at the premise that efficient business communications at the managerial level are quintessential for the overall success of the enterprise. Yet, despite this generally accepted notion, the managers have little actual training of interpersonal communications during their formation in universities or other non- U.S. MBA programs. While some programs have some unaligned courses of interpersonal communications in the business settings, other programs do not include the subject in their curricula at all. Knight asserts the…
Agndal, H., (2005) Current trends in business negotiation research, Stockholm School of Economics, http://swoba.hhs.se/hastba/papers/hastba2007_003.pdf accessed on March 23, 2016
Beckers, A.M., Bsat, M.Z. (2014) An analysis of intercultural business communications, Journal of Business & Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 3
Corkindale, G., (2007) How to manage conflict, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/2007/11/how-to-manage-conflict / accessed on March 23, 2016
Hynes, G.E., (2012) Improving employees' interpersonal communication competencies, Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 4
Small/Medium Business Challenges
Small and medium sized businesses produce most of the revenue in the United States and they account for more jobs than the largest corporations. Yet there are challenges that these companies face that set them apart from their larger competitors. The fact that a business is small makes it difficult to maintain growth, and it is also difficult for these types of businesses to maintain the employees that they have trained. Large competitors can poach trained employees that are valuable to any organization, but can be essential to a small business. Another issue if the fact that small and medium sized businesses sometimes operate with financial margins that can be incredibly tight. This means that upgrading to new software and hardware necessary for the business can be a challenge. The many difficulties that these types of companies face are somewhat mitigated by helps that are…
BobCAD-CAM. (2012). BobCAD-CAM software pricing. Retrieved from http://www.bobcad.com/pricing
Richards, L. (2012). Challenges of management development. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/challenges-management-development-1874.html
Under this system, "each joint venture partner would separately account for and pay tax on its income and claim the proportionate share of joint venture expenses" (Ernst & Young, no date).
Liability is also limited in the joint venture under Australian law. It is worth noting that in this case one part of the joint venture "cannot make the other joint venturer liable for debts that they incur in the name of the joint venture, unless authorized under the joint venture agreement" (Cordato Partners, 2012). Thus, John cannot undertake a cost and then ask Fred to foot part of the bill. This is something that differentiates a joint venture from a partnership, and is worth taking into consideration, depending on how the two men expect to handle the operations and financing of the venture. This also makes joint ventures a little bit more complicated to manage than a partnership, because…
ATO. (2012). Partnership tax. Australiian Tax Office. Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://www.ato.gov.au/corporate/content.aspx?doc=/content/37484.htm&page=106
Cordato Partners. (2012). Joint ventures for real estate? Cordato Partners. Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://www.vendorfinancelawyer.com.au/joint_ventures.htm
Ernst & Young. (no date). The Australian tax landscape. Ernst & Young. Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/The_Australian_tax_landscape/$FILE/The_Aust_tax_landscape_JBS.pdf
Net Lawman. (2013). Choosing a legal structure for your business: Partnership. Net Lawman. Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://www.netlawman.com.au/info/partnerships-ins-and-outs-australia.php
3. SWOT Analysis
The SWOT analysis reveals the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats which are likely to affect the outcome of launching the electronic commerce at Blue Cut Fashion. The strengths and weaknesses derive from internal features and amongst others, may refer to financial highlights and previous expertise. The opportunities and threats are generated by the external environment and may refer to commercial trends and technological advancements. All these are presented in the following table:
Table 1: SWOT for e-commerce at Blue Cut Fashion
1. International recognition and favorable image on the market, facilitating as such the penetration of the online market
2. Blue Cut Fashion possesses sufficient financial resources to engage in an electronic commerce venture
3. The existent logistics system could be extended to cover the delivery of the online sold clothes and shoes
4. Blue Cut Fashion employs dedicated workers which produce high quality products…
Ghosh, Anup, K., 1998, E-Commerce Security: Weak Links, Best Defenses, 1st Edition, Wiley
Goel, Ritendra, 2007, e-Commerce, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow, U.P.
Korper, Steffano and Ellis, Juanita, 2000, the E-Commerce Book: Building the E-Empire, 2nd Edition, Morgan Kaufman
Rosen, Anita, 2002, the E-Commerce Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Business Managers, 2nd Edition, American Management Association
For instance, if a business is keenly aware of the manner in which different conditions are effecting business relationships, that businesses to work to make the appropriate changes.
Stages of Development
All relationships are governed by stages. Business relationships are no exception to this rule. There are various characteristics that businesses must be aware of as it pertains to each stage.
According to Brooks (2008) that are four primary stages of business relationship development. These four stages of development are as follows:
Emerging - getting familiar with one another with test transactions. These test transactions are both financial and non-financial (Brooks, 2008). During this stage first impressions are made and businesses can determine the reliability, quality of products/services and whether or not the cost of the product/service is equivalent to the cost of the product. This stage is critical because it establishes the type of relationship that the businesses will…
Barry, J.M., Dion P., Johnson W. (2008) A cross-cultural examination of relationship strength in B2B services. Journal of Services Marketing. 22/2 114 -- 135
Brooks, N. (2008, December 3). Building Strong Relationships - Four Stages of Development, Four Phases of Connection. Retrieved June 12, 2009, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Building-Strong-Relationships-Four-Stages-of-Development,-Four-Phases-of-Connection&id=1694468
Hakansson, H. And Snehota, I. (2006) No business is an island: The network concept of business strategy. Scandinavian Journal of Management
Volume 22, Issue 3, September 2006, Pages 256-270
The office and administrative expenses would remain constant even to that point, as would the insurance expense.
Exhibit B: Cash Flow Statement, Year Two
At this point, the business is earning a healthy return and Mr. Ahn is receiving will be able to bring in a reasonable salary. The nature of the business may well change at this point. At the maximum revenue of $144,000 per year the pretax profit would be $63,600. As a result, it is likely that a clinic will be formed with other practitioners in order to minimize expenses and increase profitability.
e did not include taxes in our cash flow examples because the company is going to be set up as a sole proprietorship. This means that the income from the company will be rolled into the income for Mr. Ahn, as well as his liabilities. Mr. Ahn's personal expenses are therefore not included in…
No author (2007). Traditional Chinese Medicine. Alternative Medicine Foundation. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.amfoundation.org/tcm.htm
No author (2005). Regulation of TCM in the United States. Medscape Today. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/511877_7
No author (2008). HIV / AIDS, the U.S.-China Partnership for Public Health at Work, and Traditional Chinese Medicine in the U.S. Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.hhs.gov/news/facts/chinahiv.html
Census information from U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
First of all, the Internet, as well as local press and articles, will be important in defining the general characteristics of the market and consumers. Subsequently, specialty articles, edited by business organizations such as the local Chamber of Commerce will provide useful information on all the companies in a certain economic sector, namely the company's direct competitors. Relevant information in terms of the consumers can also be available from public information.
The off-site category will likely provide more in-depth perspectives on local issues. This will include a survey of the local consumers through interviews and questionnaire, as well as the development of a local network of information that could provide helpful information on companies active on the local market and their potential future moves.
Organizational structure and resources
The unit will be organized on the two separate on site/off site categories, each led by a director. The two directors will…
1. What is competitive intelligence? On the Internet at http://www.aurorawdc.com/whatisci.htm.Last retrieved on October 25, 2007
2. Competitor Analysis - the Basic Principles of Competitive Intelligence. On the Internet at http://www.marketing-intelligence.co.uk/resources/competitor-analysis.htm.Last retrieved on October 25, 2007
3. Competitive Intelligence Handbook. On the Internet at http://www.combsinc.com/handbook.htm.Last retrieved on October 25, 2007
4. Kahaner, Larry. Competitive Intelligence: How to Gather, Analyze, and Use Information to Move Your Business to the Top. Touchstone. 1998.
Business Market of Airlines
What is the Business Market of an Airline Industry?
Business market has been defined as a market that is characterized by fewer customers and larger transactions. Customization is the key and the usage of the product or service determines its value. Brand name means little to customers and there is no retailing. Also, selling is a complex process and the target of the sales pitch may not always be the end product's users (NarayanDas 2005).
This kind of market is different from customer markets and, service is the cornerstone of business markets. The products are customized to meet the needs of different customers in different geographical or operational regions. Also, every company operating in a business market strives to attain customer loyalty though the means by which they create and sustain it varies between industries.
With regards to the airline industry, business markets determine many aspects…
Business Organization Coursework:
Mary and Joseph, stakeholders in Kings plc, are concerned about the company's management practices by its current directors. One of these recent practices includes the desire by these directors of Kings plc, which owned a hotel, to acquire two additional hotels. As a result, these directors created a subsidiary company for the sole purpose of acquiring the two hotels. In this new development, Kings plc could only acquire few shares of the new subsidiary whereas the directors and the company solicitor purchased the majority of the new subsidiary's shares. Therefore, the new subsidiary was eventually sold and the directors made significant profits. However, the shareholders of Kings plc i.e. Mary and Joseph want to know whether the directors were legally entitled to carry out such practices. These shareholders are specifically concerned with the legality of the directors' actions and the relevant legal sanctions against the directors, which…
Birds, J & Boyle, A.J 2011, Boyle and Birds on company law, 8th edn, Jordan's Publishing, St.
Thomas Street, Bristol.
Dignam, A 2011, Hicks and Goo's cases and materials on company law, 8th edn, Sweet & Marxwell, Avenue Road, London.
Hannigan, B 2012, Company law, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street,
However, often firms face dilemma: should they recall the product and suffer loss or should they be silent? An organization that takes its ethical responsibilities seriously would recall the products, because it knows that in the long-run, consumers will trust the company and will have high confidence with the company's responsibilities.
Another thing that management needs to consider is that traditionally belief of firm relies on a 'win and loss" strategy. That means, if a business gains benefit, someone else will bear the costs. However, in the present time, the philosophical outlook has changed, which relies on a "win/win" strategy. That means, if a firm that follows ethical rules seriously will win as well consumers win by buying the reliable products and services from the company.
ecognizing interdependence between business and society, therefore, becomes important for managers for clearly visualizing the role of the ethics for the organizations. By clearly…
Collins, John W. (1994) Is Businss Ethics an Oxymoron? Business Horizons (Sept-Oct).
Perhaps they're put off by the cracked floor tiles or the cobwebs on the headless, foam-rubber mannequins. Whatever the reason, the store's rock-bottom prices and helpful service clearly aren't pulling in many shoppers" (Fairlamb and Cohn, 2003).
After nearly a decade of trying to penetrate the German market, Wal-Mart counted its losses and exited Germany. A Wal-Mart spokesman argued that, despite the million dollar losses, the experience was a positive one as it represented a turning point and a lesson for the future. The lesson was that in spite of its national success, Wal-Mart is vulnerable in the international context (Lander and Barbaro, 2006). Similar situations are also encountered in Asia, and the question that is being posed here refers to the future strategies Wal-Mart could implement in order to reduce its vulnerability and increase its position in the global context.
Two recommendations are of vital importance when…
Fairlamb, D., Cohn, L., October 6, 2003, a Bumpy Ride in Europe, Business Week
Featherstone, L., December 16, 2002, Wal-Mart Values: Selling Women Short, the Nation, Vol. 275
Featherstone, L., June 28, 2004, Rollback Wages! Will Labor Take the Wal-Mart Challenge? The Nation, Vol. 278
Greenwald, R., (Director), 2005, Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price
This document contains legal advice made on request of Zmags, an Australian Holiday Brochure. Paper covers the customer law, contract law and other legal issues as found in the brochure for Coasts and Bays. The brochure claims to make the holidays 100% rejoicing for the clients and to offer them a lifetime experience. The brochure offers guidelines about the travel routes as well as the resorts. There are legal concerns involved in the advertisement made by any company. Often an advertisement campaign is too tempting or misleading that the customer's rights are violated. Australia has strict laws against the rights of customers that are almost universally applicable in all the states and regions of the country. The report advises what to include or exclude from the report to make it legally effective.
The consumer law of Australia generally bans all the misleading activities in the business…
1. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 2013, Retrieved from;
2. Bradbury, H.D., 2010, the Australian Consumer Law, Retrieved from:
The analysis of the scenario involves copying by hand devoid of utilizing excel formulae. The terminology 'What if ' scenarios mainly refer to the underlying base case of the numerical figures in the tables of the financial planning business model. It is significant to undertake checking of the entire changed cells that have altered back to their corresponding original numerical values prior to processing to a new 'What if '.
In order to aid Kitchenware Product in visualizing the underlying table that pertains to figures within the scenario 3,an individual require to draw a graph utilizing Excel's chart depicting the prevailing comparison of the corresponding profits for the diverse sales volumes taking note of the profit peak within year 3 (ARLOW, 2005, pp23-56). In the underlying report that pertains to every scenario's of net profit after tax is adequate. Nevertheless, in case there is complete spreadsheet details are demanded for…
BARLOW, J. (2005). Excel Models for Business and Operations Management. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=241134userid= ^u.
Barlow, J., 2005, Excel Models for Business and Operations Management, 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons
BOSLAUGH, S. (2012). Statistics in a nutshell. Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly Media.
Kirca, O., Koksalan, M., 1996, "An Integrated Production and Financial
Business Plan: Classic Clothes
Classic Clothes is a non-profit community service organization that services the public by providing free clothing and household products to women and children and distributing them through various agencies and programs that target these populations throughout London. Our services include providing coats, gloves, and business attire for women entering the workforce, school supplies, and basic household items for women and children at, or just-below the poverty line, or those identified as "at risk." Classic Clothes receives support from charities in the surrounding area and corporate sponsorships. Classic Clothes also solicits local organizations for donations, especially organizations that are in the clothing industry, business attire, and organizations that supply general household items.
According to statistics 25% of women in the UK live in poverty; 22% of women have persistently low income (osenblatt & ake, 2003). Single mothers and women are most at risk for poverty, requiring the…
"Care costs make 44% of women quit work." London Evening Standard. Retrieved August 8,
Nichols, Tim. (2011 May). CPAG Press Release: Child Poverty. Child Poverty Action Group.
Retrieved August 8, 2011:
At the same time, it helps to determine if these prices are increasing.
This is useful for management, because it helps them to determine if this decrease in prices will have an impact upon the overall bottom line. Once they have determined this, they can be able to take steps to protect the company's profit margin
This is important, because it highlights an effective tool that managers can use to address the underlying challenge they could face.
One of the assumptions underlying CVP analysis is that total costs remain constant over the relevant range of activity. What does this mean and how does fixed costs per unit per lamp unit change with increased production over the relevant range of activity? Provide your answer in about 200 words in the international memorandum mentioned below.
Subject: Fixed Cost per Unit
CVP production will help managers be able to effectively…
Contribution Margin, 2010, Dynamic Business Plan. Available from: [30 October 2010].
Contribution Margin Ratio, 2009, Accounting for Management. Available from: [30 October 2010].
Cost Volume Profit Analysis, 2010, Cliffs Notes. Available from: [30 October 2010].
Mehta, S, 2010, How to Calculate Cost Per Unit. Available from: [30 October 2010].
The objective of this work in writing is to examine the case study and to answer the three following questions based on the information provided and the relevant consumer laws governing such defective product purchases.
Paul Price is clearly concerned about the Tefal Actifry. Explain to Paul Price about his rights regarding the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (amended). In your answers you are required to refer to the relevant sections of the Sale of Goods Act (SOGA) and relevant case law. Assuming the shop where the purchase was made had included an exclusion clause limiting liability briefly explain whether the company could rely on this clause.
The Sale of Goods Act (1979) is applicable to contracts of sale of goods which is where the "seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a money consideration, called the price." (Sale of Goods…
Sale of Goods Act1979 (nd) The National Archives. Retrieved from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1979/54
Defective Products (2012) Consumer Issues. Retrieved from: http://www.enotes.com/consumer-issues-reference/defective-products
Panatol Corporation v. Emerson Electric Company No. 04-03-00547-CV (2005) Court of Appeals of Texas, San Antonio. 23 Mar 2005. Retrieved from: http://caselaw.findlaw.com/tx-court-of-appeals/1222310.html
Larson, Aaron (2005) Defective Products Law. Mar 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.attorneys-usa.com/products/products.html
Performance of the Top Four UK Supermarkets
The UK supermarket is dominated by four companies; Tesco, ASDA which is owned by alMart, Sainsbury and Morrison's. In 2011, the four firms combined had a 75.8% of the UK market (Fooddeserts.org, 2012). ith four firms controlling in excess of 75% of the market this is a highly concentrated market. The concentration has increased over the last decade; in 2002 the same four firms had only 64.8% of the market. Three out of the four firms have seen their market share increase over the since 2002, the only firm which lost market share, despite increasing sales significantly, was Sainsbury. Morrison's had the greatest increase with the acquisition of Safeway in 2003, this increased the market share, however, as part of the agreement Morrison's had to sell 52 of the Safeway stores following the acquisition, which is a factor in the decrease in…
WalMart, (2007), 10k, retrieved 16th June 2012 from http://investors.walmartstores.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=112761&p=IROL-secToc&TOC=aHR0cDovL2lyLmludC53ZXN0bGF3YnVzaW5lc3MuY29tL2RvY3VtZW50L3YxLzAwMDExOTMxMjUtMDctMDY1NjAzL3RvYy9wYWdl&ListAll=1
WalMart, (2009), 10k, retrieved 16th June 2012 from http://investors.walmartstores.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=112761&p=IROL-secToc&TOC=aHR0cDovL2lyLmludC53ZXN0bGF3YnVzaW5lc3MuY29tL2RvY3VtZW50L3YxLzAwMDExOTMxMjUtMTEtMDgzMTU3L3RvYy9wYWdl&ListAll=1&sXBRL=1
WalMart, (2012), 10k, retrieved 16th June 2012 from http://investors.walmartstores.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=112761&p=IROL-secToc&TOC=aHR0cDovL2lyLmludC53ZXN0bGF3YnVzaW5lc3MuY29tL2RvY3VtZW50L3YxLzAwMDExOTMxMjUtMTItMTM0Njc5L3RvYy9wYWdl&ListAll=1&sXBRL=1
For most of us, dealing with money has been altered by technology. Most of us use money out of ATM's or we pay bills with online banking just as easily as we change channels on a television. Obviously printing presses and paper cutters create our physical money, but how is the idea of money really created? Do banks and laws really make the idea of money? This essay evaluates the efforts of the Federal eserve System, often called the Fed, in terms of regulating the money creation of financial institutions?
Congress passed the Federal eserve Act near Christmas in 1913 and that established the Federal eserve Banks and also created a more elastic currency and established new legal controls over the commercial banking industry. The Federal eserve is the central bank of the United States and is made up of 12 regional Federal eserve banks that are overseen…
Cisco Systems. (2009)." E-marketing." Retrieved on November 23, 2009, from http://www.cisco.com/ .
FED. (2009). "Structure: Responsibilities." Retrieved on November 23, 2009, from http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/frseries/frseri.htm
Mishkin, Frederic S.. (2002). "The Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial Markets." 6th ed.. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
Business innovation and enterprise -- Innovation in China
The buzzword of today is represented by the internationalized economic crisis which has commenced from within the American real estate sector and soon expanded to impact all sectors across the entire globe. Before the emergence of the crisis however, the buzzword was that of globalization, understood as the process by which boundaries between states are gradually eliminated and the values, beliefs, cultures and resources of one region can easily transcend to another region.
Globalization has impacted all aspects of life, from the means in which one spends their leisure time to the means in which one completes their professional tasks. Globalization has generated effects on all fields of life, from politics, to economics and culture.
Within the business community, globalization has translated into a myriad of impacts. For once, the phenomenon allowed economic agents to transcend boundaries and benefit from the comparative…
Ashton, A., 2010, 7 technologies where China has the U.S. beat, GreenBiz, http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2010/12/07/7-technologies-where-china-has-us-beat last accessed on November 8, 2011
Chang-Rong, K., Fu-Yu, L., 2011, Cultural innovation industry exports talent to China, Want China Times, http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt.aspx?cid=1504&MainCatID=15&id=20110207000010 last accessed on November 8, 2011
Li, W., 2011, Applying Grey relational analysis to evaluate the factors affecting innovation capability: evidence from Chinese high-tech industries, Canadian Social Science, Vol. 7, No. 3
Lin, C.Y., 2007, Factors affecting innovation in logistics technologies for logistics service providers in China, Journal of Technology Management in China, Vol. 2, No. 1