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" (Jacobs and Skocpol, 2007)
rown and Sparer (2003) state that Medicare is "...administered by the federal government. Not only eligibility criteria and financing policy but also the benefit package, policies governing payments to providers, and decisions about the delivery system (for instance, fee-for-service vs. managed care) are determined in Washington, D.C., with no direct participation by the states. (the program delegates important decisions about coverage and payments to third-party insurers -- fiscal intermediaries and carriers -- and thus these national determinations do not preclude considerable regional variations that reflect local differences in wage costs and other factors)." (2003) Medicaid is state-managed "...although a framework of federal rules constrains state program administrators, they retain wide, and widening, discretion on all of the basic issues: eligibility, benefits, payments, and organization of care." (rown and Sparer, 2003)
V. Eligibility, Physician ehavior and Low-Income Population Access to Care
The work of aker and…
Miller, Edward Alan (2007) Federal Administrative and Judicial Oversight of Medicaid: Policy Legacies and Tandem Institutions Under the Boren Amendment. 15 Nov 2007. The Journal of Federalism advance Access. Online available at: http://publius.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/pjm035v1
Medicaid Policy Statement Committee on Child Health Financing 1 July 2005. Pedatrics Vol. 116, No. 1 http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;116/1/274
Lundy, Kay Saucier, Lundy, Karen Saucier, and Janes, Sharyn (2009) Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public's Health. Jones & Bartlett 2009.
Jacobs, Laurence R. And Skocpol, Theda (2007) Inequality and American Democracy: What We Know and What We Need to Learn. Russell Sage Foundation 2007.
Health Policy Influence
Health policy has a big influence on health care leadership. The decisions made about health policy are the driving forces behind the actual health care that is offered to society (Torrens, 2013). In turn, that affects the leadership of that health care. Because leadership has a trickle-down effect on the rest of the health care industry, what leaders are required to do and the rules they have to follow both have consequences for the people they lead and the people who are treated by the health care system. The most important and significant health care policy in the U.S. today is Obamacare (Barr, 2011). It is designed to provide millions of people with affordable health care, but there have been glitches and problems with it from the day it was rolled out and enrollment started. There are still problems, and the website is a large part of…
Barr, D.A. (2011). Introduction to U.S. health policy: The organization, financing, and delivery of health care in America. NY: JHU Press.
CCH (2010). Law, explanation and analysis of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Including Reconciliation Act impact. CCH Incorporated.
Torrens, P.R. (2013). Chapter 13 Understanding health policy. Introduction to Health Services. NY: Cengage Learning.
Health Policy Current Events
Final Rules for the Accountable Care Organizations have been Published
Section 3022 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 provides a provision for care providers to form organizations focused on improving and lowering the cost of patient care (Berwick, 2011). ACOs are structured such that care providers will be able to share in any cost of care savings realized, thus providing a potentially large incentive to participate. This has caused a bit of a 'gold rush fever' in the industry, with many hospitals and other healthcare organizations reportedly already functioning as ACOs in advance of the January, 2012 start of the program (Gold, 2011).
As with any incentive program oversight is critical, because the temptation to cut costs at the expense of patient health will be substantial. On October 5, 2011 the Department of Health and Human Services published the final…
The relationship between healthcare and economics is a particular issue in poorer countries. The report explains that the economic impact in poor countries is seen in the form of grants and loans that the orld Bank grants. The report explains that credit worthy countries that are extremely poor can qualify for long-term interest free credit. These credits are given under the International Development Assistance program. Although some countries qualify for these interest free credit, they often resort to borrowing funds because IDA funds are limited and based on a first come first serve basis.
Countries that have both IDA and loans for the purpose of healthcare for citizens are under what is referred to as an IDA blend. It is referred to in this manner because the terms under which the funds are borrowed is a mixture of the ID and those of the International Bank for Reconstruction and…
Bambra, C., Debbie Fox, Alex Scott-Samuel. (2003) Towards a New Politics of Health. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from: http: / / eres.welch.jhmi.edu / eres / docs/4464 / bambra_2003_1.pdf
Banerji D. (2006) Serious Crisis in the Practice of International Health by the World Health Organization: The Commission on Social Determinants of Health. International Journal of Health Services, Volume 36 (4), 637 -- 650,
Muntaner, C., Salazar, R.M.G.,Benach, J., Armada F. Venezuela's Barrio Adentro. (2006) An Alternative to Neoliberalism in Health Care. International Journal of Health Services, Volume 36 (4). 803 -- 811,
Navarro, V. (2007) What is a National Health Policy. International Journal of Health Services, 37 (1) 1 -- 14
hen the legislation came up for a vote it passed the House 220-215. In the Senate, the vote passed easily as the Democrats held a strong majority. In both votes, just one Republican voted for the Affordable Act. The limitations of the American system are many, but money plays a vital role in any legislation. Millions of dollars went into lobbying against the bill (insurers, conservative special interest groups, etc.). Conservative media like Fox News, Rush Limbaugh, and others, authored smears about the legislation; for example, Sarah Palin and others insisted there was a "death panel" measure in the bill that would give doctors the right to say certain aged people need to be put to death, a patently false and absurd notion. The latest round of attacks are being launched by the Republican majority in the House, which voted to repeal the Affordable Care Act in February 2011, 245-189.…
CNN.com (2008). Town Hall meeting on health care turns ugly. Retrieved February 18, 2011,
Fox News. (2010). Audience Shouts Down Sebelius, Specter at Health Care Town Hall in Philadelphia. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from http://www.foxnews.com .
The New York Times. (2009). Fight in August. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com.
Health Policy Values
My Personal Values and Spiritual Beliefs
Values and beliefs are an integral and imperative element in the life of any individual and play a vital role in one's growth and development. All human beings have their own beliefs, values, and outlooks that alter over time. In turn, these elements have a substantial influence on a person's capacity to understand, evaluate, and make decisions. They not only fashion the present moment but also the future. My personal belief is that it is imperative to be respectful and considerate to every individual. I believe this makes it possible to not only have self-respect but also respect others and understand other people's situations. With regard to my spiritual belief, my mantra is that every being on this world has the right to live and is equal in every aspect. These personal and spiritual beliefs have been important in my development…
Barker, A. M. & Denisco, S. M (2013). Advanced Practice Nursing: Evolving Roles for the Transformation of the Profession (2nd ed.). Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett.
Milstead, J. A. (2013). Health Policy and Politics: A Nurse's Guide (4th ed.). Massachusetts: Jones & Barlett.
Andrew MacAfee: What will future jobs look like?
In the video, the economist Andrew MacAfee considers the future of business and work in a world in which automation and robotics are developing rapidly. He suggests that the world of work and business is about the face drastic changes, and probably within our lifetime. Because the economy will be driven by these changes, Mr. McAfee suggests that there may be severe challenges ahead for skilled workers and other professionals. Because many, or even most, jobs we know today will be automated in the near future, the main requirement is to modify education courses to stimulate entrepreneurship and creativity in students. It is important to help young people today to cope with these changes in the future.
Current jobs will probably be taken over by androids; or at least the ones we know today.
A different type of…
They also represent the citizens of the nation, so their membership is broad; even if a person is not a "card carrying" member of the ACLU, they still represent their rights. Accordingly, much of the structure is made up of legal professionals, as much of the work they do takes place in the courts.
The ACLU is financed by private donations and through membership dues. Anyone is eligible to join, and the group encourages monthly "gifts" as part of its donation structure. Finally, all of these elements join in the mission and purpose of the group. They must have funding for their fight to continue, they have an organized and broad structure for delivery, they entitle all the people of the U.S. To their basic Constitutional rights, they offer a variety of services and benefits, and they have a distinct mission and purpose. Their policy thus qualifies under the six…
Editors. (2007). Free speech. Retrieved from the ACLU.org Web site: http://www.aclu.org/freespeech/index.html23 May 2007.
Health Policy Economics class. Master Degree level. It 8-12 pages long 10 resources. The topic Over-Utilization Emergency oom Services. I uploading project details.
eliance on emergency departments for non-emergent services has been on the increase with many people visiting them since they provide timely access to primary care. The 1985 Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) mandated Medicare institutions to provide emergency departments for patients despite their regardless of their ability to pay for these services. Many of the uninsured or underinsured thus find these emergency rooms as the most convenience sources of health care. Overutilization of emergency rooms is a vicious cycle as a result of increasing health care costs that are associated with this phenomenon. Three possible solutions to this problem are identified which are health care homes, retail clinics and telehealth with the best solution being the health care homes.
Overutilization of emergency room services…
Blackstone, E.A., Buck, A.J., & Simon, H. (2007). The Economics of Emergency Response. Policy Sciences, 40(4), 313-334. doi: 10.2307/25474342
Brailsford, S.C., Lattimer, V.A., Tarnaras, P., & Turnbull, J.C. (2004). Emergency and On-Demand Health Care: Modelling a Large Complex System. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 55(1), 34-42. doi: 10.2307/4101825
Bristol, N. (2006). Overtaxed U.S. emergency care system needs reorganisation. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 332(7556), 1468. doi: 10.2307/25689667
Carey, K., Burgess, J.F., & Young, G.J. (2009). Single Specialty Hospitals and Service Competition. Inquiry, 46(2), 162-171. doi: 10.2307/29773415
Week 2 and 3 DiscussionAssignment 1The role of the U.S. governments legislative body, i.e. Congress, in matters revolving around Health Policy happens to be critical. This is more so the case given that the two chambers of Congress are often involved in not only the debate, but also the voting on legislation. The two chambers are the Senate and the House of Representatives. In the words of Wilensky and Teitelbaum (2019), legislation considered by Congress may be either a resolution or a bill, each of which serves different functions (p. 117). Examples of recent bills on this front are inclusive of H.R. 941 TRANSPLANT Act of 2021 (sponsored by Rep. Doris Matsui) and the H.R. 1371: Crush the Virus Act of 2021 (sponsored by Rep. Tom Reed) (GovTrack, 2021). The various congressional committees play an instrumental role with regard to the more detailed examination of the relevant issues. In some…
Arora, V. (2015). The Challenge of Understanding Health Care Costs and Charges. AMA Journal of Ethics, 17(11), 1046-1052.
Barber, S.L., Lorenzoni, L. & Ong. P. (2019). Price setting and price regulation in health care: Lessons for advancing Universal Health Coverage. OECD. https://www.oecd.org/health/health-systems/OECD-WHO-Price-Setting-Summary-Report.pdf
Buck, C. (2020). Democrats vs. Republicans: What Is Their Stance on Healthcare? Rantt Media. https://rantt.com/democrats-vs-republicans-healthcare
GovTrack (2021). Health. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/subjects/health/6130
Health Policy and Politics
In Support of H.. 80: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013
Honorable Kathy Castor
14th District of Florida
4144 N. Armenia Ave., Suite 300
In Support of H.. 80: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013
Dear Mrs. Castor:
I am writing to urge your support for H.. 80, a bill sponsored by epresentative Sheila Lee (D, TX) and introduced into the House Energy & Commerce Committee on January 3, 2013. The title of the bill is "Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013" and its goal is to provide funding for additional research into triple-negative breast cancer. The bill also authorizes funding to support the gathering of evidenced-based information about triple-negative breast cancer and its dissemination to the public and medical care providers, with the goal of increasing early…
CDC (2013). Age-adjusted invasive cancer incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals by state. National Program of Cancer Registries, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 29 Jan. 2013 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs / cancersrankedbystate.aspx#Footnotes.
Chu, Quyen D., Henderson, Amanda E., Ampil, Fred, and Li, Benjamin D.L. (2012). Outcome for patients with triple-negative breast cancer is not dependent on race/ethnicity. International Journal of Breast Cancer, 2012, doc. # 764570.
Fessler, Pam. (2013, Jan. 30). Study: Nearly half in U.S. lack financial safety net. Morning Edition, National Public Radio. Retrieved 30 Jan. 2013 from http://www.npr.org/2013 / 01/30/170561872/study-nearly-half-in-u-s-lack-financial-safety-net.
Fornier, Monica and Fumoleau, Pierre. (2011). The paradox of triple negative breast cancer: Novel approaches to treatment. Breast Journal, 18(1), 41-51.
Week 6 AssignmentWrite an essay about a current event elated to health policy. It could be local, state, national, or internationalOn 11th March 2021, a $1.9 trillion Covid-19 Stimulus Bill was signed into law by President Joe Biden. In essence, the said bill seeks to deliver direct and immediate relief to workers and families impacted by the Covid19 pandemic. Among the core provisions of the Bill, which was passed by Democrats in Congress without a Republican vote, is an incentive to encourage the various states that have not undertaken to expand Medicaid coverage under the Affordable Care Act of 2010 to consider making such a move. The provision is based on the Federal Medial Assistance Percentage (FMAP), which as Rudowitz, Corallo & Garfield (2021) observe happens to be the total amount advanced to states by the federal government to ensure their Medicaid programs are funded. The FMAP is 90 percent…
Mazurenko, O., Balio, C. P., Agarwal, R., Caroll, A. E., & Manachemi, N. (2018). The Effects of Medicaid Expansion under the ACA. A Systematic Review. Health Affairs, 37(6), 944-50.
Rudowitz, R., Corallo, B., & Garfield, R. (2021). New Incentive for States to Adopt the ACA Medicaid Expansion: Implications for State Spending. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/new-incentive-for-states-to-adopt-the-aca-medicaid-expansion-implications-for-state-spending/
Ollove, M. (2021). Covid19 Relief Package Includes Expansion of Healthcare Coverage. PEW Research Center. Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2021/02/18/covid-19-relief-package-includes-expansion-of-health-care-coverage
Sohn, H., & Timmermans, S. (2017). Social Effects of Healthcare Reform: Medicaid Expansion under the Affordable Care Act and Changes in Volunteering. Socius, 3(1), doi: 0.1177/2378023117700903
Health Policy and Law Formation:
The process of legislation is characterized with some similarities and differences depending on the specific lawmaking body and the manner through which policymakers are elected and their respective functions and work. Generally, this legislative process includes drafting the bill, introduction of the bill to the respective house, discussions regarding it, any amendments, voting, and enactment into law or vetoed. In addition to undergoing this process, the formation of a public policy or law experiences various challenges depending on the specific state and municipality where the policy is formed.
In relation to public health policy, such laws originate from various sources before proceeding to policy development, which follows several stages. Some of these major stages in policy development include problem identification, setting of agenda, formation of the policy, implementation of the policy, policy evaluation, and policy termination or change. On an issue of health promotion or…
Evans, C.H. & Degutis, L.C. (2003, December). What it Takes for Congress to Act. American
Journal of Health Promotion, 18(2), 177-181.
Megerian, C. & Renshaw, J. (2011, June 24). N.J. Assembly Passes Landmark Employee Benefits
Overhaul. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.nj.com/politics/index.ssf/2011/06/assembly_passes_landmark_emplo.html
Health policy issues are now becoming more contentious throughout the world. The advent of the internet has created a much needed awareness of human rights and liberties. No longer are countries able to fully sheath society from information. A critical component of this information relates directly to health care and the overall well-being of societies constituents. Policy issues relating to health are now becoming paramount to voters and decisions makers. The Affordable Care Act is one of many illustrations that detail the desire for universal healthcare for all. In addition, many countries are mandating a standard health care system for all of their citizens irrespective of socio-economic status. Although costly, it appears that many constituents are willing to pay for the ability to extend healthcare to all. Outside the universal healthcare within individual countries, many are now looking to address worldwide health epidemics. Aspects such as food shortages, proper treatment…
1) Bell, B, Thornton, K. (2011). From promise to reality achieving the value of an EHR. Healthcare Financial Management, 65(2),51-56
2) Jamoom, E., Patel, V., King, J., & Furukawa, M. (2012, August). National perceptions of ehr adoption: Barriers, impacts, and federal policies. National conference on health statistics.
3) Rosenberg, Charles E. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (1995) history to 1920 table of contents and text search
4) Pollack, A. (2015, September 20). Drug Goes From $13.50 a Tablet to $750, Overnight. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/21/business/a-huge-overnight-increase-in-a-drugs-price-raises-protests.html?_r=0
Health policy is a term that is commonly used to refer to plans, decisions, and initiatives that are carried out to accomplish specific goals relating to delivery of health care and promoting the well-being of individuals within a community. As a result, these plans, decisions or initiatives usually incorporate a vision for the future, which is essentially the expected outcome of its implementation. The vision for the future helps in establishing specific targets and references in the short- and long-term of the implementation of the policy. Notably, the development and implementation of the policy is characterized by some major political forces since politics is the basis of policy making. An example of a current health care policy is the Affordable Care Act of Maryland.
Affordable Care Act of Maryland
The Affordable Care Act of Maryland is an example of a current health policy issue that was enacted in 2010 to…
Cohn, J. (2014, September 29). 7 Charts That Prove Obamacare Is Working. Retrieved September 19, 2015, from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/119623/obamacare-one-year-seven-charts-show-law-working
"How Will the Uninsured in Maryland Fare Under the Affordable Care Act?" (2014, January 6). The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved September 20, 2015, from http://kff.org/health-reform/fact-sheet/state-profiles-uninsured-under-aca-maryland/
Kitces, M.E. (2015, May). Navigating the Affordable Care Act: Understanding the Law and Planning Implications for Clients. Journal of Financial Planning, 28(5), 28-35.
Murray, R. (2009, October). Setting Hospital Rates to Control Costs and Boost Quality: The Maryland Experience. Health Affairs, 28(5), 1395-1405.
Health Policy Letter
The health policy being proposed
Medicines are primarily used to avert chronic ailments, infectious viruses and alleviate pain. If used incorrectly and without necessary instructions, medicines can instigate harmful outcomes in a human body.
Errors with medicine use are prone to occur at work, hospital, pharmacy and even home. Pediatric patients are often prone to experience iatrogenic injury due to underlying medication errors. Nurses are tasked with enhancing and alleviating patients from pain as opposed to contributing to it. Medication errors greatly contribute to increasing health-related risks to patients. The issue has become a global concern due to escalating medical costs, protracted hospital stays and mortality rise in rates. Averting medical errors is a key responsibility of both hospitals and governments. In order to curb medication errors, strategies implemented have ranged from using information technology, critical incident analysis and concentrated input from medical professionals (Simpson, Lynch, Grant,…
Ballard, K. A. (2003). Patient Safety: A Shared Responsibility. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 8(3).
Buppert, C. (2011, December 27). What Are the Consequences of Violating Medication Policies? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/755655
Cheragi, M. A., Manoocheri, H., Mohammadnejad, E., & Ehsani, S. R. (2013). Types and causes of medication errors from nurse's viewpoint. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 228-231.
Hughes, R. G., & Blegen., M. A. (2008). Medication Administration Safety. In R. Hughes (Ed.), Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD):: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (U.S.).
Health Policy Analysis for Maryland AC (Affordable Care) Act
McLaughlin, & McLaughlin (2014) rank 11 areas of health innovation based on their impact on costs and quality of healthcare delivery. The process improvement is the highest ranking item. However, the authors identify data analytics, disease management, "non-physician delivery alternatives," and "alternative to fee-for service" (McLaughlin, & McLaughlin, 2014 p 335) as other innovation items that can enhance quality and reduce costs. Additionally, the authors point out that innovation in electronic medical records, diagnosis, and pharmaceuticals can also assist with quality and cost.
Objective of this health policy paper is to evaluate the items that can play important role in the health policy process of Maryland's ACA (Affordable Care Act).
Healthcare items for Health Policy Process for in Maryland Affordable Care Act
The ACA (Affordable Care Act) is a federal government legislation focusing on healthcare coverage for small groups and individuals.…
Abrams, M. Nuzum, R. Mika, S. et al. (2011). Realizing Health Reform's Potential How the Affordable Care Act Will Strengthen Primary Care and Benefit Patients, Providers, and Payers. The Commonwealth Fund.
Chin, W.W. Hamermesh, R.G. Huckman, R.S. et al.(2012). 5 Imperatives Addressing Innovative Challenge. Harvard Business School.
McLaughlin, C.P. & McLaughlin, C.D. (2014). Health Policy Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Approach.(2nd Edition). Burlington, Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Resnik, D.B. (2007). Responsibility for Health: Personal, Social, and Environmental. J Med Ethics. 33(8): 444-445.
government is under pressure to offer quality and affordable health care services to its citizens. Various reform efforts in the country have adopted various approaches with the aim of ensuring that health care system perform well. These strategies include competition in service delivery, downsizing, partnerships, performance indicator and measures, citizen participation privatization and competition. All these approaches have converged in emphasizing accountability as the prime aspect in improving system performance and implementing health reform (Ivanov & Blue, 2007).
The current debate on health systems and accountability reflects a number of factors. Notable is the dissatisfaction with the performance of the health system. In the United States, discontent and debates have focused on these same issues, accompanied by equitable distribution and availability of basic services, corruption, and lack of responsiveness and abuses of power. Citizens and policymakers always expect the health care providers to deliver responsibilities correctly and professionally…
Hinshaw, A.S., & Grady, P.A. (2011). Shaping health policy through nursing research. New York, NY: Springer.
In Mackenbach, J.P., & In McKee, M. (2013). Successes and failures of health policy in Europe: Four decades of divergent trends and converging challenges. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Ivanov, L.L., & Blue, C.L. (2007). Public health nursing: Leadership, policy, & practice. Australia: Delmar Cengage Delmar.
Warwick-Booth, L., Cross, R., & Lowcock, D. (2012). Contemporary health studies: An introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.
64). Again, this has been recently evidenced by the recent battles in Congress over the federal budget. Although the budget deficit did not directly involve health care policy, the result was a compromise on the budget that required a corresponding change in the health care policy as to Medicare. This is not an unusual situation in the area of health care policy. Often, budgetary concerns must be addressed which in long-term have an impact on the formation of health care policy.
The formation of health care policy does not occur in a vacuum and there is a constant struggle between interests. Too often the concerns of the majority are afforded too much consideration and the interests of smaller and seemingly less important segments of society are overlooked. This is a serious problem for policy makers and one that reoccurs frequently but a problem that is inherent to the process that…
Policy Process Part I
Policies are constantly being reviewed and considered to assist in enhancing the federal, state, and local health care systems. Each of the reviewed and considered policies has the potential to affect every individual on a daily basis, so careful consideration must be exercised when policies are proposed. The careful consideration requires an understanding of the process through which an idea or topic ultimately becomes a policy and legislation. An example of a topic in the health care industry that may be used to form a policy is health workforce shortages. This topic can become a policy because the United States health sector is currently experiencing an increase in workforce shortages in federal, state, and local levels. The current laws do not have adequate measures or procedures that would deal with this issue effectively. Therefore, policy makers should develop and implement legislation that specifically focuses on health…
Abood, S. (2007). Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12(1). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/553404_4
Buchan, J. & Aiken, L. (2010). Solving Nursing Shortages: A Common Priority. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(24), 3262-3268.
Gebbie, K.M. (1994, June). Formulating Public Health Policy: The Case of AIDS. American
Journal of Public Health, 84(6), 888-889.
Health Problems in Modern Society
The main function of the health care industry is to maintain and enhance the biological functioning of people in the United States regardless of the constant threat of injury and illness. This means that the effectiveness of the health care system is largely determined or influenced by its ability to contribute to the health and well-being of people. In order to achieve this goal, the health care system has constantly relied of several signs and symptoms of the presence of disease, which are used as the basis for public health interventions. The identification of these signs and symptoms is followed by diagnosis of the injury or illness as part of the intervention process. While proper diagnosis of diseases is sometimes characterized by several uncertainties, the health care sector currently utilizes a wide range of metrics to determine the presence of disease and its severity.
Greenwald, H.P. (2010). Health care in the United States: organization, management, and policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
"Preventing Chronic Diseases: Designing and Implementing Effective Policy." (n.d.). Policy
Brief. Retrieved March 16, 2015, from http://www.who.int/chp/advocacy/policy.brief_EN_web.pdf
As a result, some kind action must be taken to deal with these challenges. Once this occurs, it will provide specific insights about: how the current plan is not working and what tactics must be used to mitigate the negative effects on various regions. (Schwartz, 1998)
Propose a research study (inclusive of study design, hypothesis, methodology and bivariate / multivariate statistical analysis) that would yield results which can be implemented to better address the current needs of the affected / target population
The hypothesis that we are proposing is: that some kind of classification system should be used to determine who is safe to live in the community. This will maintain the lowest cost structure possible, while preventing the most dangerous mental patients from being released.
The study design will survey various mental health professionals about: if a classification system would be effective. At the same time, you would want…
Multivariate Social Statistics. (2006). Social Research Methods. Retrieved from: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Flynn/multivar.htm
Glaze, L. (2006). Mental Health Problems. USDOJ. Retrieved from: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=789
Schwartz, M. (1998). Violence and Severe Mental Illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 226 -- 231.
Biostats and Public Health
Biostatistics and Public Health
[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]
Public health policy always has a deep impact on society's health status. Evidence-based policy should be at the forefront of health policy reform. As more and more information comes from new studies and research articles, it will provide the kind of data that can change the way healthcare and health policy is done. Biostatistics, a fundamental specialization in the practice and science of public health, helps relate statistical data to existing health concerns, particularly when they affect the human population.
Biostatisticians provide central information for the design of interventions as well as the development and implementation of public priorities and health policy. While there is some reform in health policy due to the evidence-based practices garnered from research and studies, translational research is not being effectively used to form enough credible evidence to…
Pearson, A., Jordan, Z., & Munn, Z. (2012). Translational Science and Evidence-Based Healthcare: A Clarification and Reconceptualization of How Knowledge Is Generated and Used in Healthcare. Nursing Research And Practice, 2012, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/792519
Hispanic Health Policy
As described by the Latino Policy Institute at the Hispanic Health Council website, there are many issue that face Hispanics and Latinos when it comes to health policy and execution. In general, the biggest barriers are cultural and language barriers experienced while giving and providing health care of any sort. However, a problem identified by the aforementioned Institute is that very few of the people that have experienced and seen the barriers feel there is an actual problem that has to be identified and dealt with. Of course, this is less than true and must be recognized for what it truly is. While the language and cultural barriers experiences when giving healthcare are not seen as a problem by many providers, a problem absolutely exists and it is hurting Hispanic patients and citizens every day.
To expound and expand on the details of the item mentioned…
HHC. (2016). HispanicHealthCouncil -- Program: Latino Policy Institute. Hispanichealth.com. Retrieved 28 July 2016, from http://www.hispanichealth.com/hhc/latinopolicyinstitute
Sanchez, G. (2012). The Implications of ACA Ruling on Latino Voting Behavior. Latino Decisions. Retrieved 28 July 2016, from http://www.latinodecisions.com/blog/2012/07/03/the-implications-of-aca-ruling-on-latino-voting-behavior/
Nursing Leadership Health Policy
Health Policy Change
The health policy change encompasses Medicare Part D. Medicare D. is also referred to as the Medicare prescription drug benefit. It is part of the Medicare program that is purposed to bankroll the cost of prescription drugs together with coverage payments for prescription drugs for Medicare recipients (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2016). The proposed policy change with respect to Medicare Part D is the reduction and lessening of generic drug copayments to zero. In particular, this alteration will be a form of encouragement for the use of generic drugs amongst Medicare enrollees that are poorer by all in all eradicating their costs for generic drugs. Majority of the members of Medicare Part D that are categorized as having low income give out minimal compensation or nil for Part D prescription drugs. In the past year, with respect to generics, the costs…
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2016). Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage. Retrieved from: https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Prescription-Drug-Coverage/PrescriptionDrugCovGenIn/Downloads/CMS-4068-F3Column.pdf
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2016). Prescription Drug Coverage - General Information. Retrieved from: https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Prescription-Drug-Coverage/PrescriptionDrugCovGenIn/index.html?redirect=/PrescriptionDrugCovGenIn/
Congress.gov. (2016). Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Retrieved from: https://www.congress.gov/committee/senate-health-education-labor-and-pensions/sshr00
Schultz, J. (2016). Proposed changes to Part D are long overdue. MedicareResources.Org. Retrieved from: https://www.medicareresources.org/blog/2016/07/08/proposed-changes-to-part-d-are-long-overdue/
Health Policy on Asthma
Asthma is a common and chronic disease that occurs across all age groups. It is one of the conditions that have remained the focus of intervention policies in public health. It is also reported that morbidity and mortality of the condition remains high. The negative implications of asthma are comparable to the effects of other ailments, including liver cirrhosis, diabetes and schizophrenia. The interventions that have been instituted in asthma management have, however, reduced mortality to a significant extent in countries where they have been implemented (Bousquet, Philippe J. Bousquet, Philippe Godard, & Jean-Pierre Daures, 2005).
Asthma has both direct and indirect economic implications arising from cost of medicines and health care service. There is also the economic cost of rendering victims less productive. Studies show that the direct cost associated with asthma are in the range of 1% to 3% of the total…
Amenyah, A. M. (2011). Asthma Prevalence: Focus on Prevention Management in Community Settings. Georgia: Georgia State University.
Asthma Interventions and Cost Consequences -- Synthesis of Research Findings . (2007, January).
Bousquet, J., Philippe J. Bousquet, Philippe Godard, & Jean-Pierre Daures. (2005). The public health implications of asthma. World Health Organization.
Financial Analysis of Affordable Health Care Plan in Maryland
The implementation of the Affordable Health Care Plan in Maryland requires comprehensive analysis of the financial aspects of this health policy relative to its health benefits, especially in enhancing health coverage to the low-income individuals and families in this state. The financial analysis process of this health policy requires identifying the most suitable means for addressing financial uncertainties in the process and examining the economic viability and financial aspects of allocation process. These are crucial elements to consider because they affect the economic feasibility of the proposed health policy and helps in determining its suitability in addressing the existing health care issues and concerns.
According to McLaughlin & McLaughlin (2014), there are three major approaches that can be used to handle important uncertainties in the financial analysis of a proposed health policy (p.302). These three approaches are adding a risk premium…
"How Will the Uninsured in Maryland Fare Under the Affordable Care Act?" (2014, January 6). The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved September 20, 2015, from http://kff.org/health-reform/fact-sheet/state-profiles-uninsured-under-aca-maryland/
McLaughlin, C.P. & McLaughlin, C.D. (2014). Health policy analysis: an interdisciplinary approach (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Health Policies Medicare
hen everyone in our country finally starts to reach the age of 65 years of age or older, then every person will become eligible for Medicare. It is clear that there are some elderly that are having minimum health concerns while others recurrently are dealing with medical issues for which they will have to seek out treatment by the doctor. However, research is starting to display that there are at least five top conditions that are enhancing on medical and drug spending. It is obvious that Heart disease circumstances are the number one medical issue that the those that are considered elderly are facing and that is becoming very costly to them. Most are unaware that the second one is the disease cancer and it could be internal or external for various elderly patients. Other issues such as joint ailments a lot of the times can cost…
Wenzlow, Audra T., et al. "Effects of a Discharge Planning Program on Medicaid Coverage of State Prisoners with Serious Mental Illness." Psychiatric Services 62.1 (2011): 73-8.
Sommers, Benjamin D. "Loss of Health Insurance among Non-Elderly Adults in Medicaid." Journal of General Internal Medicine 24.1 (2009): 1-7.
Verdier, James, and Allison Barrett. "How Medicaid Agencies Administer Mental Health Services: Results from a 50-State Survey." Psychiatric Services 59.10 (2008): 1203-6.
Harman, Jeffrey S., Allyson G. Hall, and Jianyi Zhang. "Changes in Health Care use and Costs After a Break in Medicaid Coverage among Persons with Depression." Psychiatric Services 58.1 (2007): 49-54.
In the wake on new and very contentious health care reform, many firms have undergone extensive transformations. These transformations have been predicated on both cost control and quality management. In particular quality management has had a profound impact on the underlying business operations of many health care firms. For one, firms are now finding methods in which to enhance the overall patient experience while also mitigating potential loses due to negligent means. The focus on quality management has also made firms more efficient in regards to the overall delivery of service. In particular, my firm has done extensive work with reducing elderly accidents within the facility. This quality management initiative has not only reduced costs associated with accidents, but it also has enhanced the trust and patient experience of all stakeholders within the firm (Kelly, 2011).
Identify the milestone you chose in the history of quality improvement in…
1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81
2) Kohn, L.T., Corrigan, J.M., & Donaldson, M.S. (Eds). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
3) Kelly, D.L. (2011). Applying quality management in healthcare: A systems approach (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press
4) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick A. (2009). "Chapter 1
(Wolf, 2008) When you put all of these different elements together, it means that denying health care services to undocumented workers and their families will cause their underlying levels of health to slowly deteriorate. If something serious does occur, these people will more than likely be forced to fend for themselves.
Conducting research in these two areas would be beneficial in influencing health care policy / outcome by: highlighting the overall human cost of the problem on the industry and society. Where, the act of denying them access to health care and the lingering effects could be considered a human rights issue. As a result, the research that would be conducted would be beneficial, in highlighting the overall harsh conditions that these families are forced to endure. Once you present the situation in this light, this will shift the debate from one of a cost issue to being about: basic…
Health Care for Undocumented Immigrants. (2008). Medical News Today. Retrieved from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/56809.php
Aparico, A. (2004). Costs of Care and Lack of Health Insurance. Immigrants, Welfare Reform and Poverty Policy. (pp. 73 -- 77). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Wolf, R. (2008). Rising Health Care Costs. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-01-21-immigrant-healthcare_N.htm
Health Structures in Government Levels
Health at different Government Levels
Health Structures at Government Levels
Health at Government Levels
A national government has a task in ensuring quality health assurance standards across its region are up-to-date. Similarly, increased rates of unexpected epidemics have put governments under the surge of dealing accordingly with factors that can affect the nation directly and indirectly. Different governmental levels of health are identified and objectified in various agency websites. In this context, I have identified with a state level website; Illinois Public Health Institute website. Information presented to the website articles prioritizes in reducing and preventive, curative diseases, complementing health policies and championing for environmental changes.
Website Article eview
The Illinois Public Health institute articulates its review and implication to health quality through partnership programs. The website has supported state-oriented health involvement in ameliorating health levels, in Illinois. The institution has show-cased partnering programs with…
Baum, F and Kahssay, H.M. Health development structures: an untapped resource. World Health Organization. Vol 1 Issue 1. Pg 96-114.
Ladeia, M.L., Jacob, P., Borges, M.C., Rogero, M. M and Ferreira, S.R.G. (2011). Studies of Gene variants related to Inflammation, Oxidative, Stress, Dyslipidemia and Obesity: Implications for a nutrigenetic approach. Journal of Obesity. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-31.
5th March 2012. Illinois Public Health Institute. Retrieved from URL http://www.iphionline.org / Accessed on 27th March, 2012.
(Findlay, 2001, 90 -- 119) (McLeod, 2003, pp. 895 -- 908)
What is the possibility of bias entering the study? If the study is susceptible to bias, state and explain the type of bias that may enter the study and what steps can be incorporated to minimize the entry of bias.
The possibility for bias in the study is low. The reason why, is because researchers will have limited access to the patients they are seeing (through: the use of anonymous surveys). This will dramatically reduce the possibilities of bias existing. (Findlay, 2001, 90 -- 119) (McLeod, 2003, pp. 895 -- 908)
ased on your hypothesis/proposal, how will the proposed generated results help to develop an effective health policy for the target population of your chosen topic?
The proposal will help to develop an effective health policy. This is accomplished by: providing specific insights about how the increasing utilization of…
Findlay, S. (2001). Direct to Consumer Promotion. Pharmaco Economics, 19 (2), 109 -- 119.
Kryst, M. (2005). A Population-Based Survey. Headache, 34 (6), 341- 350.
McLeod, P. (2003). Physicians and Practice Characteristics. Medical Care, 41 (8), 895 -- 908.
The respondents also believed that premiums should be adjusted based on an organizations willingness to introduce and enforce health and safety standards.
5. Safety representatives-these representatives serve the purpose of serving notices or organizations when breaches in safety and health standards take place.
6. Occupational Health and Rehabilitation -- a significant percentage or respondents believe that there needs to be greater access to occupational health services for employees. The respondents also believed that there should be a "new focus on the provision of rehabilitation services for injured and sick workers."
7. Financial Incentives-finally the respondents believed that employees needed financial incentives to encourage cooperation as it pertains to health and safety standards.
The HSE used all of the information gathered to create new strategies for dealing with Health and Safety issues in the workplace. One of the primary trends that developed was that of enforcement. In an effort to have…
"A strategy for workplace health and safety in Great Britain to 2010 and beyond"
"Enforcement Management Model." (2002). Health and Safety Executive
Enforcement Policy Statement. Health and Safety Executive
Environmental Health Policy Improvement Committee (20 April 2004) . Health and Safety Commission
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
Polls examining public support of the bill and specifically the public healthcare option vary significantly. ith regard to physicians, the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed over six thousand medical doctors and found there was a majority in favor of federally provided public healthcare insurance (Keyhani & Federman). Other polls have suggested an opposition to the public option (Marmor).
The public option would provide an affordable alternative to the current private health insurance options and would provide impetus for competition and positive change. hether "America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009" will be passed is currently uncertain. hat is certain is that the healthcare and health insurance system is currently not sufficient to provide healthcare support for nearly 48 million uninsured Americans. Alterations need to be made to increase access and affordability for those individuals who desire health insurance.
The healthcare and health insurance system in the United States…
Harrington, Charlene, Carroll L. Estes, and Cassandra Crawford. Health policy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2004.
Keyhani, Salomeh, and Alex Federman. "Doctors on Coverage -- Physicians' Views on a New Public Insurance Option and Medicare Expansion." N. Engl J. Med 361.14 (2009): e24.
Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The healthcare fix. MIT Press, 2007.
Marmor, T. "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." 7 Apr 2009. 1 Nov 2009 .
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive economic landscape of the modern world; governments, businesses and institutions must remain diligent in their care and compassion for their citizens and staff members. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, voters, workers and consumers have become much more connected to the organizations they patronize (Kurzweil). Accordingly, these important groups are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of their followers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. One of the most important needs presented in all demographics is reliable healthcare. Thus, with the inelasticity in the demand for healthcare, countries need to determine an applicable system, whereby citizens can have access to the medical services they will inevitably need. Collective access to healthcare represents the main problem in field of…
Blumenschein, K. And M. Johannesson. "Economic Evaluation in Healthcare. A Brief History and Future Directions." Journal of Pharmacoeconomics 10.2 (1996): 114-122.
Cox, Malcolm, et al. "Health Care Economics, Financing, Organization and Delivery." Family Medicine January 2004: 20-30.
Hamburger, Tom and Kim Geiger. "Healthcare Insurers Get Upper Hand." The Los Angeles Times 24 August 2009.
Jeremiah Hurley. "An Overview of the Normative Economics of the Health Sector." Journal of Health Economics 1.1 (2000): 55-118.
Health Care Finance
Financial analyst Eric Feigenbaum (2009) notes that while we like to think of hospitals in terms of compassion, patient care and dedication to altruistic aims, they are businesses concerned with revenues and expenses like any other business (Feigenbaum 2009, p.2). In today's hectic world of economic downturn and financial struggles felt from individuals of every demographic and social status, revenue and expense accounting are issues that must be addressed carefully by nearly every business in every market. The same holds true for the health care industry and health care providers. With financial uncertainty come threats for health care providers in managing revenue and expenses during the upcoming years. However, with these threats remain certain opportunities for health care providers to take on in order to combat the uncertainty that comes with managing revenue and expenses when the amount of each is not ideal.
With the appropriate management…
Bristow, W. (2009). How to thrive during a recession. Doctor's Digest. 81(1): p.16.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Feigenbaum, E. (2009). Categories of expenses and revenues in the hospital business setting. Demand Media, 2(1), pp. 2-5. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Johnson, N., McNichol, E. And Oliff, P. (2011). Feeling the recession's impact on health care. Handbook of Health Economics 3(2), pp. 54. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.
Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…
Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.
Two elements that are extremely useful in the examination of health care. In this regard therefore, quality is also differentiated along SES. Persons who are higher on the socioeconomic ladder experience better "desired health outcomes."
The access to quality health care also has cultural and SES elements to it. Dressler & Bindon (2000) identify cultural consonance as a factor in determining blood pressure in African-American communities. The implications of this work are that cultural elements play a big role in health care quality and access. Whites tend to have greater access to better health care than minority groups. This access is in terms of the proximity of quality physicians, medical services, and facilities.
The ethical implications of the differential access to health care are troubling (Kulczycki, 2007). This is primarily because a health care discussion is a life and death discussion. Quality health care is the right of every citizen,…
Dressler, W.W., Balieiro, M.C., & Dos Santos, J.E.(1988). Culture, Socioeconomic Status, and Physical and Mental Health in Brazil Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 12
Dressler W.W., & Bindon, J.R. (2000).The Health Consequences of Cultural Consonance:
Cultural Dimensions of Lifestyle, Social Support, and Arterial Blood Pressure in an African-American Community American Anthropologist, New Series, 102
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…
Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.
Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.
Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.
Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.
Drug costs have gone from 26% of health care spending by private insurance companies in 1990 to 44% in 2006 (Kaiser Foundation, 2008). This issue has not been adequately addressed by health care reform. Instead, a deal appears to be made for $80 billion in concessions from the pharmaceutical industry in exchange for its support of health care reform (Kirkpatrick, 2009).
The underlying trend in each of these major issues in health care reform is controlling the rising cost. Malpractice reform seeks to control the cost of insurance to health care providers, so that they can pass those savings along to consumers. The public option provides a plan for affordable health care coverage for uninsured and underinsured Americans. This is deemed necessary because private insurers will not offer insurance to those it feels will demand too much in terms of health care costs going forward. Reducing the cost of health…
Carey, Nick. (2009). Uninsured Americans hope reform brings health coverage. Reuters. Retrieved October 7, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSTRE58F0NO20090916
The White House. (2009). The Obama Plan: Stability and Security for All Americans. Retrieved October 7, 2009 from http://www.whitehouse.gov /assets/documents/obama_plan_card.PDF
New York Times. (2009). Malpractice and Health Care Reform. New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/17/opinion/17wed2.html
Kaiser Family Foundation. (2008). Prescription Drug Trends. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved October 7, 2009 fromhttp://www.kff.org/rxdrugs/upload/3057_07.pdf
The relationship between the doctor and a possible patient is established when the physician asks the person for the first time as how he could be of possible help. This direct and simple enquiry is the beginning of the trust of the patient that has to be put in the physician for any treatment to proceed. The patient is in need of help at that time, and has to trust the professional for getting the help and the patients want to do it. They need a person to take care of them during their period of suffering from illness. This relationship between the patient and the physician in the financial sphere also involves the same amount of reliance, confidence and trust, as otherwise, not treatment can be undertaken. This makes it essential that the physicians clearly mention to the patients when there is any conflict of interest in…
"Changes in Health Care Financing and Organization: Deriving Best Practice Models for the U.S. Health Care Safety Net: A Cross-State Meta Analysis of Finance, Organization and Outcomes" Retrieved from http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:h3F83ojarhYJ:depts.washington.edu/eprc/areas/proposalnarrative%2520web.pdf+Changes+in+Health+Care+Financing+and+Organization+& ; hl=en Accessed on 7 June, 2005
'Health Administration Press" (March/April 2003) Journal of Health Care Management.
Volume 48, Number 2. Retrieved from http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:p36ZB3H0T4AJ:www.ache.org/pubs/jhm482.cfm+healthcare+finance+relationship+centered& ; hl=en Accessed on 7 June, 2005
"The Core Program: Trust and the Patient -- Professional Relationship" (September, 2000) The
Stated to be barriers in the current environment and responsible for the reporting that is inadequate in relation to medical errors are:
Lack of a common understanding about errors among health care professionals
Physicians generally think of errors as individual that resulted from patient morbidity or mortality.
Physicians report errors in medical records that have in turn been ignored by researchers.
Interestingly errors in medication occur in almost 1 of every 5 doses provided to patients in hospitals. It was stated by Kaushal, et al., (2001) that "the rate of medication errors per 100 admission was 55 in pediatric inpatients. Using their figure, we estimated that the sensitivity of using a keyword search on explicit error reports to detect medication errors in inpatients is about 0.7%. They also reported the 37.4% of medication errors were caused by wrong dose or frequency, which is not far away from our result of…
Discussion Paper on Adverse Event and Error Reporting In Healthcare: Institute for Safe Medication Practices Jan 24, 2000
Patient Safety/Medical Errors Online at the Premiere Inc. page located at: http://www.premierinc.com/all/safety/resources/patient_safety/downloads/patient_safety_policy_position_2001.doc
Medstat / Shortell, S. Assessing the Impact of Continuous Quality Improvement on Clinical Practice: What It Will Take to Accelerate Progress.
Health Policy Monitor (2001) A Publication of the Council of State Governments Vol. 6, No. 1 Winter/Spring 2001 PO18-0101
Healthcare professionals offer their services to the community whilst taking care to fully respect people's dignity. Doctors need to earn public confidence by dedicating their skill all equally, and to the best of their ability. A number of professional organizations supporting doctors in ensuring public safety exist, two of which are the ANA (American Nurses Association) and the AMA (American Medical Association). In this paper, the two aforementioned organizations' standards and functions will be analyzed.
A clear identification of the professional boards
The ANA represents its 3.6-million-strong registered nurse (RN) workforce's interests. Its goal is attempting to advance the profession of nursing through the promotion of superior practice standards (American Nurses Association, 2016). Meanwhile, the AMA represents a professional organization chiefly engaged in publishing studies geared at advancing public health, in addition to advocating for licensed doctors' interests. It participates in the areas of Obamacare implementation, healthcare IT, Medicare/Medicaid, improvements…
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
Healthcare: Discussion Questions
Discussion Questions: Healthcare
The author stated the major steps in the policy analysis process. Which stage do you think is the most important? State reasons using one policy analysis example
Policy analysis simply refers to the process of assessing policies to determine how effective they are, or would be in the resolution of economic and social issues in the population. It is carried out in a series of steps that include problem identification, problem definition, process analysis and qualitative analysis (McLaughlin & McLaughlin, 2014). The authors summarize the policy analysis process as follows -- the analyst ascertains that a problem indeed exists, analyses the policies that have already been formulated to address the same, assesses whether the policies already in existence have been effective in realizing their intended objectives, determines the new technologies or modifications that could be incorporated into these policies to make them more effective,…
Lloyd, R. C. (2004). Quality Healthcare: A Guide to Developing and Using Indicators. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
McLaughlin, C. P. & McLaughlin, C. D. (2014). Health Policy Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Approach (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
Healthcare Organization Case Study
Health Care Organization Case Study
Health Care Organization Case Study
Banner Healthcare represents a set of diverse healthcare related facilities that provide healthcare services to societies in USA and beyond. Banner seeks to establish a healthier life for communities through developing a healthy environment. Banner Healthcare is arguably the largest healthcare provider in the country. The organization spans seven states, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Alaska, Nebraska and Wyoming. The organization operates 20 hospitals, including healthcare facilities. The organization offers such services as hospice care, home care and physician services. Banner Healthcare also provided $130 million as their contribution to charity. The organization is a healthcare leader in all the communities it offers its services. The agency has shown tremendous growth in the past years. They admit over 190 000 patients every year and have a workforce in excess of 29-000. The emergency departments…
Banner Health, (2008). Here Now: Making a Difference. Retrieved from http://www.bannerhealth.com/_communityupdate/Banner_Health_Community_Update.pdf on 18 May 2016
Harrington, C. & Estes, C. (2008). Health Policy: Crisis & Reform in the U.S. Health Care Delivery System, 5th Ed. Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Wolf, J., Hanson, H. & Moir, M. (Eds.) (2011). Organization Development in Health Care: High Impact Practices for a Complex and Changing Environment. IAP
"What is the role of Congress in policy making process"?
Policy is a plan to identify goal or possible course of actions with administrative or management tools to accomplish these goals. n the other hand, policy is the authoritative decision made by the U.S. executive, legislative, judicial branch of government to influence the decision of others. Government is a key player in decision-making process and congress plays important roles in decision-making . In the United States, both House of Representatives and House of Senate fulfill the congressional policy responsibilities, and congress plays important role in health policy, which includes obesity prevention measures or health insurance program. Congress is an important arm of government that makes law. Important strategy that congress uses to make policy preference is by passing a bill into law. Typically, the congress could make a decision to pass or not to the policy of the…
Oregon Department of Human Services.(2008). The impact of federal policy on Oregon's health care reform efforts: Opportunities and barriers within Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Medical Assistance Programs.
Waller, M. (2005).Block Grants: Flexibility vs. Stability in Social Services. Brookings Institution Policy Brief.
Zuckert, M.P. (2002). Launching Liberalism: On Lockean Political Philosophy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Does Socio-economic Status Impact lives of People with HIV and AIDS?
Individuals with a lower socio-economic status are more prone to contracting HIV and AIDS virus. This measure also determines how individual status, relates to proper medical care. Lack of socioeconomic strength associated to the practice of risky sexual behaviors results to HIV contraction. Men engage in sexual intercourse with many partners without using a condom (Will 2000). Women at this lower level engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Homeless people are more vulnerable to infection, women in such situations are prone to rape and, men are most likely drug users. Individuals with low socioeconomic resources are prone to injury, which makes the susceptible to the effects of the virus that affects the central nervous system (Earnshaw, Valerie and Stephenie 2009).
Does HIV Infection Affect the Socio Sconomic Status of Infected Persons?
HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the productivity…
Semple, S.J., Patterson, T.L., Temoshok, L.R., McCutchan, J.A., Straits-Troster,
K., Chandler, J.A., & Grant, I. 2003. "Identification of psychobiological stressors among HIV-positive women." Women & Health, 20(4), 15-36.
Earnshaw, Valerie a., and Stephenie R. Chaudoir.2009. "From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: a review of HIV stigma mechanism measures." AIDS
and Behavior 13.6 (2009): 1160-1177.
More area is dealt by Human esource Management than people originally thought of. Some may explain it as the exchanges between boss and worker in the time period between which a worker is employed, until they are eliminated. It is true human resources management starts even before this, with the strategies that are formed by the institution, and the laws that govern workplace institutions. Human esource Management is the procedure of working with people so that they and their organizations attain full potential even when change accelerates the necessity to get new talents, take up new tasks, and develop new relationships, as per an article by L. Dobb abd P. Dick of 1993. (Blessinger, Human esource Management)
Human esource Management is projected as that part of management, which deals with plans, decisions, issues, ethics, process, routines, work, performance and system associated with the management of people as workers…
Blessinger, Kelly. Human Resource Management. Available from http://www.libsci.sc.edu/bob/class/clis724/SpecialLibrariesHandbook/hr_management.html . Accessed 2 February 2003]
De Silva, Sriyan. Human Resource Management As A Strategy: The Changing Focus of Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management. Available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/actemp/papers/1998/asiawksh.htm [Accessed 2 February 2003]
De Silva, Sriyan. Human Resource Management in Achieving Management Objectives: The Changing Focus of Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management. Paper presented at the ILO Workshop on Employers Organizations in Asia-Pacific in the Twenty-First Century Turin, Italy, 5-13 May 1997. Bureau for Employers' Activities International Labor Office Geneva April, 1997 Available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/actemp/papers/1998/srsirhrm.htm#C5-3 . Accessed 2 February 2003]
Guide to Managing Human Resources: Chapter 14: Team Building" Available from http://hrweb.berkeley.edu/guide/teams.htm [Accessed 2 February 2003]
They also reject the argument that public support for transplantation will endure something bad if it becomes known that donated organs are being used for alcoholics.
There is an extensive reluctance to consider people with alcoholic cirrhosis for liver transplantation. The authors of this article do a good job of presenting both sides of the argument about whether alcoholics should be eligible for liver transplants. They present both a moral argument and a medical argument and compare and contrast both sides before drawing their conclusion. They illustrate the screening and selection process for liver transplant contenders in a concise manner. At the end the authors dissect the objection to the moral argument and the medical argument of not allowing alcoholics to receive liver transplants. They reply to both of these objections with the reasons as to why alcoholics should be allowed to receive transplants. In the end they conclude that…
Cohen C & Benjamin M. (1991). Alcoholics and liver transplantation. The Ethics and Social
Impact Committee of the Transplant and Health Policy Center. Journal of American
Medical Association. 265, pp. 1299-1301
educed costs for medical education would be the second to last alternative that would be likely to be effective. First, reducing the costs of medical eduction, through tax incentives and tuition caps, may make the medical field more attractive to some students; however, even with these in place, the costs would still be so significant that many potential future doctors would be still turned off from the profession. In contrast, free medical education would likely be very effective in recruiting students to pursue the medical profession. This would likely be especially attractive to good students who weren't good enough to receive significant scholarship money to help offset their education. However, this would be the most expensive alternative to implement for the United States. This cost could be offset by the service these doctors give, in exchange, for government-run medical facilities, but the infrastructure alone to this type of innovative plan…
Fox, R. & Abrahamson, K. (Oct-Dec 2009). "A critical examination of the U.S. nursing shortage: Contributing factors, public policy implications." Nursing Forum, 44(4). p. 235-244.
Ganley, B. & Sheets, I. (Jul 2009). "Educational innovations: A strategy to address the nursing faculty shortage." Journal of Nursing Education, 48(7). p. 401-405.
Medical student debt. (2011). Retrieved January 9, 2011, from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/about-ama/our-people/member-groups-sections/medical-student-section/advocacy-policy/medical-student-debt.shtml .
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. (No date). Retrieved January 9, 2011, from http://dpc.senate.gov/healthreformbill/healthbill04.pdf .
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
health care in the United States has been the source of heated debate for a number of years. Although the publicity surrounding the issue has been considerable and made to look like it is a recent problem facing the nation, the problem, in reality, has been on the horizon for nearly a century. During President Woodrow Wilson's administration, efforts were unsuccessfully made to pass national legislation regarding the delivery of health care in the United States and the issue has appeared periodically on the national agenda ever since (Lepore, 2009). Finally, on March 23, 2010, among massive controversy, the Affordable Care Act, through the massive efforts of the Obama administration, became law.
Despite the passing of the Affordable Care Act, health care in the United States remains dismal for a large percentage of American citizens. Although there were a number of significant provisions in the Act that took effect nearly…
Anderson, R.M. (2001). Improving Access to Care in America. Los Angeles: University of California.
Boehm, G. (2005). Debunking Medical Malpractice Myths: Unraveling the False Premises behind Tort Reform. Yale Journal of Health Policy Law & Ethics, 357-369.
Lepore, J. (2009, December 7). Preexisting Condition. The New Yorker .
Shi, L. (2003). Delivering Health Care in America: A Systems Approach (3rd Edition). Burlington, VT: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
At which point, they talk about the effects that the different kinds of coverage are having on senior citizen, with many using a combination of Medicare and private insurance, while others have used a combination of Medicare / Medicaid. To rectify the situation, the article points out that there is one of two solutions to include: the government placing price caps and importing prescription drugs. A government model of limiting the overall scope of price increases, could help to reduce the negative effects that this having on the elderly. Another option, for those who are opposed to such a plan, is to allow the import of prescription drugs. This is significant, because it shows how increasing the available supply of prescription drugs are a key to curtailing costs. If some kind of programs, this could be introduced to address this issue. At which point, it could be effective in reducing…
Carbaugh, R. (2006). Chapter Summary. Contemporary Economics (pg. 76) Mason, OH: Thompson. http://books.google.com/books?id=9Pascy_5HUMC&pg=PA76&dq=solutions+high+prescriptions+drug+costs+on+the+elderly&hl=en&ei=zFcmTIaALMKB8gb59YnKDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Day, T. (n.d.). About Medical Care for the Elderly. Retrieved June 26, 2010 from Long-Term Care Link website: http://www.longtermcarelink.net/eldercare_medical_care_issues.htm
Ham R. (2007). Clinical Pharmacology. Primary Care Geriatrics (pp. 94) Philadelphia, PA Mosby.
US Mental Health Assistance
Mental health problems or mental illnesses are among the major public health issues in the United States given their prevalence. Mental health illnesses affected nearly all populations in the United States including children and adults. However, the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults is high in comparison to other populations. Mental health problems among adults in the U.S. incorporate many different conditions whose degree of severity varies from mild to moderate to severe (National Institute of Mental Health, 2019). One of the major contributing factors to the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults in America is the rapid growth of the aging population. Adults suffering from mental illness don't always understand they are sick and are difficult to help. Our system puts them out on the street or locks them up. There is need for policy changes to address the prevalence of mental health illnesses among…
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…
Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8
Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133
Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030
Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
status of Florida State's health care facilities and anticipates what kinds of steps should be taken to cater to the future population based on their developed needs. It has 15 sources.
With improved health care facilities and advanced medical innovations, populations of the world are increasing in their age as they live longer. As a result of this there has been a marked increase in the demands for health care facilities. The U.S. is one of the world's most advanced countries also sees this trend and mostly in its largely populated states. One of these is Florida. Florida one of America's biggest states, ranking 4th in the recent years has seen gradual change in the health care consumer attitude as well as growth. Not only the urban but the rural population has increased in the demand for health care and the government's legislative is responsible for addressing these needs. In…
Author not available, [March 26, 2001]. Deficit compels Florida governor to accelerate move to managed care. Mental Health Weekly.
Author not available, . Department of Elder Affairs Official Website, accessed on 5-4-03 available at http://elderaffairs.state.fl.us/doea/2A281CONS/C01.html
McDowell, J.C. (Winter 2003). Is There a Doctor in the House? 23 The Journal of the James Madison Institute 10.
Author not available, . Florida Health State, accessed on 5-4-03 available at http://www.floridahealthstat.com/x-insglossary.shtml
reputed "health crisis" currently facing Americans. The author explores several aspects of the health care crisis and analyzes the validity of those claims. The author presents an argument that there really is not a health care crisis and it is a fallacy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Why do People Believe the Crisis is eal?
What Evidence is There That it is Not eal?
What are some of the things giving the appearance it is...shortage of students etc.
What are some of the ideas that can help the problem?
For several years now Americans have been inundated with information about the health care crisis. News channels cover the crisis and pipe it into living rooms. Magazines publish articles about the causes and history of the health care crisis and politicians use the health care crisis to sell their platform and garner votes. It seems that everywhere…
There. (U.S. health care crisis and crime problem)
St. Louis Journalism Review; May 1, 1994; Blumenthal, H.T.
Health Care Crisis Is Not a Misnomer
Newsday; November 30, 2002; Robert Reno