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Health Care Economics
Medical Care is never free, although the individual may pay nothing?
Medical Care is both a commodity and a service. The process of consuming medical care has a cost, even if the after insurance price is zero to the consumer. For instance, there are hard costs that include the buildings, equipment and supplies that house the medical care or office. There are the wages that are paid for the administration and provision of healthcare, and a cost for every procedure, every drug, and every minute of healthcare operations. In an economy in which there is insurance coverage, costs are not static, but variable. The "cost" of something may be $100, but because of economies of scale and negotiations, the payment for that service may only be $60 once the insurance company has verified the claim. The individual may pay nothing of that if their firm pays their…
Healthcare. (2010). EconomicsOnline. Retrieved from: http://economicsonline.co.uk/Market_failures/Healthcare.html
Out-Of-Pocket Health Care Costs. (2001, June). Retrieved from Partnership For Solutions: http://www.partnershipforsolutions.org/statistics/out_of_pocket.html
The Imperfect Competitive Medical Marketplace. (December 19, 2007). MedicalExecutive Post. Retrieved from: http://medicalexecutivepost.com/2007/12/19/demand-and-supply-in-medical-care/
Friedman, D. (1990). Price Theory. DavidFriedman.com. Retrieved from:
This is being done by disseminating and using practice guidelines for various medical conditions and by profiling individual physicians' provision rates.
Demand side cost sharing is where patients must contribute more to their healthcare by paying more in copayments and deductibles. One recent advance in health care financing is the health savings account (HSA). These plans rely heavily on patient cost-sharing. An HSA basically provides health insurance along with a tax favored vehicle for savings. Consumers can use this money for qualified medical expenses during the current year or chose to save it for future medical expenses. They idea is that people will think twice before spending it, since spending it takes away from what they can save.
In my opinion supply side cost sharing is the best. There is so much waste and abuse that goes on in the health care industry that simply cleaning some of this up…
Besides the health care has strong externality influences than that of other goods and services. The cost of caring a sick person may entail heavy financial burden on the patient's family.
In the real world markets for other goods and services tends to approach towards market perfection that assumes a strict set of conditions such as, perfect information, several sellers and buyers, a uniform type of product and freedom to enter and exit that makes certain that the firms producing the goods and services are only price takers, which are producing at the lowest probable cost in the long run and only capable of earning normal profits. The market fails when the producers have the authority to considerably influence the price or the total amount of quantity being produced. Doctors and other suppliers of health care sometimes have such enhanced authority. Moreover, the healthcare faces the problems of risk and…
health care economics. Terms: Quality, resources cost.
Quality, resources and costing health care
The modern day health care providers are subjected to incremental pressures. They are for instance required to best respond to the changing health care issues of the contemporaneous population, to the growing demands and expectations of the stakeholders -- patients, partners, the public, governmental and non-governmental agencies and so on (Wolper, 2004) -- and to do all of this with as little resources as possible. In other words, health care institutions are expected to maximize their output while minimizing their input.
In such a context, the health care community becomes focused not only on attending to its patients at a generic level, but also on attending to the multifaceted needs of the patients and doing so in a context of limited input. In other words, an ongoing focus of the modern day heath care community is on…
Wolper, L.F., 2004, Health care administration: planning, implementing, and managing organized delivery systems, 4th edition, Jones and Bartlett Learning
Institute of Medicine, 2003, The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal lectures spring 2001: crossing the quality chasm, National Academies Press
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary last accessed on March 24, 2011
Health Care Economics
Heath care economics
The health care sector in the United States is faced with a series of challenges given by the dynamic and changing features of the modern day society. Two notable challenges in this sense are represented by moral hazard and demand inducement. These are best explained below:
"First, because of the nature of insurance at that time patients demanded all medical services regardless of cost, even those offering an insignificant health benefit (moral hazard). Second, autonomous providers of the traditional health economy received fee-for-service payments. This creates the incentive for physicians to recommend the extravagant of treatments, even if those treatments are inappropriate to the patients condition (demand inducement)" (University of Canterbury).
In order to address these issues, the concept and practice of managed care have been introduced. The scope of this application is that of creating more efficiency within the health care provision sector.…
Morton, F.M.S. The problems of price controls. Health and Medicine. http://www.cato.org/pubs/regulation/regv24n1/morton.pdf accessed on October 5, 2012
Health economics II. Overcoming inefficiency through managed care. A look at David Drannove's rationale. University of Canterbury. http://www.econ.canterbury.ac.nz/personal_pages/john_fountain/Teaching/HealthEcon/econ338/workshop/Sam%20on%20Dranove.htm accessed on October 5, 2012
Prescription drug re-importation question and answer sheet. AARP. http://assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/articles/international/ReimportationQA.pdfaccessed on October 5, 2012
The problem is that not enough physicians accept patients using Medicare as payment. In essence, many such physicians feel that the Medicare payouts are insufficient either for them to cover their costs, or to turn a reasonable profit on the transaction. obinson (2011) notes that public payer in general pay out at lower rates. The public payers are able to deliver volume to health care providers, and this gives them bargaining power, as one of the most significant payers, that allows them to lower their payouts. The problem for many providers is that servicing these clients essentially means a high-volume, low-margin business model. Not all health care providers can, or wish to, operate with this business model. As in any business, this model requires a high level of discipline, and it requires driving down costs throughout the business. Many physicians find the operating model incompatible with what they…
Robinson, J. (2011). Hospitals respond to Medicare payment shortfalls by both shifting costs and cutting them, based on market concentration. Health Affairs. Vol. 30 (7) 1265-1271.
Economics of Medical Errors
Medical Error Economics
The 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System pulled the curtain back on the dark secret of medical errors (Institute of Medicine, 2000). The best estimates at the time suggested that between 44,000 and 98,000 people were dying each year due to medical errors. A more recent study discovered that the current system of relying on voluntary reporting probably underestimates the annual incidence of adverse events by 90% (Classen et al., 2011). This new finding was based on experts analyzing medical records for anomalies that could potentially represent a serious medical error. The authors of this study concluded that nearly a third of all hospital admissions probably result in an adverse event because of medical errors.
The recent passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 contains provisions designed to eliminate…
Andel, Charles, Davidow, Stephen L., Hollander, Mark, and Moreno, David A. (2012). The economics of health care quality and medical errors. Journal of Health Care Finance, 39(1), 39-50.
Classen, David C., Resar, Roger, Griffin, Frances, Federico, Frank, Frankel, Terri, Kimmel, Nancy et al. (2011). 'Global trigger tool' shows that adverse events in hospitals may be ten times greater than previously measured. Health Affairs, 30(4), 1-9.
Grober, Ethan D. And Bohnen, John M.A. (2005). Defining medical error. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 48(1), 39-49.
Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century [brief]. IOM.edu. Retrieved 20 Mar. 2013 from http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/1999/To-Err-is-Human/To%20Err%20is%20Human%201999%20%20report%20brief.pdf.
future of health care in the St. Louis area
This paper presents a detailed examination of the future of health care in the St. Louis area. Included in the paper are discussions about economics and population issues as well as changes hat are coming. The writer addresses many economic issues including good and services and resources in the health care industry currently as well as the future projections. There were 12 sources used to complete this paper.
The cost of obtaining health care in the United States has been the topic of tremendous controversy for many years. While some argue that the nation needs to go to socialized medicine similar to the Canadian delivery mode others believe America has the best health care system in the world if only the costs would become more reasonable. The St. Louis MO area is no stranger to rising health care costs. St. Louis…
Ron Ashworth And James Crane, COORDINATED PLANNING HAS FINALLY BEGUN., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 04-02-2002, pp B7.
Judith VandeWater; Of The Post-Dispatch, SLU EXECUTIVE WILL BE DIRECTOR OF FOUNDATION FOR HEALTH CARE., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 08-21-2001, pp B2.
Author not available, ST. LOUIS HEALTH CARE EXECUTIVE SWORN IN AS CHAIRMAN OF NATION'S LARGEST HOPSITAL ASSOCIATION., U.S. Newswire, 02-01-1999.
Author not available, RECENT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN ST. LOUIS., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 12-19-1999, pp B4.
history evolution health care economics timeline funding, defined terms; Inelasticity, Macroeconomics, supply demand, economics, microeconomics, gross dosmestic product • Include resources. • The paper -- including tables graphs, headings, title page, reference page -- consistent APA formatting guidelines meets -level requirements.
History of health care economics
Throughout the past recent years, the cost of health care has been amounting as a result of numerous social, economic and other categories of pressures, such as the aging of the population, the increasing living standards or the rapid advancement of technology. In this context, the cost of health care in the total gross domestic product is gradually becoming unsustainable for the country.
The economic interest of health care provision was first revealed nearly five decades ago, but at that stage, the analyses were conducted at a microeconomic level. They were taking into consideration limited economic variables and they generated results with a limited…
Blumenschein, K., Johannesson, M., 1996, Economic evaluation in health care. A brief history and future directions, Pharmaeconomics, Vol. 10, No. 2
Cox, M., Pacala, J.T., Vercellotti, G.M., Shea, J.A., 2004, Health care economics, financing, organization and delivery, Family Medicine, Vol. 36
McConnell, P., 2012, Elastic or inelastic is not the only question, High Table, https://www.hightable.com/medical-equipment/insight/elastic-or-inelastic-is-not-the-only-question-31349 last accessed on May 3, 2012
local hospitals have been criticized for charging greater fees for service to the uninsured than to those covered by insurance. While it is easy to understand the emotional reaction to this policy, it is difficult to provide any sound financial underpinnings for the brouhaha. Indeed, if were the hospitals to act otherwise, they would not only be violating several key, and easy to understand, economic principles. They would also be undermining future health care for these patients and all others, both currently and in the future.
Particularly taken to task for the fee differentials was The Advocate system, which serves "the most patients of any private health care group in the Chicago area, and treats more uninsured patients than any other private Cook County hospital system." (Handschel 2003)
No one has complained recently about a glut of doctors and nurses and other medical staff; on the contrary, the dearth of…
Hantschel, Allison. "Latinos speak out against hospitals' price-gouging." 20 August 2003. Daily Southtown, A3.
An open letter to James Skogsbergh, CEO of Advocate Healthcare." 17 August 2003. Chicago Sun-Times, 30A.
managed care organizations use to reduce unnecessary utilizations? Which ones do you think are more effective?
After food, shelter and clothing, health services are a major human need. With the rapid evolution of the human civilization, and the increasing health awareness among the masses, the demands for health care services are increases. On the parallel end, the health sector today operates on corporate lines and many health care service providers operate their organizations as a for profit organization. These organizations have similar objectives as any other corporate firm, which includes, maximizing profits, increasing market share, eliminating competition or maintaining competitive edge and covering costs. Most of these for profit health care service providers stand out from nonprofits health care service providers due to the fact that they offer services that are otherwise not offered by the nonprofits service providers. Most of these health services are expensive at cost therefore prices…
One of the issues with this program is that it creates a great amount of legacy costs, in that public employees still get full benefits after they retire, but don't have to pay into it,
With the implementation of the new Obama Health Care law the exact impact on Virginia will vary depending upon which course is taken and whether the federal reform proposal tries to cover the expenses or shift these expenses to the states. Experts have assessed the impact of a reform proposal that considerably expands government's role in the health care market by way of providing an extra $1 trillion in federal subsidies over the next ten years and tendering incentives to move present Medicaid recipients into a new federal health insurance program (the Prognosis for National Health Insurance a Virginia Perspective, 2009).
This type of program would:
augment national health care expenditures by an extra 8.9%…
About Virginia. (2011). Retrieved January 26, 2011, from Web site:
Administration of Health Insurance. (2010). Retrieved January 26, 2011, from Web site:
Market concentration is the concept that allows different distributions of the shares of various companies’ production within a market. In other words, it is a measure of monopolistic phenomena that helps one to determine the extent to which a single firm has control or dominance within a market. Market power is the extension of this phenomenon and describes the ability of a company to raise prices as a result of its monopoly of the market (in a market where competition is fierce, prices are more likely to fall than they are to rise—unless there is collusion among firms).
Market concentration can be measured by the concentration ratio, which assesses the combined market share of the top companies within a specific industry; share refers to any relevant indicator, such as employment, sales, etc. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is one type of market concentration measure and is taken by squaring the percentage of…
Cutler, D., Morton, F. (2013). Hospitals, market share, and consolidation. JAMA, 310(18): 1964-1970.
Pope, C. (2014). How the Affordable Care Act fuels health care market consolidation. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/health-care reform/report/how-the-affordable-care-act-fuels-health-care-market-consolidation
Cost analysis methods, 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine). This will give a picture of the efficacy of the drug, its financial costs, its impact upon society, and impact upon the patient. When a drug is new, data must first be accrued on the drug itself before it can be compared with similar treatments.
What type of economic evaluation should be used when comparing outcomes and costs of two diabetes therapies that affect both the severity of the disease and the survival rate? Why?
A cost-benefit analysis should be used. In this instance, the two therapies do not produce equivalent outcomes. This means a cost-minimization analysis that presumes equivalency cannot be used. The study's designers are not only interested in the costs of the treatment, but also the impact upon patient health, so cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis is not appropriate. Only a cost-benefit analysis provides non-quantitative information on the benefits…
HTA 101: IV. Cost analysis methods. (2011). U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Retrieved June 27, 2011 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/hta101/ta10106.html
Healthcare Economics Evaluation
This report is about a proposed healthcare economics investigation. Some early research has been done and will be described based on what was found and how it was found. The report will conclude with a proposed plan for further economic evaluation on that same topic with a great deal the expected and proper form and function of that research to be described in that section. A conclusion will wrap up the report.
Critical Appraisal of the Evidence
The author of this report has chosen how to make health care affordable and have the most amount of people possible covered in the United States as this is one of the more omnipresent issues and matters in American society in the modern time. Health care being at the forefront of the American news cycle is nothing new as it is has been a huge part of the…
Berkowitz, E. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid: The Past as Prologue. Health Care Financing Review, 29(3), 80-93.
Bovbjerg, R.R., & Schoenbaum, S.C. (2004). Malpractice Reform Must Include Steps To Prevent Medical Injury. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 140(1), 51-54.
Budget problems, Medicaid expansion main topics at SAMHSA meeting. (2012). Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 24(32), 1-3.
CDC. (2013, March 19). CDC Online Newsroom - Press Release: October 17, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p1017_alcohol_consumption.html
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive economic landscape of the modern world; governments, businesses and institutions must remain diligent in their care and compassion for their citizens and staff members. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, voters, workers and consumers have become much more connected to the organizations they patronize (Kurzweil). Accordingly, these important groups are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of their followers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. One of the most important needs presented in all demographics is reliable healthcare. Thus, with the inelasticity in the demand for healthcare, countries need to determine an applicable system, whereby citizens can have access to the medical services they will inevitably need. Collective access to healthcare represents the main problem in field of…
Blumenschein, K. And M. Johannesson. "Economic Evaluation in Healthcare. A Brief History and Future Directions." Journal of Pharmacoeconomics 10.2 (1996): 114-122.
Cox, Malcolm, et al. "Health Care Economics, Financing, Organization and Delivery." Family Medicine January 2004: 20-30.
Hamburger, Tom and Kim Geiger. "Healthcare Insurers Get Upper Hand." The Los Angeles Times 24 August 2009.
Jeremiah Hurley. "An Overview of the Normative Economics of the Health Sector." Journal of Health Economics 1.1 (2000): 55-118.
Health care economics can be understood in terms of a number of different economic concepts. One of the most basic economic concepts is supply and demand. Essentially, supply is how much of something available that there is in a market, and demand is how much that people want. The concept reflects the idea that where there are no constraints, supply and demand will be roughly the same. In the real world, of course, there are always constraints. Demand has a number of drivers, and health care providers need to be aware of these drivers. Older people require more health care, so demand increases as the population ages. Sick people require more health care as well. Thus, when rates of disease or illness increase, that increase demand. As people reach end of life, especially at an advanced age, they become prolific consumers of health care. Thus, while the aging baby boomers…
Economics of Healthcare
The Economics of Health Care
The healthcare in the United States is a system of economics that has been referred to as a Ponzi scheme and most assuredly, the economics of the U.S. healthcare system are unsound at best. The United States is the only industrialized nation in the world that fails to provide universal access to basic health care and according to the work of Kilchevsky (2004), 'the absence of universal health coverage has been called 'one of the great unsolved problems facing the United States at the onset of the 21st century." (p.1) This work intends to examine the economics of health care in the United States.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that national health expenditures for 2009 totaled $2.5 trillion, which is stated to be $58,086 per person. (erdine, 2011, p.1) The estimated total for health expenditures in 2008…
Berdine, Gilbert G. (2011) The Economics of U.S. Healthcare. Luwig von Mises Institute. 8 Aug 2011. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/daily/5496/
Boyapeti, Vijay (2010) What's Really Wrong with the Healthcare Industry? Ludwig von Mises Institute. 26 May 2010. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/daily/4434/
Kilchevsky, Amichai D. (2004) Universal Coverage: A Bridge Too Far? Economics. About.com. Retrieved from: http://economics.about.com/cs/moffattentries/a/universal.htm
All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.
Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.
Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).
From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…
Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.
Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.
Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].
Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.
Healthcare spending and GDP
With the renewed comprehensive healthcare system, the obvious challenge that came with it is how to finance it. The huge projections of the financial inputs needed to efficiently run the program portends a challenge to the government and is likely to spin out of control and be unaffordable in the long run after a few decades from now. This is informed by accompanying supplies and services increasing in cost like the essential original drugs that have been noted to have increased in prices among other services within the healthcare. In many countries people are expected to pay for their own health care. Therefore the ability of people to pay for their health care or the affordability of the healthcare has become a policy issue in many countries and especially an issue of urgency. The issue of healthcare spending has been a topic for debate over the…
Rise in healthcare spending can also be attributed to the use of improved technology, vaccine improvement, antibiotics, introduction of disease care as well as advances in surgery. There have also been improved medical devices like CT scanners, MRI, ultrasounds and defibrillators that can be implanted. At the same time there are developments in pharmaceuticals and administration costs have also contributed to the rise in costs of healthcare. Mostly the heath care costs are due to medical technology which is approximately over 200 billion per year (Wayne, 2012).
The Americans lifestyles also impact the health care industry in significant measures, almost sixty percent of the population is overweight and childhood obesity is rampant. Other factors that have an impact on the healthcare spending are; poor diets, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of exercise, drugs and drinking. It is the people themselves who have pushed the costs of health care up. The high healthcare spending ahs effects not only to families but also to businesses and public budgets. Expenditure on healthcare is seen to rise at a rate that is fast even faster than the state of the economy entirely and the wages of the working people.
In 2011 spending on medications, hospital visits as well as other medical care went up with an estimated percentage of 3.9 this consumed about 17.9% of the GDP. This is more than three times the deficit. Much of the money is considered to be spent appropriately which is keeping people alive and healthy but of
On the other hand, the industry will most likely insist on the service quality segment rather than on the price transparency. A constant improvement of the services provided within the healthcare facility will not only produce the appropriate competition on the market, but it will also provide the incentives for the other healthcare organizations, thus rising overall quality levels in the market. This will rather change the way hospitals price their services rather than price transparency.
Nevertheless, price transparency will change ridiculous situations in which the client is charged $35,000 to change a battery in a pacemaker. It will drive such prices lower, encouraging price competition.
1. A Call for Transparency in Healthcare Cost and Quality. On the Internet at http://blogs.msdn.com/healthblog/archive/2006/05/16/599064.aspx.Last retrieved on June 30, 2007
2. Feld, Stanley. What Is Real Price Transparency? Medicine: Healthcare System. May 2007. On the Internet at http://stanleyfeldmdmace.typepad.com/repairing_the_healthcare_/2007/05/what_is_real_pr.html.Last retrieved on June 30, 2007…
1. A Call for Transparency in Healthcare Cost and Quality. On the Internet at http://blogs.msdn.com/healthblog/archive/2006/05/16/599064.aspx.Last retrieved on June 30, 2007
2. Feld, Stanley. What Is Real Price Transparency? Medicine: Healthcare System. May 2007. On the Internet at http://stanleyfeldmdmace.typepad.com/repairing_the_healthcare_/2007/05/what_is_real_pr.html.Last retrieved on June 30, 2007
Call for Transparency in Healthcare Cost and Quality. On the Internet at
"Studies of the relationship between managed care penetration in the health care market and expenditures for Medicare fee-for-service enrollees have demonstrated the existence of these types of spill over effects" (Bundorf et al., 2004).
Managed care organizations generate these types of spillover effects by increasing competition in the health care market, altering the arrangement of the health care delivery system, and altering physician practice patterns. Studies have found that higher levels of managed care infiltration are linked with lower rates of hospital cost inflation and lower physician fees are consistent with competitive effects. "Other studies demonstrate the impact of managed care on delivery system structure including hospital capacity, hospital admission patterns, the size and composition of the physician workforce and the adoption and use of medical equipment and technologies. More recent evidence has linked market-level managed care activity to the process, but not the outcomes of care" (Bundorf et al.,…
Altman, D.E. And L. Levin. (2005). The Sad History of Health Care Cost Containment as
Told by One Client. Health Affairs, 24(1).
Bodenheimer, T. (2005). High and rising health care costs. part 1: Seeking an explanation.
Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(10), 847-54.
The reason why, is because this is a sign that the quality of care that is being provided in declining. What normally happens is staff members, will often become frustrated with: health care environments that are inefficient and where management has an attitude of indifference. This is problematic, because it can spread through the organization like cancer by: eating away at the fundamentals that made the facility great.
Once this occurs, it will have an impact on: the costs, efficiency and profitability of the hospital. This is the point that this could undermine the reputation of facility and it could have an impact on the brand. When this takes place, it is a sign that many hospitals are falling into a downward spiral of: declining quality of care and increasing costs. At which point, it only becomes a matter of time until: some kind of major restructuring must occur or…
Ableson, R. (2010). Employers Push Costs for Health Care on Workers. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/03/business/03insure.html
Palfry, C. (2004). Effective Health Care Management. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Shortell, S. (2006). Health Care Management. New York, NY: Thomason.
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
Polls examining public support of the bill and specifically the public healthcare option vary significantly. ith regard to physicians, the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed over six thousand medical doctors and found there was a majority in favor of federally provided public healthcare insurance (Keyhani & Federman). Other polls have suggested an opposition to the public option (Marmor).
The public option would provide an affordable alternative to the current private health insurance options and would provide impetus for competition and positive change. hether "America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009" will be passed is currently uncertain. hat is certain is that the healthcare and health insurance system is currently not sufficient to provide healthcare support for nearly 48 million uninsured Americans. Alterations need to be made to increase access and affordability for those individuals who desire health insurance.
The healthcare and health insurance system in the United States…
Harrington, Charlene, Carroll L. Estes, and Cassandra Crawford. Health policy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2004.
Keyhani, Salomeh, and Alex Federman. "Doctors on Coverage -- Physicians' Views on a New Public Insurance Option and Medicare Expansion." N. Engl J. Med 361.14 (2009): e24.
Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The healthcare fix. MIT Press, 2007.
Marmor, T. "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." 7 Apr 2009. 1 Nov 2009 .
In fact Congress should pass a bill that gives that prescription drug benefit to Medicare patients.
QUESTION NINE: In the United States, healthcare is so expensive that over 45 million people are without health insurance. It is a broken system, leaving out many people, especially children. Recently the executive branch vetoed a bill that would have provided health insurance to millions of middle and low-income children, indicating a lack of government concern for the well being of the population. Bush said it was too expensive, yet it's not too expensive to continue spending billions on an unpopular war in Iraq. Meanwhile, for the past 45 years, Canada has had a "government-funded, national healthcare system..." based on these five principles, according to www.medhunters.com.One, it is universally available to permanent residents; two, it is comprehensive; three, it is available regardless of income; four, it is "portable within and outside" Canada; and five,…
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2007). Fact Sheet: Nursing Shortages.
Retrieved Feb. 7, 2008, at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/nursingshortage.htm .
Duke, Elizabeth. (2004). Report to Congress. The Critical Care Workforce: A Study of the Supply and Demand for Critical Care Physicians. U.S. Department of Health & Human
Services / Health Resources & Services Administration. Retrieved Feb. 6, 2008, at http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/criticalcare/cc1.htm.
Health Care Market
In discussing the market for a health care good or service, one must first understand that in speaking of "health care," one is actually speaking of the entire health care industry, along with each of the goods and services that are produced and exchanged within this market. From organ transplant operations and blood donation to therapeutic massages and nursing home activity programs, the span of health care goods and services is both vast and varied. Further, in viewing today's uncertain economy, the market for health care goods and services is one that brings with it many different questions that must be addressed in order for a stakeholder to fully comprehend what decisions need to made in order to turn a profit.
Scarcity of esources
Scarcity of resources within this market significantly influences the decisions that stakeholders are forced to make. With scarcity of resources comes limited action…
Case, K. And Fair, R. (2007). Principles of economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Fullerton, D. (2008). How economists see the environment. Nature, 385(6701), p. 433.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…
1. Eakin, Douglas and Michael Ramlet. (2010) "Health Care Reform is Likely to Widen Budget Deficits -- Not Reduce Them." Health Affairs, 29, no.6:1136-1141. Eakin and Ramlet examine the underpinnings of the Congressional Budget Office's projection that enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will decrease deficits, and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade. This is an excellent article with regards to my article, written by two policy commentators at the forefront of their field. This article shows expertise in medical economics and offers compelling, clear arguments for the increase in the federal deficit due to the massive spending on entitlements as a result of passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. They project deficits, opposing the Congressional Budget Office, through their insightful analysis.
2. Marmor, Theodore, Jonathan Oberlander, and Joseph White. (2009) "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." Ann Intern Med. 150:485-489. Controlling the costs of medical care has long been an elusive goal in U.S. health policy. This article examines the options for health care cost control under the Obama administration. The authors argue that the administration's approach to health reform offers some potential for cost control but also embraces many strategies that are not likely to be successful. Lessons the United States can learn from other countries' experiences in constraining medical care spending are then explored. This article offers evidence for the lack of cost containment in the Obama administrations' plans for health reform. It gives a good analysis of the international scene in health care as well.
3. Collins, Sara, Michelle M. Doty, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Alice Ho. (2004) "The Affordability Crisis in Health Care." Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey. Published in 2004, The Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted from September 2003 -- January 2004, presents new and timely information on where the American public stands on solutions to reform the health care system. The survey finds widespread support for federal efforts to extend health insurance to more people, as well as a widely held belief that the financing of health care should continue to be a shared responsibility among individuals, employers, and the government. The survey also uncovered potential reasons for such strong support for health care reform. Among the insured and the uninsured alike, there is concern that health care security in the United States is eroding. People are experiencing reductions in insurance coverage that are threatening their financial security.
4. Etheridge, Lynn (1984) "An Aging Society and the Federal Deficit." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 521-543. This article serves as early warning sign of the deficit battles to come. It argues that the conflict between the growing needs of an aging society and a federal budget which cannot afford its current commitments has become one of the nation's most difficult government policy dilemmas. Assistance for the elderly through Social Security, Medicare, and other programs-is already the federal government's largest fiscal responsibility. In 1985 these programs will require nearly half of all domestic program spending an estimated $256 billion. The future costs of these commitments will rise rapidly well into the next century, accounting-with national defense and interest costs-for virtually all of the spending increases in the projected $200 to $300 billion deficits. Etheridge asserts that the decisions about the nation's assistance to the elderly -- and about reaffirmation, reform, and/or retrenchment of these commitments-will thus be central to the coming budget debates.
Economic Forces and Health Care
Evaluation of Economic Forces and Impact on Health Care
This paper examines the impact of economic forces on the health care industry and health care management. According to Economy atch, the health care industry plays an important part in the country's economy. The health care industry determines the gross domestic product (GDP), exports status, employment, capital investment etc. The industry is likely to be dominated by continued expansion of demands in the market, increasing prices, and increasing awareness among customers, likely triggering a change in the industry for the better (Health Care Industry, 2011).
Industry analysts point to the healthcare industry as the one bright spot in an otherwise sluggish economy. According to the healthcare Financial Management Association (HFMA), the health care industry is creating new jobs, companies and markets. Job growth as the result of health care demands increased by 65% from 1990 to…
ACOEM Special Committee on Health, Productivity, and Disability Management. (2008). Healthy workforce/healthy economy: The role of health, productivity, and disability management in addressing the nation's health care crisis. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Retrieved July 10, 2011 from http://www.acoem.org/uploadedFiles/Healthy_Workplaces_Now/Healthy%20Workforce%20-%20Healthy%20Economy.pdf
Health Care Industry. (2011). Economy Watch. Retrieved July 10, 2011 from http://www.economywatch.com/world-industries/health-care/
Healthcare industry proves one bright spot in sluggish economy, research shows. (2011). Healthcare Financial Management Association website. Retrieved July 10, 2011 from http://www.hfma.org/templates/blogpost.aspx?id=27268
Kavilanz, P. (2011). Health care jobs a bright spot for hiring. CNNMoney. Retrieved July 10, 2011 from http://money.cnn.com/2011/07/08/news/economy/healthcare_jobs/
S. healthcare structure do not include the unobserved disparities. This may sound very rudimentary, even silly to point out, but in by understanding that the numbers are actually worse than they appear, and that the rising costs of healthcare services re associated with both what we see and can't see, it is easier to understand how costs rise so quickly.
It is also a sobering fact that what we cannot observe is still out there, existing beyond the scope of the government and social programs designed to help people overcome obstacles to access to healthcare and health insurance. The ethnic group that is most unobserved within the bounds of many of the studies and statistics related to the disparities in the U.S. healthcare industry is non-Mexican Latinos (Bustamante, et. al., 2009). This group represents a major portion of the U.S. population that currently lacks access to healthcare. In understanding this…
Bodenheimer, T., Chen, E., and Bennett, H.D. (2009). "Reorganizing Care:
Confronting The Growing Burden Of Chronic Disease: Can The U.S. Health Care Workforce Do The Job?" Health Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 1. Pp. 164-174.
Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D.R., and Pamuk, E. (2010).
"Socioeconomic Disparities in Health in the United States: What the Patterns Tell Us." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 100, No. 1. Pp. 186-196.
Health Care Finance
Financial analyst Eric Feigenbaum (2009) notes that while we like to think of hospitals in terms of compassion, patient care and dedication to altruistic aims, they are businesses concerned with revenues and expenses like any other business (Feigenbaum 2009, p.2). In today's hectic world of economic downturn and financial struggles felt from individuals of every demographic and social status, revenue and expense accounting are issues that must be addressed carefully by nearly every business in every market. The same holds true for the health care industry and health care providers. With financial uncertainty come threats for health care providers in managing revenue and expenses during the upcoming years. However, with these threats remain certain opportunities for health care providers to take on in order to combat the uncertainty that comes with managing revenue and expenses when the amount of each is not ideal.
With the appropriate management…
Bristow, W. (2009). How to thrive during a recession. Doctor's Digest. 81(1): p.16.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Feigenbaum, E. (2009). Categories of expenses and revenues in the hospital business setting. Demand Media, 2(1), pp. 2-5. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Johnson, N., McNichol, E. And Oliff, P. (2011). Feeling the recession's impact on health care. Handbook of Health Economics 3(2), pp. 54. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.
Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…
Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.
arity: Health Care EIT is one of many luxury and acute care investment properties on the market.
Imatability: Given the lack of available credit for starting new property ventures and construction, the company's current facilities do give it an advantage. Financial barriers to industry entry are higher than they were in the past. This can act as a barrier to 'imatiblity' of its business model.
Organization: Health Care EIT has a fairly concentrated organizational structure. While this can be an advantage in terms of assuring consistency of service, it can also result in narrowness of vision, such as (perhaps) a tendency to focus too much on high-end offerings, when seniors may have less financial leverage than in the past.
Sources, rarity, and imatability of cost advantages
Economies of scale may be possible, given the size of Healthcare EIT. Unlike some of its competitors, the company was an early, first mover…
Executive Officers. (2010). Health Care. REIT. Retrieved November 3, 2010 at http://www.hcreit.com/about-hcn/executive-officers
History (2010). Health Care. REIT. Retrieved November 3, 2010 at http://www.hcreit.com/about-hcn/history
Health Care Situation: Medical Error Due to Doctors' Bad Handwriting
Identify a health care news situation that affects a health care organization such as a hospital, clinic or insurance company.
I have identified the following health care news situation as the topic of my paper: "Poor Handwriting of Doctors and its implied risks for the Patient, Hospital and Medical Malpractice Insurance." Poor handwriting of physicians resulting in poor legibility of entries into patients' medical records carries very dramatic risks for all above-mentioned interest bearers. It can result in severe health danger for the patient and - in extreme situations - even cause a patient's death. Doctors' bad penmanship has long been seen a problem within organized medicine and the patient safety movement. Three American Medical Association (AMA) policies dating back to 1992, urge doctors to "improve the legibility of handwritten orders for medications" and review all orders for accuracy and…
Berwick, Donald M. & Winickoff, David E. (1996). The truth about doctors' handwriting: a prospective study. BMJ Vol. 313 (21-28 December 1996). 1657-1658. www.bmj.com/content/313/7072/1657.full, accessed 21 August 2011.
Bruner, Anne & Kasdan, Morton.L. Handwriting Errors: Harmful, Wasteful and Preventable.
1-4. www.kyma.org/uploads/file/.../Harmful_wasteful_and_preventable.pdfSimilar, accessed 22 August 2011.
Gallant, Al. (22 November 2009). For a secure electronic health record implementation, user authentication is key. 1-2). searchhealthit.techtarget.com/.../User-authentication-is-critical-for-pl.., accessed 24 August 2011.
The experiences of seniors within the healthcare delivery system will alter how all Americans view healthcare. The healthcare delivery systems and overall organizational structure in the United States has been slow to adjust but that rest of the world is currently in flux that will migrate into our system. Technological advances in communication have made telehealth and telemedicine vialbel solutions to our outdated healthcare industry orgainzational structre. While these types of advances are only in their infancy, "...there seemed to be broad acceptance that telehealth and telemedicine had provided positive benefits to the worlds healthcare delivery system." (Telehealth Applications) Our technoloically challenged seniors have actually discovered the trend within the healthcare system and telehealth and telemedicine seems to be an advance that will find worldwide support so we as a nation will be reqquired to jump on the bandwagon.
In conclusion, this article review focused on new Healthcare Delivery Systems…
Farnsworth, Chris. "The Truth About Fraud" Washington Monthly 01 May 1997.
Joshua-Amadi, Mabel. "Recommendations: A Study in Motivation: Recruitment and Retention in the NHS" Nursing Management. February (2003).
Soloye, Daniel J. "Privacy and Power: Computer Databases and Metaphors for Information Privacy" Stanford Law Review July (2001).
Telehealth Applications. (2004) "Current Telehealth Applications" Retrieved October 26, 2004, at http://www.startegis.com/epic/internet/inict-tic.nsf/PrintableE/it07545e.html
Healthcare eform PPACA
Determine how this Federal law will affect market-driven and non-market driven decisions.
One of the industries that has felt the effects of the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act most immediately and intensely was the insurance industry in the United States. One of the chief reasons that the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act was introduced and passed into American legislation was the effect of rising health care costs attributed to arbitrary and non-competitive costs exacted from healthcare consumers from the insurance industry. There was a general lack of regulation within the industry, which had been demonstrated to have had a negative impact on healthcare outcomes and trends. The United States, while the largest economy and a dominant world superpower, has an underperforming healthcare industry compared to other developed, industrialized nations.
One of the central conflicts associated with the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act is related to philosophical differences…
Gitlin, Saul. (2002) "Demystifying the Asian-American Market" Retrieved from: http://www.mrcc-online.com/presentations/Asian_American_Market_11-12-02.pdf
Greenfield, Lazar. (2010). "National Health Care Expenditures: Addressing the Cost of Health Care in the United States" Annals of Surgery. 251: 2.
Weiss, Joshua A., Medical Marketing in the United States: A Prescription for Reform. George Washington Law Review, Vol. 79, p. 260, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1748902
Second, poor health in the individual probably detracts from his or her capacity to contribute to society more directly than the harm to productive society represented by the cost of the individual's healthcare.
Furthermore, the vast majority of American healthcare dollars are spent on individuals in their later years, after their productive lives are already over, rather than on working-age people. Finally, while reducing healthcare costs is necessary for the optimal health of the American economy, it probably relates more directly to private economic matters rather than to consuming national resources that could otherwise be dedicated to technological development in a general sense.
Response to Statement #3: As suggested in Response #2, optimum public health is not necessarily a prerequisite for global competitiveness unless by "health" one means healthy enough to reach productive adulthood. On the other hand, the American population is undoubtedly on the verge of an obesity crisis,…
Health Care eform:
One of the major topics that have had a long history in the United States is health care reforms, which has been characterized by huge debates. Following decades of failed attempts by various Democratic presidents, a new law was enacted by President Obama to overhaul the country's health care system. The enactment of this legislation came after a year of harsh partisan combat with the purpose of ensuring access to health care insurance for millions of Americans. In addition to being the most controversial topic, health care reform law was the largest single legislative accomplishment of President Obama. Notably, this legislation will cost America's government approximately $940 billion over the next decade based on an analysis by the Congressional Budget Office. The office has also estimated that the law will lessen federal deficit by about $138 billion during the same period and a further reduction of the…
Cannon, M.F. (2010, March 1). The Best and Worst Health Care Reform Ideas. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from http://dailycaller.com/2010/03/01/the-best-and-worst-health-care-reform-ideas/
Cohn, J. (2011, January 20). About that Whole "Replace" Thing & #8230; Retrieved December 15,
2011, from http://www.tnr.com/blog/jonathan-cohn/81821/about-whole-replace-thing
"Health Care Reform.." (2011, November 15). The New York Times. Retrieved December 15,
Healthcare spending by the New York State persistently surpasses its earnings. That difference continues to be expanding and is also anticipated to broaden unless of course there happen to be severe, continuous modifications in spending budget actions. Lieutenant Governor ichard avitch, in "A 5-Year Strategy to Deal with the State of New York's Spending budget Deficit" released during March 2010, approximated this structural disproportion within the state's spending budget to become no less than $13 billion. The structural inequality isn't simply the consequence of the economic downturn that started during 2007, and a commonly strengthening economic climate is not going to get rid of it.
To help the State of New York in providing the solutions and dedication to quality that its residents rely on, structural modifications are needed. The aim of this paper is actually to summarize one particular realignment - solving an outright inequity involving the state as…
California Public Employees' Retirement System, "Facts at a Glance: Health," September 2010, http://www.calpers.ca.gov/eip-docs/about/facts/health.pdf .
Citizens Budget Commission, Out of Balance: A Comparison of Public and Private Employee Health Benefits in New York City, December 2009, http://www.cbcny.org/sites/default/files/REPORT_Survey_12162009.pdf .
City of New York Office of Labor Relations, "New York City Summary Program Description, Health Benefit Program," 2010, http://www.nyc.gov/html/olr/downloads/pdf/healthb/full_spd.pdf.
Government Finance Officers Association, "Recommended Practices, Health Care Cost Containment 2004," http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/corbaHealthCareCostContainment.pdf .
Healthcare in Sweden
The healthcare system in Sweden is used as one of the model systems in the world. hen Johan Hjertoqvist from the Timbro Policy Group spoke before the Montreal Economic Institute in 2002, he said, "...you refuse to accept the consumer as an equal partner, you still look upon the client, the patient, as an inferior partner in the relation" and "you deny the need for good working condition when it comes to the staff, etc." (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Moreover, he stressed the need to move interests and priorities away from the processes and production organization to "the quality of the outcome for the consumer" (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Quality seems to be synonymous with healthcare in Sweden.
Two important characteristics of the Swedish healthcare system are that it is "decentralized and it is run on democratic principles" (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).All residents of Sweden are covered by the national health insurance system which covers medical care, pharmaceuticals,…
Fact Sheets on Sweden: The Health Care System in Sweden. Swedish Institute. May 1999. http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf .(accessed 06-27-2003).
Gennser, Margit. "Sweden's Health Care System." http://oldfraser.lexi.net/publications/books/health_reform/sweden.html.
A accessed 06-27-2003).
Hadenius, Stig; Lindgren, Ann. "Sweden: On Sweden Health care." Countries of the World. January 01, 1991.
Through the use of statistical modeling the researcher was able to arrive at the validation of their hypothesis.
Assessment of esearch Findings
Based on the results of the statistical modeling used in conjunction with the Household Component of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data set, it was found that tax subsidies do not have a differentially large or targeted effect on the prevalence of high burdens (Selden, 2008). Selden (2008) defines burdens as cash and wage equivalents of employer premium contributions. The results show that tax subsidies assist those above the poverty line more than those below it. The study is concluded prior to explaining why this is so, yet the author contends there are many other factors in addition to tax-based subsidies that have an impact on those below the poverty line being able to afford medical care even with tax-based subsidies.
This research study shows that at…
Selden, T. (2008). The effect of tax subsidies on high health care expenditure burdens in the United States. International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, 8(3), 209-23.
Not only is there cost competition, but the real cost of a lot of services have actually gone down over the past fifteen years despite a tremendous increase in demand and enormous technological change. For example, the cost of conventional LASIK vision correction surgery has dropped radically, even as the procedure has become more technically superior (Herrick and Goodman, 2007).
Many experts have suggested that the solution to the health care system's troubles is to have a more market-based approach. Consumer-directed health plans are at the heart of this idea. If people are made to spend more of their own money, they'll be more practical users of care and look for better value at lower prices. This is how other industries work, and people don't complain much about them. It has been asked why health care should be any different. People think that the government should get out of the…
Frakt, Austin. (2010). Health care is different (from other industries). Retrieved February 20,
2011, from Web site: http://theincidentaleconomist.com/wordpress/health-care-is-different-from-other-industries/
Herrick, Devon M. And Goodman, John C. (2007). The Market for Medical Care: Why You
Don't Know the Price; Why You Don't Know about Quality; and What Can Be Done
On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program.
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.
American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.
Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."
Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008 http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html .
Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA
County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).
The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…
County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&
Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA: http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm
Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State: http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704
Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA: http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill
Health Care Past, Current, And Future
The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.
Past Health Care Services -- Early America
Health care in colonial…
Daly, John. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York:
Springer Publishing Company.
Gorsky, Martin. (2010). Good Health for America? History Today, 60(2), 1-6.
McCarthy, Robert L., and Schafermeyer, Kenneth W. (2007). Introduction to Health Care
Health Care ight or Privilege
Health Care ight Privilege
Whether health care is a right or a privilege is one of the most intensely debated social questions of the modern era, but phrasing it in this binary way of one or the other masks a deeper problem that is far more complex. The specific issue at hand is the rationing of scarce medical resources. If there were unlimited resources where everyone could achieve the maximum health all the time, we would not have to ask the question, but this is clearly not the case. Glannon argues this requires a theory of "distributive justice" (2005, p. 144), and outlines the four main theories that have emerged from the modern discussion, which are Utilitarian / consequentialist, Libertarian, Communitarian and Egalitarian.
Utilitarian, consequentialist theory is often invoked toward a solution of who deserves health care when there is not enough for everyone, and…
Brownstein, B. (1980). Pareto optimality, external benefits and public goods: a subjectivist approach. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, IV (1), 93-106. Retrieved from mises.org/journals/jls/4_1/4_1_6.pdf
Gensler, H. (1998). Ethics: a contemporary introduction. New York: Routledge.
Glannon, W. (2005). Biomedical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hare, R. (1963). Freedom and reason. London: Oxford University Press.
Information technology and computers have also begun to affect, in ways that are both bad and good, family life, community life, education, freedom, human relationships, democracy, and many other issues. By looking into the broadest sense of the word it can be seen that cyber ethics should actually be understood as a branch of applied ethics, and ethics should be something that is believed in by all that provide medical information, whether via the Internet or in some other way, since providing false or fraudulent information could be damaging and potentially deadly for many people.
This particular branch of ethics analyzes and studies information technology and what type of ethical and social impacts it has. Within recent years this new field has led to countless courses, workshops, articles, journals, and many other ways of expression. With the World Wide Web becoming so popular when it comes to health care information,…
Bynum, T.W. (1999) the Foundation of Computer Ethics. A keynote address at the AICEC99 Conference, Melbourne, Australia, July 1999. Published in the June 2000 issue of Computers and Society.
Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.
Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.
It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…
Financing National Health Insurance." (2003, February 4). Available:
http://www.pnhp.org/nhibill/nhi_financing.html (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Health Care Policy Issues. Sept. 2004. Available:
http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is founded. This organization is concerned with the social and economic aspects of health problems.
The National Quarantine Act is signed into law. This legislation is designed to prevent entry into the country of persons with communicable diseases.
1899 the National Hospital Superintendent's Association is created. It later becomes the American Hospital Association.
Patel & ushefsky, 1995, p. xvii)
The seeds of health care legislation and centralization began before 1875 but began to take hold as the most accepted manner in which to ensure safe and scientifically founded health care for many and to begin to ensure that diseases that commonly plagued a newly urbanized and highly stressful environment of mass immigration could be dealt with, in a more centralized and practical manner. Founded earlier in 1847, the American Medical Association began to have a concrete and centralized role in the health care decisions…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001282891' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" (Arnold & Reeves, 2009). ith medical services price at the present time, illness or some kind of complicated to medical services may take people deprived of health insurance years to reimburse for bills that are medical. Furthermore, I believe that individuals who lost their jobs also are uninsured for the reason that their employer gave health insurance is no longer paying for them. I understand that based on the statistic; there are "way too many around 1 million workers that have lost their health reporting in the first three months of 2009. I think that helping people buy health insurance coverage with low-cost with offering the health plans options for the uninsured is the healthcare reform that is really needed now. In this way, individuals that are without health insurance will be able to afford paying their medical insurance to uphold their well-being.
In conclusion, with the increasing rapidly…
Arnold, P.J., & Reeves, T.C. (2009). International Trade and Health Policy: Implications of the GATS for U.S. Healthcare Reform. Journal of Business Ethics, 63(4), 34.
Belcon, M.C., Ahmed, N.U., Younis, M.Z., & Bongyu, M. (40-74.). ANALYSIS of NATIONAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS: SEARCHING for a MODEL for DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - TRINIDAD and TOBAGO as a TEST CASE. Public Administration and Management, 14(2), 10-14.
Bolduc, C.R. (2008). The impact of healthcare reform on HMO administrators. Hospital & Health Services Administration, 17(9), 23-45.
Reiboldt, M. (2010). The Industry Responds to the Passing of Healthcare Reform. The Journal of Medical Practice Management, 18(6), 327-328.
Are healthcare inequalities UK
Defining Health Inequality
The term healthcare disparity or healthcare differences have been defined in a number of ways. Healthcare inequality can be defined as the difference of the health levels of any tow comparable demographic groups within a certain country or a region even when proper healthcare facilities are available. The inclusive incidences include higher rates of mortality as well as morbidity within the people who belong to lower occupational classes and are poorer. These rates are higher as compared to the mortality rates in the people who belong to better occupational classes being richer and more privileged. Second important aspect that has been highlighted in the definitions of healthcare inequality includes increased rates of occurrence of mental healthcare-based issues in people from poor classes.
A number of countries have been highlighted with healthcare inequalities including Canada and UK. Since 1980, the documentation of…
Asthana, S, and Dr. Halliday, J 2006, What works in tackling health inequalities?: pathways, policies and practice through the life course, Studies in poverty, inequality, and social exclusion, The Policy Press.
Barron K. 2009, Health inequalities: written evidence; Volume 422 of HC SeriesPaper (Great Britain. Parliament. (Session 2007-08). House of Commons)) Written evidence, The Stationery Office.
Davies P. 2007, The NHS in the UK 2007/08, 9th edn, The NHS Confederation.
Dowler E. 2007, Challenging health inequalities: from Acheson to choosing health, Health and Society Series, The Policy Press.
The result is that a multilayered system which is inherently designed to maintain and improve our public health standards has instead become almost entirely designed by its profitability. The best opportunity we have for reversing this trend is the applying of pressure that only the federal government can bring to bear. Greater regulation of pricing, coverage and standards of care will shift the focus back to quality health outcomes rather than strict improvement of the bottom line at all costs.
- Is there a solution?
How can (or can't) public policy shape health care in the U.S. hat do you predict for the next year?
Public policy absolutely has the capacity to bring improvement to a highly dysfunctional system. The Affordable Care Act and many of its related sub-initiatives such as the Readmissions Reduction Program are indicative of this opportunity. Indeed, the continuing pressure upon hospitals to focus on producing…
Krueger, a. (2013). As ACA Implementation Continues, Consumer Health Care Cost Growth Has Slowed. Whitehouse.gov.
Healthcare Legislative Bill
The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts
The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).
With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, (2010), Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations
The American Journal of Medical Practices, (2011), The Impact of single-payer Medicare
Program, New York
(Wolf, 2008) When you put all of these different elements together, it means that denying health care services to undocumented workers and their families will cause their underlying levels of health to slowly deteriorate. If something serious does occur, these people will more than likely be forced to fend for themselves.
Conducting research in these two areas would be beneficial in influencing health care policy / outcome by: highlighting the overall human cost of the problem on the industry and society. Where, the act of denying them access to health care and the lingering effects could be considered a human rights issue. As a result, the research that would be conducted would be beneficial, in highlighting the overall harsh conditions that these families are forced to endure. Once you present the situation in this light, this will shift the debate from one of a cost issue to being about: basic…
Health Care for Undocumented Immigrants. (2008). Medical News Today. Retrieved from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/56809.php
Aparico, A. (2004). Costs of Care and Lack of Health Insurance. Immigrants, Welfare Reform and Poverty Policy. (pp. 73 -- 77). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Wolf, R. (2008). Rising Health Care Costs. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-01-21-immigrant-healthcare_N.htm
6% of GDP in 2002; in America, they were 14.6%, or almost double Britain's expenditure" (Klein 2005). However, this frugality means that bypass surgery, dialysis, and medications in general are much more rarely prescribed in the U.S. than in the UK. hile there is frequent criticism that the U.S. is overmedicated as a society, the opposite is likely true in the UK. In other words, is unlikely that people are so much healthier in England vs. The U.S. To justify certain statistical disparities in care: the rate for coronary bypass surgery in the UK is 20% less than it is in the U.S.
To address the problems of under-medication, recently there has been a proposal to allow drug companies in the UK with "innovative" medicines to bypass the current screening process for cost-effectiveness, as a way of expanding care. The companies could sell the drugs to the NHS at a…
Bosely, Sarah. Scheme to let new drugs bypass NHS value watchdog. The Guardian. Retrieved July 13, 2009 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/jul/10/pharmaceutical-companies-nhs-nice-ols
Klein, Ezra. The health of nations: Great Britain. The American Prospect. Retrieved July 13,
2009 at http://www.prospect.org/csnc/blogs/ezraklein_archive?month=04&year=2005&base_name=the_health_of_nations_england
Also, as care is prioritized, those individuals deemed to be in a less urgent need of care are given a lower priority, which results in a wait list. Finally, as physicians are compensated on the same level of salary, fewer people may be attracted to the profession for its financial rewards. In a public system, patients shop around less for providers because most providers charge the same fees. ithin a public system there is less 'siphoning' of middle-income people to higher-cost physicians with short waiting lists.
Visit: http://www.csc-surgery.com/contact.php.hatexactly is this hospital? hat would your policy response be?
According to its website, the Cambie Surgery Centre is a private healthcare clinic. The site notes that the "BC provincial government looks to private health care facilities like the Cambie Surgery Centre to help ease the long public wait lists." The hospital is a paying hospital that uses sophisticated technology to perform its…
Cambie Surgery Centre." Official website. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.csc-surgery.com/contact.php
Economies of scale." Investopedia. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/economiesofscale.asp
Economies of scope." Investopedia. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/economiesofscope.asp
Green, David G., Ben Irvine & Ben Cackett. "Health care in Germany." 2005.
Hadley, Jack, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, & Dawn Miller. (2008). Covering the uninsured in 2008: Current costs, sources of payment, and incremental costs. Health Affairs, Web
According to Hadley (et al. 2008), "the cost of expanding coverage to the 16% of Americans who are uninsured would add 5% to national health spending" (Hadley 2008: 399). This cost is considerable, yet the cost of allowing the status quo to remain is far greater. In the article, "Covering the uninsured" the authors use quantitative analysis to determine how much care uninsured persons currently receive, how much of it remains uncompensated because of an inability to pay, and how much more coverage would be consumed if all Americans did have health insurance (Hadley 2008: 399). Their data encompasses interviews of 102,000 people who were part of the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys; data from government budgets and health care providers; surveys…
Hadley, Jack, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, & Dawn Miller. (2008). Covering the uninsured in 2008: Current costs, sources of payment, and incremental costs. Health Affairs, Web
A recent article touted the 6.1% growth of spending on medical care in 2007.
The same article cautioned however that, "most experts know that no matter what the numbers say, there is still a great deal of work ahead to reform a healthcare system that is still fundamentally broken -- and is facing one of the worst economic recessions in decades" (Lubell, 2009, pg. 6).
Government and industry officials have been working to reform the industry for more than a decade yet the problem seems to be getting worse rather than better. More and more individuals are finding that insurance takes too much of their income and are forced therefore to forego that expense. Government is leery of committing to the cost of such expense, and industry is reluctant to offer expanded coverage without the backing of the federal government. As the interested parties do the two-step the problem becomes…
Bentley, C.S.; (2005) the new healthcare system, New American, Vol. 21, No. 18, pg. 44
Blizzard, R.; (2002) the haves and have nots of healthcare, Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing, pp. 8-9
Brown, J.; (2009) Obama healthcare plan would shut down private sector, OneNewsNow, http://www.onenewsnow.com/Politics/Default.aspx?id=414372 , Accessed February 10, 2009
Conn, J,; DerGurahian, J.; (2008) HIT budgets taking a hit: study, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 38, No. 50, pp. 10-11
Not only do these practices discourage preventative care and monitoring, they also diminish the quality of the good that insured individuals are buying from the health insurance companies. Insured individuals are paying for insurance and paying for most of their healthcare costs in addition because of the exorbitant deductibles. PPACA's prohibition of these practices ultimately forces health care companies to raise the bar and give health insurance customers more value for money.
Public-Private Partnerships Prevent ureaucratization of Health Care
There are widespread misconceptions that the PPACA will provide health insurance through some government-run bureaucracy. Actually, PPACA is built on close cooperation between health insurance companies and the government. Under PPACA, the government does not operate hospitals nor does it provide medical insurance to individuals. Actually, it requires individuals to carry some form of private health insurance or suffer a penalty. The only time the government becomes involved is when an…
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Public Law 111 -- 148. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ148/pdf/PLAW-111publ148.pdf
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Summary. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z-d111:HR03590:@@@L&summ2=m&summary
"An Analysis of Health Insurance Premiums Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,
Letter to the Honorable Evan Bayh." Congressional Budget Office. Douglas W. Elmendorf. November 18, 2009. Available at http://cbo.gov/ftpdocs/107xx/doc10781/11-30-Premiums.pdf .
It is my belief therefore, as a very wealthy family it is the obligation of the group to help those less fortunate. In this instance, health care (Kim, 1976).
There is an opportunity cost associated against the population for not implemented this policy on a nationwide basis. For one, the money allocated towards health care will help prevent illness. Illness associated with absenteeism, tardiness, and lack of productivity can cost society billions of dollars. Various studies have been conducted to measure productivity loss in the workplace due to worker illness. esults show that not only does the business suffer when a worker is absent from the job, but productivity loss can also occur when a worker is suffering from illness and attempting to work. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine also cites idle assets and benefits paid to absent workers as additional costs an employer must deal with…
1) Earley, P.C. "Trust, Perceived Importance of Praise and Criticism, and Work Performance: An Examination of Feedback in the United States and England." Journal of Management 12.4 (1986): 457 -- 73
2) Kim, J. & Hamner, C. (1976 February). Effect of Performance Feedback and Goal Setting on Productivity and Satisfaction in an Organized Setting. Journal of Applied Psychology