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Health Care eform ecommendations
Healthcare eforms and ObamaCare
The healthcare system in the United States is not a healthy system, but one fraught with problems which could cause a catastrophic failure. In order to prevent the collapse of the American healthcare system, for years experts have made recommendations in the hope that government officials would implement them. It was not until President Obama pushed through his healthcare bill, called the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" but generally referred to as "ObamaCare," that the government attempted to implement the many various recommendations put forward by the numerous expert groups. One group of experts on the American healthcare system, the American College of Physicians (ACP), has put forward a number of recommendations that they agree would be beneficial to the overall healthcare system. An examination of Obama Care" can demonstrate to what extent the new law fulfills the recommendations of this…
"ACP Issues Recommendations for Healthcare Reform." (3 Feb. 2009). Medscape Today
News. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/587754
Health Home: Using the Expanded Care Model of the Collaboratives." The
Disparity Reducing Advances Project. Retrieved from http://www.altfutures.org/draproject/pdfs/Report_08_05_ComprehensiveHealthHome_UsingExpandedCareModelCollaboratives.pdf
List and briefly describe 3 of the recommendations for health care reform made by experts
The Annals of Internal Medicine suggests one way to enable more uninsured Americans to afford health insurance is to explore the use of new "revenue sources, including but not limited to savings from capping the tax exclusion of employer-based health insurance, taxing tobacco, and redirecting existing health resources [which] should be mobilized to ensure coverage for all Americans" (Arrow et al. 2009).
To create a larger risk pool and to offset rising healthcare costs, the Annals recommends creating state or regional insurance exchanges to pool risk. "Exchanges in which insurance companies offer a standard benefits package with guaranteed issue, portability, and renewability and no exclusions for preexisting conditions can expand the offerings to small groups and persons at lower rates. Along with mandatory coverage for standard benefits, the exchanges must implement risk-adjusted payments…
Arrow, Kenneth. (et al. 2009). Towards a 21st century healthcare system. The Annals of Internal
Medicine. 150 (7): 493-495. Retrieved: http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=744430
Summary of new healthcare reform law. (2012). Kaiser Permanente. Retrieved:
Healthcare Reform Initiatives in California
The citizens of California are fortunate to have one of the best healthcare systems in the United States. This paper reviews the laws and initiatives that relate to the healthcare coverage and facilities that are available to Californians. This state has led the way in progressive laws that give consumers the tools to stay as healthy as possible.
The Reform Initiatives in California
First of all, California was the first state to set up its health insurance exchange, which will begin enrolling people in the fall of 2013 for coverage in 2014. The federal Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates that "health insurance exchanges" be established (by federal or state governments) and be ready to help consumers choose the right plan by 2014; these exchanges are "virtual marketplaces" where citizens can buy health insurance at "competitive prices" (Colliver, 2012, p. 2). The exchanges will receive federal…
California Healthline. (2012). LIHP in Sacramento County to Cover Only Poorest Residents.
Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://www.californiahealthline.org .
Colliver, Victoria. (2012). California is most prepared for health care law. San Francisco
Chronicle. Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://www.sfgate.com .
he United States Healthcare Debate
Healthcare is necessary for humanity's survival in the best conditions possible. Various countries across the world have different system, with most consisting of an institutionalized or socialist system. However, the United States stands almost unique in its privatized, corporate-oriented and often patient-neglecting healthcare system. Various leaders in our country's history have strived to change this, yet none have been as successful as President Obama, though reform still has a long way to go. However, the mere fact that leaders have fought so hard for healthcare reform proves just how important an issue it is, and how detrimental it will be for generations to come if individuals will have to pay excessive premiums. his paper will present two explanations, namely, the three recommendations of healthcare reform from various groups, as well as how the President has considered and how he will be considering them…
The points presented above make perfect, sense, especially since they are offered by those who know what is needed most in healthcare, as well as the fact that they focus on patients, rather than corporations. Furthermore, many other groups agree with them, especially in the medical and social fields. One such groups is the American College of Physicians, which not only reiterates the above-mentioned points, but also recommends further innovations, such as better payment policies and an expansion of physician in-home care.[footnoteRef:2] [2: ACP Issues Recommendations for Healthcare Reform (n.a.). (2009). MedScape News. Retrieved October 23, from .]
President Obama has tried to pass new health care legislation that fits with the recommendations, and especially ensure proper healthcare for all Americans, an effort which many have undertaken, as expressed above, but in which few have succeeded. President Obama has not stressed the first and second recommendations as much as the third, on which he has placed considerable effort and toward which point he has passed legislation. Essentially, this legislation ensures that one cannot be denied insurance based on pre-existing conditions, and ensures as well that if an affordable option is not available, then the state must provide an option which is considered affordable to all, both ideas which are not novel, but are essential ideas that have been carried out and that will have an positive impact upon our healthcare as a nation and on its reform.[footnoteRef:3] [3: Points taken from: Health Reform in Action (n.a.). (2011). White House. Retrieved October 23, from .]
Healthcare reform is a pressing need for the United States, both in the fact that many have been unemployed for months, and many need this in order to fare for their well-being. The President's efforts are applauded by many, but much needs to be done in order to ensure that the recommendations above are carried out.
Health Care eform
Current national health care coverage component: Impact on young people (ages 18 to 26)
Historically, young adults have a greater likelihood of being uninsured than their older counterparts. They are just starting out in their careers, and often must take jobs with minimal benefits to secure a position. Because they are young and healthy, they may feel that purchasing health insurance is not worth the cost, or simply cannot afford it because of the expense of their costs of living and the need to pay off their student loans. The rate of uninsured young people was particularly high in the wake of the recent recession, given that many college graduates were forced to take substandard jobs or could not find work after graduation.
In light of this, one of the most popular components of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was allowing young people to remain…
Culp-Ressler, Tara. (2012). Obamacare led to record drop in uninsured young adults. Think Progress. Retrieved: ttp://thinkprogress.org/health/2012/09/10/818231/study-obamacare-drop-uninsured-young-adults/?mobile=nc
Kennan, Joanne. (2012). Five myths of the individual mandate. Politco. Retrieved:
Health Care eform
Policies, whatever their nature, constitute very significant aspects to the entities over which they are supposed to act upon. These principles, in their roles of guiding decision making and governing the outcomes of such processes are so vital, especially when properly adopted by the concerned parties. This aspect applies to both the private and the public sector, a case in point being the health care reform policy. Health care provision, all through the globe comprise of very sensitive factors and as such, the need for the adoption of policies which surrounds the activities associated with the field goes without saying. Likewise, proper procedures ought to be put in place with the views of ensuring that such policies are adequately adopted and that they serve the purposes which led to their adoption in the first place. Like all the major policies, most of which associate with the functions…
Anderson, G.F Et Al (2008). It's The Prices, Stupid: Why the United States Is So Different from Other Countries, Health Affairs, Vol. 22
Howard, C (2005). The Policy Cycle: A Model of Post-Machiavellian Policy Making? The Australian Journal of Public Administration
Reid, T.R (2009). The Healing of America: a Global Quest for Better, Cheaper and Fairer Health Care, New York: Penguin Books
Stolberg S.G & Pear, R (2010, March 24). Obama Signs Health Care Overhaul Bill, With a Flourish, Washington D. C: New York Times,
The amendments have had practical impacts such as repealing the tax mandate of the employer, health insurance tax of small businesses and decreasing the burdens on individuals and businesses. The compliance cost for small business owners has risen by 36% higher than that of larger corporations. Similarly, the average U.S. citizen has already been overtaxed.
Since the passing of the Affordable Care Act, Americans have not enjoyed the benefits that come with it. While the country is characterized by a highly partisan political climate, the congress is full of voice of reason. These voices claim that the Act should be amended so that the pain can be reduced in the future. More policy makers have been encouraged to pull in their efforts. After years of the groundbreaking changes on the Care Act, one of the advantages associated with this law is that it supports a low rate of uninsured Americans.…
Healthcare eform evised
We know that the burden of diseases is increasing all over the world. The percentage of people suffering from diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases has considerably increased in the last decade. It is noteworthy here that the importance of preventive care now comes at par with the importance of curative care. Considering the prevalence of diseases and the health status of the American population, President Obama introduced a health care reform that is known as the Affordable Care Act or Obama Care. The role of medical care as a determinant for health has not been established as a fact yet it has been proved that early intervention, preventive care and the required management can go on to reduce the severity and even cure chronic disease. Due to this reason, medical care does have a very crucial role to play in the health status of the population. (Bunker,…
Bunker, J., Frazier, H. And Mosteller, F. (1995). The Role of Medical Care in Determining Health: Creating an Inventory of Benefits. In: Amick, B., Levine, S., Tarlov, A. And Walsh, D. eds. (1995). Society and Health.. New York: Oxford University Press.
Floyd, E. (2002). Healthcare reform through rationing..Journal of healthcare management/American College of Healthcare Executives, 48 (4), pp. 233 -- 241.
Obama, B. (2008). Affordable health care for all Americans.JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 300 (16), pp. 1927 -- 1928.
O'harra, C. (2013). An Obamacare Expert Tells All: What You Need To Know About The Affordable Care Act. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/learnvest/2013/10/11/an-obamacare-expert-tells-all-what-you-need-to-know-about-the-affordable-care-act / [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013].
"Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital"
The case of Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital was a case that attempted to end the segregation of African-American and Whites in the U.S. hospitals and medical professions as a whole. The case challenged the use of public funds to maintain and expand the segregated hospital care in the United States. Source of the laws related to the case are:
Title VII of the Civil ights Act of 1964,
The Hill-Burton Act (Hospital Survey and Construction Act) of 1946.
The executive, legislative and judicial branch of government played important roles in the case. The judicial branch of government interpreted the law and declared the case in favor of Simkins. The legislative branch of government passed the Civil ights Act of 1964 to end all form segregation in the United States while the executive branch of government implemented the Acts.…
American Medical Association (2012). Opinion 9.031 - Reporting Impaired, Incompetent, or Unethical Colleagues.USA.
Chen, B.K. (2013). Strict Liability for Medical Injuries? The Impact of Increasing Malpractice Liability on Obstetrician Behavior. Stanford University.
Reynolds, P.P. (1997). Hospitals and Civil Rights, 1945-1963: the case of Simkins v Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital.. Annals Of Internal Medicine [Ann Intern Med] . 126 (11): 898-906.
High Beam (2013).Hospital and Medical Service Plans. Cengage Learning.
There are a number of issues involved in health care including taxation, the fear of socialized medicine and the budget. Many Americans are opposed to higher taxes for the wealthy due to the fact that they will be the ones paying for most government spending including the proposed heath care bill. These people also argue that it's the wealthy that create jobs through investing and if their taxes are raised, there will be less investing and job creation.
As stated earlier, though Republicans believe that the American health care system needs reform, they feel that the best solution is not to hand it over to the government. The handing over of the health care system to the government has led to the fear of socialized medicine. The Republicans also believe that the American government is nearly bankrupt although the president has stated the proposed health care bill will reduce government…
Iglehart, John K. "The Struggle for Reform ? Challenges and Hopes for Comprehensive Health Care Legislation." The New England Journal of Medicine. Massachusetts Medical Society, 23 Apr. 2009. Web. 14 Apr. 2010. .
Kakasuleff, Jenny. "Health Care Reform Series: A History of Health in the U.S. Part 1." Examiner.com: Insider Source for Everything Local. Clarity Digital Group LLC D/b/a Examiner.com., 30 June 2009. Web. 14 Apr. 2010. .
"Why Are Republicans against Healthcare Reform as Outlined by Obama?" Answers.com: The World's Leading Q & A Site. Answers Corporation. Web. 14 Apr. 2010. .
In the U.S., administrative costs are 31% of health care costs, compared with 19% in Canada.
The proposed health care reform is also expected to improve health outcomes. By shifting some of the focus of the system away from maximizing shareholder value and towards improving health outcomes, Americans should live longer, have better access to care, see improved quality of life and have lower mortality rates for a number of diseases.
In addition to providing better health care, the reform plan will have several positive economic impacts. The Boston Globe calculation (Bilmes & Day, 2009) determined that life lost due to inadequate insurance cost the U.S. economy $140 billion per year, less than the cost of the Obama health care plan. In addition, the high cost of health care insurance is a competitive disadvantage for American companies. It is one of the reasons why tens of thousands of automobile manufacturing…
Pear, R. & Herszenhorn, D. (2009). Senate health plan seeks to add coverage to 31 million. New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com /2009/11/19/health/policy/19health.html?_r=1&hp
Press Trust of India. (2009). U.S. Senate unveils $849 billion health care reform bill. Business Standard. Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/us-senate-unveils-849-bn-health-care-reform-bill/78744/on
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Bilmes, L. & Day, R. (2009). The cost of not enacting health care. Boston Globe. Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2009/11/07/the_cost_of_not_enacting_health_care_reform/
Transparency empowers consumers to become better shoppers. Economists assert that transparency stimulates productivity, for example, in exchange for money, one individual obtaining fair value. In every aspect, except healthcare, Davis points out, transparency, is supported. The contemporary dearth of transparency in healthcare has led to many Americans not being able to effectively shop for the best quality of service at acute care hospitals. Davis argues that transparency permits consumers, particularly those uninsured individual, to know actual charges, as well as the quality of services they will received.
The critical issue in Health Care eform, according to some, Davis (2008) notes, is power. When consumers know less about the facts, those who do know possess the greater power. These with more power generally consist of "the hospitals, the insurers, and the healthcare policy makers" (Ibid., ¶ 14). Consumer-driven healthcare aims to switch the power to the consumer and the partnering provider…
Aday, L.A. & Cornelius, L.J. (2006). Designing and conducting health surveys: A
comprehensive guide. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons.
Alltucker, K. (2010). Ex-Mayo CEO: Health plan lacking. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved January 18, 2010 from http://www.azcentral.com/business/articles/2010/01/19/20100119biz-mayo0120.html
Baucus, M. (2009). Healthcare reform a moral imperative, an economic necessity: Healthcare
As the sole owners of a license to practice medicine on which industries and other business entities build profits, they need to take solid steps to assert their rights. They listed strategies to put their situation and demands across to the current government. These strategies include a letter writing campaign, civil disobedience, a website for physician consensus, petitioning elected officials to take action on their concerns, email campaigns sent to the President and Congress, forming a physicians' union, refusing insurance and political games, and a one-day strike off their patients to draw attention to their objective (2009).
Summary and Viewpoints
A recent interactive survey showed that half of all American adults want the current healthcare system reformed (usiness Wire, 2010). The Institute of Medicine Committee likewise found that the system badly needed repairs (English, 2001). In addition to 13 recommendations and 10 rules, it sought a $1 billion innovation fund,…
Business Wire (2010). Half of all U.S. adults want healthcare reform in the next two years. Harris Interactive: CBS Interactive. Retrieved on February 17, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_201002/ai_n49497510/?tag=content;col1
Brauser, D. (2009). Healthcare leaders propose extensive U.S. healthcare reforms. 150:
493-494, 498 Annals of Internal Medicine: Medscape Medical News. Retrieved on February 15, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/590760
English, T. (2001). What's wrong with the healthcare system? Part 2: OIM Report
And, secondly, what's the rush? If this is so good for us and everyone understands the program, then what is the answer to those two questions?
The answers are, in order, because most Americans have no clue what the program is due to the fact that the menu changes so often and so quickly and all we get is sound bites. What's the rush? So politicians like Mr. Obama and Ms. Pelosi can get another notch on their belts.
Two thousand pages of health care legislation? Who could possibly understand it all? Or read it all? While Washington pols pile up trillions in debt, the American people are suffering through 10% unemployment which our children will have to pay for.
Yes, health care reform is needed -- modification of our current system to place more deserving people under the umbrella. Universal health care? ased on other countries' experiences, and our…
Brown, J. "The case of the missing moral authority." 10 November 2009. catholicsagainstobamacare. 11 November 2009 .
CBS news. "Post office desperate for financial help." 25 March 2009. CBS news. 8 November 2009 .
Doig, Dr. Anne. "Inaugural Address: Efficiency, effectiveness, and effecting change." 19 August 2009. Canadian Medical Association. 8 November 2009 .
McGowen, Charles. "Do we want England's Healthcare?" October 2009. aproundtable.org. 10 November 2009 .
Health care reform is a global and constant issue. Most communities are planning, preparing, implementing, legislating and assessing the health care reform as a policy improvement that is a continuous cycle. Globally, the objectives of health care reform are becoming familiar – controlling the growing costs, improving the quality of health care and increasing access to health care services.
Universal Health Coverage
Universal health care coverage is a health care system which provides financial protection and health care services to every citizen within a country. It provides a package of benefits to everyone with the end goal being providing improved access to health care, reduced cost and improved outcomes of health. However, universal healthcare does not provide coverage for everyone for everything (Pineault, et al., 1993). It only implies that everyone is able to access healthcare. Some universal coverage systems are funded by the government while others are based on…
Phillips Jr, R. L., & Bazemore, A. W. (2010). Primary care and why it matters for US health system reform. Health Affairs, 29(5), 806-810.
Pineault, R., Lamarche, P. A., Champagne, F., Contandriopoulos, A. P., & Denis, J. L. (1993). The reform of the Quebec health care system: potential for innovation?. Journal of Public Health Policy, 14(2), 198-219.
Reforming America\\'s Health Care Delivery System,\\" by Hackbarth, presented before the State Finance Committee Roundtable on Reforming America\\'s Health Care Delivery System (2009).URL: http://www.finance.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/042109ghtest1.pdf
Rittenhouse, D. R., Shortell, S. M., & Fisher, E. S. (2009). Primary care and accountable care—two essential elements of delivery-system reform. New England Journal of Medicine, 361(24), 2301-2303.
Successful Strategic Planning for a Reformed Delivery System,\\" by Zuckerman, from Journal of Healthcare Management (2014).URL: https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=107853130&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Health Care Reform and Equity
The author of the “Health Care Reform and Equity: Promise, Pitfalls, and Prescriptions” article delves into the subject of the US’s failure to make desired progress within the past ten years. The ACA (Affordable Care Act) attempts at expanding insurance coverage for the yet-to-be-insured 23 million individuals in the nation, though it requires additional laws for doing so. Two key challenges hampering progress are addressed in the article: alignment of the nation’s healthcare resources with the requirements of patients and primary care revitalization, mainly for the underserved population (Fiscella, 2011). Gaps in healthcare service provision have been impeding progress towards more equitable healthcare. This article puts forward the following six interconnected domains: insurance cost and coverage related access, doctor salary modifications, strengthening of primary care, health IT improvements, better accountability, and disparity monitoring, and national quality adoption (Fiscella, 2011).
This paper will deal with how…
(ennie; Fontanarosa, 2006)
Apart from financial reasons, millions are not bale to access healthcare due to a lot of barriers inclusive of geography, racial differences and immigrant status. The people who do not have access to required care, that might comprise incapability to get primary care chronic care, specialist care, or emergency care stand at risk for severe health consequences. As per a recent report, absence of health insurance was linked with considerably lowered application of recommended healthcare services for cancer prevention, cardiovascular disease threat reduction, and diabetes management within the lower-income as also higher-income adults. Apart from the concerns, trouble, and stress directly associated to their illness, patients those who lack insurance or are underinsured also encounter increased levels of debt, threatening calls from collection agencies, anxiety, and possible insolvency. (ennie; Fontanarosa, 2006)
Impact of reform measures on the nursing profession:
The U.S. healthcare system is considered among the…
Granger, David; Young, Audrey. (1999) "Healthcare and the Underserved: America's Poor and Managed Care." Project of the Standing Committee on Health Policy: American Medical Student Association. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://www.amsa.org/pdf/hlthcareunderserved.pdf
N.A. (2002, Jun 1) "Collective bargaining in the nursing profession: salient issues and recent developments in healthcare reform" Hospital Topics. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0198-95081_ITM
N.A. (n. d.) "Nursing's Agenda for Healthcare Reform." The American Nurses Association
Inc. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://www.needlestick.org/readroom/rnagenda.htm
Health Care eform:
One of the major topics that have had a long history in the United States is health care reforms, which has been characterized by huge debates. Following decades of failed attempts by various Democratic presidents, a new law was enacted by President Obama to overhaul the country's health care system. The enactment of this legislation came after a year of harsh partisan combat with the purpose of ensuring access to health care insurance for millions of Americans. In addition to being the most controversial topic, health care reform law was the largest single legislative accomplishment of President Obama. Notably, this legislation will cost America's government approximately $940 billion over the next decade based on an analysis by the Congressional Budget Office. The office has also estimated that the law will lessen federal deficit by about $138 billion during the same period and a further reduction of the…
Cannon, M.F. (2010, March 1). The Best and Worst Health Care Reform Ideas. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from http://dailycaller.com/2010/03/01/the-best-and-worst-health-care-reform-ideas/
Cohn, J. (2011, January 20). About that Whole "Replace" Thing & #8230; Retrieved December 15,
2011, from http://www.tnr.com/blog/jonathan-cohn/81821/about-whole-replace-thing
"Health Care Reform.." (2011, November 15). The New York Times. Retrieved December 15,
Health Care eform:
In March 2010, after protracted public and political debate, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was enacted into law by President Barack Obama. This legislation was one of the many health care reforms initiatives that have sought to rectify major features of the health care system in the United States such as service delivery, care coordination, and financing. Since its enactment, PPACA is considered as a milestone along the historical continuum of health care reform in America. Generally, health care reform in the United States is an issue that has continued to evolve based on the ever-growing health care needs of the population. However, this issue has been characterized with several challenges that are mainly influenced by the public's response to reform efforts.
Principal Features of U.S. Health Care System:
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which is commonly known as the Affordable…
Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2012). Understanding health policy: a clinical approach (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.
"Key Features of the Affordable Care Act by Year." (n.d.). Features of the Health Law.
Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/facts/timeline/timeline-text.html
Leflar, R.B. (2013, July 12). Reform of the United States Health Care System: An Overview.
Healthcare eform PPACA
Determine how this Federal law will affect market-driven and non-market driven decisions.
One of the industries that has felt the effects of the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act most immediately and intensely was the insurance industry in the United States. One of the chief reasons that the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act was introduced and passed into American legislation was the effect of rising health care costs attributed to arbitrary and non-competitive costs exacted from healthcare consumers from the insurance industry. There was a general lack of regulation within the industry, which had been demonstrated to have had a negative impact on healthcare outcomes and trends. The United States, while the largest economy and a dominant world superpower, has an underperforming healthcare industry compared to other developed, industrialized nations.
One of the central conflicts associated with the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act is related to philosophical differences…
Gitlin, Saul. (2002) "Demystifying the Asian-American Market" Retrieved from: http://www.mrcc-online.com/presentations/Asian_American_Market_11-12-02.pdf
Greenfield, Lazar. (2010). "National Health Care Expenditures: Addressing the Cost of Health Care in the United States" Annals of Surgery. 251: 2.
Weiss, Joshua A., Medical Marketing in the United States: A Prescription for Reform. George Washington Law Review, Vol. 79, p. 260, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1748902
The SG2 report (2010, p. 9) also mentions academic medical centers (AMCs), which will have enter into affiliation agreements in order to comply with the reformed care laws. This will furthermore mean more integrated physician networks and it integration, as mentioned above.
Two further important factors are mentioned by Moyers (2010). She notes that the inclusive nature of health care definitions for occupational therapists is a significant step forward in terms of recognizing the profession as a legitimate health care service. Occupational therapy, for example, is specifically included in the "Innovations in the Health Care Workforce" section of the new legislation. This is significant, because occupational therapists will now be eligible for state workforce grants, slots on the national commission on workforce, and other similar privileges enjoyed by other health care providers.
Other items, excluded from the bill, is the second item the author mentions. She notes that one of…
Davis, P.A., Hahn, J., Morgan, P.C., Stone, J., and Tilson, S. (2010, Apr. 23). Medicare Provisions in the Patient Protection. Retrieved from: http://www.nasuad.org/documentation/aca/CRS%20Reports/April%2023%20-%20Medicare.pdf
Moyers, P. (2010, Mar. 25). What Health Care Reform Means to Occupational Therapy.
Retrieved from: http://otconnections.aota.org/blogs/moyers/archive/2010/03/25/what-healthcare-reform-means-to-occupational-therapy.aspx
Sg2 Special Report: (2010, May). The Impact of Health Reform
6% of GDP in 2002; in America, they were 14.6%, or almost double Britain's expenditure" (Klein 2005). However, this frugality means that bypass surgery, dialysis, and medications in general are much more rarely prescribed in the U.S. than in the UK. hile there is frequent criticism that the U.S. is overmedicated as a society, the opposite is likely true in the UK. In other words, is unlikely that people are so much healthier in England vs. The U.S. To justify certain statistical disparities in care: the rate for coronary bypass surgery in the UK is 20% less than it is in the U.S.
To address the problems of under-medication, recently there has been a proposal to allow drug companies in the UK with "innovative" medicines to bypass the current screening process for cost-effectiveness, as a way of expanding care. The companies could sell the drugs to the NHS at a…
Bosely, Sarah. Scheme to let new drugs bypass NHS value watchdog. The Guardian. Retrieved July 13, 2009 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/jul/10/pharmaceutical-companies-nhs-nice-ols
Klein, Ezra. The health of nations: Great Britain. The American Prospect. Retrieved July 13,
2009 at http://www.prospect.org/csnc/blogs/ezraklein_archive?month=04&year=2005&base_name=the_health_of_nations_england
Not only do these practices discourage preventative care and monitoring, they also diminish the quality of the good that insured individuals are buying from the health insurance companies. Insured individuals are paying for insurance and paying for most of their healthcare costs in addition because of the exorbitant deductibles. PPACA's prohibition of these practices ultimately forces health care companies to raise the bar and give health insurance customers more value for money.
Public-Private Partnerships Prevent ureaucratization of Health Care
There are widespread misconceptions that the PPACA will provide health insurance through some government-run bureaucracy. Actually, PPACA is built on close cooperation between health insurance companies and the government. Under PPACA, the government does not operate hospitals nor does it provide medical insurance to individuals. Actually, it requires individuals to carry some form of private health insurance or suffer a penalty. The only time the government becomes involved is when an…
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Public Law 111 -- 148. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ148/pdf/PLAW-111publ148.pdf
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Summary. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z-d111:HR03590:@@@L&summ2=m&summary
"An Analysis of Health Insurance Premiums Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,
Letter to the Honorable Evan Bayh." Congressional Budget Office. Douglas W. Elmendorf. November 18, 2009. Available at http://cbo.gov/ftpdocs/107xx/doc10781/11-30-Premiums.pdf .
Health care reform has the objective of getting more people insured, and leveraging government bargaining power to lower the cost of health care. Our organization needs to be ready for this. We have the baby boomers joining Medicare, and Medicare is seeking to lower health care costs; so are private insurers. As an organization, we need to bring our costs down in order to remain profitable. This need not be hard -- every other country in the world does it. In this context, streamlining operations, eliminating waste, bargaining with suppliers and finding ways to streamline services to increase customer turnover are all measures that I would undertake in order to ready the organization for the full implementation of health care reform. Eliminating waste is a critical component of maintaining profitability within the health care system (Berwick & Hackbarth, 2012).
Something I would do differently with respect to health care planning…
Berwick, D. & Hackbarth, A. (2012). Eliminating waste in U.S. health care. JAMA. Vol. 207 (15) 1513-1516.
Farmer, J. & Nimegeer, A. (2014). Community participation to design rural primary healthcare services. BMC Health Services. Vol. 14 (130) [HIDDEN]
Olsen, E. (2008). SWOT Analysis: How To Perform One For Your Organization (Webcast). Virtual Strategist.
On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program.
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.
American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.
Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."
Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008 http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html .
" (Arnold & Reeves, 2009). ith medical services price at the present time, illness or some kind of complicated to medical services may take people deprived of health insurance years to reimburse for bills that are medical. Furthermore, I believe that individuals who lost their jobs also are uninsured for the reason that their employer gave health insurance is no longer paying for them. I understand that based on the statistic; there are "way too many around 1 million workers that have lost their health reporting in the first three months of 2009. I think that helping people buy health insurance coverage with low-cost with offering the health plans options for the uninsured is the healthcare reform that is really needed now. In this way, individuals that are without health insurance will be able to afford paying their medical insurance to uphold their well-being.
In conclusion, with the increasing rapidly…
Arnold, P.J., & Reeves, T.C. (2009). International Trade and Health Policy: Implications of the GATS for U.S. Healthcare Reform. Journal of Business Ethics, 63(4), 34.
Belcon, M.C., Ahmed, N.U., Younis, M.Z., & Bongyu, M. (40-74.). ANALYSIS of NATIONAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS: SEARCHING for a MODEL for DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - TRINIDAD and TOBAGO as a TEST CASE. Public Administration and Management, 14(2), 10-14.
Bolduc, C.R. (2008). The impact of healthcare reform on HMO administrators. Hospital & Health Services Administration, 17(9), 23-45.
Reiboldt, M. (2010). The Industry Responds to the Passing of Healthcare Reform. The Journal of Medical Practice Management, 18(6), 327-328.
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…
1. Eakin, Douglas and Michael Ramlet. (2010) "Health Care Reform is Likely to Widen Budget Deficits -- Not Reduce Them." Health Affairs, 29, no.6:1136-1141. Eakin and Ramlet examine the underpinnings of the Congressional Budget Office's projection that enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will decrease deficits, and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade. This is an excellent article with regards to my article, written by two policy commentators at the forefront of their field. This article shows expertise in medical economics and offers compelling, clear arguments for the increase in the federal deficit due to the massive spending on entitlements as a result of passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. They project deficits, opposing the Congressional Budget Office, through their insightful analysis.
2. Marmor, Theodore, Jonathan Oberlander, and Joseph White. (2009) "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." Ann Intern Med. 150:485-489. Controlling the costs of medical care has long been an elusive goal in U.S. health policy. This article examines the options for health care cost control under the Obama administration. The authors argue that the administration's approach to health reform offers some potential for cost control but also embraces many strategies that are not likely to be successful. Lessons the United States can learn from other countries' experiences in constraining medical care spending are then explored. This article offers evidence for the lack of cost containment in the Obama administrations' plans for health reform. It gives a good analysis of the international scene in health care as well.
3. Collins, Sara, Michelle M. Doty, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Alice Ho. (2004) "The Affordability Crisis in Health Care." Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey. Published in 2004, The Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted from September 2003 -- January 2004, presents new and timely information on where the American public stands on solutions to reform the health care system. The survey finds widespread support for federal efforts to extend health insurance to more people, as well as a widely held belief that the financing of health care should continue to be a shared responsibility among individuals, employers, and the government. The survey also uncovered potential reasons for such strong support for health care reform. Among the insured and the uninsured alike, there is concern that health care security in the United States is eroding. People are experiencing reductions in insurance coverage that are threatening their financial security.
4. Etheridge, Lynn (1984) "An Aging Society and the Federal Deficit." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 521-543. This article serves as early warning sign of the deficit battles to come. It argues that the conflict between the growing needs of an aging society and a federal budget which cannot afford its current commitments has become one of the nation's most difficult government policy dilemmas. Assistance for the elderly through Social Security, Medicare, and other programs-is already the federal government's largest fiscal responsibility. In 1985 these programs will require nearly half of all domestic program spending an estimated $256 billion. The future costs of these commitments will rise rapidly well into the next century, accounting-with national defense and interest costs-for virtually all of the spending increases in the projected $200 to $300 billion deficits. Etheridge asserts that the decisions about the nation's assistance to the elderly -- and about reaffirmation, reform, and/or retrenchment of these commitments-will thus be central to the coming budget debates.
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.
Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…
Bureau of Labor Education (BLE). (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The University of Maine.
Childress, M. (2010). Poverty is on the Upswing, but Metric is Out of Date. The Washington Independent.
Cockerham, W.C. (2004). Medical Sociology and Sociological Theory. The Backwell Companion to Medical Sociology.
Consumer Reports (CR). (2008). High Health Care Costs. Consumer Reports Health.org.
He further goes on to say that, "I am my brother's keeper and I am my sister's keeper" to bolster this point.
In a separate interview, epublican National Committee chairman Michael Steele refutes Obama's speech and maintained that Obama's call for healthcare reform as moral obligation is simply a "gimmick" and Obama's choice of going as far as this means that the White House is running scared as it needs to financially shore up its base.
The article closes on White House's denial that Obama is preparing to initiate a government-run "public option" for healthcare that will compete against private healthcare companies. As a matter of fact, Obama is working on the intensification of his healthcare reform call by reaching the channels of grass roots supporters via online and telephone meeting.
Collinson, Stephen. "Obama makes moral case for health reform." 20 Aug. 2009. Yahoo! News.
9 Sept. 2009.
Collinson, Stephen. "Obama makes moral case for health reform." 20 Aug. 2009. Yahoo! News.
9 Sept. 2009.
Contracts with doctors often contain a clause which doesn't allow the doctors to discuss
Health care 7 with their patients financial incentives to deny treatment or about treatments not covered by the plan (Glazer, 1996). This has caused many consumers, especially those with chronic illnesses, to form organizations with the American Medical Association and physician specialty groups to promote legislation forbidding "gag rules" (Glazer, 1996). One group, Citizen Action, has 3 million members and "has been lobbying in state legislatures for laws that would require plans to disclose how they pay their doctors; give patients the right to choose specialists outside the plan; and provide appeals for patients who get turned down for expensive treatments" (Glazer, 1996).
The doctor-patient relationship is also affected if a patient must switch to a new doctor under managed care. Having a longterm relationship with a primary doctor is important because he or she is…
Bennett Clark, Jane (1996, July). What you should ask your HMO.
Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine. pp. 92-93.
Glazer, Sarah (1996, April 12). Managed Care. CQ Researcher, 6,
Koop, C. Everett (1996, Fall). Manage with care. Time. pp. 69.
At the same time, 25% of Americans do not have any kind of health insurance coverage or not enough to pay for all of their expenses. (Amadeo) This can have an impact upon their financial well being, as a person must spend money that they do not have, to treat different conditions that could be life threatening. Once this begins to occur, is when the total number of bankruptcies will begin to rise sharply. As nearly half of all the filings that are made are: medical related, due to the overwhelming costs and the inability to pay them. (Amadeo) These different challenges are creating sudden shift in the economy that are: having short- and long-term impacts upon economic growth.
What is happening is rising health care costs are beginning to become a hidden tax on: businesses and consumers. As they are slowly eating away at any kind of added investments…
"The Boomer Stats." BBHQ, 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2011
"The Economic Effects of Health Care Reform." The White House, 2010. Web. 10 Mar. 2011
Amadeo, Kimberly. "Health Care Reform." About.com, 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2011.
Francis, Diane. "Health Care Reform is Smart." Huffington Post, 2010. Web. 10 Mar. 2011.
Healthcare Reform Models
Health Care Reform Models
Shim and colleagues (2012) argue for taking advantage of provisions within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 that emphasizes preventive and integrated care. They propose that the primary care setting is ideal for screening patients for signs of mental illness and associated risk factors. A mental health wellness program could also include coaches and other experts that interface with patients on an individual basis, including at the patient's home.
Long-Term Behavioral Health Care
Bao and colleagues (2012) examined four patient populations defined by disease severity and ability to pay, and then assessed how these four groups will fare under the behavioral health provisions in the ACA. Patients with private insurance and suffering from mild to moderate mental illness will probably receive the best care at a Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH). The authors suggest that the presence of…
overwhelming connections between healthcare costs and the macroeconomic performance of the U.S. economy. The impact of healthcare industry on the macroeconomic performance is evident from the fact that in 2009 healthcare expenditure of the U.S. was 18% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. It was also estimated that should the healthcare costs continue to grow at historical rates, 34% of the U.S. GDP will compose of healthcare spending by 2040 (Whitehouse, 2009). The major sources of funding the healthcare costs are the Federal, State, and local governments of the U.S. Medicare is a healthcare program that subsidizes healthcare for citizens above 65 years of age. Medicaid subsidizes healthcare delivery for people below a certain income level. Approximately 50% of the healthcare expenditure is bore by governments at the federal, state and local level. It is also estimated that Medicare and Medicaid spending of Federal and State governments…
CMS. (2013, Nov). National Health Expenditure Projections 2012-2022. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NationalHealthAccountsProjected.html
Kolstad, J.T., & Kowalski, A.E. (2012). Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform (No. w17933). National Bureau of Economic Research.
The Whitehouse. (2009). Deficit-Reducing Health Care Reform. The Whitehouse. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov /economy/reform/deficit-reducing-health-care-reform
CBO. (2011, March). The Economic Case for the Health Care Reform. Congressional Budget Office: Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisers. Retrieved from: http://www.cbo.gov/publication/22077
American Health Care
After leading the world in the health of its citizens throughout most of the 20th century, the United States has fallen behind virtually all other wealthy nations in that regard, not to mention having fallen behind several nations that once relied substantially on U.S. aid (Dykman, 2008). While most of the developed world has already embraced the concept of universal government-funded national health care systems, the U.S. still relies on a for-profit model that has proven to be incapable of meeting the health care needs of society in any manner that is efficient, cost-effective, and equally available to all members of society. Even worse, the ongoing political influence of lobbyists for the for-profit health insurance industry continues to succeed in undermining meaningful health care reform (Kennedy, 2006), including by watering down the historic Affordable Care Act that eventually passed into law in 2009. Finally, the available evidence…
Dykman J. (2008). "Five truths about health care in America." Time, 172(22): 42-51.
Kennedy E. (2006). America: Back on Track. New York: Viking.
Reid T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin.
Tumulty K., Pickert K., and Park A. (2010). "America, the doctor will see you now."
The topic of this research is "PPACA- Patient Protection an Affordable Care Act." PPACA has created a great impact in the healthcare industry of United States of America. The study is based on the critical analysis of the act by reviewing the performance since its inception.
Arguably the most prominent recent healthcare reform has been PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act). PPACA is also known as the Affordable care act and Obamacare. It was signed by the President Obama in the year 2010 in collaboration with the Healthcare econciliation Act. This act is considered to be one of the most major reforms passed in the healthcare system of United States; the last such major reform was passed in the year 1965 in the form of Medicaid.
When this provision Act was passed in 2010, there were 50 million…
Barr, Donald A. Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America. JHU Press. 2011
Blendon RJ, Benson."Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform." N. Engl. J. Med. 362 (16): e55. 2010
Elmendorf, Douglas. "CBO's Analysis of the Major Health Care Legislation Enacted in March 2010." Congressional Budget Office. 2011
Feldman, Arthur M. Understanding Health Care Reform: Bridging the Gap between Myth and Reality. CRC Press. 2011
Despite of the receipt of federal funding to assist in the set-up of an insurance exchange program, the Minnesota legislature is not cooperating with the Governor Drayton's plans to design a program. Instead, in a classic example of partisan politics, the legislature is going forward with its own plans to design an exchange program. In doing so, the legislature is placing the State of Minnesota in a position of possibly losing the grant provided by the federal government. According to the grant provisions, the state must show it can operate an effective exchange program by the end of calendar year 2012 or the federal government under the terms of ACA will impose a one size fits all exchange on the state. Even the state's most conservative political groups oppose this happening and advocate that the state's executive and legislative branches cooperate in formulating an acceptable state exchange program.
Berkel, Jessica Van. "HCMC fights back against Pawlenty's GAMC Cuts." 3 December 2009. Minnesota Daily . http://www.mndaily.com/2009/12/03/hcmc-fights-back-against-pawlenty%E2%80%99s-gmac-cuts . 7 April 2012.
Gray, Virginia. "Incrementing Toward Nowhere: Universal Health Care Coveragein the States." Publius (2010): 82-113.
Harrington, Scott E. "The Health Insurance Reform Debate." The Journal of Risk and Insurance (2010): 5-38.
Minnesota Department of Human Services. "General Assistance Medical Care." 11 September 2011. http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/idcplg?IdcService=GET_DYNAMIC_CONVERSION&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&Redirected=true&dDocName=id_006257 . 7 April 2012.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care
Act (PPACA). This is more commonly referred among United States Citizens as Health Care eform.
This revolutionary law offers three main guarantees: First, health insurance for all American's, not just those who can afford it; Second, cost reduction in the insurance premiums for individuals and businesses; Lastly, higher quality care. On the surface, the PPACA seems all around beneficial for all
American's, but there are some aspects that need to be further analyzed. There is no doubt, this law will give those who are uninsured or under-insured, better coverage and ensure better quality health care, but there is one factor that may have been overlooked; the PPACA comes at great financial cost for citizens, will take a decade to fully implement and will be not be sustainable for generations to…
Blumberg, L. (2010, July 6). How Will the PPACA Impact Individual and Small Group
Premiums in the Short- and Long-Term? Retrieved May 5, 2012, from Urban Institute: Health Policy Center: http://www.urban.org/health_policy/url.cfm?ID=412128
FLAHEC. (2007). Health Services Administrative and Clerical Staff . Retrieved May 6, 2012, from Florida Area Health Education Centers: http://www.flahec.org/hlthcareers/HCADMIN.htm
Owcharenko, N. (2005, June 21). A Road Map for Medicaid Reform. Retrieved May 6, 2012, from The Heritage Foundation: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2005/06/A-Road-Map-for-Medicaid-Reform
4 million young people); e) Americans that are uninsured and that have "preexisting conditions" can as of now get insurance through the "Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Program" (PCIP); f) 46 states are using Affordable Care Act resources to "crack down on unreasonable premium increases" (hite House).
There are additional benefits that result from the Affordable Care Act will come into play in 2014, according to the hite House. Those include a new competitive insurance marketplace that will be established. In that new marketplace will be state-run health insurance exchanges where "million of Americans and small businesses will be able to purchase affordable coverage" and have the same healthcare choices as "Members of Congress," the hite House explains.
As to the federal fiscal benefits from the Affordable Care Act, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports that healthcare reform can reduce the national debt / deficit by $145 billion by 2019 and by…
Lampert, Jacqueline Garry. (2009). The Need for Health Care Reform by the Numbers. The Democratic Policy Committee. Retrieved March 29, 2011, from http://www.dpc.senate.gov/dpcdocpr.cfm?doc_name=fs-111-1-90 .
Obama, Barack. (2009). Why We Need Health Care Reform. The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Singletary, Michelle. (2011). Denied insurance under new health-care law? File an appeal, the GAO says. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com .
The White House. (2011). Health Reform in Action / the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved March
Quality of Care: Healthcare eform
Health care reform legislation is expected to reduce health care spending by $590 billion over 10 years and lower premiums by nearly $2,000 per family by slowing the annual growth rate in national health expenditures. Discuss how this savings will be accomplished and what potential sacrifices in health care delivery may be experienced. Is the figure of $590 billion when calculated over a ten-year period really a significant savings?
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was designed to make healthcare more accessible to a wider array of Americans and also more equitable in its method of delivery. Some of its provisions included requiring all adults (with some hardship exemptions) to have healthcare or pay a penalty. The hope was that expanding the risk pool of young, healthy insured who might otherwise forgo coverage would support the costs of some of the other provisions of the bill,…
Carroll, A. (2014). Why increasing access to healthcare does not save money. The New York
Times. Retrieved from:
Keefe, C. (2014). I'm an Obama supporter. But Obamacare has hurt my family. The Washington
Evolution of Nursing oles in an Enlarged National Health Care System
The Affordable Care Act enables the provision of health insurance to 30 million people above the coverage figures prior to the enactment of the law. Because of this precipitous rise in the number of health insurance members, access to care as a function of the availability of primary care providers has been a leading issue in the transition to the nation-wide system of health care insurance. Public health models and nursing practice arrangements are changing in order to meet the immediate and anticipated care needs that have been brought to bear on the health care systems.
Public Health and Nurse Managed Health Centers (NMHCs)
From the earliest days of public health, the roles of nurses have been embedded in the social, educational, and political needs of communities. Health education has functioned as a springboard to community organizing, patient advocacy,…
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2005, January). CMS.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/ACO/index.html
Kulbok, P.A., Thatcher, E., Park, E., & Meszaros, P.S. (2012, May). Evolving public health nursing roles: Focus on community participatory health promotion and prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing (OJIN), 17(2). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol17No02Man01. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2012, September). The Medical Home Model of Care. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/the-medical-home-model-of-care.aspx
Reid, R., Haggerty, J., & McKendry, R. (2002, March). Final Report. Defusing the confusion: Concepts and measures of continuity of healthcare. Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, the Canadian Institute for Health Information, and the Advisory Committee on Health Services of the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Deputy Ministers of Health. Retrieved from http://www.hpm.org/Downloads/Bellagio/Articles/Continuity/cr_contcare_e.pdf
Health Care Reform
FDR's New Deal and Lyndon Johnson's Great Society were early attempts for the United States government to play a broader role in creating more extensive social policies. More recently, when a recession pushed inflation to an all-time high, Ronald Reagan led a popular political campaign in which he pronounced that the federal government should have a smaller role in American society. He believed that socialism was an evil worth fighting. This sentiment undoubtedly caused the Clinton Presidency to fail when trying to enact a series of measures to reform Health Care. The debate has regained momentum with Obama who has enacted a health care reform bill known as the Affordable Care Act. Republicans who been vocal critics of the bill and have vowed to overturn in before its inception. This paper will introduce some of the economic mechanics that are responsible for fueling the debate.
Medicare Health Care eform
The Medicare is an American health program that is administered by the federal government and serves as a health insurance for people aged 65 years and above. The Medicare is also designed for people with disabilities and people diagnosed with the renal disease. (Davis, Cathy, & Stuart, 2013). The Medicare is currently being funded by the premiums, payroll tax, surtax from general revenue. In 2015, over 55 million American enrolled for the Medicare services where 46 million people are people aged 65 years and above and 9 million are young people. On the average, Medicare covers half of the health costs and the enrollees are to cover the remaining costs through a separate insurance, supplemental insurance, or out-of-pocket. Since the inception of the Medicare, the cost of funding the program continues to increase, and the rising costs of funding are becoming unbearable both for the current…
Blum, J. (2011). Improving Quality, Lowering Costs: The Role of Health Care Delivery System. Center for Medicare Management.
Davis, K. Cathy, S. & Stuart, G. (2013). Medicare Essential: An Option to Promote Better
Care and Curb Spending Growth, Health Affairs 32, no. 5: 901 -- 9.
Golberstein, E. Kayo, W. Yulei, H. et al. (2013). Supplemental Coverage Associated with More Rapid Spending Growth for Medicare Beneficiaries, Health Affairs, 32, no. 5. 873 -- 81.
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive economic landscape of the modern world; governments, businesses and institutions must remain diligent in their care and compassion for their citizens and staff members. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, voters, workers and consumers have become much more connected to the organizations they patronize (Kurzweil). Accordingly, these important groups are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of their followers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. One of the most important needs presented in all demographics is reliable healthcare. Thus, with the inelasticity in the demand for healthcare, countries need to determine an applicable system, whereby citizens can have access to the medical services they will inevitably need. Collective access to healthcare represents the main problem in field of…
Blumenschein, K. And M. Johannesson. "Economic Evaluation in Healthcare. A Brief History and Future Directions." Journal of Pharmacoeconomics 10.2 (1996): 114-122.
Cox, Malcolm, et al. "Health Care Economics, Financing, Organization and Delivery." Family Medicine January 2004: 20-30.
Hamburger, Tom and Kim Geiger. "Healthcare Insurers Get Upper Hand." The Los Angeles Times 24 August 2009.
Jeremiah Hurley. "An Overview of the Normative Economics of the Health Sector." Journal of Health Economics 1.1 (2000): 55-118.
healthcare reforms that have taken place in the past decade that have led to the re-evaluation of the quality as well as the cost effectiveness of health care providers. A specialty that has evolved with this trend is that of mental health/psychiatric advanced practice nurse. There is an increase in the number of the elderly people in society today. Depression is a common mental health condition in this age group. Age related psychological, physiological and social change have to be taken into consideration when it comes to making decisions that are related to pharmacological or psychological treatments that are to be implemented.in the article we can see that the common causes of mental health problems in the elderly are institutionalization, loss of friends and family, lack of support networks, decrease in hearing, vision and memory and so on.
The article highlights some of the benefits and risks electro conclusive therapy.one…
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
U.S. Health Care Reforms
Objectives of reform of the health care system should align to improve quality, access and cost in health care. The intricacy of the health care system necessitates balancing the three variables while considering the individual's viewpoint. To achieve this equilibrium, health care programs ought to satisfy safety, actuarial and economic principles that should be under proper application and management for successful reforms. Evidently, there exist various problems within the system. These include poor price controls, over-insurance, lack of transparencies in health care cost and delivery, inappropriate actuarial risk classifications and improper safety net structures. This explication highlights health care reform principles and discusses incremental solutions for quandaries in the American health care system.
Health care reforms ought to strive to encourage the fundamental economic principle of demand and supply. Over-insurance, increase of mandated benefits, control of prices, increased malpractice costs and dependence on third…
Obama's health care reform will make health care more accessible and more affordable and make insurers more accountable, as well as expand health care coverage to every American and make the health care system sustainable by stabilizing family budgets, the economy and the Federal budget.
The cost of Obama's overall health care bill will cost approximately $940 billion over 10 years, according to the Congressional udget Office. The bill will include that by the year 2014 there will be significant health access reforms. Insurers will be prohibited from denying coverage to people with medical problems of charging them more money (CS 2010).
While these numbers do sound manageable, Congress has not responded kindly to Obama's health care reform ideas. When Obama has even mentioned the idea of health care for illegal immigrants, the president was rudely interrupted by a heckler yelling, "you lie" ( ). Under Obama's proposal of health…
CBS News. "What's in a health care bill? Take a dose." Retrieved on June 1, 2010, from the Web site:
CNN.com. (2010) "Obama calls for congress to face health care challenge." Retrieved on June 5, 2010, from the Web site:
Peter Baker, "As Oil Slips Away, So Do Chances for Obama," New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/03/us/politics/03memo.html?scp=3&sq=obama health care plan&st=cse
Robert Pear, "Health Insurance Companies Try to Shape Rules," New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com /2010/05/16/health/policy/16health.html
Robert Pear, "Study Points to Health Law's Penalties," New York Times,
Maybe for some things are well enough, but for most Americans they are far from it. Most Americans spend their days worrying about being just one layoff away from joining the 50 million other men, women and children in the ranks of the uninsured. The average household income in this country is just about $50,000. This means that most people are not in a position to pay a fourth of their family's annual income, before taxes, just to cover health insurance premiums. More and more people face paying thousands more of our hard earned dollars in out-of-pocket expenses before the coverage we pay so dearly for actually kicks in (ichard, 2009).
In the past many Americans who have been enrolled in employer-sponsored health insurance plans have been able to rely on their employers to pay the biggest share of the premiums, but the truth is that fewer and fewer Americans…
Benefits of Health Reform. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2010,from Organizing for America
Web site: http://www.barackobama.com/issues/healthcare/
Doctors Debate Universal Health Care: Pros and Cons From the Experts. (2010). Retrieved
February 19, 2010, from Organized Wisdom Web site:
Thus, Congress and whoever drafts the plan, really has to figure out how to show the health care interests the reform will help, rather than hinder, their profits, or it simply will not occur.
The health care plan must also be feasible and able to stand the test of Congress, who have vetoed all health care reform legislation offered up to them in history. Congress can find something wrong with just about any health care reform, from how much it will cost to how it is administered, and that means that the legislation has to be foolproof and have the support of a majority of the Congress or it will not pass. That is quite clear from the current mess with the auto industry and the lack of Senate support for a bailout.
Oberlander, J. (2007). Learning from failure in health care reform. N Engl J. Med, 357(17), 1677-1679.…
Oberlander, J. (2007). Learning from failure in health care reform. N Engl J. Med, 357(17), 1677-1679.
Oberlander, J. (2003). The politics of health reform: Why do bad things happen to good plans? Health affairs Suppl web Exclusives: W3-391-404.
The ultimate House vote was two hundred and twenty to two hundred and seven. The senate vote was fifty three to forty three. The republicans were collectively opposed in both chambers (3 June 2010, 3).
The Future of the Health Care ill
Subsequent to disagreements as political enemies for more than a year, the Obama administration and the health insurance industry realized that they require one another.
oth have huge stakes in the success of the new health care law (14 May 2010, 1)
The political destiny of President Obama and Congressional Democrats rely on their capability to interpret it's assurance into realism for voters. This can be attained by restraining health expenses and making insurance accessible to everybody at reasonable price. Similarly, the fiscal future, in fact the continued existence, of the health insurance industry relies on the government. That is on set of laws being written by federal…
1. "Critics Question Study Cited in Health Debate, " New York Times, 2 June 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
2. "Health Reforms," New York Times, 26 March 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
3. "Two Health Care Adversaries Find a Need to Collaborate, " New York Times, 3 June 2010, sec. B, p.3.
4. "Companies Try to Shape Rules, " New York Times, 15 May 2010, sec. a, p.22
In Canada, a much higher percentage of the population lives in remote areas whereas covered healthcare services are often concentrated in large cities (eid, 2009).
Medicare Expansion and Mandatory Health Insurance Issues and Concerns
From the perspective of middle and upper middle income families in the U.S., the expansion of Medicare and the mandatory provision of healthcare by employers would be a tremendous benefit. From the employers' perspective, the associated costs could be prohibitive. Mandatory requirements for individuals could be problematic for those at the lower end of the group income spectrum; however, it would be no less fair than the current situation that forces everyone who pays for healthcare to (in effect) subsidize those who choose not to (Kennedy, 2006). In all likelihood, the only way to make mandatory health insurance work would include expanding Medicare, at least to compete with private health insurers. Naturally, this interferes with their…
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
Effects on Current Position
With "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act," many healthcare professionals are affected (Democratic Policy Committee, n.d.). Nationwide, hospitals are scrambling to buy hospitals in an effort to control costs. Doctors are leaving small private practices. Large insurance companies are becoming more dominant as smaller ones disappear because they cannot stay competitive (New York Times, 2011). Furthermore, epublicans denounced the law as an intrusion by the government that would prompt employers to eliminate jobs, create an unsustainable entitlement program, saddle states and the federal government with unmanageable costs, and interfere with the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, the law would exacerbate the steep rise in the cost of medical services, thus affecting the elimination of many healthcare positions. Ironically, less healthcare professionals will ensue, but an increase in patient care will be needed, as a result in more people becoming insured.
Challenges & Opportunities
Democratic Policy Committee. (n.d.). The patient protection and affordable care act. Retrieved from http://dpc.senate.gov/healthreformbill/healthbill04.pdf
The New York Times. (21 Dec 2011). Healthcare reform. Retrieved from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_ins ura' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The Consumer-Oriented and Operated Plans or CO-OP exchange will allow a variety of organizations, from traditional insurers to community-based organizations to coalitions of small-businesses, to become health insurers and to offer health insurance plans on an open and transparent market (State of Illinois, 2012). Illinois' preparedness and its clear and direct actions towards fulfilling the requirements and incentivized elements of the Affordable Care Act has enabled the state to collect a substantial amount of funding from the federal government for several of the programs already mentioned, further bolstering what the state is able to do for its citizens in terms of healthcare provision and regulation (State of Illinois, 2012).
One of the most significant steps in healthcare reform for Illinois was enacted within the state separately from the Affordable Care Act, though of course there are interrelated ramifications. eforms to the state's Medicaid program developed requirements for care coordination programs,…
Graham, J. (2010). Healthcare reform in Illinois. Chicago Tribune. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2010-03-23/health/ct-met-health-reform-illinois-20100323_1_health-insurance-premiums-insurance-rate-increases
Illinois Healthcare and Family Service. (2012). Care Coordination. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www2.illinois.gov/hfs/PublicInvolvement/cc/Pages/default.aspx
State of Illinois. (2012). Healthcare Reform in Illinois. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www2.illinois.gov/gov/healthcarereform/Pages/default.aspx#tabitem6
Unintended Consequences of Health Care Reform
Consequences of Health Care Reform
My discussion is related to the individual mandate of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010.
The policy problems addressed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010 are the high cost of health insurance that is untenable for low and middle income earners and the discretionary criteria for enrollment and coverage exercised by medical and health insurance carriers. The PPACA is an excellent policy solution to these issues in the United States and, absent socialized medicine, is a robust response to what has been an intractable and escalating problem in the U.S. Many people who have unable to obtain medical insurance are now able to do so.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was designed to significantly reduce the number of people who are uninsured through the provision of a continuum…
AMEICA'S HEALTHCAE EFOM
Your Chosen Title
The overhauling of America's Health Care Systems has been a highly debated topic because it affects the quality of life, of virtually all residents living in America. A large portion of America's budget is spent on the healthcare system, however many Americans live day-to-day without healthcare coverage or medical insurance. It is surprising to know that although Americas has one of the strongest economies in the world, it lacks in this area. This resonates in the minds of many troubled Americans, who find themselves in serious economic problems due to their inability to provide healthcare coverage for themselves and their family.
Members of government and of the political arena understand that a demand exists, this demands is one that calls for healthcare coverage for all in America. In March 2010 congress responded to this demanded passed what is known as The Patient Protection and…
Health Care Reform Bill Summary: A Look At What's in the Bill - Political Hotsheet - CBS News. (n.d.). Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20000846-503544.html
Sultz, H.A. (2010). Health care USA: understanding its organization and delivery By Harry A. Sultz, Kristina M. Young. Sudbury Mass.: Jones and Barlett Learning.
Staff of The Washington Post. (2010). Landmark: the inside story of America's new health care law and what it means for us all. New York: Public Affairs.
nytimes.com/2009/02/01/business/01unbox.html accessed June 5, 2010
Holstein, William. "A Drug Maker's Views of What Ails Health Care." New York Times, September 8, 2007 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/08/business/08interview.html accessed June 5, 2010
Pear, Robert. "At a House Party on Health Care." New York Times, December 22, 2008 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/23/health/23health.html accessed June 5, 2010
Pear, Robert. "Democrats Woo Abortion Foes." New York Times, March 19, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/20/us/politics/20health.html accessed June 5, 2010
Rabin, Roni. "ig Gains for Young People." New York Times, May 24, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/25/health/25land.html accessed June 5, 2010
Sack, Kevin. "usiness Group Joins Suit on Health Law." New York Times, May 14, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/15/health/policy/15lawsuit.html accessed June 5, 2010
Urbina, Ian. "ig Insurance Rate Increase for Pennsylvania Poor." New York Times, March 16, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/17/health/policy/17penn.html accessed June5, 2010
"Health Care Reform." New York Times, March 26, 2010 [online] http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_insurance_and_managed_care/health_care_reform/index.html?scp=1-spot&sq=health%20care%20reform&st=cse accessed June 5, 2010
Holstein, William. "A Drug Maker's…
"Health Care Reform." New York Times, March 26, 2010 [online] http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_ins ura' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
. .] a sure recipe for a second wave of financial disaster" (Segal, 2010), has an overall nonpartisan tone. Instead of focusing on the controversy between the parties, Segal, like Balassa, draws attention to facts. He discusses the vast amount of bankruptcies declared every year in the U.S. As a direct result of health-care costs (Segal, 2010).
The most conservative, and by far the largest publication, in the region is the Denver Post; it too sees the issues surrounding of health-care reform apolitically. Turning away from slander and political infighting, the article "Health Care eform Bill Cuts Deficit," by obert Pear and David Herzenhorn, discusses what they believe to be the basic concern of the health-care bill as it stands today: the cost to the consumer (2010). Their primary consideration is that the health-care reform bill currently under consideration does little to ease the financial burden of the insured (Pear…
Associated Press (2010, February 26). After Summit Democrats push ahead with health care reform. The Colorado Daily. Retrieved from http://www.coloradodaily.com/ci_14476700?!ADID=search.html
Balassa, John (2010, March 19). Not-for-Profit financing is key. The Colorado Daily.
Retrieved from http://www.coloradodaily.com/ci_144767700?!ADID=search.html
Gay, Chris (2009, September 3-9). The Wrong Argument: the democrats approach doesn't explain why the market can't fix health care. The Boulder Weekly.
Second, the fact that medical costs are billed to health insurance companies is responsible for an industry-wide culture of financial irresponsibility where little concern is given to avoiding unnecessary or duplicated costs of healthcare services (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). Unfortunately, political opposition to healthcare reform throughout 2009 made it impossible for the Obama administration to achieve this essential goal but it is likely that the current system cannot be sustained without bankrupting the nation.
One of the main reasons that there is so much political opposition to meaningful healthcare reform in the U.S. is precisely because current laws permit excessive influence by special interest groups in Washington (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009). Specifically, the private for-profit health insurance industry alone accounts for as many as 5 industry lobbyists per elected government legislator in Washington. By pledging financial support to political campaigns in return for opposition to any legislative reforms that could…
Kennedy E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.