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Originally, this included 120 days of hospital benefits and 120 days of nursing-home benefits. General revenue funds from the program would also be applied towards hospital construction equipment purchase and grants to teaching hospitals.
The second part of the law, also known as Part B, concerned physician visits. Initially, Part B was known as Eldercare, the American Medial Association's (AMA) alternative to Medicare. Mills however reformed it to become an optional part of the Medicare program and legislation. This is an option that pensioners could choose upon retirement. To receive benefits under Part B, deductions were made from recipients' ocial ecurity checks.
The third part of the bill was Medicaid. The idea for this scheme originated during the early part of the 1960s. It was created as an alternative for the compulsory heath insurance plan suggested by the Johnson alternative. The scheme would be funded from general tax revenue, and…
Boyer, Paul S. (2001). Medicare and Medicaid. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-MedicareandMedicaid.html
Derzon, Robert A. (2005, July 26) The Genesis of HCFA. CMS Reflections. http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/hlthaff.w5.326v1?ijkey=MWVZY/8RfwEG.&keytype=ref&siteid=healthaff
Noonan, Kyle (2009, May 28). Health Reform through History: Part III: Medicare and Medicaid. New America Foundation. http://www.newamerica.net/blog/new-health-dialogue/2009/health-reform-through-history-part-iii-medicare-and-medicaid-12062
Health Care System From the International Perspective: PPP Healthcare
Reid (2009) actively seeks an international cure for healthcare that the United States just cannot seem to manifest although other developed nations are able to deliver universal healthcare at a cost that is reasonable and reports that the U.S. pays more healthcare than does any other developed country in the entire world up to as much as 16.5% of the GDP. This work involves a review of literature on PPP Healthcare which has the express objective of investigating the healthcare system from the international perspective and specifically examining countries that are pioneers in the PPP healthcare systems including France, the U.K. And Germany as well as Japan and Singapore. This study intends to determine if PPP healthcare initiatives in these countries is applicable to the U.S. health care system improvement initiatives and if so will attempt to determine the best practices…
Belien, P. (2006). Best Buy: Privatized Healthcare Systems in Europe. The Brussels Journal. Retrieved from http://www.brusselsjournal.com/node/665 .
Bolnick, H.J. (2003). Designing a world-class health Care System. North American Actuarial Journal, 7(2); 1.
Dutch healthcare system rated Europe's best. (2008, Nov 17). Retrieved from http://www.ehealtheurope.net/news/4332/dutch_healthcare_system_rated_europe%E2%80%99s_best
Harrell, E. (2009). Health Lessons from Europe. Time Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1899873,00.html Harden, B. (2009). Health Care in Japan: Low-Cost, for Now. The Washington Post. Retrievedfromhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/09/06/AR2009090601630.html
Specialist doctors will normally examine only those patients who have been referred to their clinic by a general practitioner. (U.S. Department of State, n. d.)
The Government of Netherlands is not responsible or the ongoing management of the healthcare system on a daily basis which is offered by private healthcare service providers. However the government is charged with the accessibility and ensuring appropriate standards of the healthcare. A new healthcare insurance system has been launched since January 2006 under which every citizen is required to purchase a basic health insurance package. Under the basic package, one is covered medical treatment, inclusive of services by General Practitioners, hospitals and also specialists, indoor stay, dental care and different medical appliances. People working in the private sector in the Netherlands might decide buying a collective health insurance policy which can be a good alternative since it is cheaper. The fees of the basic…
Banta, H. David. (2004) "Healthcare Technology and its assessment in eight countries"
Flood, Colleen M. (2003) "International Health Care Reform"
(Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event, 2007)
The continuum of care for the diabetic patient is shown in the following illustration labeled Figure 1.
Diabetes: Continuum of Care
Source: Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event (2007)
The continuum of care for diabetes begins at the moment that the individual is found to have diabetes and continues across the individual's health care providers and across the varying stages of progression of the disease and the age progression of the individual with Diabetes. This continuum of care should be addressed by health care providers, Medicare/Medicaid, as well as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Changes in the workforce in developing the diabetes continuum of care is stated to have included the following: (1) Increase in number of dieticians; (2) Increase in number of diabetic specialist nurses; (3) Increase in podiatrists; (4) Education for primary care…
Betancourt, JR, Green, AR, and Carillo, JE (2002) Cultural Competence in Health Care: Emerging Frameworks and Practical Approaches" (New York City: The Commonwealth Fund, 2002).
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) Thomson Gale Corporation 2006.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Changes in Obligations and Activities before and after Fiscal Year 2005. (2008) Budget Reorganization. United States Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC. 25 Feb 2008. Online available at http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d08328r.pdf
Diabetes Continuum of Care (2007) Worcestershire Diabetes- a New model of care Stakeholder event St. Richards Hospice 12th September 2007. Online available at: www.nhs.net
healthcare system built dominant European-American cultural values, beliefs, practices. These differ
eligion and spirituality have very different meanings, although these terms are essentially both related to a communion with supernatural forces. However, religion specifically denotes the influence of man and manmade laws, interpretations, and applications of principles of spirituality. eligion is, essentially, spirituality tempered through some mandates and laws of man. Spirituality, on the other hand, is simply one's own personal conviction, beliefs, and methods of interacting with a supernatural force or a deity. Health care facilities can provide an environment that is conducive to both religion and spirituality. In terms of both the former and the latter, they can attempt to issue procedures and respect the wishes of patients in a way that is consistent with popular Christian religious beliefs. Personnel employed at such facilities can be tolerant of and respectful of the beliefs of clients and of their…
Armstrong, K., Rose, A., Peters, N., Long, J., McMurphy, S., Shea, J. (2006). Distrust of the health care system and self-reported health in the United States. Journal of General Internal Medciine. 21(4), 292-297.
CDC. (2013). U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
Hendrix, L.R. (No date). Health and health care of American Indians and Alaskan Native Elders. www.stanford.edu. Retrieved from http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/americanindian.html
Native American Encyclopedia. Dawes Act. (2013). www.nativeamericaneoncyclopedia.com. Retrieved from http://nativeamericanencyclopedia.com/dawes-act/
The considerations of that which is physical and that which is fiscal in the work of Sajay (2005) are clearly polar opposites therefore in no way are they comprehensibly compatible but are destined to be at odds with one the other.
The inherent conflict that exists between financial accounting and accounting for performance are separated by a very thin line. That differentiation is because the focus of the business, management, financial end of the hospital-industry and the physician's end of the hospital-factory is toward two very different goals. Interestingly enough those two very different dimensions in healthcare do come together at the crossroads of end results in the fact that for a patient to suffer due to malpractice, neglect, improper or lack of treatment will most necessarily affect the financial sector of the institution or organization in the realization of punitive damages in lawsuits against them. Therefore, in the…
Dowd, B.E. et al. (1986) Inpatient length of stay in Twin Cities health plans Med Care. (8):694-710; 24 August (1986) The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111 JAMA. 1992 Mar 25;267(12):1624-30.
Sajay, Samuel, et al. (2005) "Monetized Medicine: From the Physical to the Fiscal" Accounting Organizations and Society 30 (2005) 249-278. Elsevier Available Online at www.sciencedirect.com
"Health Care Criteria for Performance Excellence"
Health Care System in the United States
There have been three main forces responsible for the downsizing of hospitals in the United States. These are rising health care costs, a struggling economy, and a shrinking population of doctors and nurses (Shi & Singh, 2013). The new health care law will affect this trend by providing a large number of people with health insurance. Since these people previously did not have this insurance, they did not see the doctor as often as they should have. This led them to use the emergency room instead, and only when a problem that could have been more easily treated became a serious and significant issue (Dail, 2012; Shi & Singh, 2013). Because these people were uninsured, they also could not pay their medical bills, which placed a heavy burden on the taxpayers (Dail, 2012). Some of that will be eased by the health care…
Dail, P.W. (2012). Women and poverty in 21st century America. NC: McFarland.
Shi, L., & Singh, D.A. (2013) Delivering health care in America: A systems approach, (5th ed.) NY: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
The results were that out of the 17,937 adults surveyed: women were more likely to utilize health care services in comparison to men, whites were more inclined to seek treatment in comparison with blacks and 43% of the population sample was highly educated. The overall levels of satisfaction are: 54.9% of the sample would recommend the health care services that they were receiving to others. However, there were problems reported with underutilizing various health care services, with 46.3% of respondents reporting not receiving the services they require. At the same time, 11.3% of participants would report receiving services that were not recommended or were considered to be excessive. This is important, because this information can be used to highlight how the underlying amounts of care, can different between the various health care systems. As each country will embrace a model that mirrors the economic and political philosophy of the nation.…
US Health Care Costs. (2010). Kaiser Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.kaiseredu.org/Issue-Modules/U.S.-Health-Care-Costs/Background-Brief.aspx
Hillstead, R. (2005). Can Electronic Medical Records Systems Transform Health Care. Health Affairs, 24 (5), 1103 -- 1117.
McGlynn, E. (2003). The Quality of Health Care Delivered to Adults in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 2635 -- 2645. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa022615
Williams, F. (2008). The role of the electronic medical record (EMR) in care delivery development in developing countries: a systematic review. Informatics in Primary Care, 28 (6), 503 -- 507.
Health Care Systems and Administration of Services
Why do you think (1) hospitals and (2) physicians have invested less in information technology than banks have? What can be done to reduce resistance and encourage adoption?
Every industry has benefitted from the advent of affordable and powerful computer technology, but some have used new technologies to greater advantage than others. Computers have been used to speed up many processes that were completely controlled by humans just a very few years ago. This speed has also come with greater overall efficiency, accuracy, and an incredible amount of savings to the companies which utilize technology (Hare, et al., 2006). But, even though there has been growth in the amount of information technology used by healthcare organizations, it still pales in comparison to other organizations. Especially with the cost to customers generated by healthcare products (drugs, treatments, etc.), it would seem that the industry…
Condon, S. (2009). Health care experts warn of challenges for IT adoption. Retrieved from http://news.cnet.com/8301-13578_3-10199405-38.html
Day, K.B. (2009). U.S. healthcare vs. other countries: A few facts and figures. The U.S. Report. Retrieved from http://www.theusreport.com/the-us-report/us-healthcare- vs.-other-countries-a-few-facts-and-figures.html
Hare, K., Whitworth, B., Deek, F.P., Norris, T. (2006). A new approach to clinical IT resistance: The need for information technology confidentiality and mobility. Health Care and Informatics Review. Retrieved from http://brianwhitworth.com/hinz06.pdf
Health IT. (2010). Health IT adoption. Retrieved from http://healthit.hhs.gov/portal/server.pt/community/healthit_hhs_gov__adoption_a nd_meaningful_use/1152
hile many insurance companies may have limits in place, those limits are easily raised when requested by doctors (Maschue 2012). Under the current Medicare and Medicaid plans, however, the government sets specific amounts that doctors and hospitals may bill and any amount over that will not be paid. This limit leads to many doctors refusing to accept government patients or reducing the amount of care for those patients (Maschue 2012). So, reimbursement of physicians is directly related to the quality of care for patients.
Starting in 2012, President Obama's national healthcare plan takes effect. hile in 2012 the only effect is increased taxes, the true burden for the medical industry begins in 2014. In 2014 individuals will be required to own insurance through either a private provider or a government funded program. hile private providers will continue the same level of care, the government program has already set specific limits…
Allen, Jane (2011). U.S. Drug Shortage Could Threaten U.S. Health System. ABC World News. Retrieved January 29,2012. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/CancerPreventionAndTreatment/drug-shortages/story?id=14593880#.TyV-f1yublg
Field RI. Health Care Regulation in America: Complexity, Confrontation and Compromise. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
Healthcare. United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010-2011 Edition. Retrieved January 29, 2012. http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs035.htm
Jackson, Jill and John Nolen (2010). Healthcare Reform Bill Summary. CBS News. Retrieved January 29, 2012. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20000846-503544.html
In Favor of Single Payer Health Care
The American health care system is broken. On this much, almost everybody can agree. Costs are spiralling out of control, health outcomes are among the worst of all developed countries, and nobody can agree on what will make it better. One of the reasons for this disagreement is that different stakeholders fail to agree on what the purpose of the health care system should be. If the purpose is to be a for-profit industry, well, then the industry needs to be set up to earn profits. But the view taken in most parts of the world is that health care serves a greater purpose. Whether this is to provide a high standard of living for people in a country for its own sake, or because healthy populace is better for the economy, such finer points can be debated. But what cannot be debated…
Patient Outcomes and Sustainable Change: Identifying Leadership Roles for Doctors of Nursing Practice
Today, the United States spends more taxpayer monies on healthcare services than virtually any other industrialized country in the world, yet Americans still pay more out-of-pocket expenses and receive fewer physician visits per year compared to nations that spend less. Moreover, the demand for already scarce healthcare services is expected to increase concomitantly with the rapid growth being experienced in the elderly demographic, and these demands will likely continue to expand as the baby boomer generation retires in greater numbers and lives longer lives compared to past generations. Against this backdrop, determining how and why the United States ranks alone among dozens of other countries – many of them still in their developmental stages – in terms of the lack of universal healthcare. To determine the facts, the purpose of this paper is to provide a review…
Afreja, A. & Bellam, N. (2009, March 15). Strategies to enhance patient adherence: Make it simple. Medscape General Medicine, 7(1), 4.
Allen-Graham, J. & Mitchell, L. (2018, February). Electronic health records and online medical records: An asset or a liability under current conditions. Australian Health Review, 42(1), 59.
Best, A., Greenhalgh, T., Lewis, S. et al. (2012, September). Large-system transformation in health care: A realist review. Milbank Quarterly, 90(3), 421–456.
Canadian people. (2018). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/ library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html.
Feldman, H. R. & Greenberg, M. J. (2009). Educating nurses for leadership. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
The birth of Canadian Medicare. (2018). Canadian Dimensions. Retrieved from https://canadiandimension.com/articles/view/the-birth-of-medicare.
Martin, D. & Miller, A. P. (2018, February 22). Canada\\'s universal health-care system: achieving its potential. Canada’s Global Leadership on Health, 391(10131), 1718-1735.
Roy, A. (2015, January 27). Conservative think tank: 10 countries with universal health care have freer economies than the U.S. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes. com/sites/theapothecary/2015/01/27/conservative-think-tank-10-countries-with-universal-health-care-are-economically-freer-than-the-u-s/#ee7cbb0137e6.
Access and Availability
The biggest problem in terms of access to healthcare is in rural areas. Our investigation found that there are very few if any rural clinics or healthcare facilities.
Access to healthcare is also limited to those that can afford insurance or qualify for Medicare or Medicaid. The unemployed and the poor are at a major disadvantage when it comes to gaining access to healthcare. The location of healthcare facilities is limited to the larger municipalities.
The entity that is responsible for the healthcare system is the United States Government. In addition, Puerto ico has a governor and a cabinet in place to ensure that the appropriate laws are carried out. The entity that makes laws concerning healthcare is outside of the country but the entity that enforces these laws is inside the country. Services are evaluated by state run entities and agencies of the United States…
The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rq.html#People
Puerto Rico: Estimated Number of Persons Living with AIDS at the End of 2002. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.statehealthfacts.kff.org/cgi-bin/healthfacts.cgi?action=profile&area=Puerto+Rico&category=HIV%2fAIDS&subcategory=Persons+Living+with+AIDS&topic=All+Ages
HIV / AIDS Among Hispanics. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/PUBS/Facts/hispanic.pdf
Puerto Rico: Total Number of Adults with Diagnosed Diabetes, 2002. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from;
Based upon the fact the baby boomers are all approaching retirement age, it would be a good idea for the organization to pursue programs that are geared towards seniors. Programs that are geared towards seniors are a great way to produce quality comprehensive health care for those in the community that need it. The organization might pursue the idea of opening a PACE program. " The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is a capitated benefit authorized by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) that features a comprehensive service delivery system and integrated Medicare and Medicaid financing" (Program of All Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), 2009). The PACE program features complete medical and social services that rely on an interdisciplinary team approach in an adult day health center that includes in-home and referral services depending on the person's needs (Program of All Inclusive Care for the…
Baker, J. Judith & Baker, R.W. (2006). Healthcare Finance, Basic Tools for Nonfinancial
Managers. Maryland: Aspen Publications, Inc.
Bury, Elizabeth, Carter, Kara S., Feigelman, Masha and Grant, Jennifer M. (n.d.). Retrieved June
2, 2009, from Web site:
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
Healthcare System Practice Guideline
Introduce an overview of one healthcare system practice guideline
There are numerous areas within health care that demand change in everyday healthcare practice. More often than not, irrespective of the healthcare setting, an inventive group is required to conduct research and facilitate change. There are numerous practices that require change or upgrading. This is facilitated through the establishment and advancement of clinical practice guidelines. The selected healthcare system practice guideline is Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care (2017). This particular guideline delineates the important decision points in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and provides well-outlines and wide-ranging evidence based recommendations assimilating prevailing information and practices for practitioners throughout Department of Defense (DoD) and Veretan Affairs (VA) Health Care Systems. Diabetes mellitus is an illness that is caused either by an absolute or relative deficiency in insulin giving rise to hyperglycemia. Type 1 DM (T1DM)…
Healthcare System Change
M.S. Healthcare Administration Exploration National quality performance improvement initiatives. The organizations noted focused specific areas research, study practices information dissemination national organizations public, private governmental sectors.
Center for Studying Health Care System Change:
Exploration of national quality and performance improvement initiatives
The Center for Studying Health Care System Change (HSC) is a non-profit, non-partisan group that is specifically committed to expanding the knowledge of healthcare to better enable policy-makers to make informed decisions. "HSC does not take policy positions and is a resource for decision makers on all sides of the issues because of its reliable data and objective analysis" (Mission statement, 2012, Center for Studying Health Care System Change). Although it has a variety of funders "HSC only accepts funding when it retains the right to publish all research results. Final research topic selection, methodological and editorial decisions ultimately reside with HSC" (Principles for research…
Christianson, Jon B. Ha T. Tu, Divya R. Samuel. (2007). Employer-sponsored health insurance:
Down but not out. Issue Brief No. 137. Center for Studying Health Care System Change.
Ginsburg, Paul B. (2011). Containing healthcare costs. Testimony.
Health-Care System by Lewis Thomas
The title and introduction to this essay are both very clear and to the point. Thomas makes sure that those who read the essay immediately understand his concerns about health-care and the amount of time and money that people in this country spend on it. He also quickly makes clear that he believes the reason for this is the amount of propaganda heaped upon these people, as it makes them feel like they are weak and fragile, and that they need doctors, hospitals, and medication if they are going to live long at all. From there, he moves smoothly into the idea that people are actually very strong. They are living longer than they used to, and while some of this has to do with the medicines that are now available, much of it has to do with the fact that diseases and problems that…
A good example of this can be seen with popular Chinese talk show host Yang Lang donating $72 million, to start his own foundation to: help support and develop the health care system. This is important, because it shows how both international and domestic-based non-profits are addressing these underlying problems facing the health care sector. (Dobryzski, 2010)
Clearly, the biggest challenges facing the health care systems in the United States and China are vastly different. Yet, they are also wrestling with similar problems, as they face the issue of increasing numbers in the elderly population. In the case of the United States, this is challenging because there are a variety of disadvantages that must be addressed to include: they have access to some of the most cutting edge procedures, there is large number of choices about health care providers and the elderly can be able to receive effective treatment for…
Advanced Practice Nurses. (2010). Bukisa. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/352958_advanced-practice-nurses-a-global-role
Health Systems. (n.d.). WHO. Retrieved from: gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/.../Conceptual%20frameworks. Ppt Health Care in China. (2006). IBM. Retrieved from: http://www-05.ibm.com/de/healthcare/downloads/healthcare_china.pdf
More About RN's. (2011). ANA. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/especiallyforyou/studentnurses/rnsapns.aspx
Opportunities in the Health Care Sector. (2006). Grail Research. Retrieved from: http://www.grailresearch.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/Opportunities_in_the_China_Healthcare_Sector.pdf
ased on the information currently available, the Canadian health care system is the more utilitarian and is, therefore, the better approach but those facing the need for advanced and expedient care would certainly argue otherwise. Therein lies the problem and therein lies the challenge for American society. Even the most ardent proponents of employer-based insurance plans would dare not argue that having great numbers of uninsured is the price that American society pays for having high-quality services but that is what has developed. Hopefully, a system can be devised that allows for more broad-based coverage while retaining the availability of quality care.
The United States health care system cannot continue as it has for the past several years. Costs are far too high and are escalating at a rate that is out of control. Relying on employer-based insurance plans must be abandoned and some form of public financing…
American Medical Association. (2010). Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S. Chicago: AMA Press.
Boychuk, T. (1999). The Making and Meaning of Hospital Policy in the United States and Canada. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2006, August 29). The Number of Uninsured Americans Is at an All-time High. Retrieved April 30, 2011, from Center on Budget and Policy Priorities: http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=628
Eve, S.B. (1995). The Canadian Health Care System. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
2.) Based upon your personal, non-professional experiences, briefly discuss 2 or 3 applications of it which have enhanced or hindered your financial or medical well being. It and cyber-commerce/e-commerce do not exist devoid of context; thus please help define and shape this context.
The advent of computerized billing and medical coding has undoubtedly streamlined the process of managing a hospital's income and expenditures, but this aspect of healthcare it has been known to create unanticipated disadvantages as well. Although it is true that "the management of healthcare organizations can be improved through the intelligent use of information ... (and) this requires systematic planning and management of information resources to develop information systems that support patient care, administrative operations, and strategic management" (Citation pg. 21), there are a number of caveats that still apply. In my own non-professional experience, I have encountered confusion, frustration, and ineptitude on the part of healthcare…
health care system has focused on the prevention and cure of disease and illness. When people got sick, every bit of energy and finances went into trying to figure out how to stop it. This was true even when the patient had a disorder or a disease that was deemed incurable. For many years when someone got a disease in which there was no cure, it did not change the method of treatment. The medical community, the family and the patient continued to try every possible avenue to stop the progress. Often times the patient would submit to painful and disorienting treatments, because they didn't want to disappoint their family members or their doctors. At the same time the medical community was expanding the length of life so that many people were living longer than ever before. These two things began to clash. At what point do people stop trying…
Public health system suffers from chronic underfunding http://home.aigonline.com/content/0,1109,16263-694-ceo,00.html
NEWS FROM AROUND AFRICA http://www.hospicecare.com/Newsletters/july2003/page8.html
Healthcare & Medical Market in Morocco http://www.tradepartners.gov.uk/healthcare/morocco/profile/overview.shtml
What is Hospice? http://www.hospicefoundation.org/what_is/
U.S. Health Care System is a series of geographically-determined networks. Established according to American beliefs and values, the system provides essentially two models of health care: the Market Justice Model, based on free enterprise and individual responsibility and ability/willingness to pay; the Social Justice Model, based on the public and equitable provision of basic health care services to all members. The two models are often in conflict with each other, with the Market Justice Model currently being the primary model.
Definition of a Health Care System
A "Health Care System" is commonly defined as "the complete network of agencies, facilities, and all providers of health care in a specified geographic area" (Mosby, 2008). Given that very broad definition, the United States has health care systems spanning such geographical areas as the entire nation, states, counties, cities, towns, villages and neighborhoods.
Implications of Beliefs and Values on a Health Care System…
Daniels, N. (2001). Justice, health and health care. Retrieved on June 9, 2012 from www.hsph.harvard.edu Web site: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/benchmark/ndaniels/pdf/justice_health.pdf
Mosby. (2008). Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Shi, L., & Singh, D.A. (2010). Essentials of the U.S. Health Care System, 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Surowiecki, J. (2009, August 31). Status-quo anxiety. Retrieved on June 9, 2012 from www.newyorker.com Web site: http://www.newyorker.com/talk/financial/2009/08/31/090831ta_talk_surowiecki
Greening of the Health Care System
The objective of this work in writing is to examine problems and solutions to increase greening of the health care system. Towards this end, this work examines and reports literature in this area of study.
It is reported that Pittsburg, PA was, in the 1940s a place coping with extreme pollution and was known as 'the Smoky City'. However in the 1940s leaders in the city met with architect Frank Lloyd Wright inquiring as to what might be done to improve the city. The leaders chose to change the environment "and stimulate new ways of thinking." (oard on Population Health, 2007, p.45) The businesses in Pittsburg were required to change from coal to gas and other fuels that were smokeless for heating and that begin "a significant green renaissance for Pittsburg and created was "a livable, diverse economic region, with one of the most…
Green Healthcare Institutions: Health, Environment, and Economics, Workshop Summary (2007)
Board on Population Health (BPH)
VA Sierra Nevada is Greening Our Healthcare System (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.reno.va.gov/docs/GREENING_OUR_HEALTH_CARE_SYSTEM.pdf
A Practical Approach to 'Green' for Health Care Providers (2009) Deloitte. Retrieved from: http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedStates/Local%20Assets/Documents/us_lshc_PracticalApproachtoGreeningforProviders_082609.pdf
Where, it will reduce the total amount by $138 billion in ten-year. This is despite, the fact that $950 billion is going to be spent implementing such changes. What this shows, is that when implementing the strengths of the French system with that of the American system, you can have high quality health care services and maintain costs.
Health Care ill to Cut Deficit. (2010, March 18). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from Reuters website:
Tired of Waiting for Your Doctor. (2006, November 20). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from MSNC website:
Dutton, P. (2007, August 11). France's Model Health Care System. Retrieved April 12, 2010 from oston.com
Foley, T. (2009, March 8). 5 Questions about French Health Care. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from Change.org website: http://healthcare.change.org/blog/view/5_questions_about_french_health_care
Foy, A. (2009, September 10). Give Me Liberty or Give Me Health Care. Retrieved April 12, 2010 from American…
Health Care Bill to Cut Deficit. (2010, March 18). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from Reuters website:
Tired of Waiting for Your Doctor. (2006, November 20). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from MSNBC website:
Indeed many of the "rotating staff may have never been on a transfer" and in addition most transport vehicles "are not conducive to carrying out active interventions on patients" -- a situation that can lead to serious medical complications during transfers (which often take place in late-night hours) (Ahmed, p. 503). Moreover, less than one in three NHS hospitals followed the procedure of checking the compatibility within the ambulance and it's "mounting system" prior to moving the patient (Ahmed, p. 504). All of these concerns are worth noting by U.S. healthcare professionals, lest similar situations may occur and put patients in jeopardy.
Should every American healthcare provider be required to publish performance data in an online account -- information that relates to the clinical outcomes of his services as well as a record of patient satisfaction? That is a pertinent question because that is the new rule that all NHS…
Ahmed, Majeed a. (2008). Risk management during inter-hospital transfer of critically ill
Patients: making the journey safe. Emergency Medical Journal, Vol. 25, 502-505.
Ali, Adam M. (2009). The personalization of the British National Health Service: empowering
Patients or exacerbating inequality? The International Journal of Clinical Practice, 63(10),
While patients are currently being treated unethically by the U.S. system that values patients by their ability to pay, a 2004 study showed that patients receiving health care in a variety of nations with nationalized services were generally satisfied with their health care (Wensing and Szecsenyi, 2004).
According to a 2004 ABC News poll, Americans were not satisfied with the current health care system. In fact, sixty-two percent favored a national health care system, primarily because of the current system's substandard ethics -- rising costs (Lange, 2004). Far from universal, these costs do not affect each income group in the same way. Unemployed and low-income workers are the most likely to be uninsured, and therefore, charged skyrocketing rates for health care services (Smith, 2008). Forced to refrain from obtaining needed services, accruing debt and poor credit because of unpaid bills, or seeking services through illegal and unsafe means, uninsured Americans…
Core Health Indicators. (2007). Retrieved May 3, 2008 from: http://www.who.int/whosis/database/core/core_select_process.cfm?countries=all&indicators=nha
Lange, Gary. Health Care pains: Growing Health Care Concerns Fuel Cautious Support
For Change. (2004). Retrieved May 3, 2008, from: http://abcnews.go.com/sections/living/U.S./healthcare031020_poll.html
US Doctors Support Universal Healthcare -- Survey. (2008). Retrieved May 3, 2008, from: http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN31432035
Statistics show that hospitals bore more than $5 billion in costs in treating uninsured patients. This creates a huge financial pressure on them and there is no alternative but to have the uncompensated care costs to be charged to the insured patients. As a recent article from the California healthcare foundations quotes "They prepare for this reality by: Setting prices for the insured that are higher than expected costs.." [CHA] These financial details clearly indicate that immediate action has to be undertaken in terms of restructuring the healthcare system so as to facilitate hospitals in managing the overwhelming burden they are expected to handle.
Diminishing Insurance Coverage
One further reason that contributes to the problem is the declining rate of insurance coverage offered by corporates to their employees. The trend seems to be worsening as statistics indicate. Job-based coverage, which stood at 60.4% in 2003 has dropped to 59.8% in…
State of California, "Gov. Schwarzenegger Tackles California's Broken Health Care System, Proposes Comprehensive Plan to Help All Californians," Accessed on Apr 15th 2007, Available at, http://gov.ca.gov/index.php?/press-release/5057/
Author not available, "Top 10 Indicators: California's Health Care System Is Broken," Accessed on Apr 15th 2007, available at http://www.chhs.ca.gov/docs/Top%2010%20Indicators%20010807.pdf
California Hospitals' Financial Condition: On Life Support," California Healthcare Association, June 2004
Dr.Barry Simon, "Emergency Rooms on Front Line of Health Care," Contra Costa Times, 12/22/06
To Thomas Sowell, another opponent of the universal health care, suggests that it is necessary to first study the consequences of having a universal health care before diverting into such system. Sowell doesn't believe in a government-run health care. To him, the universal health care doesn't reduce the real cost of health care but instead reduces the amount of money a patient has to pay for at the cost of reducing health care quality.
Taylor, H.M. Health Care in Canada: Pros and Cons.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006, from Online. Web site: http://www.arcadyholistic.ca/ah01n.htm
Williams, W. (2005). Why Canadians Purchase Private Health Insurance.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006 from Capitalism Magazine Online.
Web site: http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=4271
Sowell, T. (2003). Thomas Sowell: Universal Health Care.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006 from Online.
Web site: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/906366/posts
Sowell, T. (2004). The Problem with Price Controls.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006, from Heartland Institute…
Taylor, H.M. Health Care in Canada: Pros and Cons.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006, from Online. Web site: http://www.arcadyholistic.ca/ah01n.htm
Williams, W. (2005). Why Canadians Purchase Private Health Insurance.
Retrieved on November 15, 2006 from Capitalism Magazine Online.
U.S. & Norway Healthcare Systems
healthcare system has many advantages and disadvantages which are most revealing when compared to the other health care systems of the world. An analysis between the U.S. healthcare system and a government run healthcare system of Norway provides a deeper understanding of the similarities and differences in the two systems.
Almost every other developed nation in the world has some form of universal coverage which reduces this disparity in care. However, many of these systems are purportedly ridden with their own issues such as high cost and long waiting times. By comparing the U.S. system with the universal system like that of Norway, I can investigate the effectiveness of each in terms of the quality of care provided and the equality of distribution of that care.
A Comparison and Analysis of Healthcare Systems in the United States and Norway
A. United States
The healthcare system…
Goldman, Dana P. And Elizabeth A. McGlynn. (2005). U.S. Healthcare Facts About Cost, Access and Quality [Online]. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/corporate_pubs/2005/RAND_CP484.1.pdf
Johnsen, Jan Roth. (2006). Health Systems in Transition: Norway. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/95144/E88821.pdf
Tanner, Michael D. (March, 18, 2008). Policy Analysis: The Grass is Not Always Greener: A Look at National Health Care Systems Around the World (policy number 613). Retrieved from http://lib.trinity.edu/research/citing/APAelectronicsources.pdf
The University of Maine. (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? [Online]. Retrieved from http://dll.umaine.edu/ble/U.S.%20HCweb.pdf
U.S. Vs. India Health Care Systems
THE INDIAN HEALTH CAE SYSTEMS
Health care refers to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, ailments, and other body malefactions. It refers to measures such as purchasing medical supplies, training, and hiring of medical personnel, financing research in the medical field and supporting treatment of patients (Stavans, 2010). The government and the private sector majorly provide this role. In most of the developed countries, private sector operators provide quality health care while the government only takes care of the medical care for the poor in the society.
The health care systems of the U.S. And India are different as seen from their unique characteristics. The U.S. health care system is run by the federal states and the private sector. It is advanced in terms of quality as seen from the beneficiaries' life expectancy. U.S.s' life expectancy is at a record high of 75…
Nightingale, Florence & Lynn McDonald, (2006). Florence Nightingale on health in India. Wilfrid Laurier University Press
Shi, L., & Singh, D. (2012). Essentials of the U.S. health care system. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett.
Stavans, I. (2010). Health care. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood
U.S. Health Care System
2010 saw the passage of the landmark Patient Protection and ffordable Care ct, the most striking transformation to the health care landscape since Medicare's enactment in 1965. The bill focuses on two critical issues facing the overall U.S. health care system: cost and coverage. Because the U.S. health model is not defined by a single payer or "socialized medicine"; the delivery system has created a significant lacuna in coverage and access for individuals primarily based on income and affluence. Further, the cost of care and coverage has outpaced national income growth over the last decades. "The U.S. is projected to spend over $2.5 trillion on health care in 2009, or $8,160 per U.S. resident, accounting for 17.6% of GDP. In 1970, U.S. health care spending was about $75 billion, or $356 per resident, and accounted for 7.2% of GDP" (Kaiser Family Foundation. March 2009. P. 1).…
A common phrase that is trumpeted by entrenched interests in the health care industry is that the U.S. has the finest health care in the world, yet a mountain of statistics proves otherwise. "The U.S. health system spends a higher portion of its gross domestic product than any other country but ranks 37 out of 191 countries according to its performance" (World Health Organization.org. 2000. P. 1) according to the World Health Organization. This ranking reflects core problems of the delivery model which has left some 49.9 million uninsured in 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau.gov. 2010. P. 27), leaves "one third of U.S. adults without recommended care, and one fifth of U.S. adults having major problems paying medical bills" (Schoen, C. Osborn, R. Squires, D. Doty, M. Pierson, R. & Applebaum, S.P. 2). A point that does resonate however is that income is the ultimate "Mendoza Line" for individuals receiving health services. "The uninsured rate was higher among people with lower incomes and lower among people with higher incomes" (U.S. Census Bureau.gov. 2010. P. 27). As a result the proclivity for individuals without insurance coverage is to ignore the necessary care, mainly preventative, which could dramatically impact the long run cost curve downward on health service affordability.
Access and Cost
The Affordable Care Act expands the pool of the insured through private sector exchanges, tax credit enhancements, and greater access to Medicaid. Affordable coverage under either a private health plan, or Medicare and Medicaid allows individuals to utilize the services requisite for long-term health. A legitimate question however, is whether expansion of coverage will in fact explode costs even beyond their already significant upward trajectory? With coverage expansion there will be greater demand pressure on providers, yet this should also drive competitive rigor, allowing for cost containment across the system. As such the Commonwealth Fund, a private health reform organization, estimates that "expenditures for the whole health care system will be reduced by nearly 600 billion in the first decade" (Orszag, P. & Emanuel, E. August 12, 2010. P. 2). The bending of the cost curve downward though requires that the delivery system change concomitantly; with focus on coordinated care across "three 'I' platforms: information, infrastructure,
Neuman Health Care Systems Model:
Preventative Care for Mr. H
The Neuman Health Care Systems Model was created by Betty M. Neuman in an effort to help nursing students focus on wellness for the client system (McHolm & Geib, 1998). In order to create wellness for a client system, the nursing students use an Assessment and Analysis Tool, which will help in identifying Mr. H's problems (McHolm & Geib, 1998).
First, a nurse must find out Mr. H's profile and define his stressors. This must be done by the nurse and by the concerns expressed by the client (NeumanSystemsModel.org, 2011). It is clear that stressors in this 72-year-old widower's life are affecting his overall health. ecent changes in his life, such as the loss of his wife of 45 years, are a factor in his health changes. It is good that Mr. H is still trying to maintain his normal…
A.D.A.M. (2011). Hypotension. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from https://health.google.com/health/ref/Hypotension .
McHolm, F.A. & Geib, K.M. (1998, January-March). Nursing diagnosis: Application of the Neuman systems model of teaching health assessment and nursing process. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3836/is_199801/ai_n8792656/?tag=content;col1
NCBI. (2010, July 1). Pubmed health - Atorvastatin. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH
NCBI. (2008, September 1). Pubmed health -- Furosemide. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from
Healthcare system in USA
The health care system in the United States of America is a well established and structured system that aims at offering services to American citizens for the treatment and prevention of diseases, further more the system also seeks to promote mental and physical well being of its citizens. On a broader perspective the health care system in the U.S.A. can be defined as system concerned with where and how medical services are offered to America's citizens, secondly the system is concerned with medical expense and who pays for this and thirdly who offers these medical care services, for example, nurses, specialist physicians or primary care physicians.
Importance of knowing how to prepare healthcare system in the U.S.A.
The preparation of the healthcare system in the U.S.A. is a critical issue in the country because it is this system that's responsible for improving the overall health…
Healthy Behavior on the Healthcare System
Prepare initial statement. Understanding healthy behaviors U.S. health care system evolve make effective resources. How effectively solve problem; misuse health care dollars? How cost containment affected evolution delivery system health care U.
The effects of healthy behavior on the healthcare system
More than half of the money allocated for healthcare is misused. Giving patients defensive medicines or requesting they undertake unnecessary tests increase the amount of money spent in healthcare. There are inappropriate procedures that doctors or physicians request from the patients in order to provide a correct diagnosis Berwick & Hackbarth, 2012.
These procedures lead to the increase of health care costs and they are avoidable. Healthcare administration costs are exorbitant and account for 30% of the total bill given to a patient. The administration costs are included in the patient's final bill, and they have no option but to pay. Hospital administration…
Berwick, D.M., & Hackbarth, A.D. (2012). Eliminating waste in U.S. health care. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 307(14), 1513-1516.
Conklin, T.P. (2002). Health Care in the United States: An Evolving System. Info: Ann Arbor, MI: MPublshing, University of Michigan Library, 7(1).
Danaei, G., Ding, E.L., Mozaffarian, D., Taylor, B., Rehm, J., Murray, C.J., & Ezzati, M. (2009). The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS medicine, 6(4), e1000058.
Satya-Murti, S. (2003). Health and Health Care 2010: The Forecast, the Challenge. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 290(6), 823-825.
The truth is that we do need a National Healthcare System but one that wouldn't replace multi-payer system but co-exist with it to offer more benefits to those who cannot afford health insurance on their own. Single-payer system or a national healthcare system alone is not the solution because it will restrict people's access to quality healthcare and to their choice of specialists and hospitals. It has been repeatedly explained that while a national system sounds attractive, the reality is not as rosy. Social disparities are still prevalent even in a national healthcare system and accountability can be a major problem
. Thus the best solution is to have a national healthcare system that would co-exist with multi-payer system. This would allow people to have more options and also cover those who cannot afford an individualized plan.
John C. Goodman, Gerald L. Musgrave, Devon M. Herrick, Lives at risk:…
John C. Goodman, Gerald L. Musgrave, Devon M. Herrick, Lives at risk: National Center for Policy Analysis (U.S.) Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.; 1 edition (August 28, 2004)
Goodman et al. p.3
American Healthcare System has been at the center of debate for many years. One of the most pressing issues confronting the healthcare system is Medicare and its beneficiaries. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on the ramifications of moving Medicare beneficiaries into managed care organizations (MCOs). Our investigation will illustrate that moving the Medicare beneficiaries into MCOs are a bad idea because there will not to be any real cost savings and many individuals are likely to be denied needed care.
An article found in American Economic Review explains that Medicare is the second largest government entitlement program in the United States. The cost associated with running this program is astronomical. The article asserts that in 1999 the government spent $230 billion or 13% of its budget on Medicare and its beneficiaries. (Antos and Bilheimer)
The major issue with Medicare is that it is expected to…
Angell, Marcia, and Arnold S. Relman. "Patents, Profits & American Medicine: Conflicts of Interest in the Testing & Marketing of New Drugs." Daedalus 131.2 (2002): 102+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96539841
Antos, Joseph R., and Linda Bilheimer. "Medicare Reform: Obstacles and Options." American Economic Review 89.2 (1999): 217-221. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95229758
Fischer, Pamela P. "Parkinson's Disease and the U.S. Health Care System." Journal of Community Health Nursing 16.3 (1999): 191-204. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001999538
Healthcare Interventions in Improving HealthCare Systems
One of the greatest challenges for healthcare systems in America is how to best utilize health care interventions to improve the delivery of services and enhance the quality of healthcare. While effective interventions are often developed, most are only implemented in the academic settings in which they are developed; and only few are successfully disseminated to the healthcare setting (Kilbourne et al., 2007).
According to Pawson and his colleagues (2014), the structures of modern health care systems are too complex, making it hard for researchers to evaluate and synthesize interventions in a bid to improve healthcare systems. Subsequently, researchers and policy makers come up with multiple and competing interventions that attempt to address the same issue, which compromises their effectiveness. Furthermore, there lacks a proper framework for implementing the interventions that are likely to maintain their relevance once they get transferred across different settings…
Kilbourne A.M., Neumann, M.S., Pincus, H.A., Bauer, M.S. & Stall, R. (2007) Implementation Science. Vol. (2)1, 1-10
Pawson, R., Greenhalgh, J.,Brennan, C. & Glidewell, E. (2014). Do reviews of healthcare interventions teach us how to improve healthcare systems? Social Science and Medicine Vol. (114)1, 129-137
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (2014) National Health Expenditure Data. CMS. Gov. Retrieved 23 April 2015 from http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/index.html
The health care system in the United States is often compared with that of other countries, and the one that comes up the most frequently in Canada. The Canadian system has better outcomes in general than the American system, and is completely different in terms of structure. This paper will examine the key areas where the systems differ, and seek to extrapolate what that means.
At its heart, the US system relies on market forces for much of its activity. Health care is providers are usually paid by insurance companies (or the government, which will be discussed in a moment). The insurance market is generally a free market, where insurers compete for customers the same way that insurers in other fields compete for customers. Employers will often pay the cost of coverage under an employer plan for workers, but there are many types of jobs where this…
healthcare system is regarded as one of the most expensive across the globe though it underperforms as compared to other developed and/or advanced countries. The states of America's healthcare system relative to its costs have attracted considerable attention from policymakers, health experts, and business leaders. These various stakeholders continue to look for viable means of improving and reforming the system in order to enhance its efficiency and improve performance. One of the major ways towards this process is comparing the U.S. healthcare system with those of other countries in terms of costs and efficiency. This article compares the American healthcare system with that of Canada and Germany with regards to costs, services provided, and outcomes like infant mortality and insurance coverage.
United States, Canada, and Germany Health Care Systems
As previously mentioned, the American healthcare system is the most expensive throughout the world though it significantly underperforms across…
Baribault, M. & Cloyd, C. (1999, July 26). Health Care Systems: Three International Comparisons. Retrieved from Stanford University website: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/soc_sec/health.htm
Davis et. al. (2014, June 16). Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, 2014 Update: How the U.S. Health Care System Compares Internationally. Retrieved April 29, 2015, from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/fund-reports/2014/jun/mirror-mirror
Ridic, G., Gleason, S. & Ridic, O. (2012). Comparisons of Health Care Systems in the United States, Germany and Canada. Materia Sociomedica, 24(2), 112-120.
Thomson et. al. (2013, November). International Profiles of Health Care Systems, 2013.
This is because in most health facilities, the data is kept in a uniform way and the same is used for your next visit. According to the privacy law which applies to medical practitioners, confidentiality and privacy of the patient should not be compromised at all times. It is therefore important that when using health informatics, the management should respect the fundamental rights of the patient.
The national health care system can effectively improve its collaboration by adopting computer technologies and methodologies such as the soft systems methodology. It is therefore crucial for the government and the healthcare providers to join efforts in creating a better national health informatics system.
Ahuja MK, Carley KM. (1998)Network Structure in Virtual Organizations. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. 1998;3(4)
Brown JE, Isaacs JS, and Krinke UB (2007) Nutrition Through the Life Cycle
Checkland, P., Holwell, S. (1993), "Information management and organizational processes:…
Ahuja MK, Carley KM. (1998)Network Structure in Virtual Organizations. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. 1998;3(4)
Brown JE, Isaacs JS, and Krinke UB (2007) Nutrition Through the Life Cycle
Checkland, P., Holwell, S. (1993), "Information management and organizational processes: an approach through soft systems methodology," J. Of Info. Systems, Vol. 3 pp.3-16.
Connell, N.A.D. (2001), "Evaluating soft or: some reflections on an apparently 'unsuccessful' implementation using a soft systems methodology (SSM) based approach," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 52 No.2, pp.150-60.
wealthiest nation that the world has ever seen is presently witnessing a situation in which over 47 million of its citizens have no health insurance (O'Neill, 2011). This is a number that is staggering but it is also a number that promises to keep growing and it is only the tip of the iceberg in regard to the delivery of health care services in America. As the economic conditions in the United States change, health insurance premiums continue to increase, and businesses alter their practices relative to providing health coverage to their employees the overall health care of the country is in peril.
The availability and cost of health insurance is only one of the problems facing American society relative to health care (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2011). The actual cost of health care has risen geometrically over the past decades to the point that may millions of families delay seeking…
Connolly, C. (2005, February 9). Medicare Drug Benefit May Cost 1.2 Trillion. Washington Post, p. A01.
Haren, M.C. (2009). Increased Patient Cost-Sharing, Weak U.S. Economy, and Poor Health Habits: Implications for Employers and Insurers. American Health & Drug Benefits, 134-141.
Instiute of Medicine. (2009). Health Insurance Essential for Health and Well-Being. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies.
Kaiser Family Foundation. (2011, April). Health Care Spending in the United States and Selected OECD Countries. Retrieved August 23, 2011, from Health Care Costs: http://www.kff.org/insurance/snapshot/OECD042111.cfm
Despite its problems and issues, single-payer system is still a reasonably good answer to healthcare insurance problems in the U.S. However there are some changes we might need to introduce in order improve single-payer system and to minimize the problems associated with national healthcare insurance. Instead of completely replacing it with multi-payer insurance system, countries like South Africa and Australia have adopted another measure. This measure is meant to improve single-payer system while still fully retaining it. These countries have introduced expansion in the role played by private insurance companies. This means while everyone has access to healthcare with single-payer system, if they still need additional benefits, they can buy private insurance. Preker et al. (2) explains: "Expanding the role of private insurance alongside a universal single-payer insurer is one way of balancing the tradeoffs between single and multi-payer insurance systems….Private insurance coverage can accommodate consumer needs that…
Steven R. Machlin, MS and Kelly Carper, Med. National Health Care Expenses in the U.S. Civilian Non-institutionalized Population, 2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey November 2006
John C. Goodman, Gerald L. Musgrave, Devon M. Herrick, Lives at risk: National Center for Policy Analysis (U.S.) Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.; 1 edition (August 28, 2004)
Alexander S. Preker; John Langenbruner (Editor) Spending Wisely: Buying Health Services for the Poor. "World Bank Publications; 1 edition (June 2005)
Overview of the Uninsured in the United States: An analysis of the 2005 Current Population Survey. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ASPE ISSUE BRIEF September 22, 2005 http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/05/uninsured-cps/index.htm
The UNC Health Care System runs a teaching hospital that publishes its mission statement, statement of core values, and nursing philosophy on the organization's Web site at < http://www.unchealthcare.org/site/Nursing/nurseleadership/visionvalues >. The mission is stated briefly as: "to be a leader in providing compassionate, quality care focusing on the unique needs of patients and their families." Key words in the mission statement include "compassionate," "quality care" and "unique needs." The core values of the UNC Health Care System's nurses include five main elements. Those elements include "My patient," "My team," "My Hospital," "My Community," and "My Profession." Phrasing these five main values in terms of "my" helps the nurse to feel like an integral part of the organization.
Furthermore, the nursing philosophy of the UNC Health Care System is outlined as being a reflection of the vision and values of the organization as a whole. The main principles of…
East Carolina University College of Nursing (2012). Philosophy of the college of nursing. Retrieved online: http://www.nursing.ecu.edu/philosophy.htm
UNC Health Care System (2007). Nursing mission, core values, philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.unchealthcare.org/site/Nursing/nurseleadership/visionvalues
Carolina Health Care System
Implications of External Environmental Analysis
In order to discover the Carolina Health Care System PESTLE analysis consists of numerous factors that assume the business environment. Each letter in the acronym indicates a set of features. These factors can affect every industry directly or indirectly especially when it comes to the healthcare system.
Being able to assess the outcome of the political, socio-cultural, economic, technology and other external factors is a great stage for any corporation or individual planning to offer health services in Carolina. This can be conceivable through typical PESTEL analysis. This analysis offers a way to identify any key issue that the medical industry may be going through. To prosper in the PESTEL analysis, there is a quantity of settings to emphasise your analysis on.
The political analysis replicates on the government forces that have an influence on how an industry for example…
Finch, J. (2012). Managerial marketing. San Diego: Bridge point Education, Inc. New York.
Health Care Trends Report: An Environmental Analysis. (2015, August 4). Retrieved from American Medical Association: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/about-ama/our-people/ama-councils/council-long-range-planning-development/environmental-analysis.page
What is Environmental Analysis? (2015, August 12). Retrieved from Pestle Analysis: http://pestleanalysis.com/what-is-environmental-analysis/
There are also other problems with this argument that do not directly stem from the logic of it, but rather from its interpretation of motivation and society. The argument that people should be allowed to be as successful as they can is certainly in keeping with the ideals of democracy, and cannot be argued against from any liberalist point-of-view. But without the many people who are not incredibly successful producing and consuming on a constant basis, no one would be able to achieve incredible success. Without a society in place with certain rules (i.e. laws) concerning conduct, business, worker's rights, etc., the situation would be worse than feudalism, and the American Dream of pulling oneself up by one's bootstraps would be completely obliterated, as there was simply no way to achieve class mobility in an upwards direction. Because the wealth that Americans can and do achieve is a product of…
AIZONA'S COECTIONAL HEALTHCAE SYSTEM
Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System
The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is the agency ultimately responsible for providing healthcare to the state's prison population. Even though the Healthcare Services division within the ADC manages the medical clinics in Arizona's prisons, there are a number of sections and divisions that have important roles to play in ensuring inmates receive the care they are legally entitled to recieve. This essay describes the structural organization that ultimately provides healthcare to inmates and how it operates to ensure statutory compliance.
Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System
Arizona Department of Corrections Organizational Structure
The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is ultimately responsible for providing healthcare for the prison inmate population in the state of Arizona (ADC, 2011). This state agency is responsible for maintaining and administering all ADC institutions and programs, including community supervision for adult inmates released to their communities. The…
America Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Know your rights: Medical, dental, and mental health care. ACLU.org. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/know-your-rights-medical-dental-and-mental-health-care
Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). AZCorrections.gov. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.azcorrections.gov/
Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). Medical Services. AZCorrections.gov. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from
Global Health Care and Culture
Traditional Health Care Concepts
Modern Health Care in China and its Affordability
The public health system in China has been able to make progress in many aspects owing to the economic growth of the country. Problems like child mortality and life expectancy have shown considerable improvements over the last 20 years in conjunction with the rising economy. With significantly more hospital beds in the country compared to about 10 years ago, China has made all efforts to embrace the modern medical system and formulated policies to make modern health care affordable to every Chinese citizen (Mehlhorn, Wu & Ye, n.d.).
However give the above context, it is still a fact that Chinese system of health care is still governed and guided by the cultural values and traditions of ancient Chinese health care. This is in conformation to the ways the Chinese value their centuries old…
Cheung, K., & Chen, H. (2010). Semantic Web for data harmonization in Chinese medicine. Chinese Medicine, 5(1), 2. doi:10.1186/1749-8546-5-2
Mehlhorn, H., Wu, Z., & Ye, B. Treatment of human parasitosis in traditional Chinese medicine.
PARKER, M. (2011). OVERSTATING VALUES: MEDICAL FACTS, DIVERSE VALUES, BIOETHICS AND VALUES-BASED MEDICINE. Bioethics, 27(2), 97-104. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2011.01902.x
Social Values and Ethics for Communicating the Corporate Identity. (2012). Chinese Business Review, 11(07). doi:10.17265/1537-1506/2012.07.006
health care system delivery with other nations (European/Canada) with emphasis on its relative strengths and weaknesses?
Michael Moore's Sicko reveals that nearly 50 million U.S. citizens are not insured, whereas many usually fall prey to insurance firm red tape and frauds. Interviews are carried out with individuals believed to be sufficiently covered; in truth, these individuals do not receive health services at all. Ex-workers of insurance firms explain cost-cutting efforts which provide insurance firm physicians and other individuals with excuses to avoid fulfilling the costs of policy holders' essential medical treatments, thereby increasing the companies' profitability (Heart, 2012).
The documentary-maker then moves over to Canada, where he introduces Tommy Douglas, the man voted in 2004 as the best Canadian citizen for the role he played in improving the nation's healthcare structure. The director interviews a Canadian micro-surgeon and emergency room patients at a public hospital in Canada. His interviews in…
Adams, M. (2007, June 19). Why Michael Moore's Sicko is a health care documentary every American must see. Retrieved from Natural News: http://www.naturalnews.com/021906_SiCKO_Michael_Moore.html
Black, S. (2009). "Sicko" and The Health Care Impact. Retrieved from Timbooktu: http://www.timbooktu.com/spence/healthcr.htm
Gowans, S. (2007, July 12). A Review of Michael Moore's "Sicko." Retrieved from Global Research: http://www.globalresearch.ca/a-review-of-michael-moore-s-sicko/6308
Heart, G. (2012, May 03). Sicko; Movie Compares Health Care Systems In U.S., Canada, United Kingdom, France And Cuba. Retrieved from A Green Road Journal: http://www.agreenroadjournal.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
Health Care System
Health care providers must be properly integrated at every system level and must be allowed to lead the processes of designing, implementing and operating ideal health systems. esearch works identify a number of challenges with regard to healthcare personnel integration. Apparent loss of control, status, returns or practice style modifications may lead to healthcare providers becoming discontented. This discontentment can give way to bitterness and, ultimately, practitioners may end up resisting change (Suter et al., 2009).
Capitalizing on current networks, an intense emphasis on patients and informal inter-provider bonds are anticipated to ease healthcare practitioners' functioning within ideal healthcare systems. Economic integration of healthcare providers, utilization of compensation structures for recruiting and retaining the best candidates, measures for improving workplace climate quality and financial incentives are identified as crucial to system success.
Facilities and Supplies
Amodel healthcare system would include a standard formulated list of…
Nelson, A. (2002). Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Journal of the National Medical Association, 94(8), 666.
Suter, E., Oelke, N. D., Adair, C. E., &Armitage, G. D. (2009).Ten Key Principles for Successful Health Systems Integration. Healthcare Quarterly (Toronto, Ont.), 13(Spec No), 16 -- 23.
The delivery health care system takes into account the assimilation of physicians, healthcare facilities, together with other medical services with plan to facilitate the provision of the total continuum of medical care for its consumers. In a whole incorporated system, the three fundamental components including physicians, medical facilities and the membership to health plans are counterpoised in terms of equating medical resources with the necessities of patients and purchasers (Coddington, Moore, and Fischer., 1994). One of the key concerns in the present delivery of healthcare is cost. Increasing costs of healthcare has been a major worry in the past number of years, making the United States to have one of the most expensive systems of healthcare. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the different costs linked to healthcare delivery system, and delineate the manner in which these costs impact different populations and how it also affects…
cornerstone beliefs of the American healthcare system -- indeed the American system of government in general -- are the values of individual liberty and private enterprise. This is why private, employer-provided insurance has dominated the healthcare market up until this time, despite the fact that the other major industrialized Western democracies consider healthcare a right, not a privilege, and have enacted either substantial government regulations to ensure that all citizens are ensured or created a system of government-provided insurance known as the single payer system. This ideal of 'choice' in the United States has made extremely high-quality healthcare available to a lucky few who can afford such care or who have jobs which offer extensive healthcare benefits. This, until recently, left many Americans uninsured. The profound resistance to the Affordable Healthcare Act amongst a substantial minority indicates the extent to which fears of 'socialism' outweigh the positive concept of providing…
Alguire, P. (2013). Understanding capitation. ACP (American College of Physicians).
Healthcare value index. (2009). Business Roundtable. Retrieved from:
Describe how health care is organized and financed, including the implications of business principles, such as patient and systems cost factor while examining the roles and responsibilities of regulatory agencies and their effect on patient care, workplace safety, and the scope of practice.
egardless of the country or situation, healthcare is generally some sort of blend of public and private sourcing and personnel. Depending on who is asking or answering the question, one or both can be seen as a pariah and one or both can be seen as saint. Publicly funded healthcare is financed by taxpayer dollars in large part (if not entirely) and thus is subject to oversight and regulation on a level that is much higher than in the private sector. Even so, government agencies and groups are often seen as being inept and lumbering and funding cuts and mismanagement are often seen as issues…
Basu, S., Andrews, J., Kishore, S., Panjabi, R., & Stuckler, D. (2012). Comparative Performance of Private
and Public Healthcare Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review. PLOS Medicine, 9(6), e1001244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001244
Hanin from New Haven
This is an individual with earning disability and takes good care of herself. She has dental problem where her teeth are rotting. She is an individual who needs some serious work but she is unfortunate that she has no dental insurance. In effect, she is not able to get dental treatment due to lack of this insurance. She has been keen to find help and the last was a dental clinic that she heard about on TV but on follow-up she was informed that they no longer took new cases. From her appearance, this patient is a young African American woman of the age range of between 20-28 years old.
Hanin’s case is a typical example of where poverty and environment plays a big role in increasing the health care disparity within the US. This is a lady who has no employment, in effect she is…
U.S. Healthcare System v. Canada Healthcare System
The Canada healthcare system is usually considered as a probable model or standard for the United States healthcare system, particularly in relation to healthcare reform initiatives. The Canadian healthcare system largely differs from the United States one since it is a single-payer and largely publicly funded whereas the U.S. healthcare system is multi-payer and largely privately funded. However, Canadians and Americans seem to concur that they would not like each other's healthcare system though most Americans base their claims on ignorance regarding how the Canadian healthcare system works while Canadians don't understand how the U.S. healthcare system works. Despite the differences in the two healthcare systems with regards to objectives, there are similarities in the objectives of these systems. Moreover, the Canadian healthcare system provides important lessons through which the United States healthcare system can be improved or reformed.
U.S. And Canadian Healthcare…
Bernard, E. (n.d.). The Politics of Canada's Health Care System. Retrieved from Harvard
University website: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/healthc.pdf
"Comparing the U.S. And Canadian Health Care Systems." (n.d.). The National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved January 19, 2015, from http://www.nber.org/bah/fall07/w13429.html
Helfgott, S.M. (2012, February). A Comparison of the Canadian and U.S. Healthcare Systems.
More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China's international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic.
On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. "The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV." Yet, outside observers believe that…
China. World Health Organization. http://www.wpro.who.int/chips/chip01/chn.htm . Accessed 16 November 2004 review of evidence: China's path to better health and development. World Health
Organization. http://www.google.com/u/who?q=cache:dMwKxNx4q4YJ:www.who.int/entity/macrohealth/action/en/ShanghaiPaperRevJuly2004.pdf+china's+health+care+system&hl=en&ie=UTF-8. Accessed 16 November 2004
The Specter of SARS: China's failure to contain severe acute respiratory syndrome has economic causes and consequences. World and I. 01 July 2003; Pp.
Rask, Kolleen J. Healthcare Reform in Transitional China: Its Impact on Accounting and Financial Management. Research in Healthcare Financial Management. 01 January 2001; Pp.
USA vs. New Zealand
All civilized and industrialized countries have some form of healthcare system. Even so, countries that meet the standard just mentioned are different in one or more ways. When it comes to healthcare systems, there are factors like public/private blend, whether there is single payer/universal healthcare in play, how much the government has to pay or fund, how much people have to contribute when it comes to the same and so forth. There are also the perceived strengths and shortcomings that are inherent to each system and what those precisely are can differ based on priorities, ideology and worldviews. When the healthcare systems of New Zealand and the United States are similar, there are also some stark differences that can be identified and discussed.
When it comes to New Zealand, the complexity of the system rivals the United States. Even with that, the system is quite…
Healthcare.gov. (2016). Get 2017 health coverage. Health Insurance Marketplace. healthCare.gov. Retrieved 23 November 2016, from https://www.healthcare.gov/
HHS. (2016). HHS.gov. United States Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved 23 November 2016, from http://www.hhs.gov/
New Zealand. (2016). New Zealand's comprehensive health system is built on Kiwis -- ™ inbuilt need to see that everyone gets 'a fair go' in life.. New Zealand Now. Retrieved 23 November 2016, from https://www.newzealandnow.govt.nz/living-in-nz/healthcare
New Zealand. (2016). The structure of the New Zealand healthcare & disability sector.
future reform in the health care system, particularly on health information systems. The future reforms discussed in this article are associated with three major areas i.e. medical health records, health care information access, and organizational workflows. The prediction of the form and function of medical health records in 2030 is based on the fact that the current models of healthcare delivery are changing. While the transformation is mainly driven by information technology, health care organizations are either transforming themselves or being transformed by the marketplace. In light of the technological transformation, it's expected that the quality of patient care will improve in various ways by 2030 because of digital medical records. Therefore, the future of medical health records in 2030 will be characterized by the use of digital or electronic medical records. In light of health information access, the article discusses the likely impediments to this concept in 2030 and…
Blumenthal, D. (2010). Advancing the Future of Health Care with Electronic Health Records.
Retrieved June 10, 2012, from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/blog/advancing-future-health-care-electronic-health-records
The U.S. Healthcare Systems
The U.S. healthcare system is fragmented by the fact that incentives do not align with the actual goal of healthcare (Enthoven, 2009). For instance, healthcare facilities are incentivized to “treat” patients rather than to help them lead healthier lives. As Goldhill (2009) points out, healthcare treatments are subsidized by taxpayer dollars—and there are powerful lobbies in the healthcare field that promote the use of pharmaceuticals or new health technology (like hip replacements, which could end up leaking cobalt into one’s body). Moreover, care providers are encouraged to perform tests on patients even though there is no real need for them and they may in fact lead to overdiagnosis and to a deterioration of the patient’s quality of life, as the patient becomes obsessed with every minor health problem (Lichtenfeld, 2011).
Fragmentation impacts patient care in a negative way because it leads to the patient being…
U.S. Healthcare System: An Analysis
Healthcare System: An Analysis
The United States healthcare system is far more than simply a health insurance system with multiple contributors, neither is the government solely responsible for funding the system -- thus it is a hybrid health insurance system. The funding pattern depicts the system aptly, in the year 2010, 12% of funding came from local and state coffers, 38% from the federal government and 50% from private funds. egardless of the source of funding, most people seek care from private health facilities (Dorning, 2014).
Individuals seek primary care for almost all the health concerns they encounter, for instance, one may look for primary care even for common afflictions such as viral fever, bacterial infection or influenza. Individuals also look for primary care if they think they have broken a bone; have skin rash or a sore muscle. Primary care providers (PCPs)…
Baldwin, D. M. (2003). Disparities in Health and Health Care: Focusing Efforts to Eliminate Unequal Burdens. The Online Journal of Issues in Healthcare, 8(1).
CDC. (2014, March 13). Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/hp2020.htm
Dorning, J. (2014, June). The U.S. Health Care System: An International Perspective. Retrieved from Department for Professional Employees: http://dpeaflcio.org/programs-publications/issue-fact-sheets/the-u-s-health-care-system-an-international-perspective/
Squires, D., & Anderson, C. (2015, October 8). U.S.Health Care from a Global Perspective: Spending, Use of Services, Prices, and Health in 13 Countries. Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2015/oct/us-health-care-from-a-global-perspective