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The amount of caffeine being consumed is apparently of great importance, as approximately 200 mg can increase one's chances to get better results on an attentiveness performance test while an approximate of 400 mg can do the opposite. Caffeine abuse can lead to serious problems in the case of people who need to be alert. Caffeine was tested in a series of other cognitive-related experiments but none of them produced satisfying results (Snel, Lorist, and Tieges 58).
Coffee contains numerous chemicals, each of them adding to its flavor and to the effects it produces on the body, with the most notable of them being caffeine. The aroma coffee releases is surely seductive, as there is nothing else like it. From the very first moment one opens the coffee recipient numerous microscopic particles are inhaled, stimulating the olfactory nerve, this sensation getting even more intense when the brew is actually ready…
1. Greene, Lindsey A. "New Grounds for Drinking Coffee," Environmental Health Perspectives 108.7 (2000).
2. Halweil, Brian. "Why Your Daily Fix Can Fix More Than Your Head: Coffee, If Grown Right, Can Be One of the Rare Human Industries That Actually Restore the Earth's Health," World Watch May 2002.
3. Pendergrast, Mark Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World (New York: Basic Books, 1999).
4. Snel, Jan. Lorist, Monicque M. And Tieges, Zoe. "4 Coffee, Caffeine, and Cognitive Performance," Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and the Brain, ed. Astrid Nehlig (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2004)
In 2003, another study conducted by researchers at Harvard University showed that drinking red wine in moderate amounts may help prevent or postpone diseases like Alzheimer's, a disorder associated with the brain's ability to store information and retain long-term and short-term memories, Parkinson's disease and other forms of dementia related to the brain and the central nervous system. In addition, a 2003 study published by the American Journal of Gastroenterology demonstrated that drinking moderate amounts of red wine "decreases the risk of peptic ulcers and may help to rid the body of the bacteria suspected of causing them." Also, the Harvard School of Public Health, after conducting a 14-year-long study involving more than 100,000 women aged 25 to 42 from 14 different states, found that women who drank red wine in moderate amounts (1 or 2 drinks a day) "had a 58% lower likelihood of developing diabetes." This study also…
Glanze, Walter D., Ed. Mosby's Medical Encyclopedia. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby & Company, 2005.
LaMar, James. "Wine and Health." 2008. Internet. Accessed December 5, 2009 from http://www.winepros.org/wine101/wine-health.htm .
"Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?" Mayo Clinic. 2009. Internet. Accessed December 5, 2009 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/red-wine/HB00089/
The integration of information systems with these processes aimed at supporting holistic health (Kelley, Attridge, 31, 33) is the most rapidly expanding area of capital investment by organizations looking to transform their health benefit strategies. It is essential for information systems to support these underlying processes if individualized health benefit programs are to be created and tracked over time. The integration of processes, systems and the roles of benefit planners and administrators is crucial if measurability is going to be possible with any health benefit program. Bringing informatics to the individualized tracking of health programs for employees is an evolving best practice that serves as a knowledge foundation (Bath, 501) for fine-tuning programs even further. Putting the employee, not the process, at the center of the analytics and measurement of health care strategy performance is crucial if results are to be consistently achieved. The challenge is that in many organizational…
Jafar Alavi, Mahmoud M. Yasin. "The role of quality improvement initiatives in healthcare operational environments: Changes, challenges and responses. "
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 21.2 (2008): 133-145. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 21 Sep. 2008
Peter a Bath. "Health informatics: current issues and challenges. " Journal of Information Science 34.4 (2008): 501. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 21 Sep. 2008
Bruce Kelley, Mark Attridge. "Information Access: Will Make or Break Consumer-Driven Health Plans. " Benefits Quarterly 22.2 (2006): 28-31,33-35. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 20 Sep. 2008
Business Ethics Healthcare
The ethics vs. The economics of healthcare and coverage today
In the United States today, employers are usually not legally responsible for providing employees with health benefits. Only a few states require employers to provide workers with health care insurance. In other words, an employee has the choice of accepting or rejecting a job that does not provide him or her with health benefits, depending on whether he or she determines such a course of action to be prudent for him or herself. The employer may chose to provide health benefits to an employee or not, extending the option as part of an initial contract of employment, or later on during the employee's tenure at the company.
Findlaw for Business, 2003, "Employee's Rights) The employer's decision to do so will usually depend on the type of employee his or her business needs to attract to remain financially…
Smartpros Editorial Staff. "Most Businesses Expect to pass higher Health Care Costs Onto Workers."
March 24, 2003. Smartpros accessed on the web on October 16, 2003 at http://www.smartpros.com/x37575.xml
Employee's Rights." Findlaw for Business. 2003. Accessed on the web on October 16, 2003 at http://lawcrawler.findlaw.com/cgi
Pet Ownership and Health Benefits among Older Adults
There is a general believe that owning a pet provides health and mental benefits for older people, and health benefits include psychological well-being and improved physical health. It is also assumed that pet owners have higher extraversion and lower neuroticism compared to older people without pets. However, findings on this research are still inconclusive because some group of researchers believe that owning pets deliver health benefits to older people while some researchers believe that older people derive no benefits from owing pets. The research carries out an investigation to enhance a greater understanding on whether health benefits can derived from owing pets.
The study examines the relationships between pet ownerships and health benefits among 2,511 sample older adults using the PATH (Personality and Total Health). Information obtained from participants consisted of whether or not participants own one or more pets.…
American Pet Products Association.2009. National Pet Owners Survey. www.americanpetproducts.org/pubs_survey.asp
Cherniack, E.P. & Cherniack, A.R. 2014. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research.
Groves, Robert M., Floyd J. Fowler Jr., Mick P. Couper, James M. Lepkowski, Eleanor Singer, and Roger Tourangeau. 2009. Survey Methodology. 2nd ed. Wiley Series in Survey Methodology. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/753874406
National Institute of Health. 1987. The health benefits of pets. Workshop summary. Office of Medical Applications of Research.
Healthcare spending by the New York State persistently surpasses its earnings. That difference continues to be expanding and is also anticipated to broaden unless of course there happen to be severe, continuous modifications in spending budget actions. Lieutenant Governor ichard avitch, in "A 5-Year Strategy to Deal with the State of New York's Spending budget Deficit" released during March 2010, approximated this structural disproportion within the state's spending budget to become no less than $13 billion. The structural inequality isn't simply the consequence of the economic downturn that started during 2007, and a commonly strengthening economic climate is not going to get rid of it.
To help the State of New York in providing the solutions and dedication to quality that its residents rely on, structural modifications are needed. The aim of this paper is actually to summarize one particular realignment - solving an outright inequity involving the state as…
California Public Employees' Retirement System, "Facts at a Glance: Health," September 2010, http://www.calpers.ca.gov/eip-docs/about/facts/health.pdf .
Citizens Budget Commission, Out of Balance: A Comparison of Public and Private Employee Health Benefits in New York City, December 2009, http://www.cbcny.org/sites/default/files/REPORT_Survey_12162009.pdf .
City of New York Office of Labor Relations, "New York City Summary Program Description, Health Benefit Program," 2010, http://www.nyc.gov/html/olr/downloads/pdf/healthb/full_spd.pdf.
Government Finance Officers Association, "Recommended Practices, Health Care Cost Containment 2004," http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/corbaHealthCareCostContainment.pdf .
Polls examining public support of the bill and specifically the public healthcare option vary significantly. ith regard to physicians, the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed over six thousand medical doctors and found there was a majority in favor of federally provided public healthcare insurance (Keyhani & Federman). Other polls have suggested an opposition to the public option (Marmor).
The public option would provide an affordable alternative to the current private health insurance options and would provide impetus for competition and positive change. hether "America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009" will be passed is currently uncertain. hat is certain is that the healthcare and health insurance system is currently not sufficient to provide healthcare support for nearly 48 million uninsured Americans. Alterations need to be made to increase access and affordability for those individuals who desire health insurance.
The healthcare and health insurance system in the United States…
Harrington, Charlene, Carroll L. Estes, and Cassandra Crawford. Health policy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2004.
Keyhani, Salomeh, and Alex Federman. "Doctors on Coverage -- Physicians' Views on a New Public Insurance Option and Medicare Expansion." N. Engl J. Med 361.14 (2009): e24.
Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The healthcare fix. MIT Press, 2007.
Marmor, T. "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." 7 Apr 2009. 1 Nov 2009 .
On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program.
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.
American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.
Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."
Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008 http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html .
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
(Health Insurance Coverage, 2009). This is just a little higher than what was reported in the state of Pennsylvania over the last two-year period, which was at 25% (Krawczeniuk, 2009). "The number of uninsured rose 2.2 million between 2005 and 2006 and has increased by almost 8 million people since 2000" (Health Insurance Coverage, 2009).
Most Americans are provided with health insurance coverage through their employers. But in today's society employment is no longer a guarantee of health insurance coverage. "As America continues to move from a manufacturing-based economy to a service economy, and employee working patterns continue to evolve, health insurance coverage has become less stable. The service sector tends to offer less access to health insurance than the manufacturing sector does. Further, an increasing reliance on part-time and contract workers who are not eligible for coverage means fewer workers have access to employer-sponsored health insurance" (Health Insurance Coverage,…
Descriptive Statistics. (2006). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Research Methods Knowledge Base
Web site: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
Health Insurance Coverage. (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from National Coalition on Healthcare Web site: http://www.nchc.org/facts/coverage.shtml
Krawczeniuk, Borys. (2009, March 26). Study Finds Health Care Gaps. Times-Tribune, The
"Studies of the relationship between managed care penetration in the health care market and expenditures for Medicare fee-for-service enrollees have demonstrated the existence of these types of spill over effects" (Bundorf et al., 2004).
Managed care organizations generate these types of spillover effects by increasing competition in the health care market, altering the arrangement of the health care delivery system, and altering physician practice patterns. Studies have found that higher levels of managed care infiltration are linked with lower rates of hospital cost inflation and lower physician fees are consistent with competitive effects. "Other studies demonstrate the impact of managed care on delivery system structure including hospital capacity, hospital admission patterns, the size and composition of the physician workforce and the adoption and use of medical equipment and technologies. More recent evidence has linked market-level managed care activity to the process, but not the outcomes of care" (Bundorf et al.,…
Altman, D.E. And L. Levin. (2005). The Sad History of Health Care Cost Containment as
Told by One Client. Health Affairs, 24(1).
Bodenheimer, T. (2005). High and rising health care costs. part 1: Seeking an explanation.
Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(10), 847-54.
Contracts with doctors often contain a clause which doesn't allow the doctors to discuss
Health care 7 with their patients financial incentives to deny treatment or about treatments not covered by the plan (Glazer, 1996). This has caused many consumers, especially those with chronic illnesses, to form organizations with the American Medical Association and physician specialty groups to promote legislation forbidding "gag rules" (Glazer, 1996). One group, Citizen Action, has 3 million members and "has been lobbying in state legislatures for laws that would require plans to disclose how they pay their doctors; give patients the right to choose specialists outside the plan; and provide appeals for patients who get turned down for expensive treatments" (Glazer, 1996).
The doctor-patient relationship is also affected if a patient must switch to a new doctor under managed care. Having a longterm relationship with a primary doctor is important because he or she is…
Bennett Clark, Jane (1996, July). What you should ask your HMO.
Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine. pp. 92-93.
Glazer, Sarah (1996, April 12). Managed Care. CQ Researcher, 6,
Koop, C. Everett (1996, Fall). Manage with care. Time. pp. 69.
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study still remains as one of the most outrageous examples of disregard of basic ethical principles of conduct not to mention violation of standards for ethical research. The suspicion and fear produced by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study are still evident today. Community workers often report mistrust of public health institutions within the African-American community. ecently Alpha Thomas of the Dallas Urban League testified before the National Commission on AIDS saying that many African-American people do not trust hospitals or any of the other community health care service providers because of that Tuskegee Experiment (esearch Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 2010).
In 1990, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which is one of the country's major civil rights organizations, conducted a survey among 1056 African-American Church members in five cities. They found that 34% of the respondents believed that AIDS was an artificial virus, 35% believed that AIDS…
Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study. (2009). Retrieved March 9, 2010, from University of Virginia Health System Web site:
Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). What Is the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? Retrieved March 10, 2010,
from About.com Web site: http://std.about.com/od/stdsinthemedia/f/tuskegeefaq.htm
The absence of illness does not thoroughly explain "Health", it can as well be described as wellness of the body and mind. More technically, health can be defined from two perspectives -- bodily and psychological health. A state of well-being due to regular exercises, adequate nutrition, sufficient rest, sensitivity to signs of sickness and when to seek help is referred to as Physical health. A person's fitness is showcased by his/her body make-up, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular stability, and adaptability. Mental wellness refers to psychological and emotional welfare.
As defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), mental health is "a state of wellness in which an individual discovers and harnesses his abilities, make headways regardless of stress encountered in life, can complete tasks adequately and profitably with substantial end product, and also contributes immensely to the uplift of his or her locality." (Nordqvist, 2015). A means of enabling people…
Boundless, 2016. Research Methods for Evaluating Treatment Efficacy - Boundless Open Textbook. Boundless. Available at: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/treating-psychological-disorders-19/introduction-to-the-treatment-of-psychological-disorders-99/research-methods-for-evaluating-treatment-efficacy-382-12917/ [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Brassai, L, Piko, B, & Steger, M 2011, 'Meaning in Life: Is It a Protective Factor for Adolescents' Psychological Health?', International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 1, p. 44, Advanced Placement Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Cuijpers, P. et al., 2014. EU-Compass for Action on Mental Health and Well-being. PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION AND PROMOTION OF RESILIENCE. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/mental_health/docs/ev_20161006_co03_en.pdf [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Gillham, J.E. et al., 2012. Preventing Depression in Early Adolescent Girls: The Penn Resiliency and Girls in Transition Programs. Handbook of Prevention and Intervention Programs for Adolescent Girls, pp.124 -- 161.
Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients
Probing what information is available about the current status of placement or accommodation and level of personal healthcare available to mentally impaired and emotionally disturbed individuals, it is clear that the analysis is as diverse as there are different mental illnesses. While statistics on managed care treatment for people with severe and disabling mental illnesses are sparse, it is evident that the financial responsibility to care for and house these patients is enormous.
According to Dr. David Satcher, the Surgeon General (1999), approximately 20% of the U.S. adult population has a mental illness. He says, "These illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, anorexia nervosa, and severe cognitive impairment. More serious mental illnesses include ipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mental illness accounts for 15% of overall burden of disease -- more than malignant cancer and respiratory diseases -- and as far back as 1996 the direct cost…
Boulard, G. (2000, April). Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill. State Legislatures, 26, 12. Retrieved February 13, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Callahan, D. (1993, October) Minds and hearts: priorities in mental health services.
The Hastings Center Report.
Fox, M. & Kim, K. (2004, January) Evaluating a Medicaid Home and Community-based Physical Disability Waiver. Family and Community Health. Vol 27: 37.
enefits After Quitting Smoking
Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.
In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.
Many research and…
Fagerstrom, Karl. "The Epidemiology of Smoking."
Fagerstrom Consulting (2002): 1-9.
Benefits of Quitting Smoking."
Texas Medical Association. 02 April 2004. http://www.texmed.org/cme/phn/ndt/benefits_quitting.asp
This is related to the fact that the use of pesticides is very poorly regulated. (Protect Farm orker's Health) the use of pesticides has become an area of research and concern by the health authorities. This aspect has been well documented but experts are of the opinion that there are "...insufficient studies examining the effects of multiple pesticide exposure." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005)
2.2.3. Access to health benefits and care
The general consensus from the literature on the subject is that migrant and seasonal farm workers and their families are "…overwhelmingly uninsured." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005) the 2005 study of the health of migrant farm works by Rosenbaum and Shin indicates that in 2000, "…85% of migrant and seasonal farm workers were uninsured, compared to 37% of low-income adults nationally." (Rosenbaum and Shin, 2005) the study also found that both migrant and seasonal farm workers had less access to health…
Health Problems among Migrant Farmworkers' Children in the U.S. ERIC Digest.
September 27, 2008.
ILO warns on farm safety Agriculture mortality rates remain high Pesticides pose major health risks to global workforce. September 27, 2008.
Overview of America's Farmworkers. September 27, 2008.
Health and Blind Spot Enlargement in Non-Athletes
Everyone has a blind spot in the visual field caused by an absence of nerves on the retinal wall where the nerve ganglia enter. Our brains "correct" for this blind spot and fill-in the missing information so that we do not notice the blind spot in normal daily activity. As the blind spot represents a physical structure, there has been little study concerning it. There have been a few studies conducted to determine how the brain compensates for the phenomenon.
Recently, there have been studies indicating that in certain people seeking chiropractic treatment that they have unequal blind spots as a result of muscoloskeletal misalignments. This research has been controversial, however, brings up several interesting questions. There are conditions that can damage the retina and this can cause blind spots in the visual field. It is generally assumed that athletes maintain a better…
Ballantyne, R. About that Squinty Eye. [Online]
http://www.ballantyne.com/rjb_resume/Squinty.html accessed March 2003.
Cai, R.H., & Cavanagh, P. (2002). Motion interpolation of a unique feature into stimulus gaps and blind spots Journal of Vision, 2(7), 30a, http://journalofvision.org/2/7/30 / accessed
Fletcher WA, Imes RK, Goodman D, Hoyt WF. Acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement: a big blind spot syndrome without optic disc edema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:44-49.
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
health care for the disabled. The writer explores the health care stages that are available for the disabled in every stage of life. The writer uses published works from various sources to illustrate and underscore the need for solid health care access for all disabled individuals in the nation. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
"Different stages of available health care for people with disabilities"
The issue of health care has been a hot topic of debate in this country for many years. Health care costs are skyrocketing, available services are dwindling and the public is screaming with outrage and demand for improvements to the entire health care system. While those who can speak for themselves are having no trouble voicing their upset about the current state of the nation's health care system, there is a population that cannot always speak up. The disabled in this country…
HEALTH CARE DECISIONS FOR THOSE WHO CANNOT CARE FOR:DIANE COLEMAN THEMSELVES. Congressional Testimony; 4/19/2005
Congressional Testimony. 04-19-2005
LONG-TERM HEALTH CARE:MARK R. MEINERS
Congressional Testimony; 4/19/2005
reputed "health crisis" currently facing Americans. The author explores several aspects of the health care crisis and analyzes the validity of those claims. The author presents an argument that there really is not a health care crisis and it is a fallacy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Why do People Believe the Crisis is eal?
What Evidence is There That it is Not eal?
What are some of the things giving the appearance it is...shortage of students etc.
What are some of the ideas that can help the problem?
For several years now Americans have been inundated with information about the health care crisis. News channels cover the crisis and pipe it into living rooms. Magazines publish articles about the causes and history of the health care crisis and politicians use the health care crisis to sell their platform and garner votes. It seems that everywhere…
There. (U.S. health care crisis and crime problem)
St. Louis Journalism Review; May 1, 1994; Blumenthal, H.T.
Health Care Crisis Is Not a Misnomer
Newsday; November 30, 2002; Robert Reno
What direction is the quality of health care and delivery of health care moving in; it is not moving in a direction at all. Like the pendulum, the direction of health care remains suspended to the far side - right or left, depending upon which side of the political isle one is on. The pendulum remains frozen in time, and it reflects chaos in the delivery of health care and the quality of patient care. Health care remains the captive audience to managed care company stockholders and executives whose business focused decision making on what benefits can access, when, and where remain guided by an archaic DG system that was implemented more than twenty-five years ago.
If there is a direction for American health care access and quality of care, it is that direction of circling the drain before it falls into the black abyss of the unknown, and…
Health Promotion Pamphlet
• Layout appeal • Content quality • eading level • Clarity • Examples health promotion pamphlet • Usefulness • Cultural sensitivity competence • Helpful hints tips -care management • Appropriate literacy level target audience Include publication information pamphlet
The importance of fruits and vegetables:
A current health promotion pamphlet's appropriateness for the general public
Obesity is on the rise in America. Given this concern, the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) has produced a pamphlet on the need to incorporate more fruits and vegetables into meals. The title of the pamphlet reads: "How to use fruits and vegetables to manage your weight," so it is explicitly promoted as weight maintenance publication. The cover is orange and features photographs of a cauliflower, cherries, a banana, an orange pepper, and peas, presumably chosen because of their attractive colors, the balance they signify in the eater's diet, and also their relative…
How to use fruits and vegetables to manage your weight. (2012). CDC. Retrieved:
Health [...] importance of health and exercise, and where people can find assistance in California. Exercise is an important deterrent to many diseases, including obesity, a plague on the nation. Getting Americans to exercise may be difficult, but the benefits of exercise are clear. People who exercise tend to live longer, have better overall health, and feel better about themselves. In California, many programs are available that will help people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles that include exercise. Education is the key to helping people understand the benefits of exercise, and that education must begin early in life for exercise to become a daily habit. For America to become a healthy country again, people must understand the importance of exercise and good health, and that begins with education and assistance to help people create better, more healthful lives for themselves.
Exercise and good health go hand-in-hand, and yet, in our…
Akande, A., Van Wyk, C.D., & Osagie, J. (2000). Importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and the enhancement of health. Education, 120(4), 758.
Author not Available. (1999). Physical activity and health. Retrieved from the Center for Disease Control Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/sgr/intro.htm18 June 2004.
Editors. (2004). Leading health indicators. Retrieved from the HealthyPeople.gov Web site: http://www.healthypeople.gov/Document/html/uih/uih_bw/uih_4.htm18 June 2004.
Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C.E. (2001). Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36(141), 105.
Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations
In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.
Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…
Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).
Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.
Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.
Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.
The Herald Tribune also provided that consumers get away with taking raw milk by purchasing ones that are packaged for pets. Small farm owners also get to avoid the law by directly selling their cow milk to neighbours and other willing consumers.
This concern was acknowledged by the State through its Trends and Conditions Statement. Said document stated that "there is an increasing interest in consumption of raw and minimally-processed foods…such as the production of raw milk for human consumption..." Aside from the acknowledgement, the State stressed the need for "active surveillance and compliance activities" to ensure that intake of unpasteurized milk from consumers would be stopped. However, sadly, aside from numerous reports stating the hazardous effects of consuming raw milk, no particular law or action were noted during research of this concern. Said reports are also obviously useless as the Herald Tribune were able to report several farms discretely…
Kennedy, P. (2004) an Overview of U.S. State Milk Laws. Summary of Raw Milk Statutes and Administrative Codes. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://www.realmilk.com/milk-laws-1.html
Guidelines for Mobile Food Establishments and Commissary Letter of Agreement. (n.d.) Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/fs/mobile_guide.pdf
The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Trends and Conditions Statement. (n.d.) Retrieved September 29, 2009 from www.doacs.state.fl.us/LRPP/DACS_Trends_and_Conditions_Statement.doc - 2008-09-29 -
Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).
A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…
8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx
Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, and pharynx. In addition, cigarette smoking is a contributing cause of cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, bladder, pancreas, uterine cervix, and kidney. Finally, cigarette smoking is a contributing factor in some leukemias. Currently, cigarette smoking is responsible for approximately 180,000 cancer deaths every year. However, quitting smoking immediately can reduce the risk of cancer. Ten years after quitting smoking, an ex-smoker's risk of lung cancer is about half that of a current smokers. Furthermore, quitting smoking reduces the risk of developing cancers of the mouth, esophagus, throat, bladder, cervix, and pancreas within a ten-year period.
Finally, cigarette smoking increases the risk of heart disease. Heart disease is the number one cause of death in America, and smoking cigarettes is the number one risk factor for heart disease. Smoking is the main cause of sudden heart…
Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain" by Zeidan et al., (2010), published in the Journal of Pain, presents the results of research to investigate
The research addresses a gap in the research examining the benefit of meditation in attenuating pain symptoms. The research problem is clearly articulated, with the title clearly stating the content of the paper and the introduction expressing and justifying the issue. Past research has demonstrated that meditation programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBS) programs have been correlated with positive health outcomes, including pain attenuation. The most common form of program is the MBS. In the context of pain management the eight-week length of the program renders it difficult for some patients, such as suffers of chronic pain, as they may not have the ability, or the time, required to complete the course. The research undertaken by Zeidan et al. (2010) addresses this problem, implementing…
Zeidan, Fadel, Gordon, Nakia S., Merchant, Junaid, Goolkasian, Paula, (2010), The Effects of Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain, The Journal of Pain, 11(3), 199-209
The subject of healthcare reform set the country ablaze last year, proving to be one of the most contentious issues that has swept through American political discourse in recent decades. One reason that healthcare reform might have proven to be such a contentious issue -- bringing out the worst and shrillest elements of the American public -- was that healthcare is one of the most important issues in the lives of many and even most Americans (Christensen and Jason, 2009).
All of us will face serious illness at some point in our lives, whether our own or that of a loved one. The fact that so many Americans do not have any healthcare at all or have very limited access to healthcare makes the issue a personal one, and this alone should have made it central to the public discourse. However, while the above was no doubt the…
Christensen, Clayton and Jason, Grossman. The Innovator's Prescription, New York: McGraw Hill, 2009.
Mahar, Maggie. Money-Driven Medicine: The Real Reason Health Care Costs So Much. New York:Harper/Collins, 2006.
Reid, T.R. The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penquin Books, 2009.
Health Policy and Law Formation:
The process of legislation is characterized with some similarities and differences depending on the specific lawmaking body and the manner through which policymakers are elected and their respective functions and work. Generally, this legislative process includes drafting the bill, introduction of the bill to the respective house, discussions regarding it, any amendments, voting, and enactment into law or vetoed. In addition to undergoing this process, the formation of a public policy or law experiences various challenges depending on the specific state and municipality where the policy is formed.
In relation to public health policy, such laws originate from various sources before proceeding to policy development, which follows several stages. Some of these major stages in policy development include problem identification, setting of agenda, formation of the policy, implementation of the policy, policy evaluation, and policy termination or change. On an issue of health promotion or…
Evans, C.H. & Degutis, L.C. (2003, December). What it Takes for Congress to Act. American
Journal of Health Promotion, 18(2), 177-181.
Megerian, C. & Renshaw, J. (2011, June 24). N.J. Assembly Passes Landmark Employee Benefits
Overhaul. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.nj.com/politics/index.ssf/2011/06/assembly_passes_landmark_emplo.html
Health Disparities of Uninsured
Statistics show that approximately 47 million of America's population lacks medical coverage, and another 38 million has inadequate health insurance. What these statistics imply is that one-third of Americans are insecure and unsure about whether they would afford healthcare if they fell sick or needed medical help today. The State of Texas tops the list, with an uninsured population of approximately 8 million, representing 25.1% of the total (Code ed, 2006). Minority groups form a bulk of the uninsured population (Wu & ingwalt, 2005). The impact of a large uninsured population, however, is massive -- the uninsured affect both themselves and the communities in which they live, compromising the quality of care and placing everyone at risk. They do not often have a primary care physician, which means that they neither seek out medical care when they are supposed to, nor turn up for preventive care…
Abdullah, F., Zhang, Y., Lardaro, T., Black, M., Colombani, P.M., Chrouser, K., Pronovost, P.J. & Chang, D.C. (2009). Analysis of 23 Million U.S. Hospitalizations: Uninsured Children have Higher All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality. Journal of Public Health, 32(2), 236-244.
ACEP. (2013). The Uninsured: Access to Medical Care. American College of Emergency Physicians. Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.acep.org/News-Media-top-banner/The-Uninsured -- Access-To-Medical-Care/
ANA. (2008). ANA's Health System Reform Agenda. American Nurses Association (ANA). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/content/healthcareandpolicyissues/agenda/anashealthsystemreformagenda.pdf
Bernstein, J., Chollet, D. & Peterson, S. (2010). How does Insurance Coverage Improve Health Outcomes? Mathematica Policy Research Inc. (No. 1). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/health/reformhealthcare_IB1.pdf
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov /pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
Health Care Through the Eyes of the Economist
The health economics discipline holds great value. Economics is based on the assumption that resources available will always prove inadequate (i.e., scarce) when it comes to comprehensively satisfying human desires. This theory underlies all aspects of economics. Consequently, resource utilization in any one area implies, inevitably, that these cannot be used elsewhere, and that, the profits that could have been gleaned from their utilization in these other areas have to be sacrificed. Clinical research administrators are constantly making choices with regard to how they must allocate time, the activities into which their energies ought to be channeled and where to spend the funds available to them. Making choices is fundamental to their profession. Health care providers are increasingly faced with very emotive and powerful choices. Health economics fails to solve these tricky and challenging problems. Instead, it offers a way of thinking,…
Guide to economic appraisal: Carrying out a cost benefit analysis (n.d.) Retrieved 2 March 2016 from http://publicspendingcode.per.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/D03-Guide-to-economic-appraisal-CBA-16-July.pdf
Phillips, C. J. (2005). Health economics: An introduction for health professionals. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.
Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.
Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).
From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…
Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.
Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.
Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].
Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.
Health Management (Discussion questions)
The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) is a law governing how and when patients may be denied treatment or moved from one hospital to another in cases of extreme medical conditions. EMTALA was legalized as a component of the 1986 consolidated budget reconciliation (ichards & athbun, 2009). Sometimes, it is known as the CONA law. This generalized name has generated other laws. A common provision under the COBA name is the statute that governs continuation of benefits derived from medical insurance after job termination. The principal provision of this statute is as follows:
Patients visiting the emergency unit seeking treatment or examination for medical conditions must be given the required medical screening diagnosis. This will be helpful in identifying if they are suffering from emergency medical conditions. In case they are, then hospitals are obliged to either furnish them with appropriate treatment…
Davis, N.A., & Cleverley, W.O. (2010). Essentials of health care finance: A workbook for health information managers. Chicago, Ill: American Health Information Management Association.
Ferenc, D.P. (2013). Understanding hospital billing and coding. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier.
Richards, E.P., & Rathbun, K.C. (2009). Medical care law. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.
Institute of Medicine (2013). Emergency medical services at the crossroads. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
Psychosocial Model of Health
Use questions 2, 3, 5, 11, and 12
Many times a health professional will look at a health issue and see only the problem at hand. The difficulty with this approach is that most health problems affect the entire person whether or not the issue is localized or not. The psychosocial model of health looks at more than an individual's physical state to determine how they will respond to treatments in the short- and long-term. A patient's psychological well-being and their support system are as important as a willingness to see a treatment through to the end. The following paper looks at two patients and whether they were well-served from a psychosocial perspective, and, if not, what improvements could be made to serve the patient better.
In the documentaries, two of the patient interviews stood out as especially relevant to this discussion. One of these…
Back, A.L., Arnold, R.M., Baile, W.F., Fryer-Edwards, K.A., Alexander, S.C., Barley, G.E., Gooley, T.A., & Tulsky, J.A. (2007). Efficacy of communication skills training for giving bad news and discussing transitions too palliative care. Arch International Medicine, 167, 453-459.
Douglass, J.L., Sowell, R.L., & Phillips, K.D. (2003). Using Peplau's Theory to examine the psychosocial factors associated with HIV-infected women's difficulty in taking their medications. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 7(1).
Ellingson, L.L. (2002). Introduction to the field of healthcare communication. Communication Research Trends, 21(3).
Holland, D.J., Bradley, D.W., & Khoury, J.M. (2005). Sending men the message about preventive care: An evaluation of communication strategies. International Journal of Men's Health, 4(2).
In the wake on new and very contentious health care reform, many firms have undergone extensive transformations. These transformations have been predicated on both cost control and quality management. In particular quality management has had a profound impact on the underlying business operations of many health care firms. For one, firms are now finding methods in which to enhance the overall patient experience while also mitigating potential loses due to negligent means. The focus on quality management has also made firms more efficient in regards to the overall delivery of service. In particular, my firm has done extensive work with reducing elderly accidents within the facility. This quality management initiative has not only reduced costs associated with accidents, but it also has enhanced the trust and patient experience of all stakeholders within the firm (Kelly, 2011).
Identify the milestone you chose in the history of quality improvement in…
1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81
2) Kohn, L.T., Corrigan, J.M., & Donaldson, M.S. (Eds). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
3) Kelly, D.L. (2011). Applying quality management in healthcare: A systems approach (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press
4) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick A. (2009). "Chapter 1
Healthcare Financial Management
To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.
In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…
Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.
Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.
Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.
Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.
The reason why, is because this is a sign that the quality of care that is being provided in declining. What normally happens is staff members, will often become frustrated with: health care environments that are inefficient and where management has an attitude of indifference. This is problematic, because it can spread through the organization like cancer by: eating away at the fundamentals that made the facility great.
Once this occurs, it will have an impact on: the costs, efficiency and profitability of the hospital. This is the point that this could undermine the reputation of facility and it could have an impact on the brand. When this takes place, it is a sign that many hospitals are falling into a downward spiral of: declining quality of care and increasing costs. At which point, it only becomes a matter of time until: some kind of major restructuring must occur or…
Ableson, R. (2010). Employers Push Costs for Health Care on Workers. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/03/business/03insure.html
Palfry, C. (2004). Effective Health Care Management. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Shortell, S. (2006). Health Care Management. New York, NY: Thomason.
Realistically this compliance and assistance should be sought and used before, during and after negotiations with other health care organizations with which this organization might merge or enter a joint venture. Furthermore, the proposed contract itself should be passed by the FTC's Office of the General Counsel or its designee for approval before final ratification of the contract.
In order to merge and operate in a joint venture acceptable to the FTC, the organization must be mindful of Title 15 of the U.S. Code, specifically Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 18, Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1, 2, and Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. In addition, due to the FTC's recent special interest in the mergers/joint ventures of health care organizations, particularly but not solely in connection with price fixing, the organization should assume that…
Health Care Reimbursement and Billing
Both Mrs. Zwick and Mr. Davis face significant issues in the presented scenarios. Mrs. Zwick has multiple considerations under Medicare Parts A, B and D, in addition to her hospital-acquired urinary tract infection. Meanwhile, Mr. Davis must address the severe time constraints and costs of COBRA in light of his job termination. These two scenarios underscore current difficulties and complexities of current health care in the United States.
Discussion of Mrs. Zwick's coverage under Medicare Parts A, B and C
Medicare Part A (often called "hospital insurance") (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011, p. 15) assists in covering inpatient hospitalization and skilled nursing facilities, hospice and home health care (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011, p. 14). There is usually no monthly premium if you and/or your spouse paid Medicare taxes while employed (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011,…
Ethical implications of Mrs. Zwick's incurring costs related to her hospital-acquired condition are applicable despite the rehabilitation facility's exemption from POA/HAC Medicare laws. Having no first-hand knowledge of the cause of the urinary tract infection, no clear indication that I work at the rehabilitation facility and neither the privilege nor the duty of diagnosis, it would be unethical for me to tell Mrs. Zwick about my suspicions. Rather, a nurse is required to maintain his/her professional boundaries (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 6). Simultaneously, a nurse is supposed to assure "responsible disclosure of errors" to patients and act to stop bad practices and promote best practices (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 6). Consequently, a nurse in my position faces a dilemma: lack of personal knowledge and authority vs. my concern for the patient's well-being and constant improvement of the profession. In the face of this dilemma, I would: contact the rehabilitation facility's newly-hired nurse and advise/remind him/her of the duty to report to the appropriate supervisor and responsible disclosure to Mrs. Zwick; contact Mrs. Zwick's personal physician and explain the entire situation; direct Mrs. Zwick to discuss her health issues with her personal physician, who can review, diagnose and discuss the ramifications of her medical records, including but not limited to the urinary tract infection (American Nurses Association, 2001, p. 7). The desired outcomes would be: the rehabilitation center's absorption of Mrs. Zwick's costs related to her hospital-acquired infection through pressure exerted by its own nursing staff and Mrs. Zwick's personal physician; Mrs. Zwick's awareness of the true cause of her infection by health care providers who are directly responsible and capable.
Explain how the COBRA will allow Mr. Davis to continue his insurance coverage while he is out of work.
Due to Mr. Davis' termination from an employer of more than 20 employees, he can obtain coverage for himself, his spouse and his dependent children for up to 18 months (U.S. Department of Labor, 2012). In addition, due to his chronic cycle cell anemia, he may be entitled to an additional 11 months' extension for disability (U.S. Department of Labor, 2012). His employer is required to give a qualifying event notice to COBRA; then, COBRA sends a notice of the right to elect to continue coverage and an explanation of the steps that must be taken to continue coverage; Mr. Davis, his spouse and either or both of them in behalf of dependent children may elect for continuation of coverage
ecause unions retain the exclusive right to negotiate on behalf of its members, the individual worker may have little recourse to easily address incompetent leadership.
The Disadvantages of Unionized Labor for Healthcare Employers:
The primary disadvantages of unionized labor for healthcare employers correspond to the relative loss of control over issues and workplace elements commonly transferred to workers (through their unions), which accounts for the traditional resistance with which many employers responded to unionization attempts. On the one hand, unionized workforces are able to secure better pay and benefits from employers than would have been available to workers without union representation; likewise, employers must cede control over many aspects of operational and personnel decisions traditionally within administrative control.
On the other hand, particularly in light of the beneficial effect that unionized nursing has had on the quality of patient care and reduction in patient mortality, it is difficult to conceive…
Daft, R. (2005) Management (7th ed.) Mason: Thomson South Western.
Nevins, J., Commager, H. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States.
New York: Pocket Books
Seago, J., Ash, M. (2002)
Benefit Plan Design Analysis
Select and profile an organization for the benefit plan
Extraordinary and above average people are recruited by ABC. Their task force possesses a number of exceptional skills and many of them are graduates of top universities or possess professional qualifications. One of the most interesting things about ABC is that it is continually trying to make the organization host to an increasingly global platform that employs people coming from various nationalities and cultures. This way, it makes sure that the creme de la creme of the task force is employed in the organization that is not afraid of taking on challenges. Also, the organization then comes up to their expectation by providing a healthy and competitive corporate culture.
Staff that is new to the ABC organization undergoes a series of sessions whose themes range from personal mentoring to formal training. The training is imparted by their…
Fronstin, Paul. "Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Updated Analysis of the March 2008 Current Population Survey." EBRI Issue Brief, no. 321 (Employee Benefit Research Institute, September 2008).
Centralization and decentralization of HM
Centralized HM operations are conducted within the HM department and they assume that all employee related actions be implemented by the human resources specialists. Such an endeavor creates a context in which the human resource actions are taken in an objective and professional manner. Specifically, the decisions are made based on the organizational benefits and the technical considerations at an overall organizational level. In the case of decentralization nonetheless, the human resource decisions are taken in a less formal manner and they are influenced by personal bias of the medical staff conducting the interviews. The benefit is nevertheless that of the staff decisions being made not on grounds of organizational benefits, but on skills and abilities at a medical level.
A centralized human resource department then supports organizational gains and objectives, whereas a decentralized human resources act supports professional and medical benefits. It is expected…
Connor, E.T., Educational tort liability and malpractice, University of Iowa, http://www.uiowa.edu/~c07p134/tort.htm last accessed on March 3, 2011
Salvador, F.A., Which is better? Formal authority or informal authority? Entrepreneur, http://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/features/article/which-is-better-formal-authority-or-informal-authority last accessed on March 3, 2011
Website of Medicare, http://www.medicare.gov last accessed on March 3, 2011
However, they contradict themselves trough supporting one's right to commit physician-assisted suicide, since this would virtually mean that the individual who is no longer willing to live is not provided with health care meant to prevent him or her from dying (Epstein, 1999, p. 1).
Among those opposed to the fact that health care is becoming increasingly better are those who are in their twenties and are obliged to work hard in order to pay for their own medical insurance and for that of the underprivileged (Bonner, 2010).
Contemporary health care is basically provided by groups forced to pay taxes in order for others to benefit out of the process. The fact that health care is a privilege and not a right was made obvious ever since the 1954 foundation of the Department of Health, Education, and elfare. The name contained the term welfare with the intention of highlighting how…
Bloche, M.G. ed., The Privatization of Health Care Reform: Legal and Regulatory Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Epstein, R.A. Mortal Peril: Our Inalienable Right to Health Care? (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1999)
Heirich, M. Rethinking Health Care: Innovation and Change in America (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998)
Sanders, B. (2009). Retrieved from the Huffington Post Website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rep-bernie-sanders/health-care-is-a-right-no_b_212770.html
Part D -- Both articles show us that reform is crucial to fixing the American health care system. ight now, it is buried under insurance monopolies, supply side dynamics and government institutions that fail to regulate, or compensate, for promised care. Using a model of externalities, the healthcare system should, in fact, result in a system in which pricing was not a motive for care, and would not require the consumer to hold the burden of propping up the system.
Part E -- Marginal means the margins of the existing state of the health care market; what cost or benefit that might change if the allocation of resources were to change. If one good or service, for instance, was changed then it would affect other units or services. The way that marginality focuses on health care benefits, for instance, is looking at the costs of preventative care vs. chronic or…
Cowen, T. Goodwin, (n.d.) Public Goods and Externalities. The Library of Economics
And Liberty. Retrieved from: e:/wcom [email protected] econ externalities
N., et al. (2007). Externalities. Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved from e:/wcom [email protected] econecon 04 microexternalities!encyc of earth.doc
Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.
Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…
Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.
S. healthcare structure do not include the unobserved disparities. This may sound very rudimentary, even silly to point out, but in by understanding that the numbers are actually worse than they appear, and that the rising costs of healthcare services re associated with both what we see and can't see, it is easier to understand how costs rise so quickly.
It is also a sobering fact that what we cannot observe is still out there, existing beyond the scope of the government and social programs designed to help people overcome obstacles to access to healthcare and health insurance. The ethnic group that is most unobserved within the bounds of many of the studies and statistics related to the disparities in the U.S. healthcare industry is non-Mexican Latinos (Bustamante, et. al., 2009). This group represents a major portion of the U.S. population that currently lacks access to healthcare. In understanding this…
Bodenheimer, T., Chen, E., and Bennett, H.D. (2009). "Reorganizing Care:
Confronting The Growing Burden Of Chronic Disease: Can The U.S. Health Care Workforce Do The Job?" Health Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 1. Pp. 164-174.
Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D.R., and Pamuk, E. (2010).
"Socioeconomic Disparities in Health in the United States: What the Patterns Tell Us." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 100, No. 1. Pp. 186-196.
What are some of the key issues facing businesses today in terms of continuing to offer a competitive benefits package?
Health care has emerged as one of the most important issues in contemporary American business in relation to competitive benefits packages. That is because under the current health care framework in the U.S., employer health care plans are the most common source of health insurance access (eid, 2009). Before the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), only businesses employing at least 50 employees were required by law to provide group health insurance to their employees. That meant that smaller companies often were at a competitive disadvantage in attracting the best talent because employees value health insurance so much. Since the enactment of the ACA, smaller companies will also be required to provide health insurance plans to avoid tax penalties for choosing not to do so (Pickert, 2012).…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Miller, S. "Employers Weigh Health Care Strategies: A growing number do more to mitigate costs and improve employee health." Society for Human Resource
Management (March 18, 2010).
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…
1. Eakin, Douglas and Michael Ramlet. (2010) "Health Care Reform is Likely to Widen Budget Deficits -- Not Reduce Them." Health Affairs, 29, no.6:1136-1141. Eakin and Ramlet examine the underpinnings of the Congressional Budget Office's projection that enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will decrease deficits, and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade. This is an excellent article with regards to my article, written by two policy commentators at the forefront of their field. This article shows expertise in medical economics and offers compelling, clear arguments for the increase in the federal deficit due to the massive spending on entitlements as a result of passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. They project deficits, opposing the Congressional Budget Office, through their insightful analysis.
2. Marmor, Theodore, Jonathan Oberlander, and Joseph White. (2009) "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." Ann Intern Med. 150:485-489. Controlling the costs of medical care has long been an elusive goal in U.S. health policy. This article examines the options for health care cost control under the Obama administration. The authors argue that the administration's approach to health reform offers some potential for cost control but also embraces many strategies that are not likely to be successful. Lessons the United States can learn from other countries' experiences in constraining medical care spending are then explored. This article offers evidence for the lack of cost containment in the Obama administrations' plans for health reform. It gives a good analysis of the international scene in health care as well.
3. Collins, Sara, Michelle M. Doty, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Alice Ho. (2004) "The Affordability Crisis in Health Care." Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey. Published in 2004, The Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted from September 2003 -- January 2004, presents new and timely information on where the American public stands on solutions to reform the health care system. The survey finds widespread support for federal efforts to extend health insurance to more people, as well as a widely held belief that the financing of health care should continue to be a shared responsibility among individuals, employers, and the government. The survey also uncovered potential reasons for such strong support for health care reform. Among the insured and the uninsured alike, there is concern that health care security in the United States is eroding. People are experiencing reductions in insurance coverage that are threatening their financial security.
4. Etheridge, Lynn (1984) "An Aging Society and the Federal Deficit." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 521-543. This article serves as early warning sign of the deficit battles to come. It argues that the conflict between the growing needs of an aging society and a federal budget which cannot afford its current commitments has become one of the nation's most difficult government policy dilemmas. Assistance for the elderly through Social Security, Medicare, and other programs-is already the federal government's largest fiscal responsibility. In 1985 these programs will require nearly half of all domestic program spending an estimated $256 billion. The future costs of these commitments will rise rapidly well into the next century, accounting-with national defense and interest costs-for virtually all of the spending increases in the projected $200 to $300 billion deficits. Etheridge asserts that the decisions about the nation's assistance to the elderly -- and about reaffirmation, reform, and/or retrenchment of these commitments-will thus be central to the coming budget debates.
S. health care market, and this is evident in the lack of coverage for money and the rapidly increasing coverage for those who have it. The article does touch on a key source of inefficiency beyond government regulation -- the opacity of the insurance and health care markets. The most efficient markets rely on perfect information -- or something close to it -- for their functioning. At present, the health care market is so opaque that few customers truly understand what they are paying for or even how much they are paying. The WSJ rightly supports the elements of the Bush plan that will improve public availability of market information, as this will increase efficiency -- in some cases significantly.
4. A marketizing measure would bring market principles into the market, or improve the quality of those principles in the existing market. This reform has only a handful of elements…
Healthcare in Marketing (Lasik)
Lasik's Methods in Other Health Care Organizations
Customer profiling is a vastly unexplored marketing method in the health industry. While it has been used to target very specific markets, such as potential consumers of elective surgery, other markets have been largely neglected (arber 2001). The reasons for this are many, but mostly they include difficulties with medical data gathering, and legal issues regarding potential customer profiling.
Despite the above-mentioned difficulties, there are several organizations that can and do benefit from customer profiling. One such entity is the pharmaceutical industry (Winterhalter 2002). Here the customer being profiled is normally the health care professional, rather than the patient. y gathering geo-demographic data as well as customer loyalty information from a group of health professionals, pharmaceutical companies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of their marketing practices. This will further benefit not only the professionals, but also the healthcare consumer,…
Barber, F.A., R.K. Thomas, M. Huang. "Developing a profile of LASIK surgery customers." Marketing Health Services, Iss. 2, Vol 21. Chicago: Summer 2001.
Business Wire. "New Customer Wins Position Lawson as Dominant Enterprise E-business Solution Provider to Healthcare Industry." New Orleans, 2001.
Winterhalter, K. "Customer profiling in the healthcare industry." Weber Shandwick, 2002. http://www.browna2.fsnet.co.uk/PMLive/doctor_who_frame.htm
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Caplan, a.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) the Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books
Health Care ight or Privilege
Health Care ight Privilege
Whether health care is a right or a privilege is one of the most intensely debated social questions of the modern era, but phrasing it in this binary way of one or the other masks a deeper problem that is far more complex. The specific issue at hand is the rationing of scarce medical resources. If there were unlimited resources where everyone could achieve the maximum health all the time, we would not have to ask the question, but this is clearly not the case. Glannon argues this requires a theory of "distributive justice" (2005, p. 144), and outlines the four main theories that have emerged from the modern discussion, which are Utilitarian / consequentialist, Libertarian, Communitarian and Egalitarian.
Utilitarian, consequentialist theory is often invoked toward a solution of who deserves health care when there is not enough for everyone, and…
Brownstein, B. (1980). Pareto optimality, external benefits and public goods: a subjectivist approach. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, IV (1), 93-106. Retrieved from mises.org/journals/jls/4_1/4_1_6.pdf
Gensler, H. (1998). Ethics: a contemporary introduction. New York: Routledge.
Glannon, W. (2005). Biomedical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hare, R. (1963). Freedom and reason. London: Oxford University Press.
The experiences of seniors within the healthcare delivery system will alter how all Americans view healthcare. The healthcare delivery systems and overall organizational structure in the United States has been slow to adjust but that rest of the world is currently in flux that will migrate into our system. Technological advances in communication have made telehealth and telemedicine vialbel solutions to our outdated healthcare industry orgainzational structre. While these types of advances are only in their infancy, "...there seemed to be broad acceptance that telehealth and telemedicine had provided positive benefits to the worlds healthcare delivery system." (Telehealth Applications) Our technoloically challenged seniors have actually discovered the trend within the healthcare system and telehealth and telemedicine seems to be an advance that will find worldwide support so we as a nation will be reqquired to jump on the bandwagon.
In conclusion, this article review focused on new Healthcare Delivery Systems…
Farnsworth, Chris. "The Truth About Fraud" Washington Monthly 01 May 1997.
Joshua-Amadi, Mabel. "Recommendations: A Study in Motivation: Recruitment and Retention in the NHS" Nursing Management. February (2003).
Soloye, Daniel J. "Privacy and Power: Computer Databases and Metaphors for Information Privacy" Stanford Law Review July (2001).
Telehealth Applications. (2004) "Current Telehealth Applications" Retrieved October 26, 2004, at http://www.startegis.com/epic/internet/inict-tic.nsf/PrintableE/it07545e.html
Healthcare Legislative Bill
The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts
The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).
With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, (2010), Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations
The American Journal of Medical Practices, (2011), The Impact of single-payer Medicare
Program, New York
The information contained in Health ars is of tremendous benefit to all readers. e need to take more control over our own health, especially given the rising cost of health care insurance and the exorbitant prices of doctor and hospital bills. Preventing problems depends largely on paying attention to our genetic history: finding out what problems our mothers, fathers, and grandparents and adapting our lifestyle accordingly. Reading Day's book also encourages readers to learn more about common problems and possible solutions that involve diet and lifestyle changes. Taking responsibility for our health is one of the main themes in Health ars. Readers should take heed of what Day believes to be a crisis in modern medicine: the inability or unwillingness to practice common sense prevention.
I would recommend Health ars highly for several reasons. First, I believe that the health care crisis might be one of the most important problems…
Day, Phillip. Health Wars. Credence, 2001.
In fact Congress should pass a bill that gives that prescription drug benefit to Medicare patients.
QUESTION NINE: In the United States, healthcare is so expensive that over 45 million people are without health insurance. It is a broken system, leaving out many people, especially children. Recently the executive branch vetoed a bill that would have provided health insurance to millions of middle and low-income children, indicating a lack of government concern for the well being of the population. Bush said it was too expensive, yet it's not too expensive to continue spending billions on an unpopular war in Iraq. Meanwhile, for the past 45 years, Canada has had a "government-funded, national healthcare system..." based on these five principles, according to www.medhunters.com.One, it is universally available to permanent residents; two, it is comprehensive; three, it is available regardless of income; four, it is "portable within and outside" Canada; and five,…
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2007). Fact Sheet: Nursing Shortages.
Retrieved Feb. 7, 2008, at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/nursingshortage.htm .
Duke, Elizabeth. (2004). Report to Congress. The Critical Care Workforce: A Study of the Supply and Demand for Critical Care Physicians. U.S. Department of Health & Human
Services / Health Resources & Services Administration. Retrieved Feb. 6, 2008, at http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/criticalcare/cc1.htm.