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Pilot Study of Uncontrolled Diabetics
In the treatment of diabetic cases, the HgA1C test is administered to determine the patient's glucose level. The test is used to assess the glucose level in the patient's blood after ingesting glucose or after hours of fasting. The test after ingestion is called the oral glucose tolerance test while the test after fasting is referred to as the fasting glucose test. This measures used in this test has recently been approved as a more accurate test allowing medics to articulate the ideal long-term measures to manage the ailment in patients. This paper reviews studies conducted to assess the impact of diabetes self-management program in a free care clinic on patients HgA1C.
The key to management and reduce fatality cases among type 2 diabetes patients is by providing self-care education and learning the material to the patients. This assertion was made in the study by…
Cadzow, R. B., Vest, B. M., Craig M., Rowe, J. S., & Kahn, L. S. (2014). "Living Well with Diabetes": Evaluation of a Pilot Program to Promote Diabetes Prevention and Self-Management in a Medically Underserved Community. Diabetes Spectrum, 27(4), 246-255.
Gamboa Moreno et al. (2013). Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country. . BMC Public Health, 13(1), 521-528.
Johnson, C., Ruisinger, J. F., Vink, J., & Barnes, B. J. (2014). Impact of a community-based diabetes self-management program on key metabolic parameters. . Pharmacy Practice, 12(4), 499-503.
Khanna et al. (2012). Hemoglobin A1c improvements and better diabetes-specific quality of life among participants completing diabetes self-management programs: A nested cohort study. . Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10, 48-54.
Policy Brief: Parental Influences on Child Obesity and Dental Caries
Parental Influences on Child Obesity and Dental Caries
Obesity represents a major health and economic threat to Australia by degrading the lives of countless citizens and costing the nation about $58.2 billion in 2010 alone (Crowle & Turner, 2010, p. 32-33). This reality has motivated Australian policymakers to increase the amount of dollars allocated to researching this preventable condition by 5.4-fold between 2003 and 2011 (NHMC, 2012). A related preventable disease, dental caries, causes untold suffering and represented 10% of all health care spending in 2004/2005 (ACP Paediatric and Child Health Policy Committee, 2013, p. 8). Both of these health issues have had a major impact on child health, which is the primary focus of this policy brief. Most of the research considered here is concerned with children and early adolescents. This issue is examined through the lens…
AIHW. (2011). Dental decay among Australian children. Research report series no. 53. Cat. No. DEN210. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737419600 .
Crowle, J. & Turner, E. (2010). Childhood Obesity: An Economic Perspective. Melbourne: Media and Publications, Productivity Commission. Retrieved from http://www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/103308/childhood-obesity.pdf .
Hooley, M., Skouteris, H., Boganin, C., Satur, J., & Kilpatrick, N. (2012a). Obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of the literature published 2004-2011. Systematic Reviews, 1:57, doi:10.1186/2046-4053-1-57.
Hooley, M., Skouteris, H., Boganin, C., Satur, J., & Kilpatrick, N. (2012b). Parental influence and the development of dental caries in children aged 0-6 years: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Dentistry, 40, 873-885.
Community-based participatory research (CBP) is a new form of research that strives to create more meaningful and equitable partnerships between researchers and the community. Previously, the relationship was more along the lines of a transactional association. The community members were not involved in planning health interventions or designing research projects. However, some researchers have realized that community members can add a significant level of local expertise in some matters. By allowing these stakeholders to become more engaged in the project, it creates new potentials for insights that were previously unimaginable. This approach has been defined as:
"Community-based participatory research (CBP) is an approach to health and environmental research meant to increase the value of studies for both researchers and the community being studied. This approach is particularly attractive for academics and public health professionals struggling to address the persistent problems of health care disparities in a variety of populations (identified…
Las Neuces, D., Hacker, K., DiGirolamo, A., & Hicks, L. (2012). A Systematic Review of Community-Based Participatory Research to Enhance Clinical Trials in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups. Health Services Research, 1364-1386.
O'Toole, T., Felix, K., Chin, M., Horrowitz, C., & Tyson, F. (2003). Community-based Participatory Research: Opportunities, Challenges, and the Need for a Common Language. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 592-593.
Stone, U., Wallerstein, N., Garcia, A., & Minkier, M. (2014). The Promise of Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. American Journal of Public Health, 1615-1624.
Viswananathan, M., Ammerman, A., Eng, E., Garlenhner, G., Lohr, K., Griffith, D., . . . Whitener, L. (2004). Community-Based Participatory Research: Assessing the Evidence: Summary. AHRQ Evidence Report Summaries.
Health Care Communication
Background- Within the modern nursing paradigm, there must be a clear link between a health outcome and the process that helps ensure those outcomes. Typically, outcomes are classified in terms of preventability, impact, severity and an overall holistic view of the client's safety issues. Positive behaviors that impact individuals either rescue or protect patients from potential or actual events. This is also part of the issue with modern communication and dissemination of information to patients, stakeholders, and the community (Burns and Grove, 2005).
At the heart of healthcare as an institution is, of course, the need to care for the sick and the injured. However, in the contemporary model of healthcare, effective communication during a crisis is not only important, but also vital. Communication by healthcare professionals takes the concern and worry out of the situation; offers a quicker resolution, makes better control of information possible, earns…
Alligood, et.al. (2002). Nursing Theorists and their Work. Philadelphia: Mosby.
Burns, N. And Grove, S. (2004). The Practice of Nursing Research. St. Louis:
D'Antonio, P., et al., eds., (2007). Nurses Work: Issues Across Time and Place. New York:
ichard Mitchell and Professor Daniel Dorling from the University of Leeds and Dr. Mary Shaw from the University of Bristol on the parliamentary constituencies of Britain revealed a number of social policy scenarios. The study traced the impact of the variations to society that might be brought through the effective execution of three social and economic policies. Firstly, they examined the efficacy of the policy of modest redistribution of wealth to counteract the health inequalities. During the decades 1980s and 1990s there were a considerable variation in the wealth possessions of rich and poor reflected in the major variations in their health enumerated by mortality rates. The study revealed that by returning to the inequalities in wealth of 1983 about 7500 deaths annually could have been prevented. (educing health inequalities in Britain)
The study assessed the impact of such policy to be most effective in the Birmingham Ladywood constituency in…
Health inequalities kill thousands" (27 September, 1999) Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/456807.stm . Accessed 3 September, 2005
Introduction to health inequalities" Retrieved at http://www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/HealthInequalities/HealthInequalitiesGeneralInformation/HealthInequalitiesGeneralArticle/fs/en-CONTENT_ID=4079644&chk=8WiiZg. Accessed 3 September, 2005
Link BG; Phelan JC. (May, 2005) "Fundamental Sources of Health Inequalities" Policy
Challenges in Modern Health Care. pp: 71-84. Retrieved at http://www.rwjf.org/research/researchdetail.jsp?id=1944&ia=141 . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Two elements that are extremely useful in the examination of health care. In this regard therefore, quality is also differentiated along SES. Persons who are higher on the socioeconomic ladder experience better "desired health outcomes."
The access to quality health care also has cultural and SES elements to it. Dressler & Bindon (2000) identify cultural consonance as a factor in determining blood pressure in African-American communities. The implications of this work are that cultural elements play a big role in health care quality and access. Whites tend to have greater access to better health care than minority groups. This access is in terms of the proximity of quality physicians, medical services, and facilities.
The ethical implications of the differential access to health care are troubling (Kulczycki, 2007). This is primarily because a health care discussion is a life and death discussion. Quality health care is the right of every citizen,…
Dressler, W.W., Balieiro, M.C., & Dos Santos, J.E.(1988). Culture, Socioeconomic Status, and Physical and Mental Health in Brazil Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 12
Dressler W.W., & Bindon, J.R. (2000).The Health Consequences of Cultural Consonance:
Cultural Dimensions of Lifestyle, Social Support, and Arterial Blood Pressure in an African-American Community American Anthropologist, New Series, 102
Massachusetts Cost Limiting Proposal
One of the major problems of the current healthcare system implemented by the State of Massachusetts is the cost of maintaining the program and providing the necessary healthcare to Massachusetts' citizens dependent on the state insurance program. Ideally, of course, the program would be paid for via the revenues generated form business contributions, premium payments into the state system, and general tax funding. Revenue can only make up half of the solution for paying for the system, however; costs must also be effectively managed and strictly limited if the program is to be successful in the long-term. One proposal for limiting these costs is switching from a reimbursement-for-services model of physician payment to the creation of performance-based salaries or regular payments.
There are several features of moving to a pay-for-performance rather than a pay-for-service model that have the potential to yield significant savings. As…
The result is that a multilayered system which is inherently designed to maintain and improve our public health standards has instead become almost entirely designed by its profitability. The best opportunity we have for reversing this trend is the applying of pressure that only the federal government can bring to bear. Greater regulation of pricing, coverage and standards of care will shift the focus back to quality health outcomes rather than strict improvement of the bottom line at all costs.
- Is there a solution?
How can (or can't) public policy shape health care in the U.S. hat do you predict for the next year?
Public policy absolutely has the capacity to bring improvement to a highly dysfunctional system. The Affordable Care Act and many of its related sub-initiatives such as the Readmissions Reduction Program are indicative of this opportunity. Indeed, the continuing pressure upon hospitals to focus on producing…
Krueger, a. (2013). As ACA Implementation Continues, Consumer Health Care Cost Growth Has Slowed. Whitehouse.gov.
Technology is one of the main drivers of change in healthcare, and it is up to healthcare organizations to join the rest of the world in adopting new technologies to run their industry better. In most industries, something like electronic record keeping has been done for decades and nobody was wringing their hands about it. It is absurd that this is even an issue for healthcare companies. The best thing is to stop talking about this as if it is an "issue" or a "challenge," and just get it done. If you were to design the health care system from scratch, of course everything would be electronic. The development and adoption of these technologies will improve the quality of healthcare immensely, so the only real question is not how will this challenge affect healthcare, but how quickly can healthcare get its act together and join the 21st century.…
Kumbroch, D. (2014). Affordable Care Act creates big demand locally for healthcare workers. WHNT. Retrieved November 17, 2014 from http://whnt.com/2014/09/17/aca-creates-big-demand-for-healthcare-workers/
Wister, A. (2009). The aging of the baby boomer generation: Catastrophe or catalyst for improvement? Health Innovation Forum. Retrieved November 17, 2014 from http://www.healthinnovationforum.org/article/the-aging-of-the-baby-boomer-generation-catastrophe-or-catalyst/
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
Health Care oles in Communication
Communication is a fundamental piece of health care education and has been shown to improve health outcomes, patient compliance, and patient satisfaction. Quality health care emphasizes knowledge and utilization of communication skills. Health care professionals often express anxiety and lack of confidence and are deficient in a creating a situations that are conducive to open and candid communication with patients (Kameg et. al., 2009).
Effective communication involves gathering information, establishing a relationship or connection with a patient, and supporting the person through words and other non-verbal forms of interactions. Effective communication involves not only the interactions between the staff and the patient but also the interactions between staff and the interactions between the staff in front of the patient. Many times the high demand for services in a health care facility cause the staff to overlook the importance of good communication skills and enables situations…
Beer, J.E. (2003). Nonverbal Communication: Communicating across cultures. Cultures at work. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.culture-at-work.com/nonverbal.html
Coiera, E. (2006, May). Communication systems in healthcarre. Clinical Biochemist Reviews. nursing.Vol. 27, Issue 2, 89-98. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/
Gamble, T.K. & Gamble, M. (2006). Communication works. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill.
Health Communication. (2010). Health communication. Healthy people 2010: Objectives for improving reproductive health. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.hhs.gov/opa/pubs/hp2010/hp2010rh_sec2_healthcomm.pdf
Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.
Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…
Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…
1. Eakin, Douglas and Michael Ramlet. (2010) "Health Care Reform is Likely to Widen Budget Deficits -- Not Reduce Them." Health Affairs, 29, no.6:1136-1141. Eakin and Ramlet examine the underpinnings of the Congressional Budget Office's projection that enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will decrease deficits, and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade. This is an excellent article with regards to my article, written by two policy commentators at the forefront of their field. This article shows expertise in medical economics and offers compelling, clear arguments for the increase in the federal deficit due to the massive spending on entitlements as a result of passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. They project deficits, opposing the Congressional Budget Office, through their insightful analysis.
2. Marmor, Theodore, Jonathan Oberlander, and Joseph White. (2009) "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." Ann Intern Med. 150:485-489. Controlling the costs of medical care has long been an elusive goal in U.S. health policy. This article examines the options for health care cost control under the Obama administration. The authors argue that the administration's approach to health reform offers some potential for cost control but also embraces many strategies that are not likely to be successful. Lessons the United States can learn from other countries' experiences in constraining medical care spending are then explored. This article offers evidence for the lack of cost containment in the Obama administrations' plans for health reform. It gives a good analysis of the international scene in health care as well.
3. Collins, Sara, Michelle M. Doty, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Alice Ho. (2004) "The Affordability Crisis in Health Care." Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey. Published in 2004, The Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted from September 2003 -- January 2004, presents new and timely information on where the American public stands on solutions to reform the health care system. The survey finds widespread support for federal efforts to extend health insurance to more people, as well as a widely held belief that the financing of health care should continue to be a shared responsibility among individuals, employers, and the government. The survey also uncovered potential reasons for such strong support for health care reform. Among the insured and the uninsured alike, there is concern that health care security in the United States is eroding. People are experiencing reductions in insurance coverage that are threatening their financial security.
4. Etheridge, Lynn (1984) "An Aging Society and the Federal Deficit." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 521-543. This article serves as early warning sign of the deficit battles to come. It argues that the conflict between the growing needs of an aging society and a federal budget which cannot afford its current commitments has become one of the nation's most difficult government policy dilemmas. Assistance for the elderly through Social Security, Medicare, and other programs-is already the federal government's largest fiscal responsibility. In 1985 these programs will require nearly half of all domestic program spending an estimated $256 billion. The future costs of these commitments will rise rapidly well into the next century, accounting-with national defense and interest costs-for virtually all of the spending increases in the projected $200 to $300 billion deficits. Etheridge asserts that the decisions about the nation's assistance to the elderly -- and about reaffirmation, reform, and/or retrenchment of these commitments-will thus be central to the coming budget debates.
Lastly, the sixth issue is that the hospital has no relationship with an HMO. They have not been able to come to an agreement with Kaiser Permanente. This reduces revenues, reduces traffic flow and creates a problem where Kaiser is building a new hospital in the area that will directly compete with EMC.
3. Perform a financial analysis of EMC. Based on the analysis, where is the company strong and where is it weak?
EMC's financial position is weak. The company is faced with a steep decline in its cash position, which makes it difficult to invest in the future. The company is also relying on its investments for cash flow, and the current investment climate makes this a challenge. EMC has seen a strong increase in net patient revenue in 2002, reversing a flatlining trend. However, operating expenses have been a long-term increasing trend, and ballooned in 2002. Salaries…
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
Health Care Communication
As the nation's health care resources become more and more strained, health care professionals are being asked to do more with less. They are being pressured to find cheaper ways to improve the quality of health care they deliver. Given the current circumstances, this sounds difficult and even unreasonable, but it may not be entirely impossible.
One simple way for medical professionals to improve the quality of health care they provide is by improving their health care communication skills. Health care communication is "The art and technique of informing, influencing, and motivating individual, institutional, and public audiences about important health issues. The scope of health communication includes disease prevention, health promotion, health care policy, and the business of health care as well as enhancement of the quality of life and health of individuals within the community." (U.S.D.S.H.S., 2000, p.11-20).
In health care, as in all aspects of…
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Volume I, Focus Area 11: Health Communication (second edition) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Zachariae, R. et. al. (2003). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. British Journal of Cancer, 88(5), 658-65.
Heisler, M. et. al. (2002). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(4), 243-52.
Safran, D.G. et. al. (1998). Linking primary care performance to outcomes of care. Journal of Family Practice, 47(3), 213-20.
Health Disparities in Louisville KY
Health inequities have become a major problem in the United States. Hofrichter stresses in Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice:
A Handbook for Action ( 2006) that, "The awareness of the existence of inequities in health, health status and health outcomes between racial and ethnic groups in America is as old as the nation itself" (Hofrichter, 2006,P. vii). As will be discussed in this paper, these inequalities have a wide range of repercussions, including social and psychological implications. A definition of health disparity is: "... The difference in the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups" ( Samuels, 2005).
There is also a consensus in the literature that inequalities in health and healthcare throughout the world are on the increase. This is largely due to the increasing gap between rich…
Eliminating social and economic barriers to good health and safety: Louisville
Center for Health Equity. Retrieved from http://www.preventioninstitute.org/component/jlibrary/article/id-278/127.html?tmpl=component&print=1
Galvin, J.R. (2006) Diabetes. Ebony, 61 p. 157.
GradNation - Making the Connection: Health & Student Achievement. Retrieved from http://www.silentepidemic.net/Our-Work/Dropout-Prevention/~/media/Files/Our%20Work/Dropout%20Prevention/Grad%20Nation%20Action%20Forum/Steve%20Tarver%20working%20sess%20PPT.ashx
The government should provide health care, because the economic characteristics of health care make it ripe for abuse in a market environment. Government should provide as a service to its population those goods that, for one reason or another, are open for abuse in a normal market economy. Normally, the main condition is natural monopoly, which makes the case for government involvement in commodities like electricity, water, or policing. Health care is not a natural monopoly in that there can reasonably be a number of different providers, but it has other characteristics that make it a strong candidate for government intervention.
In even the freest capitalist economies, there are public goods that the government provides. The government provision of certain services is accepted by populations because the alternative -- total anarchy -- results is a severely degraded quality of life. No government services at all is a failed…
Besley and Gouveia write about different modes of health care provision. They discuss in particular some of the cost drivers in the American system, and evaluate some other systems in order to come to some conclusions about what other options exist. They note that insurance is a key issue for a private health care system, and because of this most countries opt for public health care systems, typically with mandatory insurance.
Gupta and Davoodi seek to understand how corruption affects the provision of government services, including health care. Unfortunately, their analysis has significant bias, as they begin with the assumption that government-run programs are inherently corrupt.
Transparency International is an organization that measures the level of government corruption in all the countries of the world. This source was required to examine the claims of Gupta and Davoodi. It was found that in the West there is very little government corruption. While the U.S. has more than most Western nations, it remains a spurious claim on the part of Gupta and Davoodi that corruption is inherent in government programs. Further, the line between corruption (accepting payment in return for favors) and capitalism (accepting payment to provide a service) is not explored.
Lloyd and Sreedhar wrote about Hobbes' moral and political philosophy. Hobbes' seminal discussion about the state of nature is relevant because societies have evolved different forms of governance specifically to avoid the state of nature; an argument that government should not be involved in health care must consider the implications of having such a weak government -- these range from the state of nature to poor health outcomes and quality of life measures.
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
The article states, "The enormous human and economic costs associated with occupational stress suggest that initiatives designed to prevent and/or reduce employee stress should be high on the agenda of workplace health promotion (HP) programs" (Noblet, LaMontagne, 2006, p. 346).
Along with the article's assertion that reducing employee stress should be beneficial to both the individual and the company, the article also documents the many problems that can occur due to stress in the workplace. The article espouses, "For employees, chronic exposure to stressful situations such as work overload, poor supervisory support and low input into decision-making have been cross-sectionally and prospectively linked to a range of debilitating health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, emotional exhaustion, immune deficiency disorders and cardiovascular disease" (Noblet, p. 347). Many of these illnesses are debilitating and can be long-term which adds to the company's cost due to employee absence(s) directly affecting the company's bottom line.…
Aldana, S.G., Merrill, R.M., Price, K., Hardy, a. And Hager, R. (2005) Financial impact of a comprehensive multisite workplace health promotion program, Preventive Medicine, 40, 131-137.
Downey, a.M., Sharp, D.J., (2007) Why do managers allocate resources to workplace health promotion programmes in countries with national health coverage?, Health Promotion International, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 102-111
Musich, S.A., Adams, L. And Edington, D.W. (2000) Effectiveness of health promotion programs in moderating medical costs in the U.S.A., Health Promotion International, 15, 5-15
Ozminkowski, R., Ling, D., Goetzel, R., Bruno, J., Rutter, K., Isaac, F. et al. (2002) Long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health & wellness program on health care utilization and expenditures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 44, 21-29.
Healthcare: Discussion Questions
Discussion Questions: Healthcare
The author stated the major steps in the policy analysis process. Which stage do you think is the most important? State reasons using one policy analysis example
Policy analysis simply refers to the process of assessing policies to determine how effective they are, or would be in the resolution of economic and social issues in the population. It is carried out in a series of steps that include problem identification, problem definition, process analysis and qualitative analysis (McLaughlin & McLaughlin, 2014). The authors summarize the policy analysis process as follows -- the analyst ascertains that a problem indeed exists, analyses the policies that have already been formulated to address the same, assesses whether the policies already in existence have been effective in realizing their intended objectives, determines the new technologies or modifications that could be incorporated into these policies to make them more effective,…
Lloyd, R. C. (2004). Quality Healthcare: A Guide to Developing and Using Indicators. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
McLaughlin, C. P. & McLaughlin, C. D. (2014). Health Policy Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Approach (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
I want to die knowing that I did everything I could with my life to feel and be as successful as possible.
During my golden years, I will continue to exercise as much as possible. The type of exercise I do will be varied, as it will be necessary to incorporate some cardiovascular activity using a gym or personal trainer. I will do yoga and meditate also, perhaps even more often than before. Turning inward for introspection will help me to reflect regularly on my life and how I hope to spend my later years. By the time I die, I will feel ready and at peace with myself.
My personal eulogy will be humble and reflect the fact that I did my best. I want to be remembered as someone who was intelligent and balanced in their approach to life. Being healthy is one of the most important things…
The idea of sitting being the new smoking is that evidence is mounting that sitting is unhealthy. In particular, being seated all day at work is an unhealthy practice. Constant sitting has a number of negative health outcomes, including back pain, reduced longevity, obesity and a number of other conditions.
NEAT is "non-exercise activity thermogenesis. This is energy that one needs to perform basic, everyday tasks such as doing dishes, standing in line or grocery shopping. When you are seated, you are not burning NEAT calories as efficiently, because the body has been signalled to basically stop using calories; in other words too much sitting conditions the body to being even more sedentary. NEAT helps to control weight because NEAT activities result in many more calories being burned in a day. Someone whose job entails them to be on their foot and relatively active can burn 1000 calories more…
Health Care and Health for All:
In what the World Health Organization termed as Health for All, the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978 expressed the need for health workers, urgent government action, and the world community to safeguard and support health for all. In order to achieve health for all people across the globe, the Conference made various declarations including health being an essential human right and a significant world-wide social goal. One of the critical aspects towards the achievement of this Health for All initiative is primary healthcare.
Declarations on Primary Health Care:
As an essential health care service, primary health care can be made universally accessible to people and families through the full participation of the community and at a cost that the community can afford ("Declaration of Alma-Ata," n.d.). Primary health care acts as the initial level of contact of people, families, and communities…
Bassett, M.T. (2006, December). 'Health for All In the 21st Century.' American Journal of Public Health, 96(12), 2089. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/565796_2
"Declaration of Alma-Ata." (n.d.). International Conference on Primary Health Care -- World
Health Organization. Retrieved December 30, 2011, from http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf
"Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000." (n.d.). World Health Organization.
The topic on "Social Marketing in Healthcare" advances how social marketing tool predominantly used in marketing consumer items can be effectively applied in the healthcare field. In addition, the development of social marketing research is an effective means by which information can be collected from consumers. This adds weight on this subject. In today's age, all activities are caught up in the information technology web. This is possible through the creation of systems of collecting, analyzing, and sharing information. This opportunity is now available to the healthcare workers because they can conduct consumer research through social marketing avenues. The information collected will then be used to develop efficient healthcare programs for consumers (Aras, 2011).
The key Points
The key points in the article include the need for health workers to use social marketing tools in conducting consumer research prior to developing and implementing healthcare programs. In this case, the article…
Aras R.Y. (2011). Social Marketing in Healthcare. Australasian Medical Journal, vol. 4(8): 418
Leslie, a. (2004). The Rising Cost of Health Care, Strategic and Societal. HR Magazine, vol.
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
Health Care and Nursing
As the medical profession gains a greater understanding of the various approaches to healthcare delivery, the concept of segmenting the services proscribed to a patient into primary, secondary, and tertiary care has emerged as one of the most useful advancements in the field. The preventative measures advocated by proponents of primary health care (PHC) are designed to improve a patient's quality of life in such a way as to reduce or eliminate their prospects of becoming ill or injured. Among the fundamental precepts of PHC are the administration of immunizations to guard against viruses and other contagious infections, the development of a nutritious daily diet to improve the body's natural immune defenses, and advisements to refrain from smoking tobacco or drinking alcohol to excess. As it pertains to the nursing profession, PHC involves "the delivery of comprehensive coordinated, continuous and individualized total patient care through the…
Canadian Nurses Association. (2005). Primary health care: A summary of the issue. CNA Backgrounder, 1-5.
Hodgkinson, K. (1990). What primary nursing means. Australian Nurses Journal, 19(9), 16-19.
Tholl, B., & Grimes, K. Canadian Ministry of Health, Minister of Health of Alberta. (2012). Strengthening primary health care in alberta through family care clinics: From concept to reality. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…
Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8
Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133
Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030
Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
A good example of this can be seen with popular Chinese talk show host Yang Lang donating $72 million, to start his own foundation to: help support and develop the health care system. This is important, because it shows how both international and domestic-based non-profits are addressing these underlying problems facing the health care sector. (Dobryzski, 2010)
Clearly, the biggest challenges facing the health care systems in the United States and China are vastly different. Yet, they are also wrestling with similar problems, as they face the issue of increasing numbers in the elderly population. In the case of the United States, this is challenging because there are a variety of disadvantages that must be addressed to include: they have access to some of the most cutting edge procedures, there is large number of choices about health care providers and the elderly can be able to receive effective treatment for…
Advanced Practice Nurses. (2010). Bukisa. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/352958_advanced-practice-nurses-a-global-role
Health Systems. (n.d.). WHO. Retrieved from: gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/.../Conceptual%20frameworks. Ppt Health Care in China. (2006). IBM. Retrieved from: http://www-05.ibm.com/de/healthcare/downloads/healthcare_china.pdf
More About RN's. (2011). ANA. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/especiallyforyou/studentnurses/rnsapns.aspx
Opportunities in the Health Care Sector. (2006). Grail Research. Retrieved from: http://www.grailresearch.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/Opportunities_in_the_China_Healthcare_Sector.pdf
isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) estimated that close to 1.4 million adults were overweight in 2008 and of these 500 million were obese. For adults over the age of 20 this implies that 35 and 11% of the global adult population were overweight and obese, respectively. The definition of overweight is a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. While obesity does not directly result in the death of anyone, it is the fifth leading mortality risk globally and is responsible for 2.8 million deaths annually. This is due to obesity representing a significant risk factor for serious comorbid conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, nearly…
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census officials, citing increasing diversity, say U.S. will be a 'plurality nation.' New York Times, p. A20.
Gaskin, D.J., Thorpe, R.J. Jr., McGinty, E.E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J.H. et al. (2013). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print 14 Nov. 2013.
Goldschmidt, A.B., Wilfley, D.E., Paluch, R.A., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2013). Indicated prevention of adult obesity: How much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children? Journal of the American Medical Association -- Pediatrics, 167(1), 21-6.
Hearst, M.O., Pasch, K.E., & Laska, M.N. (2012). Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing. Public Health Nutrition, 15(2), 299-306.
A Model Healthcare Delivery System
The healthcare delivery system also referred to in short as the HCDS is the most effective system that works for most healthcare organizations in all countries with fair, effective and efficient distribution of resources. It is a fast growing service that demands attention from various quarters and domains. At the optimal level, the service program presents relief and hope to the individual, and the general population. The system offers a balanced quality care service through efficiency and fairness. HCDS varies across the world but its focus is constantly on enhancing healthcare access, quality of service and coverage. The success of the program is dependent on the availability of certain basic resources (Kumar & Bano, 2017, p. 1).
HCDS is how the society has responded to the health determinants. The idea of a healthcare system contemplates involving the people that are likely to be served…
home health care services in extending care delivery to the home setting is increasing in contemporary times. Home health care aims to shorten hospitalization and reduce the frequency of visits to the hospital for patients recuperating from a surgical operation or disease, or living with a chronic illness such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes (Centres for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS], n.d.). It enables patients to have more independent living and a better quality of life. The author's organisation specialises in home health care. In conjunction with hospitals and physicians, the organisation delivers a wide range of individualised care services to patients at their own homes. Whereas the organisation has performed impressively in terms of patient satisfaction, there is still room for improvement. In cognizance of increased demand for home health care due to the underlying greater demand for healthcare in general, it is imperative for the organisation to…
Centres for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) (n.d.). What is home health care? Retrieved from: https://www.medicare.gov/what-medicare-covers/home-health- care/home-health-care-what-is-it-what-to-expect.html
Ellenbecker, C., Samia, L., Cushman, M., & Alster, K. (2008). Chapter 13: Patient safety and quality in home health care. In R. Hughes (ed.), Patient safety and quality: an evidence-based handbook for nurses. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
health care to the elderly.
In the next several years, many commentators argue that population aging will considerably affect the federal budget. When one turns sixty-five, his or her cost of care doesn't abruptly increase. However, the cost of healthcare to the federal government will go up since at that age Medicare usually becomes the main or primary insurer. According to studies by the CBO (Congressional Budget Office), over the next two decades, population aging will account for over fifty percent spending growth on various government healthcare programs (What Is Driving U.S. Health Care Spending? America's Unsustainable Health Care Cost Growth). As the baby boomers age, the population will lead to a higher percentage of seniors, which will in turn lead to an overall increase in per capita spending. Studies indicate that over the next decade or so, the aging American population will contribute to the increase in healthcare spending…
Barr. (n.d.). Hospitals & Health Networks - Hospital and Health Care Executives. Baby boomers will transform health care as they age - H&HN. Retrieved 2014, from http://www.hhnmag.com/articles/5298-Boomers-Will-Transform-Health-Care-as-They-Age
(2012). Bipartisan Policy Center. What Is Driving U.S. Health Care Spending? America's Unsustainable Health Care Cost Growth. Retrieved December 2, 2016, from http://bipartisanpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/default/files/BPC%20Health%20Care%20Cost%20Drivers%20Brief%20Sept%202012.pdf
Rice, & Gabel. (1986). Protecting the elderly against high health care costs. Health Affairs,5(3). Retrieved, from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/5/3/5.full.pdf
(n.d.). The White House - whitehouse.gov. REDUCING COSTS AND IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF HEALTH CARE. Retrieved December 2, 2016, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/erp2013/ERP2013_Chapter_5.pdf
HP2020 ('Healthy People 2020') initiative is reducing health gaps in America. Much controversy exists with regard to what the term 'health disparities' actually refers to. Disparities are largely witnessed on the basis of socioeconomic status (SES), and racial/ethnic identity. A number of health indicator-related differences exist among different racial and ethnic groups in America. This paper will endeavor to explain what health disparities implies, the health indicator-related differences among different racial/ethnic populations, causes for such differences, and potential ways to bring about health improvements for underserved populations.
"Health Disparities" Defined
There is considerable debate regarding the precise meaning of "health disparities." One key facet of a majority of accepted meanings is that every health status difference between different population groups is not a disparity; disparities are only differences that systematically and adversely affect socially and economically less-advantaged people. On the American scene, disparities-related discourse has chiefly concentrated on ethnic/racial disparities.…
Migrant Health Problem
Presently, access to social and health services for most migrants is determined by their legal status. Undocumented migrants have least possible access to health services. Legal status is one of the preconditions for ability involved in receiving adequate care. Further, the availability, acceptability, quality and accessibility of such services is dependent on different influences such as cultural, social, linguistic, structural, gender, geographical and financial factors. From this, different knowledge and beliefs about ill health and healthy status deter migrants from engaging national health services.
Health literacy within such awareness senses entitlements individuals to availability and care services that pose barriers to using similar services (Becker, 2003). The situation also shows dependence on various migrants irrespective of the existing legal or socio-economic statuses. The nature of mobility makes it difficult to establish the available providers of health care service. Temporary and seasonal workers prefer delaying care until there…
Becker, G. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and Dissatisfaction with Health Care among Chronically Ill African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 93(5), 742.
Carrasquillo, O., Carrasquillo, A. & Shea, S. (2000). Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants Living in the United States: Differences by Citizenship Status and Country of Origin. American Journal of Public Health 90 (6): 917 -- 923.
Huang, J., Yu, S. & Ledsky, R. (2006). Health Status and Health Service Access and Use among Children in U.S. Immigrant Families. American Journal of Public Health 96 (4): 634 -- 640.
Okie, S. (2007). Immigrants and Health Care -- At the Intersection of Two broken Systems. The New England Journal of Medicine: 525 -- 529.
Community Teaching Plan
Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics which was chosen within your CLC group:
Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Planning Before Teaching:
Estimated Time Teaching Will Last:
Three 2-hour sessions
Location of Teaching:
Athens Community Health Department
Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed:
Laptop; digital projector; screen
Community and Target Aggregate:
Athens Community Health Department, Athens, Georgia
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Session I: Sources of Vulnerability
Session II:Implications for Healthcare Providers
Session III: Innovative Practice; Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment
Epidemiological ationale for Topic (statistics related to topic):
The literature on vulnerable people clearly indicates that the special needs of these populations and the ubiquitous barriers to quality care access lead to traceable disparities in the provision of healthcare and in their health outcomes…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). National healthcare disparities report 2008. Chapter 3, Access to healthcare. Washington: AHRQ; 2008. Retrieved http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr08/Chap3.htm
Edelman, C.L. And Mandle, C.L. (2006). In D. Como, L. Thomas (Eds.), Health Promotion Throughout the Lifespan. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
A largely insular community since their initial settlement in the United States, the Amish community presents unique challenges for healthcare workers. The Amish eschew modern technology, including many of the tools and techniques used in modern medicine. In fact, the Amish community also forbids higher education (Adams & Leverland, 1986). Misconceptions and misunderstandings about the Amish further complicate healthcare decisions and relationships between healthcare providers and Amish patients. For example, it is commonly assumed that the Amish “lack the preventive practices of immunizations and prenatal care,” (Adams & Leverland, 1986, p. 58). While the rates of immunizations are relatively low among the Amish, the Amish church does not forbid immunization (Adams & Leverland, 1986). The Amish also have a keen interest in disease prevention, health education, and lifestyle choices that prevent health problems (Talpos, 2016). Although Amish attitudes towards health, wellness, and the healthcare system may be at odds with…
In today's day and age with the massive amount of resources to humanity, it is a wonder as to why infant mortality is still a problem. The impact of the healthcare system has made improvements in this area, but there are still issues that lack clarity. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the need for free basic health insurance for new born babies to prevent illness and suffering. This essay will first summarize the problem before offering solutions on how best to address the problem.
The Centers for Disease Conrol (CDC) defined infant mortality as "the death of an infant before his or her first birthday." In this first year of life, the child is especially vulnerable to the threats of his or her environment and the risk of an infant dying is especially strong. Through medical and social evolution, infant mortality has generally gone down…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Public Health Approaches to Reducing U.S. Infant Mortality. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6231a3.htm
Chapman, S. (2009). Health Care and Infant Mortality: The Real Story. Creators.com 2009.
Dizikes, P. (2014). How a health care plan quickly lowered infant mortality. MIT News, 30 April 2014. Retrieved from http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/how-health-care-plan-quickly-lowered-infant-mortality-0430
Morman, E. (2011). Infant Mortality in Detroit: Finding Solutions. Metro Parent, Oct 2011. Retrieved from http://www.metroparent.com/Metro-Parent/October-2011/Infant-Mortality-in-Detroit-Finding-Solutions/
This work will first provide a synopsis of a more detailed review of literature developing the case of transformational leadership model in healthcare, exploring some of the claims of the model as it is observed in practice. (Edmonstone & Western, 2002) the work will then provide a qualitative review of 50 healthcare professionals, from leadership to trade. Ultimately the work will attempt to focus on a single hospital organization setting and review all departments, through a questionnaire regarding the leadership model (based on characteristics of the TrLM) and attempt to determine first if the literature is accurate in its assessment of TrLM being the most common and i.e. popular model in health care and then determine if this leadership model is reflective of better health outcomes for the community served than were provided prior to implementation of the TrLM. Lastly I will determine if some of the…
Aarons, G.A. (2006). Transformational and Transactional Leadership: Association With Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice. Psychiatric Services, 57, 1162-1169.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectation. New York, NY: Free Press.
Bowles, a., & Bowles, N. (2000). A comparative study of transformational leadership in nursing development units and conventional clinical settings. Journal of Nursing Management, 8 (2), 69-76.
Dunham-Taylor, J. (2000). Nurse Executive Transformational Leadership Found in Participative Organizations. Journal of Nursing Administration, 30 (5), 241-250.
Nursing Practice Expected to Grow and Change
Ageing of population and healthcare providers, coupled with reforms to healthcare, will raise demands for professionals in the field, also expanding existing professionals' required skill sets and roles. Physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, nurses, and medical assistants are included in this growth area. Fortunately, healthcare is characterized by a swiftly expanding and large workforce (with 23000 new entrants every month, nationally); this sector progressed even in recent economic recessions (Survey, 2013). Registered Nursing (RN) is one of the leading U.S. occupations which is projected to grow 26% and add the highest number of jobs by 2020 (an estimated 1.2 million RNs overall), as per U.S. ureau of Labor Statistics (Survey, 2013). This stems from a projected rise in demand, as well as a need for replacing the current ageing RNs. Nursing careers are being pursued in America increasingly; the number of students enrolled…
Buerhaus, P., DesRoches, C., Applebaum, S., Hess, R., Norman, L., & Donelan, K. (2012). Are Nurses Ready for Health Care Reform? A Decade of Survey Research. Nursing Economics, 329.
Dunbar-Jacob, J. (2011). The Changing Role of Nursing in Health Care Reform. Pittsburgh: Pitt Nurse. Institute for Nursing Centers Survey (2008). Retrieved from http://nursingcenters.org/PDFs/INC%20Highlight%20Report%2010_6_08.pdf.
NURSE-MANAGED HEALTH CENTERS. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.nncc.us/pdf/NMHC_Quality_Standards.pdf
Pohl, J.M., Tanner, C., Barkauskas, V.H., Gans, D., Nagelkerk, J., & Fiandt, K. (2010). Nurse-managed health centers' national survey: Three years of data. Nursing Outlook, 58(2), 97-103
1. Nursing Theorist Overview
Theory guides nursing practice and provides a framework for nurse leadership and healthcare management (McKenna, Pajnikar & Murphy, 2014). All prominent nursing theorists like the individuals covered in the multimedia presentation have influenced nursing practice in some way or another, and all do resonate with me on a personal and professional level. I will incorporate elements of all theorists into my practice in terms of interpersonal communications and attitudes towards health and healing. Of the theorists covered in the presentation, those of Florence Nightingale resonate the most because of her inclusion of environmental factors implicated in patient care. Environmental factors like lighting or ventilation can have a profound impact on perceptions of quality of care, too, which has a strong bearing on the efficacy of the healthcare institution (Sabza & Pirani, 2016). The environmental factors that Nightingale identified as being important to patient care also have…
The Greatest Challenge to US Healthcare
The role is played by the government
The role played by the government in healthcare is a divisive issue. Many healthcare organizations executives do support the idea of extending healthcare coverage to the uninsured, however, who this is implemented is the cause of concern. There are numerous changes that are taking place in the healthcare industry and the government needs to catch up quickly. Policy development is the role of government and there is a need to ensure that there are timely and applicable policies in place to govern the provision of healthcare services to the masses. As it stands, healthcare is moving from fee-for-service to value outcomes and there should be policies in place to support this advanced move. Providers have been moving towards value-driven care and the government policies should be able to mirror this movement. While not all providers will be…
MMC Case Study
Major Problems and Secondary Issues
Organizational Strengths and Weaknesses
Alternatives and ecommended Solution
In the early 1990's a new Medicaid managed care company, MMCC, set up shop in the neighborhood right across the street from a major medical center in downtown Baltimore that served many poor patients. The company seems to have embarked on a strategy to maximize its revenues without providing a value to their patients. They are compensated when they enroll new patients and thus they have an incentive to grow their client base. However, they are expected to provide services to the patients under their care. MMCC has taken steps to create bottlenecks for the patients to receive healthcare services so that they can maximize short-term profits.
Major Problems and Secondary Issues
All companies must have a strategy that creates a return on investment for their stakeholders. Some companies focus on maximizing profits…
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decasdes in research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Kilburg, R., & Donohue, M. (2011). Toward a "Grand Unifying Theory" of Leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal, 63(1), 6-25.
Risk Management Plan
The nursing shortage is a well-known problem in many segments in the health care industry. It can often difficult to find a sufficient supply of well-trained nurses sufficient to meet staffing requirements. Nurses are a vital part of the health care system, and a shortage of trained nurses can leave the hospital vulnerable, and due to the shortage of staff there is often a heavier workload expected from the existing employees. One of the major concerns about the shortage of nurses and the consequent workload on the serving nurses and staff is that it can ultimately effect the maintenance of safety practices in the organization. This in turn, can leave the organization perpetually in a state of risk. Overworked nurses, or nurses who have to attend to an increased number of patients, often have to make sacrifices and cannot give adequate attention to each patient as is…
Jones, T. (2015). A Descriptive Analysis of Implicit Rationing of Nursing Care: Frequency and Patterns in Texas. Nursing Economics, 144-154.
Papastavrou, E. (2013). The ethical complexities of nursing care rationing. Health Science Journal, 346-348.
Schmidt, S. (2007). The Relationship Between Satisfaction with Workplace Training and Overall Job Satisfaction. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 481-498.
Health Disparities of Uninsured
Statistics show that approximately 47 million of America's population lacks medical coverage, and another 38 million has inadequate health insurance. What these statistics imply is that one-third of Americans are insecure and unsure about whether they would afford healthcare if they fell sick or needed medical help today. The State of Texas tops the list, with an uninsured population of approximately 8 million, representing 25.1% of the total (Code ed, 2006). Minority groups form a bulk of the uninsured population (Wu & ingwalt, 2005). The impact of a large uninsured population, however, is massive -- the uninsured affect both themselves and the communities in which they live, compromising the quality of care and placing everyone at risk. They do not often have a primary care physician, which means that they neither seek out medical care when they are supposed to, nor turn up for preventive care…
Abdullah, F., Zhang, Y., Lardaro, T., Black, M., Colombani, P.M., Chrouser, K., Pronovost, P.J. & Chang, D.C. (2009). Analysis of 23 Million U.S. Hospitalizations: Uninsured Children have Higher All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality. Journal of Public Health, 32(2), 236-244.
ACEP. (2013). The Uninsured: Access to Medical Care. American College of Emergency Physicians. Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.acep.org/News-Media-top-banner/The-Uninsured -- Access-To-Medical-Care/
ANA. (2008). ANA's Health System Reform Agenda. American Nurses Association (ANA). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/content/healthcareandpolicyissues/agenda/anashealthsystemreformagenda.pdf
Bernstein, J., Chollet, D. & Peterson, S. (2010). How does Insurance Coverage Improve Health Outcomes? Mathematica Policy Research Inc. (No. 1). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/health/reformhealthcare_IB1.pdf
Healthcare in the United States and India
The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…
Arora, N., Banerjee, A.K., (2010) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Prospects in Healthcare in India. Electronic Journal of Biology, 6(2), 24-25
Berman, P., Ahuja, R., Bhandari, L. (2010) The Impoverishing Effect of Healthcare Payments in India: New Methodology and Findings. Economic & Political Weekly, 45(16), 65-71.
Ma, S., & Neeraj, S. (2008) A Comparison of the Health Systems of China and India. RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2008/RAND_OP212.pdf
Manchikanti, L., Caraway, D.L., Parr, A.T., Fellows, B., Hirsch, J.A. (2011) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade. Pain Physician, 14(1), 35-67.
Using Business Analytics Responsibly
As members of the buying public, we understand to an extent that information about us is being bought and sold all the time. Marketers use demographic data to better target their respective messages to potential consumers. Healthcare firms use public health information in order to establish contact with to those who require information or medical outreach. And with every product we buy, we offer a greater wealth of data concerning our lifestyle habits and behavioral tendencies. Often, we do this with the expectation that our information will be handled with sensitivity and responsibility by the collecting firm or organization. This expectation is at the center of the case study outlined by Davenport & Harris. The authors describe a case in which health insurer IFA and supermarket chain Shop Sense must weigh the pros and cons of entering into a data-exchange agreement together. As the…
Davenport, T.H. & Harris, J.G. (2007). The Dark Side of Customer Analytics. Harvard Business Review.
A public health issue of importance in edwood City, California is obesity. As of 2010, 37.4% of edwood City residents were classified as being overweight or obese (Babey, et al., 2012). Because obesity is associated with a number of illnesses that can be prevented simply by reducing the obesity rate, it is important from a social ethical, and financial reason to help improve health outcomes for edwood City. With about 75,000 people, edwood City already has a wealth of resources and organizations in place that can work together to prevent obesity, help residents lose weight, and improve overall health outcomes for the community. The local and state health departments can also play a role.
The first tier of organizations that should be involved in a coalition includes all hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare organizations including private practices. Health care organizations can participate on every level of a public…
"About the City." Redwood City, California. Retrieved online: https://www.redwoodcity.org/about/
Babey, S.H., et al. (2012). Overweight and obesity among children by California cities -- 2010. Retrieved online: http://cbsla.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/patchworkcities6-4-12.pdf
Health Model and Healing Model
The healing model and health model have influenced the human belief for several decades, and the health model defines health as robust physical human fitness that is free of disease. On the other hand, healing is a functional restoration of repairing or conquering alien destroyer. In other word, health is the balance of spirit, mind and body. Since disease serves as an agent that disrupts the balance, healing serves as restoration of human balance. (Carpenter, 2010).
In essence, healing and spirituality are intimately connected. Healing is the spiritual process that influences the wholesome of an individual. In other word, healing is an intangible, experiential and spiritual that integrates human body, mind, soul and spirit. More importantly, healing is concerned with the wholesome of human being. For several thousand years, many people with different cultures have used the healing model for the well being of their…
Liu, C. Li, D. Fu, B. et al. (2014). Modeling of self-healing against cascading overload failures in complex networks. EPL (Europhysics Letters). 107(6).
Meilin, S. (2013). Characterization of a porcine model of post-operative pain European Journal of Pain.
Tiaki, K.C. (2013). Helping transform health service models. Nursing New Zealand. 19 (7): 27.
Health Information System
Promoting Action Design esearch to create value in healthcare through IT
ecently there has been varying proof showing that health IT reduces costs while improving the standard of care offered. The same factors that had caused delays in reaping benefits from IT investment made in other sectors (i.e. time consuming procedural change) are also very common within the healthcare sector. Due to the current transitive nature of the Healthcare sector, new IT investment is likely not going to provide maximum value unless this new investment is backed up with a total reform of healthcare delivery. The overall ability of healthcare IT value researchers to add value to practice will be severely limited as a result of the traditional ex-post approach to measuring IT and the fact that government spurs significant investment. It may be risky to generalize or compare results from traditional IT value research with those…
Fichman, R., Kohli, R., & Krishnan, R. (2011). The role of information systems in healthcare: Current research and future trends. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 419-428.
Goh, J.M., Gao, G., & Agarwal, R. (n.d.). Evolving work routines: Adaptive routinization of information technology in healthcare. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 565-585.
Hoffnagel, E., Woods, D., & Leveson, N. (2006). Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts. Abingdon: GBR: Ashgate Publishing.
Jones, S., Heaton, P., Riudin, R., & Schneider, E. (2012). Unraveling the IT productivity paradox lessons for health care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 366(24), 2243-2245.
The Concept HEALTH Summarizing knowledge concept health identifying gaps knowledge. Based readings, literature find helpful, prepare a paper describes evaluates current level knowledge, approaches concept health significant discipline nursing
The Concept of Health
Many efforts have been put across towards achieving a common understanding on the concept of health (oden & Jarvis, 2012). Despite these efforts, more profound controversies loom over achieving a desirable universal understanding on the concept of health (Nordenfelt, 1984). In the field of medicine, society's ethical concern and the public policy matters, the concept of health in indispensable (Jeffrey & Jennifer, 2000).
In the contemporary philosophical world, the concept of health focuses on the challenges of establishing the nature of an individual's condition from a scientific perspective (Irvine, 2007). The perspective omits the much desirable assessment of the basic state of affairs being desirable or undesirable. Other philosophical assessments dig dipper to describe not…
Irvine, F. (2007). Examining the correspondence of theoretical and real interpretations of health promotion. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 16(3), 593-602.
Jeffrey, D.M., & Jennifer, M.M. (2000). "Is Inequality Bad for Our Health?." Critical Review, 13(4), 359-372.
Nordenfelt, L. (1984). "Introduction," in Lennart Nordenfelt and B. Ingemar B. Lindahl (eds), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine (Dordrecht, 1984), p. xii.
Roden, J., & Jarvis, L. (2012). Evaluation of the health promotion activities of paediatric nurses: Is the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion a useful framework?. Contemporary Nurse:. A Journal For The Australian Nursing Profession, 41(2), 271-284.
Health Share of Oregon
A Community Oriented Approach to Accountable Care for Medicaid Beneficiaries
What is an accountable care organization (ACOs)?
The accountable care organizational model resulted in an effort that tried to focus on improving the quality of care available to patients while also focusing on cost restraints in the Medicaid system. An ACO is an organization that is accountable to Medicaid and the guidelines they have set which are relatively strict.
What makes Oregon unique in its approach to Coordinated Care Organization?
The policy makers in Oregon based the design of this program on the idea that consumers can play a critical role in improving their own health outcomes. The Oregon approach places consumers directly in an advisory role position with consumers serving as member of a community advisory council. This integrative perspective on healthcare design and community assessment has shown promise.
Why are states experimenting with different…
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov /pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
Healthcare Administration: Culture, Accounting, And Ethical Issues
The causes of prejudice
Prejudice is described as the generalization of a group of people, based on negative attitudes that stem from stereotypes and non-factual beliefs. Although the reasons for prejudice may vary, Samovar, Porter and McDaniel (2009) explain three major motivations: societal pressures, social identities and scapegoating. Societal sources refer to rules and regulations that may be put in place in a given society to maintain one group's dominance over others. Social identities, on the other hand, are people's connection to their cultures and beliefs. Any groups that are deemed a threat to this connection are treated as enemies and are often at the receiving end of prejudice. Sometimes, different groups, such as gays and African-Americans are used as scapegoats to express anger and discontentment over various issues in society (Samovar, Porter and McDaniel, 2009). This allows one group to…
Kazmier, J.L. (2008). Introduction to Healthcare Law. Clifton Park, New York: Cengage Learning
Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E. & McDaniel, E.R. (2009). Communication between Cultures (7th Ed.). South-Western: Cengage Learning
Warren, C.S., Reeve, J.M. & Duchac, J.E. (2013). Financial Accounting (13th Ed.) South- Western: Cengage Learning
Among the most important aspects to the health promotion plan will be the benefits associated with a care manager, who can ensure that all six core elements of CCM are implemented fully. If this is accomplished, there should be a significant reduction in health disparities for patient and caregiver outcomes across generations.
AHQ. (2012). National Healthcare Disparities eport, 2011. No. 12-0006. ockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality. etrieved 16 Apr. 2014 from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/nhdr11.pdf.
Braveman, P.A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., Laveist, T., Borrell, L.N., Manderscheid, . et al. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(Suppl. 1), S149-55.
Brodaty, H. & Donkin, M. (2009). Family caregivers of people with dementia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11, 217-28.
Castro, A. & uiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse…
AHRQ. (2012). National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011. No. 12-0006. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved 16 Apr. 2014 from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/nhdr11.pdf .
Braveman, P.A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., Laveist, T., Borrell, L.N., Manderscheid, R. et al. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(Suppl. 1), S149-55.
Brodaty, H. & Donkin, M. (2009). Family caregivers of people with dementia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11, 217-28.
Castro, A. & Ruiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21(5), 278-86.
Health Promotion Plan
Health Promotion in Hospice
The use of Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory as the framework for the health promotion plan, for improving depressive symptoms among hospice patients (Nursing Theories, 2012), is appropriate and consistent with a patient-centered care model. This model provides enough room for a gradient of patient self-care efficacy, from fully autonomous to unconscious, which is appropriate for the hospice setting. The author of Health Promotion in Hospice emphasized the need to increase the care efficacy of both hospice patients and their caregivers and mentioned how the role of a hospice nurse must remain fluid to constantly changing care needs of hospice patients. Under Orem's model there is thus a gradient of self-care need and autonomy that is negatively correlated and where deficits emerge the nurse must step in to meet these care needs.
I would also emphasize the concept of 'nursing client' discussed in Orem's…
Hirdes, J.P., Freeman, S., Smith, T.F., & Stolee, P. (2012). Predictors of caregiver distress among palliative home care clients in Ontario: Evidence based on the interRAI Palliative Care. Palliative & Supportive Care, 10(3), 155-63.
Murray, R.B., Zentner, J.P., & Yakimo, R. (2008). Health Promotion Strategies Through the Life Span. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Ng, C.G., Boks, M.P., Roes, K.C., Zainal, N.Z., Sulaiman, A.H., Tan, S.B. et al. (2014). Rapid response to methyphenidate as an add-on therapy to mirtazapine in the treatment of major depressive disorder in terminally ill cancer patients: A four-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, published online ahead of print 20 Jan. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.01.016.
Nursing Theories. (2012). Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory. Accessed 2 Mar. 2014 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html .
We can compare the healthcare workplace to what is seen by a person when he/she looks through a kaleidoscope: since there are numerous different patterns that appear as the moments pass by. The shortage of nurses which has been publicized widely and the high turnover rates amongst the nurses are some of the unwanted patterns which have occurred. The dependence of healthcare institutions on the nurse-managers for the retention and recruitment of nurses is steadily increasing (Contino, 2004).
There are a number of routes through which the critical care nurses have become the leaders. Most of these routes don't have any educational or managerial training as a part of the process. There is a need for effective strategies for the care leaders who provide critical care in order to inspire the staff and manage the departmental operations in an effective manner to get positive results. One of the strategies…
Adams, J., Erickson, J., Jones, D., & Paulo, L. (2009). An evidence-based structure for transformative nurse executive practice, Nursing Administration Quarterly, 33(4), 280-87
Advisory Board Web site. (2004). Available at: http://www.advisory.com .
Ales, B.J. (1995). Mastering the art of delegation. Nurs Manage. August; 26: 32A, 32E.
American Organization of Nurse Executives (2005). AONE Nurse Executive Competencies. Nurse Leader, 3(1), 15-22.
Healthcare Contact Workers
Controversy of Healthcare Contract Workers
enefits of Hiring Contract Workers for Healthcare
Drawbacks of Hiring Contract Workers
Lack of Loyalty and Motivation
Healthcare Contract Workers
Controversy Surrounding Healthcare Contract Workers
This paper is designed to analyze the role of healthcare contract workers. This paper discusses the reasons of being hired by different companies. The advantages that a company has by appointing temporary employees are also highlighted. As every aspect has two sides, therefore disadvantages are also discussed. There are many controversies that temporary employees have to face while working in any company. Companies believe that there resources might be wasted if they invested more in temporary employees hence they have to survive on their own. They face reliability issues and permanent employees do not trust them a lot. This paper gives an overall analysis on the difficulties…
Dawe, T. (n.d.). What are the Disadvantages of Hiring Temporary Workers?
Erickson, T. (2012, September 7). Harvard Business Review. The Rise of the New Contract Worker.
Hutton, S. (2011, July 25). Advantages of Hiring Contract Employees. Solutions to controlling Employee Costs in Unpredictable Economic Times.
Schaefer, P. (2005). Business Know- how. The Pros and Cons of Hiring Temporary Employees.
Healthcare Plan for the Management of Genitourinary Disorders
Objective of this paper is to carry out a care plan for the patient, aged 60 years, who is suffering from genitourinary disorder. The study carries out the case evaluation and identifies the symptoms of the patient complication. The study also provides a comprehensive healthcare plan used for the treatment of the patients.
Case Study Evaluation
HPI (History of Present Illness).
Evaluation of the case study reveals that the patient is a Hispanic male, aged 60 years of age and complains of a decline of urinary flow. While the patient has experienced the symptom for more than two years, however, the symptom has increased significantly for the past two weeks. Although, the patient has not been diagnosed in the past, however, he faces difficulties in achieving a free flow of urine that interferes in his daily activities. The gradual worsening of the…
Benedetti, F. (2008). Placebo Effects: Understanding the Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Oxford Scholarship Online.
Bluie, T. Campbell, D.B. Fuchs, G.J. et al. (2010). Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals With ASDs: A Consensus Report. Pediatrics. 125( 1): S1-S18;
Finnegan-John, J. & Thomas, V.J. (2013). The Psychosocial Experience of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease and Its Impact on Quality of Life: Findings from a Needs Assessment to Shape a Service. Journal of Renal Care. 40(1): 74-81.
Jaarsma. T. (2005). Inter-professional team approach to Patients with Heart Failure. Heart. 91(6): 832-838.
Health Policy Analysis for Maryland AC (Affordable Care) Act
McLaughlin, & McLaughlin (2014) rank 11 areas of health innovation based on their impact on costs and quality of healthcare delivery. The process improvement is the highest ranking item. However, the authors identify data analytics, disease management, "non-physician delivery alternatives," and "alternative to fee-for service" (McLaughlin, & McLaughlin, 2014 p 335) as other innovation items that can enhance quality and reduce costs. Additionally, the authors point out that innovation in electronic medical records, diagnosis, and pharmaceuticals can also assist with quality and cost.
Objective of this health policy paper is to evaluate the items that can play important role in the health policy process of Maryland's ACA (Affordable Care Act).
Healthcare items for Health Policy Process for in Maryland Affordable Care Act
The ACA (Affordable Care Act) is a federal government legislation focusing on healthcare coverage for small groups and individuals.…
Abrams, M. Nuzum, R. Mika, S. et al. (2011). Realizing Health Reform's Potential How the Affordable Care Act Will Strengthen Primary Care and Benefit Patients, Providers, and Payers. The Commonwealth Fund.
Chin, W.W. Hamermesh, R.G. Huckman, R.S. et al.(2012). 5 Imperatives Addressing Innovative Challenge. Harvard Business School.
McLaughlin, C.P. & McLaughlin, C.D. (2014). Health Policy Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Approach.(2nd Edition). Burlington, Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Resnik, D.B. (2007). Responsibility for Health: Personal, Social, and Environmental. J Med Ethics. 33(8): 444-445.