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C. By Michael Shively (June, 2005), the first hate crime laws were enacted during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. The first states to pass hate crime legislation were Oregon and ashington in 1981. The first federal hate crime legislation, Shively explains, was debated in 1985, and the first federal statute related to hate crimes was the Hate Crimes Statistics Act, passed in 1990. Subsequent to that Act, other pieces of legislation have passed: the Hate Crime Sentencing Enhancement Act; the Violence Against omen Act of 1998; the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1994; and the Equal Rights and Equal Dignity for Americans Act of 2003 (Shively, 3).
[Presently, in the week of April 23-27, 2012, a debate in the U.S. Senate regarding the reauthorization of the Violence Against omen Act shows how politics, ideology, and bias within the United States Congress can interfere with hate crime laws. Since the Violence…
Altschiller, Donald. (2005). Hate Crimes: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA:
Associated Press. (2008). Ten Years Later: Dragging Death Changes Town: Horrific Killing
of black man in Texas jolted nation. MSNBC.com. Retrieved April 23, 2012, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com .
Hate Crime Analysis Select group population target a hate crime ( selection start paper) rite a word analysis: • Provide a description specific factors serve basis victimization;, race, religion, sexual orientation • Identify applicable specific case examples.
hen considering hate in general, it appears that human beings are vulnerable to being influenced to discriminate others. Even though many have little to no reasons to discriminate against other groups, these people feel that it would only be normal for them to act in agreement with stereotypes and typically refrain from trying to act in disagreement with the majority. Hate is obviously something that people learn from others and it is important for society to devise strategies meant to educate individuals with regard to the attitudes that they need to employ toward stereotypes.
Specific factors that serve as basis for discrimination
Jewish individuals have been subjected to hate crimes for more than…
Allen, Peter, "Jewish schoolboy, 12, beaten up in latest anti-Semitic attack to hit France... As school where Islamic terrorist Merah killed four receives hate mail," Retrieved January 30, 2013, from the MailOnline Website: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2121571/Jewish-schoolboy-12-attacked-hate-crime-school-terrorist-Mohammed-Merah-killed-receives-hate-mail.html
Kingkade, Tyler, "Zachary Tennen, Michigan State Jewish Student, Victim Of Alleged Hate Crime At Weekend Party," Retrieved January 30, 2013, from the HuffingtonPost Website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/28/zachary-tennen-michigan-state-attacked-stapled_n_1836829.html#slide=more235997
Rose, Or N., Green Kaiser, Jo Ellen, and Klein, Margie, "Righteous Indignation: A Jewish Call for Justice," (Jewish Lights Publishing, 15.11.2009)
Streissguth, Thomas, "Hate Crimes," (Infobase Publishing, 2009)
Hate crimes incidents occur nationally between 6,000 and 8,000 times annually, and many be increased by traumatic national events. Hate crime rates spiked in 2001, but have steadily decreased since then, though hate crimes between religious groups have increased slightly. Most offenders are young and act more out of personal sentiment than organizational strategy, which may be why hate crimes in Pennsylvania are mainly centered around the two big cities of Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. Nationally hate crimes occur across the board and affect all races and most demographics, however in Lycoming county at least hate crimes do not appear to pose a significant reported problem.
ithin the last decades, criminal law has delineated a new subset of crime: the hate crime. Hate crimes are defined as any crime "committed against individuals or groups or property based on the real or perceived race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, disability, national…
APA. (1998) Hate Crimes Today: An Age-Old Foe In Modern Dress. Psychology Examines the Issues. [WWW.document].URL http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/hate/
CFPA (2003) Hate Crime Prevention. Center for POlicy Alternatives. [WWW.document].URL
HRC (2003) 2002 FBI Hate Crimes Statistics. Background Information. Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/Content/NavigationMenu/HRC/Get_Informed/Issues/Hate_Crimes1/Background_Information5/2002_FBI_Hate_Crimes_Statistics.htm
In the case of an extreme situation, such as the death or near death of another, intentionality is a clear indicator of culpability and should be constitutionally supported. The constitution is a litmus of the culture and open violation of the intentions of the constitution, i.e. To protect the rights of all should be an allowable designation for increased sanctions against those who perpetrate such crime.
Pros and Cons of Hate Crime Legislation:
The constitutionality of hate crime laws has been challenged almost since their inception, as the idea that a crime perpetrated to racial intent should not be considered any more heinous than one perpetrated against another, say for monetary gain. If the act is one of violence then according to a purely legalistic approach the acts are equal and should be treated as such. Yet, intention is often an aspect of legislation and rulings, one example is the…
Brooks, T.D. (1994). First Amendment - Penalty Enhancement for Hate Crimes: Content Regulation, Questionable State Interests and Non-Traditional Sentencing. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 84(4), 703-742.
Grattet, R., & Jenness, V. (2001). Examining the Boundaries of Hate Crime Law: Disabilities and the "Dilemma of Difference." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 91(3), 653.
Grattet, S.P. (2000). Judicial Rhetoric, Meaning-Making, and the Institutionalization of Hate Crime Law. Law & Society Review, 34(3), 567-606.
Hamm, M.S. (1994). American Skinheads the Criminology and Control of Hate Crime. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
3. 42 U.S.C.S. 13981 - the Violence Against Women Act of 1994
IV. Famous Hate Crimes
Matthew Shepard was attacked and killed by ussell Henderson and Aaron McKinney on October 12, 1998. The attack was motivated by Shepard's homosexuality.
The case brought national attention to the issue of hate crimes.
Shepard's killers were convicted of murder, but not charged with a hate crime because there was no Wyoming hate crime legislation at that time.
Brandon Teena was raped on December 24, 1993, and later murdered on December 31, 1993 by John Lotter and Marvin Nissen. Their attacks were motivated by Brandon's transgender status.
The story was the subject of the movie "Boys Don't Cry."
The criminal cases against the defendants are ongoing.
1) Pled to being an accessory and testified against Lotter.
2) eceived a life sentence.
3) Appealed his sentence.
4) ecanted his testimony against Lotter on…
Anti-Defamation League. (2006). Hate crime laws: federal initiatives. Retrieved January 29, 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League.
Web site: http://www.adl.org/99hatecrime/federal.asp
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2008). Hate crime. Retrieved January 29, 2008 from the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Levin (1992, cited in Nolan & Akiyama, 1999) notes that police officers tend to identify crimes based on the severity of injury or the magnitude of property damage and not on the basis of motive.
There are many thinkers and writers that question the legitimacy of hate or bias crime laws on the basis that they violate a fundamental democratic principle by punishing individuals for their prejudiced thoughts and beliefs (Altman, 2001). The assumption is that the defendant had a bias motive for committing the offense and the motive consists solely of the defendant's thought. (Gellman, 1992). Therefore, it has been argued that bias crime laws are illegitimate because they punish motive. In addition, the fact that complicates things further is that the motive is inextricably tied to a certain set on political values and attitudes. Other writers have recognized that hate crime is a social construct, focusing on prejudice…
Report of Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes, Retrieved at http://caag.state.ca.us/publications/civilrights/reportingHC.pdf
Gerstenfeld, P.B. (2004). Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies, Sage Publications Inc.
Nolan, J.J., Y. Akiyama. (1999). Analysis of Factors That Affect Law Enforcement Participation in Hate Crime Reporting. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 15:1, February 1999, 111-127.
Gellman, S. (1992). Hate Crime Laws are Thought Crime Laws, Annual Survey of American Law, No.3, pp. 514-515
Hate Crimes in the United States
Despite the fact that the United States has grown generally more tolerant and more accepting, hate crimes have been on the rise in many cities in the United States, particularly in California, New York, New Jersey, Michigan, and Massachusetts (Partners against Hate, 2003). This does not necessarily reflect an overall increase in crime. In fact, it may not even reflect an increase in actual hate crimes, but might reflect a greater awareness and reporting of crimes. This is because hate crimes are based upon regular crimes. In fact, a hate crime is a "traditional offense like murder, arson, or vandalism with an added element of bias" (FBI, 2013). These crimes can include petty crimes like vandalism to violent crimes like rape and murder. Therefore, these crimes have long been being committed with bias as a motive, but only being reported as the underlying offense.…
The Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Hate crime- overview. Retrieved February 1,
2013 from: http://www.fbi.gov /about-us/investigate/civilrights/hate_crimes/overview
Partners against Hate . (2003). Frequently asked questions about hate crimes and hate on the internet. Retrieved February 1, 2013 from Partners against Hate website:
The trend of media coverage and reporting has taken a stereotypical and racist dimension over the years and hence having a bias on some of the races. This is in particular reference to the crime rate and crime coverage. It has been an observed trend that crimes committed by African-Americans on whites are not given as much coverage and emphasis as those committed by whites against the African-Americans, though they could be of equal seriousness and driven by the same motive and produced same results.
This can be said to be some racial stereotype, which is a fixed belief or idea that most people have about a given group of people or particular person or a given thing, though it may not be necessarily true or based on reality (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2011). These are social constructs that evolve over a long period of time and engrave…
Loompanics Unlimited, (2001). The Hate Crimes You Don't Hear About. Retrieved December
2, 2011 from http://www.loompanics.com/Articles/hatecrimes.html
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, (2011). Definition and Pronunciation: stereotype.
Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/dictionary/stereotype_1
Hate Crime Enhancements -- Two Sides of the Argument
This project represents the evolution of opinion as a function of the process of a strictly academic exercise. At the outset of the project, the writer maintained a specific belief: namely, that hate crime enhancement policies are fundamentally unjustified. It was the process of formulating a counterargument to the writer's position that ultimately resulted in a change of opinion. The writer is now of the opinion that hate crime enhancement is a policy that is justified in principle and not substantially different from various other types of distinctions made in American civil and criminal law with respect to the consideration of motivation as an element of moral responsibility and criminal culpability.
The Argument against Hate Crime Enhancement Legislation
One of the main purposes of law is to encourage behaviors that are beneficial to the many members of society and to discourage…
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Laycock, D. (2011). Religious Liberty (Volume Two): The Free Exercise Clause. Grand Rapids, MI W.B. Eerdmans.
Menand, L. (2001). The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America. New York, NY:
Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
It is a generalization based on biased or insufficient information, which creates stereotypes. Moreover, generalizations are based on emotions, making them difficult to change even with evidence to the contrary. Stereotypes represent a set of ideas based on distortion, exaggeration, and oversimplification that are applied to all members of a group. As a result, a mental paradigm is created to justify unethical behavior against minority groups. Surprisingly, people who do not fit the stereotype are still categorized because it is easier justify the prejudice than to reexamine their way of thinking. It is important to note that one who is prejudice does not necessarily lead to discrimination. In contrast, racism is an extreme form of prejudice that assumes superiority of one group over another; it is extreme because not only it not only unfairly judges one group, but it assumes one group is superior to another. Hence, racists believe that…
esponse to Bias-Motivated Violence
In the last three decades or so, nearly all American states have adopted a minimum of one statute, regarding a regulation for "hate crime." Such laws have assumed numerous forms, which include (C219 Lesson 9: Social Control -- Law Enforcement and Legal ecourse ):
• Laws prescribing criminal punishment for violation of civil rights;
• Specific "malicious harassment" and "ethnic intimidation" laws; and • Provisions of greater penalties in related laws already enacted for commission of an extant offense for prejudicial or bias reasons.
Several state statutes forbid organizational vandalism, religious objects' disfigurement or sacrilege, disturbance of or interference with religious worship, wearing masks or hoods, cross burning, distribution of ads and publications aimed at harassing specific groups in society, and secret society establishment (C219 Lesson 9: Social Control -- Law Enforcement and Legal ecourse ).
Social Control of Hate Crimes
Law enforcers at…
C219 Lesson 9: Social Control -- Law Enforcement and Legal Recourse . (n.d.).
U.S. Department of Justice. Hate Crime -- CRS -- Department of Justice. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from http://www.justice.gov/crs/hate-crime
Hate Crimes Against African-Americans
The media has lots of potential to be agents of positive change in the society. One of the aspects that the media can easily put a tight grip on, for change, is stereotyping. Unfortunately, the same media has been implicated in the court of public opinion as being supportive of stereotypes. There is a host of factors and methods adopted by the media that help to promote such stereotyping (HOFFMANN, 22). Indeed, a lot of images of African-Americans and similar minorities are widely shaped by media. This essay explores how the media has portrayed African-Americans with regard to hate crimes against this minority group in the USA. It also seeks to examine how the media has interpreted the scenario included and how it portrays it to the public. There is a further search to establish how the general public reacts to the media portrayals of hate…
Dijk, Teun A. Racism and the Press van, Routledge, 1991. London and New York. Web.
HOFFMANN, GREGG. RACIAL STEREOTYPING IN THE NEWS: Some General Semantics Alternatives, Et cetera, (1991). 22-30. Web.
Indra, Doreen M. The Invisible Mosaic: Women, Ethnicity and the Vancouver Press, 1905-1976, Canadian Ethnic Studies, 13:1. (1981), 63-74. Web.
Jiwani, Yasmin. Racism and the Media, Canadian Anti-Racism Education and Research (n.d.). Web.
hate crime" and discuss a research question regarding the term. Hate crimes are crimes against individuals or groups based on hatred or non-acceptance of their race, religious beliefs, or other issues. Are hate crimes protected as "free speech" by the First Amendment?
Hate crimes can be defined differently by each state with laws against hate crimes. These experts, James B. Jacobs and Jessica S. Henry, define hate crimes as "a crime against persons or property motivated in whole or in part by racial, ethnic, religious, gender, sexual orientation and other prejudices" (Jacobs and Henry). Because hate crimes can fall under different definitions, they can also be interpreted differently. One large question regarding hate crimes is their relationship to the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees free speech to all Americans. Are hate crimes simply a First Amendment issue, or do they go much farther than free speech in…
Anderson, James F., Laronistine Dyson, and Willie Brooks. "Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders." The Western Journal of Black Studies 26.3 (2002): 140+.
Brooks, Thomas D. "First Amendment - Penalty Enhancement for Hate Crimes: Content Regulation, Questionable State Interests and Non-Traditional Sentencing." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 84.4 (1994): 703-742.
Jacobs, James B., and Jessica S. Henry. "The Social Construction of a Hate Crime Epidemic." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 86.2 (1996): 366-391.
criminal transgressions that are selected in hate crime laws contain, but are not restricted to, delinquencies against persons like aggravation, terroristic coercions, assault and criminalities against possessions or property like criminal trespass, criminal disruption and incendiarism. It may also comprise of defacement causing destruction to a church, synagogue, graveyard, morgue, and honoring to the dead, school, educational institution, other public buildings, courthouse, or any personal property situated within such spaces. This research papers highlights what is a hate crime, how states may vary in terms of designation of a hate crime and the impact it has on society. The main focus of this paper is to show what happens when designations becomes part of hate crime policy and action against hate crimes.
A hate crime, typically defined by state law, encompasses acts of violence such as: terrorizations, aggravation, or bodily harm and is driven by preconception against someone's race,…
FRANKLIN, K. (2002). Good Intentions the Enforcement of Hate Crime Penalty-Enhancement Statutes. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), 154-172. Doi: 10.1177/0002764202046001010
Jacobs, J.B., & Potter, K. (1998). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
It has also been suggested that, in effect, this equality is relatively meaningless, because non-minorities are so much more rarely the victims of hate crimes, and that, therefore, these laws protect and benefit minorities more than they protect or benefit non- minorities. Ironically, the accurate analysis of this observation is precisely backwards:
the fact that minorities are so much more likely to be targeted by racially motivated crimes is hardly a reason to consider the laws that criminalize such conduct "unfair" to non-minorities. If anything, that reality only reinforces the absolute need for laws that prohibit racially motivated crimes. The fact of the matter is that minorities are much more likely to be the victims of racial hatred than are non-minorities, and that non- minorities are more often the perpetrators of racially motivated crimes than are individuals from minority backgrounds. Certainly, there are instances of racially motivated crimes perpetrated by…
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little Brown
Friedman, L.M. (2005)
History of American Law. New York: Touchstone
Miller, a.R. (1990) Miller's Court. New York: Plume
The rise in the instances of hate crimes in liberal democracies is disturbing and it cries out for a better understanding as to why it occurs -- and what to do about it. hat are the potential solutions to the ugly specter of hateful acts against people because of their ethnicity, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, nationality, the color of their skin or their gender? This paper reviews the literature relative to the best ideas and proposals for identifying the root causes that produce hate crimes. Argument: hate crimes can be reduced through education, by paying close attention to bigoted conspiracy theories, and by infiltrating extremist / hate groups.
Original Issue -- Initial Solutions
Erik Bleich writes in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies that in order to try and stem the tide of racist and other hateful public pronouncements against individuals or groups, several European countries passed…
Bleich, E. (2011). The Rise of Hate Speech and Hate Crime Laws in Liberal Democracies.
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(6), 917-934.
Cable News Network. (2009). Obama signs hate crimes bill into law. Retrieved March 16, 2014,
from http://www.cnn.com .
Hate crimes are crimes involving a person targeted because of their disability, belief/religion, transgender identity, sexual orientation, or race/ethnicity. Hate crimes can also be committed against property. A good example of this is a burning cross on a front lawn. The reality is hate crimes can be committed against anyone and although hate incidents are not crimes, they can easily escalate into crimes. By working with law enforcement and collecting evidence, a hate incident may be prevented from turning into a hate crime.
Hate crime is not as common as it used to be in the United States. Hate crimes were most common during the Civil Rights era when racism was common in the United States. Hate crimes were also commonplace when before the gay rights movement took shape with several highly publicized incidents appearing on the news like the Matthew Shepherd murder and the murder of a trans man…
Blazak, Randy and Barbara Perry. Hate Crimes. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2009. Print.
FBI,. "Latest Hate Crime Statistics Available." FBI. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 May 2016.
Partners against Hate,. "Frequently Asked Questions About Hate Crimes and Hate On The Internet." Partnersagainsthate.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 May 2016.
Hate Crimes in the United States
The rate of hate crimes in the United States has continued to increase in the recent past despite the decline in the number of hate crime groups throughout the country. There are numerous sources of data that provide significant insights regarding hate crime in America including official and official data. The federal government usually collects and publishes official information regarding hate crimes while other organizations provide unofficial data on these crimes depending on various factors. Generally, hate crime in the U.S. is classified into religious hate crimes, sexual orientation hate crimes, racial/ethnic hate crimes, gender identity hate crimes, and disability hate crimes.
According to Ingraham (2015), the rate of hate crimes in the United States have remained stable in the past decade with the total number of reported hate crimes ranging between 200,000 and 300,000 cases during this period. However, the number of active…
Ingraham, C. (2015, June 18). The Ugly Truth About Hate Crimes -- in 5 Charts and Maps. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/5-charts-show-the-stubborn-persistence-of-american-hate-crime/
The Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2015, November 16). Latest Hate Crime Statistics Available. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2015/november/latest-hate-crime-statistics-available
ole of the Law Enforcement Community
The ole of the Law Enforcement Community in Combatting Hate Crimes
Hate crimes are a form of domestic terrorism. They send the poisonous message that some Americans deserve to be victimized solely because of who they are. Like other acts of terrorism, hate crimes have an impact far greater than the impact on the individual victims. They are crimes against entire communities, against the whole nation, and against the fundamental ideals on which America was founded. They are a violation of all our country stands for. -- Senator Edward Kennedy, emarks on the Matthew Shepard Act (September 25, 2007)
The epigraph above is a useful description of the monumental impact that hate crimes can have on American society and underscores the importance of the law enforcement community in combatting these crimes. Although there were some high-profile hate crimes committed in the immediate…
Brunker, M., Alba, M. & Dedmon, B. (2014, April 16). Hate crime in America by the numbers. NBCNews. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/jewish-center-shootings/snapshot-hate-crime-america-numbers-n81521 .
Dredge, P. (2009, October 19). Justice Department lends a hand to police in fight against hate crimes. Nation's Cities Weekly, 21(42), 3-5.
Heriot, G. (2009, May 15). Double jeopardy; hate-crimes bill invites prosecutorial abuse. The Washington Times, 18.
Issacs, T. (2007, Summer-Fall). Domestic violence and hate crimes: Acknowledging two levels of responsibility. Criminal Justice Ethics, 20(2), 31-35.
Perpetrators of hate crimes target their victims based on their perceived membership of particular social groups. These groups can be based on religion, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation and gender identity. Hate crimes are not basically about hate .The case provided is about three brothers who were accused of attacking and beating a gay man. This particular hate crime is based on the sexual orientation of the man. There are various theories from different disciplines that can be used to explain hate crimes like the one these three brothers were accused of. One such theory is the social learning theory. Social learning theory suggests that criminal behavior is modeled from others. It suggests that criminal behavior is learnt through observation of the actions of other people at the cognitive level. The theory suggests that the attitude that a person has towards the 'out-group's can be influenced by various factors…
Elias, N. & Hall, N. (2009). Hate Crime. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/academic/icjs/staff/documentation/filetodownload,124985,en.pdf
Kimpan, M. (2012). FBI Report: Hate Crimes Against Gays Outnumber those Against Religion. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.redletterchristians.org/fbi-report-hate-crimes-against-gays-outnumber-those-against-religion/
FBI. (2013). Hate crimes. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.fbi.gov /about-us/investigate/civilrights/hate_crimes
hate crime theories and address how the theories can account for aspects pertaining to hate crimes.
Why Do People Do Hate Crime
A majority of sociological hate crime accounts are aimed at one out of two points: "socially disintegrated people's anomic outburst" or, alternately, "the solidaristic response of a group or community that feels, or is, threatened." As sociologists deal with social structure, hate crime accounts typically indicate transformations in societal structure's features, including economic slumps, sudden social transformation, societal disorganization, or some form of social threats that, in general, result in violence, and, in particular, bring about bias-driven violence (Social Context Macro Level Theories ). For understanding the meaning of societal structure changes, and how social disorganization, particularly, can trigger an environment wherein individuals attack one another, one needs to examine certain works in sociology that endeavor to elucidate the conditions for individuals' engagement in hate crime or bias-based…
Conceptualizing Hate Crime
Social Context Macro Level Theories
My Views on Hate Crimes
Although hate crime is often associated with some sort of violent crime motivated by a desire to hurt a group or person based on that group or person’s identity, Green, McFalls and Smith (2001) admit that hate crime is actually difficult “to define, measure and explain” (p. 479). The reason for the difficulty is that hate, in the obvious sense of a person persecuting another because the other person is different, is not always so explicitly manifested or expressed in the crime. In fact, it could be said that at some level hate is the motive behind all crime—hate for the state, hate for society, hate for the law, hate for one’s neighbor, hate for God, or even hate for one’s self. To make it even more complicated, Chakraborti and Garland (2009) argue that “hate crimes are not crimes in which the offender simply hates the victim, and in…
Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J. (2009). Hate crime: Impact, causes and responses. Sage Publications.
Green, D. P., McFalls, L. H., & Smith, J. K. (2001). Hate crime: An emergent research agenda. Annual review of sociology, 27(1), 479-504.
Spruill, L. (2020). Warren family returns home few months after hate crime incident. Retrieved from https://www.clickondetroit.com/news/local/2020/11/27/warren-family-returns-home-few-months-after-hate-crime-incident/
Media Presentation of Hate Crimes Against African-Americans: Annotated Bibliography
Baum, M., Potter, P. he relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: oward a theoretical synthesis. Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65. Web.
Potter and Baum's paper firstly assesses the wide-ranging advances in academic knowledge with regard to foreign policy and public opinion in the course of the last decades, placing emphasis on comparatively recent researches. Subsequently, the authors propose a structure, on the basis of the market equilibrium principle, designed to synthesize the unconnected research programs which make up the literature pool on foreign policy and public opinion. For achieving this, the authors integrate mass media -- a third key strategic player -- that, in their opinion, has a crucial part to play, together with leaders and ordinary citizens, in influencing public outlook towards, and power over, foreign policy, besides considering the leader-public relationship. hey…
This research work specifically explores game "enemies" and the extent of violence players inflict upon these virtual enemies. Findings reveal that most games scrutinized fostered conflict and intense violence toward Jews and Blacks. In the games Selepak studied, players were meant to brutally slay, dismember, and injure minorities for proceeding forward. These games were, typically, adapted classic video game versions wherein racial, ethnic, and religious minority characters replaced the original enemy characters. The study indicates that radical and hate websites offer video games aimed at indoctrinating players holding white supremacist beliefs, enabling racists to practice aggression against minorities. This can, subsequently, have a bearing on their interactions in the real world.
Mastro, Dana, Maria Knight Lapinski, Maria A. Kopacz, and Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz. The Influence of Exposure to Depictions of Race and Crime in TV News on Viewer's Social Judgments, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, (2009), 615-635. Web.
Mastro and colleagues' two-study experiment makes use of a group-centered priming structure for exploring the link of exposure to TV news depictions connecting violence and race to viewers' actual racial views. The first study's outcomes suggest that viewers' gender as well as the news suspect's racial identity have an influence on successive judgments, including victim and criminal attributions. The second research provides fairly consistent outcomes, suggesting, further, that the suspect's racial identity greatly impacts attitudes towards the Black community in the wider society, outside of the mediated situation.
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…
Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp
Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.
Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp
Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
Crime and Deviance
Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.
Theories of Crime and Deviance
Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…
Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved
Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/
Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
Hate Groups, Hate Crimes, and acism in the U.S. today
The problem of hate groups that perpetuate the hate crimes has been a challenge in the U.S. not only in the present times, but has existed from the times of the WWI with groups like the Ku Klux Klan emerged (FBI, 2014). Since the 1980s, there have been several hate groups that have emerged which have perpetuated heinous have crimes that mostly border on the race specific targets, as is the case with skinheads and the likes. As the world changes and the technology takes over the communication and information platforms, the hate crimes have been escalated to the internet with groups having inclination towards racism using the social media and internet to carry on their hate speeches and even organize hate crimes. The ever changing nature of such groups and the adverse effects that such groups forms…
FBI, (2014). Hate Crimes Add an Element of Bias to Traditional Crimes -- and the Mixture is Toxic to Our Communities. Retrieved February 16, 2015 from http://www.fbi.gov /about-us/investigate/civilrights/hate_crimes
moral panic, especially with regard to those who are transgender in the society.
The Moral Panic of Transgender
The Grassroots Model describes moral panic as that which arises from a society's spontaneous reaction to what the society perceived to be morally deviant behavior. The deviance is perceived to be a danger to the society's moral fiber and this creates a lot of stress, which can lead to anger. This stress may not have an avenue to be expressed directly (Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs, n.d.). When the displacement of these anxieties happens, there may be direction of the same to the social deviants as they are regarded as the cause of all this. Kai Erickson, in her book 'the Wayward Puritans', demonstrates this when she relates how the people of Massachusetts Bay Colony went back to witch-hunting as a way to direct the anxiety that arose from social deviance.
Abowd-Chicago, M. (2013, November 5). Futurity: Research News from Top Universities. How transgender policy sets off 'gender panic' - Futurity. Retrieved December 4, 2015, from http://www.futurity.org/transgender-news-can-spark-gender-panic/
Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs Document (n. d.)
U.S. PDF Document (n. d.).
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…
Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf
Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:
1990, United States government passed the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. This mandated that state, local and federal law enforcement agencies report data on crimes that reflected a bias against a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, and/or ethnicity/national origin. Several years later, people with disabilities were added to this list. Data collection was placed under the auger of the FBI, which complied by publishing an annual report through its Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. This program started to publish a review of national hate crimes in 1990 entitled Hate Crime Statistics, 1990: A Resource Book. By 1992, the publication reflected the reported data of all states. Because certain states, such as Wisconsin, penalize perpetrators more for the same crime if the motivation for that crime is thought to be categorical hatred, statistics reflect the opinions of law enforcement agencies.
Because of this wealth of new data, in addition to the data…
victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.
Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.
Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways.…
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Retrieved online: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245
Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. & Cogan, J.C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67(6), Dec 1999, 945-951
Ybarra, L.M.R. & Lohr, S.L. (2002). Estimates of repeat victimization using the national crime victimization survey. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 18(1).
ising U.S. Crime ate
Crime in the United States
Crime in the United States took a sharp uptick starting in the middle of the 20th century but has actually leveled off since then, at least for the most part. However, even with the moderation in crime, especially in larger cities that have traditionally been problematic, crime in some cities is still alarmingly high and there are some cultural and social trends that are becoming more and more prevalent and, by extension, more commonly talked about as well. This essay will explore a couple of the more notorious examples of this in motion.
One study conducted for this research noted that predicting the crime rate at any given point in time can be exceedingly maddening to predict because of how a single happenstance or course of events can have a massive effect on the overall rates. The study uses…
Burdett, K., Lagos, R., & Wright, R. (2003). Crime, Inequality, and Unemployment.
American Economic Review, 93(5), 1764-1777.
Carrington, K. (2006). Does Feminism Spoil Girls? Explanations for Official Rises in Female Delinquency. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Criminology
(Australian Academic Press), 39(1), 34-53.
5. Police and department decisions play a major role in the reliability and validity of hate crime data because they are the ones who classify and define hate crimes, and then send the data to the UCR. If a police department has very vague or confusing classifications and definitions, they may not report all hate crimes, or even recognize certain crimes as hate crimes. In that case, the crimes are underreported or even ignored, and the department is responsible for this. In addition, departments may fear their own self-preservation if they report too many hate crimes, so, they underreport them to "preserve" the department. For example, studies show that prosecutions are rare in hate crime cases, so departments may feel that reporting a hate crime will result in little justice in the justice system, and so, they will not report the crime as a hate crime. In addition, often violence…
According to case law, "an infamous crime against nature" is sodomy (Yoshino, 2002). We can see here, again, a modern shift from common law with the inclusion of sodomy as a possible element of felony assault. Over the course of time, Idaho lawmakers clearly saw a need to include such a "crime" within their definitions.
While it is obvious that Idaho case law has changed over time with society with such inclusions as abortion, the death or injury of a fetus, and sodomy, it is equally clear more alterations are needed. The addition of the element of "ability" in the definition of assault (IC 18-901) may need clarification. While the addition is needed to create distinction between assault and threats, the term alone is subjective. This creates ambiguity within the definition, creating the possibility of incorrect application of the law.
Another alteration may need to be a further defining of…
American Heritage Dictionary. (2003). Common law. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Idaho Statutes, chapter 18, 18-901-18-910.
Jacobs, J.B. & Potter, K. (2001). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kirland v. State, 43 Ind. 146, 154, 1873.
Because of its cosmopolitan sensibilities, many of us forget that New York City also harbors hate groups. Yet according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's "hate map," 44 groups from the KKK to jihadist groups operate in the city. Some of these groups are overtly hate-filled, like the KKK, but others operate more covertly, like Castle Hill Publishers, whose leader has been an avowed holocaust denier. Because some of these groups were previously unknown to me, I decided to focus on one that might have gone unrecognized for what it is: the Alamo Christian Foundation. Typically a Christian organization should not be a hate group but the Southern Poverty Law Center shows how and why the Alamo Christian Foundation preaches "general hate."
The Alamo Christian Foundation (Tony Alamo Christian Ministries) appears to have a platform that includes conspiracy theories of all types, related to UFOs and government infiltration…
Evaluation of the Federal Bureau of Investigations Uniform Crime eporting ProgramEstablished in 1908, the current stated mission of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is to protect the American people and uphold the Constitution of the United States (Our vision and mission, 2021, para. 2). To achieve this vital mission, the FBI investigates a wide range of domestic crimes, including white-collar, organized and violent crimes, among others. One of the key strategies that the FBI uses to fight these types of crimes is their Uniform Crime eporting Program which can identify important trends to help the organization focus its efforts where they are most needed. To gain a better understanding of these tools, the purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation of the FBIs Uniform Crime eporting Program websites resources on crime and victimization, including a description of these online resources, the UL where they can be located…
ReferencesOur vision and mission. (2021). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from https://www. fbi.gov/about/mission.
Social science researchers can use either qualitative or quantitative strategies to develop informed and timely answers to their research questions, but these two approaches involve analyzing fundamentally different data sets. On the one hand, qualitative researchers can use various methods such as case studies, ethnographic studies, phenomenological studies, grounded theory, narrative and/or content analyses (Neuman, 2009). On the other hand, social science researchers can use quantitative strategies such as observational studies, correlational research, experimental, quasi-experimental and survey designs (Neuman, 2009). While both qualitative and quantitative research questions seek to gain new insights into a given phenomenon, there are also basic differences between the types of data that are used.
By definition, quantitative research involves the analysis of numeric data in some form while qualitative research uses words, graphics and other data to formulate answers to guiding research questions (Neuman, 2009). These differences mean that designing a research question from a…
Media Bias in Crime eporting
In what ways do the media construct crime images?
In general, the media have tremendous power to influence public thought and opinion, such as by the choice of stories to report as well as by the specific manner in which they describe offenders, victims, and circumstances. When it comes to crime, the media construct images in various realms, including the relative frequency (and risk) of certain types of crimes and the public expectation about what groups of people are more likely to be offenders or victims of those crimes. For example, by choosing to report crimes featuring a white victim and a black offender, the media can portray one race as being composed of more offenders than the other and one race as being composed of more victims than the other. Similarly, by choosing to report more on particularly gruesome crimes, the media can establish…
Tate, K. (2014). Illegal Immigrants Would Get Voting Rights, Medicaid, Licenses under
New NY Bill. Breitbart.com. Retrieved online:
Wilkes, D.E. (2007). Unforgivable Racism: Black Men, Criminal Justice. Res Ipsa (Spring Finals Edition) University of Georgia School of Law. Retrieved online: http://www.law.uga.edu/dwilkes_more/57racism.html
We need to stop accepting such values and themes in music in the name of freedom of speech and expression because freedom is not meant to rob another person of his rights to live peacefully and securely. If my freedom hurts the rights of someone else, it means there is something wrong with the freedom granted to me. Similarly if a person encroaches upon the rights and happiness of another person and then justifies it with freedom of speech, such a person needs to seriously reflect upon his definition of freedom.
It would be wrong to assume that people are so influenced by such lyrics that they would go around killing other people and adopt anti-social behavior but they would certainly be at risk of developing such an attitude which could prove detrimental in the long run. Secondly we must understand that artists have wider acceptance and impact among impressionable…
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
Hate and Violence
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.
In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…
Monk, Richard C. 2000. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Crime and Criminology, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.
QuoteGarden. Quotations about Books & Reading. 27 May 2004. http://www.quotegarden.com/books.html
Walker, Samuel. 1997. Sense and Nonsense About Crime and Drugs: A Policy Guide (Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Series). Wadsworth Publishing.
Crimes: Attitudes and Perceptions
This study was intended to provide insights into the attitudes and perceptions about crime in the local area. The study focused on the 18 to 25-year-old age group as compared to a 50 to 75-year-old age group. There were ten surveys completed as a representative sample of the local population. The hypothesis was that the older demographic would perceive more crime than the younger generation. The fear of crime has received a considerable amount of attention from the media and researchers alike because it can undermine the quality of life for the individuals that are fearful. Overall, women, older adults, and whites have been found to be more fearful compared to their counterparts and a number of correlates and predictors of fear of crime, such as demographic characteristics, disorder, and prior victimization have also been examined (Gainey, Alper, & Chappell, 2010).
The sample used in the…
Gainey, R., Alper, M., & Chappell, A. (2010). Fear of Crime Revisited: Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Disorder, Risk Perception, and Social Capital. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 120-137.
Newport, F. (2009, October 13). In U.S., Two-Thirds Continue to Support Death Penalty. Retrieved from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/123638/in-u.s.-two-thirds-continue-support-death-penalty.aspx
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.
As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.
Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.
Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.
Fear of crime is…
Schissel, Bernard (1997) Youth crime, moral panics, and the news: the conspiracy against the marginalized in Canada. ('moral panic' caused by increased incidence of youth crime in Canada, and young offenders identified as coming from homes led by single mothers and racial minorities)(Reconfiguring Power: Challenges for the 21st Century) Journal of Social Justice
Sprott, Jane B (1996) Understanding public views of youth crime and the youth justice system.(Canada) Canadian Journal of Criminology
Doob, Anthony N. And Julian Roberts 1988 Public punitiveness and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian Surveys. In N. Walker and M. Hough (eds.), Public Attitudes to Sentencing. Aldershot: Gower.
organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.
The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."
The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…
Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html
Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm
Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm
Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003. http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html
Crime and criminological data can be gathered, interpreted, and represented in different ways. The use of “big data” in criminology has helped illuminate the efficacy of various prevention or intervention policies and programs, as well as helping to better allocate resources for criminal justice. In the United States, the main data sources include the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The UCR is subdivided into the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), the Summary Reporting System (SRS), the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Program, and the Hate Crime Statistics Program, each of which track specific types of crime data (FBI, 2018). Another major crime data system used in the United States is the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). A similar tool has been used on an international scale with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)…
Organized Crime elated Intelligence
Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)
The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…
Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.
Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/
Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.
Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from https://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/
The authors go on to say that America has also forced their extreme versions of free capitalism and true democracy on the rest of the world, including into many places where those concepts really do not work. The American corporations that move into those areas control what food is eaten as well as grown there, and the conglomerates in the media bury most of the native culture of these other places under a strong onslaught full of American entertainment.
The authors, Sardar and Davies, address all of these issues with insight and research. The chapters in which they address culture very strongly, however, become somewhat repetitive and almost whiny on occasion. However, the authors are not saying that everyone has to agree with everything that they say. Even without agreeing with them completely, it is very easy to see that there are good reasons why many people do not like…
Sardar, Ziauddin & Davies, Merryl Wyn. (2003). Why do people hate America? Icon Books Ltd.; 2 Rev ed.
FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM
A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.
With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. ecently the citizens…
(1) The History Guide -- Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [ http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [ http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(4) Council on Foreign Relations [ http://cfrterrorism.org/home/ ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
Interestingly, although Raskolnikov's punishment comes before the end of the novel, only after he is banished to Siberia is he able to truly let God into his heart. This shows how earthly punishment and salvation are not always linked. The novel ends with him throwing himself upon Sofia's mercy, as she finally understands that he has accepted God into his heart and been redeemed.
Although no figure is Christ-like in the novel, Sofia acts like a figure of wisdom and a facilitator of Raskolnikov's faith. She inspires him to reject secular philosophy for God, as philosophy and his intellect cannot save him, only religion. Although Sofia has no education, she is depicted as wiser than most of the learned men in the novel. Sofia hears Raskolnikov's first confession of his crime, before the authorities. Unlike the anonymous authors of Beowulf, for Dostoevsky true heroism is sacrifice and repentance, not manifesting…
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
Technology, Terrorism, and Crime (APA).
Technology, Terrorism, and Crime
One of the most heinous terrorist groups currently operating in the U.S. In called the "Aryan Nations." This group openly states on their website that they have been "Fighting Jewish Takeover for over 35 years." (aryan-nation.org) This group of domestic terrorists post articles on their website with grammatically incorrect titles like "The menace of Multiculturalism," and "Jews that control Hollywood: Meet the filthy Kikes are behind that industry." (aryan-nation.org) There is no doubt that his group is one that is dedicated to ideals of Adolph Hitler and the supremacy of the Aryan race. This group has also used the latest technology to spread their message of hate.
The Aryan Nations is a far right white supremacist religious organization based on the teachings of Wesley Swift, who founded a church based on anti-Semitism in California in the 1940's. In the 1970's, ichard…
"Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian." Extremism in America. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/aryan_nations.asp?xpicked=3&item=an
Church of Jesus Christ Christian: Aryan Nations. Retrieved from http://www.aryan-nation.org/
"Identity Theft." (2006, Jan. 5) Retrieved from http://www.bloomshare.com/identity-theft/identity-theft-stories/identity-theft/
Squires, Jennifer, (2009, March 5). Aptos 'neighbors from hell' sentenced in massive ID theft case. Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/localnews/ci_11840106
Hate documentary leads one to believe that the only reason why America is still a vibrant and ongoing society is due to the perseverance and courage of all the immigrants that have come to the United States that have overcome the natural white prejudice and bias against them. According to the documentary, the first American settlers were Anglo Saxon Protestants who immediately began to subjugate the native population and then set about ensuring that the only people who would benefit from the country's resources would be individuals who believed in the same manner as they did, or at least pretended to believe in that same manner. The documentary presented all the groups that have been wronged by the first American settlers and their ancestors, and then determined that America was full of hate. The film showed how the entire American society was based on hate, prejudice and bias against any…
National Organization for Human Services (2015) What is human services? Accessed on April 15, 2015 at http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=88
Norris-Tirrell, D.; (2014) The changing role of private, non-profit organizations in the development and delivery of Human Services in the United States, Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 37(3) p. 304-324
Terrorism: Convergence Between Terrorism Organized Crimes in Mexico
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Phone: +54-675 5545
Presenting Problem or eason for eferral
Marceline is a 19yr old that is self-referred, with a 26-month-old male child. Marceline is very frustrated with her child and her boyfriend, Leon, for whom she is seeking counseling. Marceline's frustration with her child is making her think of giving him off to her mother-in-law. M reports feeling frustrated, uses alcohol and other substances to calm her nerves, is miserable from her job loss four months ago, and mounting bills. M also indicates to be confused on to stay with Leone her current live in boyfriend or gets back to her husband Michael the father to Michael Junior. She also indicates to be depressed with suicidal thoughts, which she overcomes with alcohol and substance abuse.…
Burwell, R.P. & Chen, C.P. (2006). Applying the principles and techniques of solution-focused therapy to career counseling. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 189-203.
Buss, D.M. & Larsen, R.J. (2002). Personality psychology: dimensions of knowledge about human nature (1 de edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: Including 2010 Amendments. (2012). American Psychological Association, APA. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=7.
Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2005). Psychological testing: principles, applications, and issues. (6th edition). Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Acquainted With the Law
Various Law Terms-3
This is either legal or illegal (Priebe, 2012). It is legal and legitimate when corporate officers, directors and shareholders of at least 10% of the outstanding stock of the business. They file the required information with the Securities and Exchange Commission at regular periods (Priebe).
Illegal Insider Trading
This is conducted by trusted person but violates that company's trust (Priebe, 2012). The person is usually someone who enjoys fiduciary trust in working for and keeping the best interest of the company or its shareholders. He may be an officer, a director or an outsider who has access to confidential information about the company. That outsider may be the company's banker, auditor, or lawyer. In general, he is an insider who gives or receives inside information or tips (Priebe).
Characteristics of the Inside Information
It must be important and private (Priebe, 2012).…
Daniels, R. (2012). First property domain laws. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/facts_8009319_first-property-domain-laws.html
Menamos, J. (2012). Why are hate crimes difficult to prosecute? eHow: Demand Media,
Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8769064_hate-crimes-difficult-prosecute.html
Montoya, D. (2012). How has the exclusionary rule impacted criminal cases? eHow:
National Incident-Based Reporting System (IBRS) is a system used by national and state law enforcement agencies to report and analyze crimes. he system allows for the widespread use of data related to a variety of crimes coming to law enforcement agencies. he data collected includes the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident.
he information collected by the IBRS is extensive and the use of the system can be, therefore, complex. Since the system was introduced in 1985 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation the basic system has been adopted by a number of local and state law enforcement agencies as well. Some of these jurisdictions, including the State of New York, have chosen to enhance the system or adapt it to their…
The reporting of hate crimes is still in its infancy. Data is only available from 1992 to the present and it is only in the past ten years that wholesale participation has been available. As participation becomes more universal, the results will be more complete and as reporting protocols are improved the results will be more accurate. By their nature, hate crimes involve a high degree of bias and therefore discplined reporting protocols are a necessity.
The IBRS system affords law enforcement agencies with the opportunity to take advantage of the phenonmenal capacity of modern police and data processing systems to accumulate a myriad of details regarding criminal activity and criminals. The sophistication of the system allows investigating officers the ability to record pertinent facts in a systematic method that results in the organizing of data into specific segments. This leads to more accurate and complete analysis and, arguably, this leads to better law enforcement techniques.
The mission of the IBRS system is to enhance the quality, and timeliness of crime data collection and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing of the collected crime statistics. Presently, participation in the use of the IBRS system is not universal and a great deal of the reporting of crime statistics by the FBI and other reporting agencies is still done using summary format. It is the hope that in the near future the IBRS system will be used by all law enforcement agencies throughout the country. It is believed that this will result in better reporting results.
Matthew Shepard was a 21-year-old gay student attending the University of yoming in the fall of 1998 when he was kidnapped, robbed, tied to a split-rail fence, beaten, and left for dead by Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson. A little after midnight on October 7 McKinney and Henderson met Shepard for the first time at the Fireside Lounge in Laramie, yoming. The two men subsequently offered Shepard a ride home, but instead of driving him there they took him to a remote rural area. Shepard, still alive but in a coma, was discovered 18 hours later by a cyclist, Aaron Kreifels, who at first thought he was a scarecrow.
Shepard sustained skull fractures to the back of his head and in front of his right ear. The beating caused severe damage to his brainstem, which affected his body's ability to regulate heart rate, temperature, and other vital functions.…
FBI. "Hate Crimes add an Element of Bias to Traditional Crimes -- and the Mixture is Toxic to our Communities." Federal Bureau of Investigation. (nd.). Web. 20 June 2012.
Kaufman, Moises, Dir. The Laramie Project. Home Box Office, 2002. DVD.
Kaufman, Moises. The Laramie Project. New York: Vintage Books, 2001. Book/Play.
NASP. "Promoting Tolerance and Peace in Children." National Association of School Psychologists, (2002). Web. 20 June 2012.
UC vs NIBS
Data gathering in criminal justice research
Qualitative research strategies for gathering information are the most commonly used in a criminal justice setting. They include focus groups, groups of people, individual case studies, and interviews. Qualitative research concentrates on real human life experience in a social setting. This research strategy stresses on comprehending the significance connected to events in criminal justice. The perception of study subjects in a natural social environment is basic to qualitative examination. In criminal justice, qualitative examination strategies can give the criminal justice analyst with an improved comprehension of how and why crimes happen in a social setting (Nolan, Haas & Napier, 2011).
The UC and NIBS
NIBS is a crime-reporting framework based on an incident. It aims to collect information on individual crimes while making arrests within a single crime occurrence. A notable difference between UC and BIBS systems is the magnitude in…
Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L.R. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. & Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime Reports. J Quant Criminol (2011) 27:497 -- 519
Reaves, B.A., & United States. (2013). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
hate crimes against African-Americans. In particular I want to address media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans and how media interprets this phenomenon and in turn depicts it. As media is responsible for shaping much of public opinion (Baum, Potter 39), it is helpful to understand how the public is impacted by media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans through popular news reports, film and television portrayals, books, magazines, music and even scholarly articles. This essay wants to see if different types of media portray hate crimes against African-Americans with more or less sensitivity, with a more or less judgmental approach, with a more or less confrontational/antagonistic tone, and with more or less sympathy and empathy. This may help us to better understand why hate crimes against African-Americans occur.
In order to answer these questions, I will look in particular at films such as Malcolm X by Spike Lee, books…
Baum, M., Potter, P. "The relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: Toward a theoretical synthesis." Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65.
Holt, Lanier Frush. "Writing the Wrong: Can Counter-Stereotypes Offset Negative
Media Messages about African-Americans?" Journalism and Mass Communication, vol. 90, no. 1 (2013): 108-125.
Lee, Spike, dir. Malcolm X. LA: Warner Bros., 1992. Film.
Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department
For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…