495+ documents containing “hate crime”.
C. By Michael Shively (June, 2005), the first hate crime laws were enacted during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. The first states to pass hate crime legislation were Oregon and ashington in 1981. The first federal hate crime legislation, Shively explains, was debated in 1985, and the first federal statute related to hate crimes was the Hate Crimes Statistics Act, passed in 1990. Subsequent to that Act, other pieces of legislation have passed: the Hate Crime Sentencing Enhancement Act; the Violence Against omen Act of 1998; the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1994; and the Equal Rights and Equal Dignity for Americans Act of 2003 (Shively, 3).
[Presently, in the week of April 23-27, 2012, a debate in the U.S. Senate regarding the reauthorization of the Violence Against omen Act shows how politics, ideology, and bias within the United States Congress can interfere with hate crime laws. Since the Violence Against….
Altschiller, Donald. (2005). Hate Crimes: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA:
Associated Press. (2008). Ten Years Later: Dragging Death Changes Town: Horrific Killing
of black man in Texas jolted nation. MSNBC.com. Retrieved April 23, 2012, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com .
Hate Crime Analysis Select group population target a hate crime ( selection start paper) rite a word analysis: • Provide a description specific factors serve basis victimization;, race, religion, sexual orientation • Identify applicable specific case examples.
hen considering hate in general, it appears that human beings are vulnerable to being influenced to discriminate others. Even though many have little to no reasons to discriminate against other groups, these people feel that it would only be normal for them to act in agreement with stereotypes and typically refrain from trying to act in disagreement with the majority. Hate is obviously something that people learn from others and it is important for society to devise strategies meant to educate individuals with regard to the attitudes that they need to employ toward stereotypes.
Specific factors that serve as basis for discrimination
Jewish individuals have been subjected to hate crimes for more than two thousand years….
Allen, Peter, "Jewish schoolboy, 12, beaten up in latest anti-Semitic attack to hit France... As school where Islamic terrorist Merah killed four receives hate mail," Retrieved January 30, 2013, from the MailOnline Website: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2121571/Jewish-schoolboy-12-attacked-hate-crime-school-terrorist-Mohammed-Merah-killed-receives-hate-mail.html
Kingkade, Tyler, "Zachary Tennen, Michigan State Jewish Student, Victim Of Alleged Hate Crime At Weekend Party," Retrieved January 30, 2013, from the HuffingtonPost Website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/28/zachary-tennen-michigan-state-attacked-stapled_n_1836829.html#slide=more235997
Rose, Or N., Green Kaiser, Jo Ellen, and Klein, Margie, "Righteous Indignation: A Jewish Call for Justice," (Jewish Lights Publishing, 15.11.2009)
Streissguth, Thomas, "Hate Crimes," (Infobase Publishing, 2009)
Hate crimes incidents occur nationally between 6,000 and 8,000 times annually, and many be increased by traumatic national events. Hate crime rates spiked in 2001, but have steadily decreased since then, though hate crimes between religious groups have increased slightly. Most offenders are young and act more out of personal sentiment than organizational strategy, which may be why hate crimes in Pennsylvania are mainly centered around the two big cities of Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. Nationally hate crimes occur across the board and affect all races and most demographics, however in Lycoming county at least hate crimes do not appear to pose a significant reported problem.
ithin the last decades, criminal law has delineated a new subset of crime: the hate crime. Hate crimes are defined as any crime "committed against individuals or groups or property based on the real or perceived race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, disability, national origin, or….
APA. (1998) Hate Crimes Today: An Age-Old Foe In Modern Dress. Psychology Examines the Issues. [WWW.document].URL http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/hate/
CFPA (2003) Hate Crime Prevention. Center for POlicy Alternatives. [WWW.document].URL
HRC (2003) 2002 FBI Hate Crimes Statistics. Background Information. Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/Content/NavigationMenu/HRC/Get_Informed/Issues/Hate_Crimes1/Background_Information5/2002_FBI_Hate_Crimes_Statistics.htm
In the case of an extreme situation, such as the death or near death of another, intentionality is a clear indicator of culpability and should be constitutionally supported. The constitution is a litmus of the culture and open violation of the intentions of the constitution, i.e. To protect the rights of all should be an allowable designation for increased sanctions against those who perpetrate such crime.
Pros and Cons of Hate Crime Legislation:
The constitutionality of hate crime laws has been challenged almost since their inception, as the idea that a crime perpetrated to racial intent should not be considered any more heinous than one perpetrated against another, say for monetary gain. If the act is one of violence then according to a purely legalistic approach the acts are equal and should be treated as such. Yet, intention is often an aspect of legislation and rulings, one example is the designation….
Brooks, T.D. (1994). First Amendment - Penalty Enhancement for Hate Crimes: Content Regulation, Questionable State Interests and Non-Traditional Sentencing. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 84(4), 703-742.
Grattet, R., & Jenness, V. (2001). Examining the Boundaries of Hate Crime Law: Disabilities and the "Dilemma of Difference." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 91(3), 653.
Grattet, S.P. (2000). Judicial Rhetoric, Meaning-Making, and the Institutionalization of Hate Crime Law. Law & Society Review, 34(3), 567-606.
Hamm, M.S. (1994). American Skinheads the Criminology and Control of Hate Crime. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
3. 42 U.S.C.S. 13981 - the Violence Against Women Act of 1994
IV. Famous Hate Crimes
Matthew Shepard was attacked and killed by ussell Henderson and Aaron McKinney on October 12, 1998. The attack was motivated by Shepard's homosexuality.
The case brought national attention to the issue of hate crimes.
Shepard's killers were convicted of murder, but not charged with a hate crime because there was no Wyoming hate crime legislation at that time.
Brandon Teena was raped on December 24, 1993, and later murdered on December 31, 1993 by John Lotter and Marvin Nissen. Their attacks were motivated by Brandon's transgender status.
The story was the subject of the movie "Boys Don't Cry."
The criminal cases against the defendants are ongoing.
1) Pled to being an accessory and testified against Lotter.
2) eceived a life sentence.
3) Appealed his sentence.
4) ecanted his testimony against Lotter on September 20, b. Lotter
1) Was convicted of murder.
2) eceived the death penalty.
Anti-Defamation League. (2006). Hate crime laws: federal initiatives. Retrieved January 29, 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League.
Web site: http://www.adl.org/99hatecrime/federal.asp
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2008). Hate crime. Retrieved January 29, 2008 from the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Levin (1992, cited in Nolan & Akiyama, 1999) notes that police officers tend to identify crimes based on the severity of injury or the magnitude of property damage and not on the basis of motive.
There are many thinkers and writers that question the legitimacy of hate or bias crime laws on the basis that they violate a fundamental democratic principle by punishing individuals for their prejudiced thoughts and beliefs (Altman, 2001). The assumption is that the defendant had a bias motive for committing the offense and the motive consists solely of the defendant's thought. (Gellman, 1992). Therefore, it has been argued that bias crime laws are illegitimate because they punish motive. In addition, the fact that complicates things further is that the motive is inextricably tied to a certain set on political values and attitudes. Other writers have recognized that hate crime is a social construct, focusing on prejudice….
Report of Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes, Retrieved at http://caag.state.ca.us/publications/civilrights/reportingHC.pdf
Gerstenfeld, P.B. (2004). Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies, Sage Publications Inc.
Nolan, J.J., Y. Akiyama. (1999). Analysis of Factors That Affect Law Enforcement Participation in Hate Crime Reporting. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 15:1, February 1999, 111-127.
Gellman, S. (1992). Hate Crime Laws are Thought Crime Laws, Annual Survey of American Law, No.3, pp. 514-515
Hate Crimes in the United States
Despite the fact that the United States has grown generally more tolerant and more accepting, hate crimes have been on the rise in many cities in the United States, particularly in California, New York, New Jersey, Michigan, and Massachusetts (Partners against Hate, 2003). This does not necessarily reflect an overall increase in crime. In fact, it may not even reflect an increase in actual hate crimes, but might reflect a greater awareness and reporting of crimes. This is because hate crimes are based upon regular crimes. In fact, a hate crime is a "traditional offense like murder, arson, or vandalism with an added element of bias" (FBI, 2013). These crimes can include petty crimes like vandalism to violent crimes like rape and murder. Therefore, these crimes have long been being committed with bias as a motive, but only being reported as the underlying offense. In….
The Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Hate crime- overview. Retrieved February 1,
2013 from: http://www.fbi.gov /about-us/investigate/civilrights/hate_crimes/overview
Partners against Hate . (2003). Frequently asked questions about hate crimes and hate on the internet. Retrieved February 1, 2013 from Partners against Hate website:
The trend of media coverage and reporting has taken a stereotypical and racist dimension over the years and hence having a bias on some of the races. This is in particular reference to the crime rate and crime coverage. It has been an observed trend that crimes committed by African-Americans on whites are not given as much coverage and emphasis as those committed by whites against the African-Americans, though they could be of equal seriousness and driven by the same motive and produced same results.
This can be said to be some racial stereotype, which is a fixed belief or idea that most people have about a given group of people or particular person or a given thing, though it may not be necessarily true or based on reality (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2011). These are social constructs that evolve over a long period of time and engrave themselves into….
Loompanics Unlimited, (2001). The Hate Crimes You Don't Hear About. Retrieved December
2, 2011 from http://www.loompanics.com/Articles/hatecrimes.html
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, (2011). Definition and Pronunciation: stereotype.
Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/dictionary/stereotype_1
Hate Crime Enhancements -- Two Sides of the Argument
This project represents the evolution of opinion as a function of the process of a strictly academic exercise. At the outset of the project, the writer maintained a specific belief: namely, that hate crime enhancement policies are fundamentally unjustified. It was the process of formulating a counterargument to the writer's position that ultimately resulted in a change of opinion. The writer is now of the opinion that hate crime enhancement is a policy that is justified in principle and not substantially different from various other types of distinctions made in American civil and criminal law with respect to the consideration of motivation as an element of moral responsibility and criminal culpability.
The Argument against Hate Crime Enhancement Legislation
One of the main purposes of law is to encourage behaviors that are beneficial to the many members of society and to discourage behaviors that are….
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Laycock, D. (2011). Religious Liberty (Volume Two): The Free Exercise Clause. Grand Rapids, MI W.B. Eerdmans.
Menand, L. (2001). The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America. New York, NY:
Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
It is a generalization based on biased or insufficient information, which creates stereotypes. Moreover, generalizations are based on emotions, making them difficult to change even with evidence to the contrary. Stereotypes represent a set of ideas based on distortion, exaggeration, and oversimplification that are applied to all members of a group. As a result, a mental paradigm is created to justify unethical behavior against minority groups. Surprisingly, people who do not fit the stereotype are still categorized because it is easier justify the prejudice than to reexamine their way of thinking. It is important to note that one who is prejudice does not necessarily lead to discrimination. In contrast, racism is an extreme form of prejudice that assumes superiority of one group over another; it is extreme because not only it not only unfairly judges one group, but it assumes one group is superior to another. Hence, racists believe….
esponse to Bias-Motivated Violence
In the last three decades or so, nearly all American states have adopted a minimum of one statute, regarding a regulation for "hate crime." Such laws have assumed numerous forms, which include (C219 Lesson 9: Social Control -- Law Enforcement and Legal ecourse ):
• Laws prescribing criminal punishment for violation of civil rights;
• Specific "malicious harassment" and "ethnic intimidation" laws; and • Provisions of greater penalties in related laws already enacted for commission of an extant offense for prejudicial or bias reasons.
Several state statutes forbid organizational vandalism, religious objects' disfigurement or sacrilege, disturbance of or interference with religious worship, wearing masks or hoods, cross burning, distribution of ads and publications aimed at harassing specific groups in society, and secret society establishment (C219 Lesson 9: Social Control -- Law Enforcement and Legal ecourse ).
Social Control of Hate Crimes
Law enforcers at local, state, and federal levels have declared….
Hate Crimes Against African-Americans
The media has lots of potential to be agents of positive change in the society. One of the aspects that the media can easily put a tight grip on, for change, is stereotyping. Unfortunately, the same media has been implicated in the court of public opinion as being supportive of stereotypes. There is a host of factors and methods adopted by the media that help to promote such stereotyping (HOFFMANN, 22). Indeed, a lot of images of African-Americans and similar minorities are widely shaped by media. This essay explores how the media has portrayed African-Americans with regard to hate crimes against this minority group in the USA. It also seeks to examine how the media has interpreted the scenario included and how it portrays it to the public. There is a further search to establish how the general public reacts to the media portrayals of hate crimes….
Dijk, Teun A. Racism and the Press van, Routledge, 1991. London and New York. Web.
HOFFMANN, GREGG. RACIAL STEREOTYPING IN THE NEWS: Some General Semantics Alternatives, Et cetera, (1991). 22-30. Web.
Indra, Doreen M. The Invisible Mosaic: Women, Ethnicity and the Vancouver Press, 1905-1976, Canadian Ethnic Studies, 13:1. (1981), 63-74. Web.
Jiwani, Yasmin. Racism and the Media, Canadian Anti-Racism Education and Research (n.d.). Web.
hate crime" and discuss a research question regarding the term. Hate crimes are crimes against individuals or groups based on hatred or non-acceptance of their race, religious beliefs, or other issues. Are hate crimes protected as "free speech" by the First Amendment?
Hate crimes can be defined differently by each state with laws against hate crimes. These experts, James B. Jacobs and Jessica S. Henry, define hate crimes as "a crime against persons or property motivated in whole or in part by racial, ethnic, religious, gender, sexual orientation and other prejudices" (Jacobs and Henry). Because hate crimes can fall under different definitions, they can also be interpreted differently. One large question regarding hate crimes is their relationship to the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees free speech to all Americans. Are hate crimes simply a First Amendment issue, or do they go much farther than free speech in….
Anderson, James F., Laronistine Dyson, and Willie Brooks. "Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders." The Western Journal of Black Studies 26.3 (2002): 140+.
Brooks, Thomas D. "First Amendment - Penalty Enhancement for Hate Crimes: Content Regulation, Questionable State Interests and Non-Traditional Sentencing." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 84.4 (1994): 703-742.
Jacobs, James B., and Jessica S. Henry. "The Social Construction of a Hate Crime Epidemic." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 86.2 (1996): 366-391.
criminal transgressions that are selected in hate crime laws contain, but are not restricted to, delinquencies against persons like aggravation, terroristic coercions, assault and criminalities against possessions or property like criminal trespass, criminal disruption and incendiarism. It may also comprise of defacement causing destruction to a church, synagogue, graveyard, morgue, and honoring to the dead, school, educational institution, other public buildings, courthouse, or any personal property situated within such spaces. This research papers highlights what is a hate crime, how states may vary in terms of designation of a hate crime and the impact it has on society. The main focus of this paper is to show what happens when designations becomes part of hate crime policy and action against hate crimes.
A hate crime, typically defined by state law, encompasses acts of violence such as: terrorizations, aggravation, or bodily harm and is driven by preconception against someone's race, color,….
FRANKLIN, K. (2002). Good Intentions the Enforcement of Hate Crime Penalty-Enhancement Statutes. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), 154-172. Doi: 10.1177/0002764202046001010
Jacobs, J.B., & Potter, K. (1998). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
It has also been suggested that, in effect, this equality is relatively meaningless, because non-minorities are so much more rarely the victims of hate crimes, and that, therefore, these laws protect and benefit minorities more than they protect or benefit non- minorities. Ironically, the accurate analysis of this observation is precisely backwards:
the fact that minorities are so much more likely to be targeted by racially motivated crimes is hardly a reason to consider the laws that criminalize such conduct "unfair" to non-minorities. If anything, that reality only reinforces the absolute need for laws that prohibit racially motivated crimes. The fact of the matter is that minorities are much more likely to be the victims of racial hatred than are non-minorities, and that non- minorities are more often the perpetrators of racially motivated crimes than are individuals from minority backgrounds. Certainly, there are instances of racially motivated crimes perpetrated by minorities….
C. By Michael Shively (June, 2005), the first hate crime laws were enacted during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. The first states to pass hate crime legislation were Oregon…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Hate Crime Analysis Select group population target a hate crime ( selection start paper) rite a word analysis: • Provide a description specific factors serve basis victimization;, race, religion,…Read Full Paper ❯
Hate crimes incidents occur nationally between 6,000 and 8,000 times annually, and many be increased by traumatic national events. Hate crime rates spiked in 2001, but have steadily decreased…Read Full Paper ❯
In the case of an extreme situation, such as the death or near death of another, intentionality is a clear indicator of culpability and should be constitutionally supported.…Read Full Paper ❯
3. 42 U.S.C.S. 13981 - the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 IV. Famous Hate Crimes Matthew Shepard was attacked and killed by ussell Henderson and Aaron McKinney on October 12,…Read Full Paper ❯
Levin (1992, cited in Nolan & Akiyama, 1999) notes that police officers tend to identify crimes based on the severity of injury or the magnitude of property damage…Read Full Paper ❯
Hate Crimes in the United States Despite the fact that the United States has grown generally more tolerant and more accepting, hate crimes have been on the rise in many…Read Full Paper ❯
Hate Crimes The trend of media coverage and reporting has taken a stereotypical and racist dimension over the years and hence having a bias on some of the races. This…Read Full Paper ❯
Hate Crime Enhancements -- Two Sides of the Argument This project represents the evolution of opinion as a function of the process of a strictly academic exercise. At the outset…Read Full Paper ❯
It is a generalization based on biased or insufficient information, which creates stereotypes. Moreover, generalizations are based on emotions, making them difficult to change even with evidence to…Read Full Paper ❯
Hate Crime esponse to Bias-Motivated Violence In the last three decades or so, nearly all American states have adopted a minimum of one statute, regarding a regulation for "hate crime." Such…Read Full Paper ❯
Hate Crimes Against African-Americans The media has lots of potential to be agents of positive change in the society. One of the aspects that the media can easily put a…Read Full Paper ❯
hate crime" and discuss a research question regarding the term. Hate crimes are crimes against individuals or groups based on hatred or non-acceptance of their race, religious beliefs,…Read Full Paper ❯
criminal transgressions that are selected in hate crime laws contain, but are not restricted to, delinquencies against persons like aggravation, terroristic coercions, assault and criminalities against possessions or…Read Full Paper ❯
It has also been suggested that, in effect, this equality is relatively meaningless, because non-minorities are so much more rarely the victims of hate crimes, and that, therefore, these…Read Full Paper ❯