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For a long time, the Health Care concern has been a centre of discussion in the society as well as among the representatives in a bid to find out which would be the best way to cushion Americans from the ever increasing burden of having to take care of themselves medically. Efforts have been made but still there is no single solution to the issue hence a combined effort between the citizens and the government is very essential in ensuring that the ultimate goal is achieved and each American has adequate Health care assurance. This is the aim of the Health eforms that was passed into law at the behest of the current president, Obama.
Provisions of the Health eform
There are several benefits that the Health eforms are expected to bring to the American population in general. One of the central changes is the fact…
Ben LaBolt, (2010). Senator Obama Introduces Bill to Strengthen Emergency Medical Care
Systems. Retrieved November 13, 2011 from http://www.emsvillage.com/articles/article.cfm?id=2185
Bill Atkinson, (2010). What Obama's health care bill means for EMS. Retrieved November 13,
2011 from http://www.ems1.com/ems-advocacy/articles/779154-What-Obamas-health-care-bill-means-for-EMS/
Health eform Act
The work of Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood (2010) entitled "Employee Benefit Plan eview -- Meyerowitz, Health care eform Is Here -- Now What?" states that health care reform laws are expected to have an impact that is significant in nature and this is on the health insurance industry as well as on employee benefit issues as well. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which was then supplemented and modified, less than one week later, by the Health Care and Education Tax Credit econciliation Act (HCEA)." (Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood, 2010) Those two laws are referred to as "Health Care eform" or "Health eform Laws." (Flanagan, Miller, Pagano, and Wood, 2010) The Health eform Laws are reported, while being extremely lengthy and in depth and very detailed to "leave open a host of issues that will have to be resolved either through agency regulations…
Current Internal Revenue Code (Standard Federal version), SEC. 45R. EMPLOYEE HEALTH INSURANCE EXPENSES OF SMALL EMPLOYERS (2010) WK_ Current Internal Revenue Code SEC 45R EMPLOYEE HEALTH INSURANCE EXPENSES OF SMALL EMPLOYERS.pdf
Part III - Administrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous Section 45R -- Tax Credit for Employee Health Insurance Expenses of Small Employers Notice 2010-44
National Tax Advisory (2010) What you need to know now about the tax aspects of health reform litigation. 6 Apr 2010.
IRS Rulings & Other Documents (2002-Current), Rev. Rul. 2010-13, Internal Revenue Service, (May 3, 2010) WK_ IRS Rulings Other Documents 2002-Current Rev Rul 2010-13 May 3, 2010.pdf ©2010 Wolters Kluwer.
The result is that a multilayered system which is inherently designed to maintain and improve our public health standards has instead become almost entirely designed by its profitability. The best opportunity we have for reversing this trend is the applying of pressure that only the federal government can bring to bear. Greater regulation of pricing, coverage and standards of care will shift the focus back to quality health outcomes rather than strict improvement of the bottom line at all costs.
- Is there a solution?
How can (or can't) public policy shape health care in the U.S. hat do you predict for the next year?
Public policy absolutely has the capacity to bring improvement to a highly dysfunctional system. The Affordable Care Act and many of its related sub-initiatives such as the Readmissions Reduction Program are indicative of this opportunity. Indeed, the continuing pressure upon hospitals to focus on producing…
Krueger, a. (2013). As ACA Implementation Continues, Consumer Health Care Cost Growth Has Slowed. Whitehouse.gov.
4). Cooper and castle feel that the universal aims of the program, coupled with the program's redistributive intent, will prevent congressional fence-sitters from voting against a plan that is so obviously in the best interests of the vast majority of working Americans. Ultimately, the bill's appeal to social justice will bridge the partisan divide, and provide President Barack Obama with a firm foundation on which to build future change.
Of course, change, especially necessary change, is in the eye of the beholder, as are partisanship and bipartisanship. Cooper and Castle call their piece a "bipartisan view," but appear to spell out a largely Democratic approach to healthcare reform, one that seems specifically designed to entrench President Obama's position, and guarantee his reelection. They laud the expected, intended, or proposed actions of a man who has not yet taken office. Many of the authors' supporting arguments have already been rendered moot:…
Cooper, Jim; & Castle, Michael (16 January 2009). Health Reform: A Bipartisan View. Health Affairs 28, no. 2 w169-w172.
Nursing Practice Expected to Grow and Change
Ageing of population and healthcare providers, coupled with reforms to healthcare, will raise demands for professionals in the field, also expanding existing professionals' required skill sets and roles. Physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, nurses, and medical assistants are included in this growth area. Fortunately, healthcare is characterized by a swiftly expanding and large workforce (with 23000 new entrants every month, nationally); this sector progressed even in recent economic recessions (Survey, 2013). Registered Nursing (RN) is one of the leading U.S. occupations which is projected to grow 26% and add the highest number of jobs by 2020 (an estimated 1.2 million RNs overall), as per U.S. ureau of Labor Statistics (Survey, 2013). This stems from a projected rise in demand, as well as a need for replacing the current ageing RNs. Nursing careers are being pursued in America increasingly; the number of students enrolled…
Buerhaus, P., DesRoches, C., Applebaum, S., Hess, R., Norman, L., & Donelan, K. (2012). Are Nurses Ready for Health Care Reform? A Decade of Survey Research. Nursing Economics, 329.
Dunbar-Jacob, J. (2011). The Changing Role of Nursing in Health Care Reform. Pittsburgh: Pitt Nurse. Institute for Nursing Centers Survey (2008). Retrieved from http://nursingcenters.org/PDFs/INC%20Highlight%20Report%2010_6_08.pdf.
NURSE-MANAGED HEALTH CENTERS. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.nncc.us/pdf/NMHC_Quality_Standards.pdf
Pohl, J.M., Tanner, C., Barkauskas, V.H., Gans, D., Nagelkerk, J., & Fiandt, K. (2010). Nurse-managed health centers' national survey: Three years of data. Nursing Outlook, 58(2), 97-103
Clinton Health eform
The success of the Obama health care reform has been studied extensively, but there remains one topic worth discussing further, which is why Obama succeeded when the Clinton health care reform plan failed. This paper will analyze this issue and come to some conclusions about this important question.
In 1993, President Clinton announced his health care security plan. A large health policy team had put the plan together, and it represented substantial compromise and hard work. At the time of the announcement it seemed a near certainty that this plan would be made into law, but this would not come to pass (Starr, 1995). The plan initially received a two-thirds positive rating in polling of the American public, but it still managed to fail.
The proposal centered around an individual mandate, which at the time had been supported broadly by many epublicans and almost every interest group…
Skocpol, T (1996). Boomerang: Health care reform and the turn against government. W.W. Norton.
Starr, P. (1995). What happened to health care reform? The American Prospect. Vo. 20 (1995) 20-31.
The Consumer-Oriented and Operated Plans or CO-OP exchange will allow a variety of organizations, from traditional insurers to community-based organizations to coalitions of small-businesses, to become health insurers and to offer health insurance plans on an open and transparent market (State of Illinois, 2012). Illinois' preparedness and its clear and direct actions towards fulfilling the requirements and incentivized elements of the Affordable Care Act has enabled the state to collect a substantial amount of funding from the federal government for several of the programs already mentioned, further bolstering what the state is able to do for its citizens in terms of healthcare provision and regulation (State of Illinois, 2012).
One of the most significant steps in healthcare reform for Illinois was enacted within the state separately from the Affordable Care Act, though of course there are interrelated ramifications. eforms to the state's Medicaid program developed requirements for care coordination programs,…
Graham, J. (2010). Healthcare reform in Illinois. Chicago Tribune. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2010-03-23/health/ct-met-health-reform-illinois-20100323_1_health-insurance-premiums-insurance-rate-increases
Illinois Healthcare and Family Service. (2012). Care Coordination. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www2.illinois.gov/hfs/PublicInvolvement/cc/Pages/default.aspx
State of Illinois. (2012). Healthcare Reform in Illinois. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www2.illinois.gov/gov/healthcarereform/Pages/default.aspx#tabitem6
high road toward health reform," by ay Lefton, improved information technology is a critical component of healthcare reform. Comprehensive electronic medical health records will facilitate communication between physicians and patients as well as reduce the potential for medical errors. Flagging obvious medication errors; enabling patients' complete records to travel with them; keeping track of the responses to treatment of widespread databases of patients to 'vet' the effectiveness of patient care are all potential benefits of electronic medical records. Federal leadership and committing resources to achieving this goal is necessary, given that implementing EM will require a substantial shift in organizational cultures and expense. "Savings can be achieved with sufficient investment, compliance, and the adoption of best practices" (Lefton 2008: 42). However, issues with IT interoperability continue to plague the lofty goal of creating complete "health IT standards and infrastructure" to serve the goals of American patients (Lefton 2008: 42).
Lefton, Ray. (2008). Take the IT high road toward health reform. Healthcare Financial
Strachan, Michael. (2009). Managing change proactively within the current HIM professional domain. Health Information Management Journal, 38 (3): 7-10.
Prescription for Health Care System Stakeholders
Discuss Dr. Wilson's "prescription" for the private sector, business, and government. Do you concur with this prescription? Why, or why not?
Dr. Wilson believes that healthcare reform is among the biggest priorities that will challenge the entire spectrum of people who are involved, either directly or indirectly, with the healthcare system. There are many different perspectives that are involved in the series of reforms who are at different levels. However, treating patients in an efficient and effective manner, while also providing the best health outcomes possible, is the basis for guiding reforms; albeit, many of the different stakeholders have significantly different ideas about how to achieve such objectives. Dr. Wilson further believes that there are four points of major friction in the system and offers the prescription for challenges that will be present in order to make health system reform a success: medical liability,…
Butler, M. (2014, September). Healthcare DIY: Empowering Consumers to Optimize their Healthcare through Health Information. Retrieved from AHIMA: http://library.ahima.org/doc?oid=107435#.V223Omf6vWI
Wilson, C. (2010, August 2). A prescription for health care system stakeholders. Retrieved from amed news: http://www.amednews.com/article/20100802/opinion/308029956/5/
Health Care eform:
In March 2010, after protracted public and political debate, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was enacted into law by President Barack Obama. This legislation was one of the many health care reforms initiatives that have sought to rectify major features of the health care system in the United States such as service delivery, care coordination, and financing. Since its enactment, PPACA is considered as a milestone along the historical continuum of health care reform in America. Generally, health care reform in the United States is an issue that has continued to evolve based on the ever-growing health care needs of the population. However, this issue has been characterized with several challenges that are mainly influenced by the public's response to reform efforts.
Principal Features of U.S. Health Care System:
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which is commonly known as the Affordable…
Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2012). Understanding health policy: a clinical approach (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.
"Key Features of the Affordable Care Act by Year." (n.d.). Features of the Health Law.
Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/facts/timeline/timeline-text.html
Leflar, R.B. (2013, July 12). Reform of the United States Health Care System: An Overview.
" (Arnold & Reeves, 2009). ith medical services price at the present time, illness or some kind of complicated to medical services may take people deprived of health insurance years to reimburse for bills that are medical. Furthermore, I believe that individuals who lost their jobs also are uninsured for the reason that their employer gave health insurance is no longer paying for them. I understand that based on the statistic; there are "way too many around 1 million workers that have lost their health reporting in the first three months of 2009. I think that helping people buy health insurance coverage with low-cost with offering the health plans options for the uninsured is the healthcare reform that is really needed now. In this way, individuals that are without health insurance will be able to afford paying their medical insurance to uphold their well-being.
In conclusion, with the increasing rapidly…
Arnold, P.J., & Reeves, T.C. (2009). International Trade and Health Policy: Implications of the GATS for U.S. Healthcare Reform. Journal of Business Ethics, 63(4), 34.
Belcon, M.C., Ahmed, N.U., Younis, M.Z., & Bongyu, M. (40-74.). ANALYSIS of NATIONAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS: SEARCHING for a MODEL for DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - TRINIDAD and TOBAGO as a TEST CASE. Public Administration and Management, 14(2), 10-14.
Bolduc, C.R. (2008). The impact of healthcare reform on HMO administrators. Hospital & Health Services Administration, 17(9), 23-45.
Reiboldt, M. (2010). The Industry Responds to the Passing of Healthcare Reform. The Journal of Medical Practice Management, 18(6), 327-328.
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…
1. Eakin, Douglas and Michael Ramlet. (2010) "Health Care Reform is Likely to Widen Budget Deficits -- Not Reduce Them." Health Affairs, 29, no.6:1136-1141. Eakin and Ramlet examine the underpinnings of the Congressional Budget Office's projection that enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will decrease deficits, and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade. This is an excellent article with regards to my article, written by two policy commentators at the forefront of their field. This article shows expertise in medical economics and offers compelling, clear arguments for the increase in the federal deficit due to the massive spending on entitlements as a result of passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. They project deficits, opposing the Congressional Budget Office, through their insightful analysis.
2. Marmor, Theodore, Jonathan Oberlander, and Joseph White. (2009) "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." Ann Intern Med. 150:485-489. Controlling the costs of medical care has long been an elusive goal in U.S. health policy. This article examines the options for health care cost control under the Obama administration. The authors argue that the administration's approach to health reform offers some potential for cost control but also embraces many strategies that are not likely to be successful. Lessons the United States can learn from other countries' experiences in constraining medical care spending are then explored. This article offers evidence for the lack of cost containment in the Obama administrations' plans for health reform. It gives a good analysis of the international scene in health care as well.
3. Collins, Sara, Michelle M. Doty, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Alice Ho. (2004) "The Affordability Crisis in Health Care." Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey. Published in 2004, The Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted from September 2003 -- January 2004, presents new and timely information on where the American public stands on solutions to reform the health care system. The survey finds widespread support for federal efforts to extend health insurance to more people, as well as a widely held belief that the financing of health care should continue to be a shared responsibility among individuals, employers, and the government. The survey also uncovered potential reasons for such strong support for health care reform. Among the insured and the uninsured alike, there is concern that health care security in the United States is eroding. People are experiencing reductions in insurance coverage that are threatening their financial security.
4. Etheridge, Lynn (1984) "An Aging Society and the Federal Deficit." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 521-543. This article serves as early warning sign of the deficit battles to come. It argues that the conflict between the growing needs of an aging society and a federal budget which cannot afford its current commitments has become one of the nation's most difficult government policy dilemmas. Assistance for the elderly through Social Security, Medicare, and other programs-is already the federal government's largest fiscal responsibility. In 1985 these programs will require nearly half of all domestic program spending an estimated $256 billion. The future costs of these commitments will rise rapidly well into the next century, accounting-with national defense and interest costs-for virtually all of the spending increases in the projected $200 to $300 billion deficits. Etheridge asserts that the decisions about the nation's assistance to the elderly -- and about reaffirmation, reform, and/or retrenchment of these commitments-will thus be central to the coming budget debates.
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
Each of these was included in the initial Senate bill, but was struck from the final Senate version. Despite the victories, the group isn't ready to pledge support for health reform bills. The AMA will not endorse any legislation unless Congress gets rid of the mandated payment cuts of more than $200 billion over 10 years in the government's Medicare program for the elderly. The cuts are part of Congressional action that was passed in 1997 in order to cut costs in the Medicare program, but have never gone into effect. There are also several hospitals, insurers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and advocacy groups that are withholding final support. Most of these groups have pledged support to health care reform in principle while working privately through lobbyists to protect their industries (Eaton and Pell, 2010).
Healthcare lobbyists range from very large companies and corporations to very small groups who are all looking…
BREAKING: Health care lobby invests in reform summit. (2010). Retrieved March 1, 2010, from Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington Web site:
Eaton, Joe and Pell, M.B. (2010). Lobbyists Swarm Capitol to Influence Health Reform.
Retrieved March 1, 2010, from the Center for Public Integrity Web site:
The SG2 report (2010, p. 9) also mentions academic medical centers (AMCs), which will have enter into affiliation agreements in order to comply with the reformed care laws. This will furthermore mean more integrated physician networks and it integration, as mentioned above.
Two further important factors are mentioned by Moyers (2010). She notes that the inclusive nature of health care definitions for occupational therapists is a significant step forward in terms of recognizing the profession as a legitimate health care service. Occupational therapy, for example, is specifically included in the "Innovations in the Health Care Workforce" section of the new legislation. This is significant, because occupational therapists will now be eligible for state workforce grants, slots on the national commission on workforce, and other similar privileges enjoyed by other health care providers.
Other items, excluded from the bill, is the second item the author mentions. She notes that one of…
Davis, P.A., Hahn, J., Morgan, P.C., Stone, J., and Tilson, S. (2010, Apr. 23). Medicare Provisions in the Patient Protection. Retrieved from: http://www.nasuad.org/documentation/aca/CRS%20Reports/April%2023%20-%20Medicare.pdf
Moyers, P. (2010, Mar. 25). What Health Care Reform Means to Occupational Therapy.
Retrieved from: http://otconnections.aota.org/blogs/moyers/archive/2010/03/25/what-healthcare-reform-means-to-occupational-therapy.aspx
Sg2 Special Report: (2010, May). The Impact of Health Reform
Health Care Past, Current, And Future
The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.
Past Health Care Services -- Early America
Health care in colonial…
Daly, John. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York:
Springer Publishing Company.
Gorsky, Martin. (2010). Good Health for America? History Today, 60(2), 1-6.
McCarthy, Robert L., and Schafermeyer, Kenneth W. (2007). Introduction to Health Care
He further goes on to say that, "I am my brother's keeper and I am my sister's keeper" to bolster this point.
In a separate interview, epublican National Committee chairman Michael Steele refutes Obama's speech and maintained that Obama's call for healthcare reform as moral obligation is simply a "gimmick" and Obama's choice of going as far as this means that the White House is running scared as it needs to financially shore up its base.
The article closes on White House's denial that Obama is preparing to initiate a government-run "public option" for healthcare that will compete against private healthcare companies. As a matter of fact, Obama is working on the intensification of his healthcare reform call by reaching the channels of grass roots supporters via online and telephone meeting.
Collinson, Stephen. "Obama makes moral case for health reform." 20 Aug. 2009. Yahoo! News.
9 Sept. 2009.
Collinson, Stephen. "Obama makes moral case for health reform." 20 Aug. 2009. Yahoo! News.
9 Sept. 2009.
Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.
Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…
Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.
WHO rates France as having the best healthcare ("World Health," 2000). In addition to universal healthcare, France also has non-profit supplementary providers, which means that the government subsidizes 70% of regular expenses but pays 100% of more expensive or long-term treatment plans (Sandier, Paris, & Polton, 2004). Money for subsidies comes from mandatory earnings contributions such as 5.25% salary, capital income, and gambling winnings (Sandier, 2004).
An argument that often arises is that people say they don't want the government deciding what medical procedures they can have. However, decisions regarding what procedures are covered by a particular health plan are made by the healthcare insurance companies, which are for-profit ("Insurance Verification," n.d.). Many people are denied treatment regardless of the illness. As already mentioned, some of the other nations with universal healthcare have supplementary plans in addition to the government plans that allow the patient more choice.
There are many…
Carrasquillo, O., Himmelstein, DU.,Woodhandler, S., Bor, DH. (1999). A Reappraisal of Private Employers' Role in Providing Health Insurance. NEJM, 340(1), 109-114.
"Insurance Verification & Eligibility Services." (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globaledgeusa.com/insurance_verification_eligibility_services/
Mahon, Mary. (2010, June 23). U.S. ranks last among 7 countries on health system performance. EurkAlert. Retrieved from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-06/cf-url062210.php
Reid, T.R. (Producer). (2008, April 15). Frontline: Sick around the world [Television broadcast]. New York: Central Broadcasting Service.
Starbucks has committed to provide healthcare coverage to employees who work at least 20 hours a week. This year, the cost will add up to over 200 million dollars for coverage of its over 80,000 employees. Schultz's perspective, differing from G is that the company's healthcare accounts for its very low employee turnover and high productivity. However, their generosity is even now bringing down their bottom line, Starbucks is attracting older workers who no doubt join the company for its healthcare benefits. As a result, Shultz notes that Starbuck's future healthcare costs will dramatically increase. Starbucks has seen that their insurance costs have had double digit increases in each of the past four years, and that this growth is completely "non-sustainable." Part of the reason that Starbucks is able to maintain its current healthcare policy is the relative newness of the company and its current lack of retirement healthcare costs.…
Moroni, R. (2005, August 29). Foreign Competition May Push U.S. Health Reform.
Grand Rapids Business Journal. 23 (36), p4-4, 1/3p. Retrieved September 21, 2006, from the EBSCO HOST Regional Business News database. (an 18097323).
Yip, P. (2005, October 18). General Motors health-care deal an example of changes over time. Dallas Morning News, the (TX). Retrieved September 21, 2006, from the EBSCO HOST Newspaper Source database. (an 2W62009610037).
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…
Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research
Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.
Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.
Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.
What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?
The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:
"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America, Praeger Publishers, Westport,
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Uninsured Americans: Newly
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…
Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,
Healthcare professionals offer their services to the community whilst taking care to fully respect people's dignity. Doctors need to earn public confidence by dedicating their skill all equally, and to the best of their ability. A number of professional organizations supporting doctors in ensuring public safety exist, two of which are the ANA (American Nurses Association) and the AMA (American Medical Association). In this paper, the two aforementioned organizations' standards and functions will be analyzed.
A clear identification of the professional boards
The ANA represents its 3.6-million-strong registered nurse (RN) workforce's interests. Its goal is attempting to advance the profession of nursing through the promotion of superior practice standards (American Nurses Association, 2016). Meanwhile, the AMA represents a professional organization chiefly engaged in publishing studies geared at advancing public health, in addition to advocating for licensed doctors' interests. It participates in the areas of Obamacare implementation, healthcare IT, Medicare/Medicaid, improvements…
"What is the role of Congress in policy making process"?
Policy is a plan to identify goal or possible course of actions with administrative or management tools to accomplish these goals. n the other hand, policy is the authoritative decision made by the U.S. executive, legislative, judicial branch of government to influence the decision of others. Government is a key player in decision-making process and congress plays important roles in decision-making . In the United States, both House of Representatives and House of Senate fulfill the congressional policy responsibilities, and congress plays important role in health policy, which includes obesity prevention measures or health insurance program. Congress is an important arm of government that makes law. Important strategy that congress uses to make policy preference is by passing a bill into law. Typically, the congress could make a decision to pass or not to the policy of the…
Oregon Department of Human Services.(2008). The impact of federal policy on Oregon's health care reform efforts: Opportunities and barriers within Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Medical Assistance Programs.
Waller, M. (2005).Block Grants: Flexibility vs. Stability in Social Services. Brookings Institution Policy Brief.
Zuckert, M.P. (2002). Launching Liberalism: On Lockean Political Philosophy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients
Probing what information is available about the current status of placement or accommodation and level of personal healthcare available to mentally impaired and emotionally disturbed individuals, it is clear that the analysis is as diverse as there are different mental illnesses. While statistics on managed care treatment for people with severe and disabling mental illnesses are sparse, it is evident that the financial responsibility to care for and house these patients is enormous.
According to Dr. David Satcher, the Surgeon General (1999), approximately 20% of the U.S. adult population has a mental illness. He says, "These illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, anorexia nervosa, and severe cognitive impairment. More serious mental illnesses include ipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mental illness accounts for 15% of overall burden of disease -- more than malignant cancer and respiratory diseases -- and as far back as 1996 the direct cost…
Boulard, G. (2000, April). Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill. State Legislatures, 26, 12. Retrieved February 13, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Callahan, D. (1993, October) Minds and hearts: priorities in mental health services.
The Hastings Center Report.
Fox, M. & Kim, K. (2004, January) Evaluating a Medicaid Home and Community-based Physical Disability Waiver. Family and Community Health. Vol 27: 37.
Despite of the receipt of federal funding to assist in the set-up of an insurance exchange program, the Minnesota legislature is not cooperating with the Governor Drayton's plans to design a program. Instead, in a classic example of partisan politics, the legislature is going forward with its own plans to design an exchange program. In doing so, the legislature is placing the State of Minnesota in a position of possibly losing the grant provided by the federal government. According to the grant provisions, the state must show it can operate an effective exchange program by the end of calendar year 2012 or the federal government under the terms of ACA will impose a one size fits all exchange on the state. Even the state's most conservative political groups oppose this happening and advocate that the state's executive and legislative branches cooperate in formulating an acceptable state exchange program.
Berkel, Jessica Van. "HCMC fights back against Pawlenty's GAMC Cuts." 3 December 2009. Minnesota Daily . http://www.mndaily.com/2009/12/03/hcmc-fights-back-against-pawlenty%E2%80%99s-gmac-cuts . 7 April 2012.
Gray, Virginia. "Incrementing Toward Nowhere: Universal Health Care Coveragein the States." Publius (2010): 82-113.
Harrington, Scott E. "The Health Insurance Reform Debate." The Journal of Risk and Insurance (2010): 5-38.
Minnesota Department of Human Services. "General Assistance Medical Care." 11 September 2011. http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/idcplg?IdcService=GET_DYNAMIC_CONVERSION&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&Redirected=true&dDocName=id_006257 . 7 April 2012.
overwhelming connections between healthcare costs and the macroeconomic performance of the U.S. economy. The impact of healthcare industry on the macroeconomic performance is evident from the fact that in 2009 healthcare expenditure of the U.S. was 18% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. It was also estimated that should the healthcare costs continue to grow at historical rates, 34% of the U.S. GDP will compose of healthcare spending by 2040 (Whitehouse, 2009). The major sources of funding the healthcare costs are the Federal, State, and local governments of the U.S. Medicare is a healthcare program that subsidizes healthcare for citizens above 65 years of age. Medicaid subsidizes healthcare delivery for people below a certain income level. Approximately 50% of the healthcare expenditure is bore by governments at the federal, state and local level. It is also estimated that Medicare and Medicaid spending of Federal and State governments…
CMS. (2013, Nov). National Health Expenditure Projections 2012-2022. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NationalHealthAccountsProjected.html
Kolstad, J.T., & Kowalski, A.E. (2012). Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform (No. w17933). National Bureau of Economic Research.
The Whitehouse. (2009). Deficit-Reducing Health Care Reform. The Whitehouse. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov /economy/reform/deficit-reducing-health-care-reform
CBO. (2011, March). The Economic Case for the Health Care Reform. Congressional Budget Office: Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisers. Retrieved from: http://www.cbo.gov/publication/22077
Americans healthcare delivery in the United States has been via a market driven system, 1 usually through purchase of health insurance, participation in HOs or other types of collective agencies. For those who qualify enrollment in edicare and edicaid programs will cover or defray costs of healthcare.2 For a growing number of people in the U.S. medical care costs are not covered by insurance or government programs, for them out of pocket and indigent services are their only options.3 This paper will look at the how financing healthcare affects both costs and use of healthcare services.
Private Health insurance.
Private health insurance in the United States developed around the 1930's during the Depression4 and grew during the economic expansion of the post-WWII years. "Under most private insurance and Blue Cross -- Blue Shield plans, fee-for-service, with physicians determining the economic value of their own services, became the established method of…
Martin Ruef, "Social Ontology and the Dynamics of Organizational Forms: Creating Market Actors in the Healthcare Field, 1966-1994,"
Journal article by; University of North Carolina Press, 1999
Zelman W., and McLaughlin C. (1990). "Product Lines in a Complex Marketplace: Matching Organizational Strategy to Buyer Behavior." Health Care Management Review 15:2 (Spring),
The topic of this research is "PPACA- Patient Protection an Affordable Care Act." PPACA has created a great impact in the healthcare industry of United States of America. The study is based on the critical analysis of the act by reviewing the performance since its inception.
Arguably the most prominent recent healthcare reform has been PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act). PPACA is also known as the Affordable care act and Obamacare. It was signed by the President Obama in the year 2010 in collaboration with the Healthcare econciliation Act. This act is considered to be one of the most major reforms passed in the healthcare system of United States; the last such major reform was passed in the year 1965 in the form of Medicaid.
When this provision Act was passed in 2010, there were 50 million…
Barr, Donald A. Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America. JHU Press. 2011
Blendon RJ, Benson."Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform." N. Engl. J. Med. 362 (16): e55. 2010
Elmendorf, Douglas. "CBO's Analysis of the Major Health Care Legislation Enacted in March 2010." Congressional Budget Office. 2011
Feldman, Arthur M. Understanding Health Care Reform: Bridging the Gap between Myth and Reality. CRC Press. 2011
4 million young people); e) Americans that are uninsured and that have "preexisting conditions" can as of now get insurance through the "Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Program" (PCIP); f) 46 states are using Affordable Care Act resources to "crack down on unreasonable premium increases" (hite House).
There are additional benefits that result from the Affordable Care Act will come into play in 2014, according to the hite House. Those include a new competitive insurance marketplace that will be established. In that new marketplace will be state-run health insurance exchanges where "million of Americans and small businesses will be able to purchase affordable coverage" and have the same healthcare choices as "Members of Congress," the hite House explains.
As to the federal fiscal benefits from the Affordable Care Act, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports that healthcare reform can reduce the national debt / deficit by $145 billion by 2019 and by…
Lampert, Jacqueline Garry. (2009). The Need for Health Care Reform by the Numbers. The Democratic Policy Committee. Retrieved March 29, 2011, from http://www.dpc.senate.gov/dpcdocpr.cfm?doc_name=fs-111-1-90 .
Obama, Barack. (2009). Why We Need Health Care Reform. The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Singletary, Michelle. (2011). Denied insurance under new health-care law? File an appeal, the GAO says. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com .
The White House. (2011). Health Reform in Action / the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved March
The Affordable Care Act works on the premise that all Americans should have access to health care insurance. Because this is provided through insurance companies, the system is only enforceable under certain conditions. One of the key tenets of health care reform is the idea that those with pre-existing conditions cannot be denied insurance coverage. This group of people has long had problems getting insurance, and insurance companies spend tens of millions to invent pre-existing conditions that would then be used to deny coverage. Even insurance commissioners have been known to take offensive and absurd stances on pre-existing conditions, arguing that insurance companies should not have to take customers with such conditions because the person is to blame for their pre-existing condition (Ferguson, 2013). With attitudes like this from people connected to the insurance industry, the only way that the Obama Administration was going to achieve universal health care…
Ferguson, D. (2013). Georgia insurance commissioner: It's your fault if you have a pre-existing commission. Raw Story Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2013/12/05/georgia-insurance-commissioner-its-your-fault-if-you-have-a-pre-existing-condition/
Klein, E. (2012). Unpopular mandate. The New Yorker. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/06/25/120625fa_fact_klein
Kliff, S. (2013). Washington State provides case study on effects of health care reform. Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-06-16/national/35461636_1_individual-mandate-health-insurance-insurance-reforms
AARP. (2013). For people 65+. American Association of Retired People. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/health/healthcare_reform/2013-07/aca-factsheet-for-65-aarp.pdf
A largely insular community since their initial settlement in the United States, the Amish community presents unique challenges for healthcare workers. The Amish eschew modern technology, including many of the tools and techniques used in modern medicine. In fact, the Amish community also forbids higher education (Adams & Leverland, 1986). Misconceptions and misunderstandings about the Amish further complicate healthcare decisions and relationships between healthcare providers and Amish patients. For example, it is commonly assumed that the Amish “lack the preventive practices of immunizations and prenatal care,” (Adams & Leverland, 1986, p. 58). While the rates of immunizations are relatively low among the Amish, the Amish church does not forbid immunization (Adams & Leverland, 1986). The Amish also have a keen interest in disease prevention, health education, and lifestyle choices that prevent health problems (Talpos, 2016). Although Amish attitudes towards health, wellness, and the healthcare system may be at odds with…
healthcare services, many people could encounter some form of discrimination on the basis of their race, gender, or even sexual orientation. Discrimination in healthcare may seem like it is not something that is a major issue. However, it absolutely does come up in many situations, states and environments. hether based on gender, religion, race or sexuality, discrimination happens at overt or implied levels all of the time. In other situations, there are huge disparities in healthcare outcomes from one group to another and many experts say that this can only come from systemic or sporadic instance of racism from the healthcare sphere, from society in general or a combination of the two. hile most people get very good care, there are situations where the healthcare and/or government sectors fall short. It is important to note that although people are not always aware of this; there are various laws that seek…
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 11 U.S. Code Section 507 - Priorities. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/11/507
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 18 U.S. Code Section 152 - Concealment of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/152
lawschoolcasebriefs.net. (2002). Access Now, Inc. v. Southwest Airlines Co. Retrieved from www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net: http://www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net/2013/12/access-now-inc-v-southwest-airlines-co.html
State of California. (n.d.). California Corporations Code. Retrieved from www.leginfo.ca.gov: http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/.html/corp_table_of_contents.html
Healthcare: Clinical Integration
What is clinical integration
History of clinical integration
Goals of clinical integration
Importance of clinical integration
New payment models
Barriers to clinical integration
Lack of practitioner alignment
Lack of interoperability
How to achieve success in clinical integration
The future of health care systems
Physician acquisitions vs. clinical integration
HIEs -- solution to clinical integration?
Policy makers are beginning to appreciate the fact that only systemic change can effectively change, for the better, the manner of health care delivery in the U.S.; and that anything less would only alter the system's edges - with little or no substantial effect on cost-control, innovation-promotion, effectiveness of reward incentive schemes, coordination and coverage (AHA, 2010). Clinical integration has been found to be crucial to the change needed for the achievement of the aforementioned goals (AHA, 2010). Despite…
AHA. Clinical Integration -- the Key to Real Reform. Trend Watch. Retrieved from [HIDDEN]
Athena Health. (2014). History of the Clinical Integration Model. Athena Health. Retrieved from https://www.athenahealth.com/knowledge-hub/clinical-integration/clinical-integration-model.php
eHealth Initiative. (2012). The Rise of the Private Health Information Exchange and Changing Role of Public Exchanges. eHealth Initiative. Retrieved from [HIDDEN]
Fridsma, D. (2013). Interoperability Vs Health Information Exchange: Setting the Record Straight. Health IT Buzz. Retrieved from http://www.healthit.gov/buzz-blog/meaningful-use/interoperability-health-information-exchange-setting-record-straight/
Health and Legislative Issues
All Americans have the desire of having a healthcare system which is capable of delivering world-class security together with financial security. The system in place should always be accessible and one that impacts the economy positively. Successful healthcare reforms will lead to a maximization of the choices available for consumers put a restrain to the ever increasing medical care costs and make healthcare accessible to more and more Americans. There are a number of organizations that have consistently urged the president and congress on building on the existing systems which strengths in order to achieve health reform solutions that are workable in a bipartisan manner. However, there are some healthcare legislative issues that come up and have effects on various stakeholders such as legislators, consumers and other healthcare professionals. This paper will look at one of the current health legislative issues, who is affected most by…
Mears, B.(2012). Health care's big four issues: What the justices are tackling. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.cnn.com/2012/06/17/politics/health-care-issues/
ANA.(2010). Nursing Beyond Borders: Access to Health Care for Documented and Undocumented Immigrants Living in the U.S. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy-Advocacy/Positions-and-Resolutions/Issue-Briefs/Access-to-care-for-immigrants.pdf
Goodman, J., (2012). The Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on Job Creators and the Economy. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.independent.org/issues/article.asp?id=3385
American College of Emergency Physicians, (2013). The Ethics of Health Care Reform: Issues in Emergency - Medicine - An Information Paper. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.acep.org/Content.aspx?id=80871
Health care reform is term used to refer to the creation of government health policy that impact the delivery of healthcare in the United States of America. Primarily, healthcare attempts to widen the population that gets healthcare through the two common insurance programs, public and private. It widens the horizon of care providers that the public can choose from. Healthcare also enhances the access to health care specialists, enhances quality of care as well as decreasing the cost of health care. Basically, Health care covers four basic functional components of the U.S. health care delivery system include financing, insurance, delivery, and quality care
Legislation for Health Care Finance
The name of the bill name is Medicaid evenue Act 2012 and number of legislation is IL S. 159. This bill was proposed by the Illinois Democratic Senator Antonio Munoz previously of General Assembly (93rd) and currently of the 1st District (…
Legislative Information System. (2012). Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from www.ilga.gov.
Michigan House Republicans. (2012). Michigan House Representative. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from http://www.gophouse.com/welcome.asp?District=088
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2012, September 25). Federal Health Reform: State Legislative Tracking Database. Retrieved October 2012, from www.ncsl.org.
Turner, G.-M. (2012, June 13 ). If ObamaCare Is Judged Unconstitutional, Here's How To Reform Healthcare. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from www.forbes.com.
Health Disparities of Uninsured
Statistics show that approximately 47 million of America's population lacks medical coverage, and another 38 million has inadequate health insurance. What these statistics imply is that one-third of Americans are insecure and unsure about whether they would afford healthcare if they fell sick or needed medical help today. The State of Texas tops the list, with an uninsured population of approximately 8 million, representing 25.1% of the total (Code ed, 2006). Minority groups form a bulk of the uninsured population (Wu & ingwalt, 2005). The impact of a large uninsured population, however, is massive -- the uninsured affect both themselves and the communities in which they live, compromising the quality of care and placing everyone at risk. They do not often have a primary care physician, which means that they neither seek out medical care when they are supposed to, nor turn up for preventive care…
Abdullah, F., Zhang, Y., Lardaro, T., Black, M., Colombani, P.M., Chrouser, K., Pronovost, P.J. & Chang, D.C. (2009). Analysis of 23 Million U.S. Hospitalizations: Uninsured Children have Higher All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality. Journal of Public Health, 32(2), 236-244.
ACEP. (2013). The Uninsured: Access to Medical Care. American College of Emergency Physicians. Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.acep.org/News-Media-top-banner/The-Uninsured -- Access-To-Medical-Care/
ANA. (2008). ANA's Health System Reform Agenda. American Nurses Association (ANA). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/content/healthcareandpolicyissues/agenda/anashealthsystemreformagenda.pdf
Bernstein, J., Chollet, D. & Peterson, S. (2010). How does Insurance Coverage Improve Health Outcomes? Mathematica Policy Research Inc. (No. 1). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/health/reformhealthcare_IB1.pdf
The term health care refers to the inter-related system of care provided to persons during illness. In most of the cases, healthcare begins with the family doctor who refers patient to specialists if needed or directly order further diagnostic testing. Community health clinics perform the same procedure as a family doctor, but alongside with that, clinics also provide insight into patterns of health or illness seen within the community. Hospital just form one part of the healthcare community, as are mostly visited when a patient's condition is more acute and requires intervention by the hospitals high-end staff, since more can be done for him in a hospital rather than in a clinic where he is just an out-patient.
Clinics of various types provide very specific services, such as "pain management clinics" these clinics are targeted for towards people suffering from pain conditions. ehabilitation services also form a needed part…
DDI (2006) Health Care Global Comparison: Leadership Forecast 2005|2006. DDI, Pennsylvania.
DDI (2007) Leading the Past: Preparing the Future. DDI, Pennsylvania.
Fischer (2007) Culture and cultural analysis as experimental systems. Cultural Anthropology. 21(1) 1-65.
Greenfield D (2007) The enactment of dynamic leadership. Leadership in Health Sciences. 20(3) 159-168.
Health Care Trends
With the passage of the Affordable Care Act the personal health of every American has become an important issue. While most health care funds are spent treating diseases and other health problems, there has recently been a push toward focusing on prevention of health problems. For example, "chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes are now responsible for more than 75% of health care costs." (Berman, 201, p.328) But as these health problems are almost entirely preventable a focus on prevention could save a great deal of money that would be better spent elsewhere. Therefore many Americans are beginning to endorse policies that prevent health problems before they start. Some of these ideas involve incentives to reward people for healthy behavior while others involve penalties to punish those who do not. However, research indicates that punishments are not as effective as incentives when it…
Blacksher, Erika. (2008). "Carrots and Sticks to Promote Healthy Behaviors." Hasting
Center Report. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1353/hcr.0.0002/abstract
Berman, Micah. (Fall 2011). "From Health Care Reform to Public Health Reform."
Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, vol. 39 (3). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1748-720X.2011.00603.x/abstract
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
Healthcare in Canada: To Privatize or Not to Privatize
To Privatize or not to Privatize: Healthcare in Canada
Canada prides itself in one of the most generous healthcare systems in the world. Canadians do not have to rely on their employers for health insurance or to pay out-of-pocket for their medical procedures as the greater part of their healthcare bill is footed by the government. This has had the effect of making the country a rather healthy nation; however, its health comes at a cost. Canada currently spends over 9% of its GDP on healthcare -- the highest amount in the developed world. This proportion can be expected to rise over the coming years as the Baby Boomer population ages. Privatization has been proposed as a possible way of reducing the government's expenditure on healthcare. This text assesses the potential costs and benefits of healthcare privatization.
Open letter to the…
Commission on the Future of Healthcare in Canada. (2002). Sustainability of Canada's Healthcare System. Commission on the Future of Healthcare in Canada. Retrieved December 14, 2015 from http://www.cfhi-fcass.ca/sf-docs/default-source/romonow-commission-english/Discussion_Paper_Sustainability_of_Canada_s_healthcare_system.pdf?sfvrsn=0
Howard, W. J. (2011). Missing Links: the Effects of Healthcare Privatization on Women in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Prairie Women's Health Center of Excellence. Retrieved December 14, 2015 from http://www.pwhce.ca/pdf/ml.pdf
Wilson, DF. (2000). Privatization of the Canadian Healthcare System: Not Yet and Hopefully Never. University of Alberta, Edmonton. Retrieved December 14, 2015 from https://www.uow.edu.au/~bmartin/dissent/documents/health/privat_canada.html
Health policy is a term that is commonly used to refer to plans, decisions, and initiatives that are carried out to accomplish specific goals relating to delivery of health care and promoting the well-being of individuals within a community. As a result, these plans, decisions or initiatives usually incorporate a vision for the future, which is essentially the expected outcome of its implementation. The vision for the future helps in establishing specific targets and references in the short- and long-term of the implementation of the policy. Notably, the development and implementation of the policy is characterized by some major political forces since politics is the basis of policy making. An example of a current health care policy is the Affordable Care Act of Maryland.
Affordable Care Act of Maryland
The Affordable Care Act of Maryland is an example of a current health policy issue that was enacted in 2010 to…
Cohn, J. (2014, September 29). 7 Charts That Prove Obamacare Is Working. Retrieved September 19, 2015, from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/119623/obamacare-one-year-seven-charts-show-law-working
"How Will the Uninsured in Maryland Fare Under the Affordable Care Act?" (2014, January 6). The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved September 20, 2015, from http://kff.org/health-reform/fact-sheet/state-profiles-uninsured-under-aca-maryland/
Kitces, M.E. (2015, May). Navigating the Affordable Care Act: Understanding the Law and Planning Implications for Clients. Journal of Financial Planning, 28(5), 28-35.
Murray, R. (2009, October). Setting Hospital Rates to Control Costs and Boost Quality: The Maryland Experience. Health Affairs, 28(5), 1395-1405.
Health Campaign Slogan or Message for Tb or Other Emerging Infectious Diseases
A HEALTH CAMPAIGN SLOGAN FO TB OOTHE EMEGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Factors To Be Considered
The effective and efficient campaign is established from clear messages that have a clear statement of the message, the desired solutions (as found in the campaign goal) and the possible action plan that can be taken to reach the goal of the campaign. The message becomes effective when it captures the attention of the audience. The clarity of the message comes with the lettering, the size of the object bearing the message, the coloring of the message, the creativity within the message, and the overall location of the message object (Freeman & Lu, 2009). The audience will be able to capture the interests of the health campaign message if it has been written in the language easily understood, with the use of the simplest…
Freeman, C., & Lu, X. (2009). China's Capacity To Manage Infectious Diseases: Global Implications; A Report of the Freeman Chair In China Studies. Washington, D.C: Center For Strategic And International Studies.
Roberts, M. J. (2004). Getting Health Reform Right: A Guide To Improving Performance And Equity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Health Policy Analysis for Maryland AC (Affordable Care) Act
McLaughlin, & McLaughlin (2014) rank 11 areas of health innovation based on their impact on costs and quality of healthcare delivery. The process improvement is the highest ranking item. However, the authors identify data analytics, disease management, "non-physician delivery alternatives," and "alternative to fee-for service" (McLaughlin, & McLaughlin, 2014 p 335) as other innovation items that can enhance quality and reduce costs. Additionally, the authors point out that innovation in electronic medical records, diagnosis, and pharmaceuticals can also assist with quality and cost.
Objective of this health policy paper is to evaluate the items that can play important role in the health policy process of Maryland's ACA (Affordable Care Act).
Healthcare items for Health Policy Process for in Maryland Affordable Care Act
The ACA (Affordable Care Act) is a federal government legislation focusing on healthcare coverage for small groups and individuals.…
Abrams, M. Nuzum, R. Mika, S. et al. (2011). Realizing Health Reform's Potential How the Affordable Care Act Will Strengthen Primary Care and Benefit Patients, Providers, and Payers. The Commonwealth Fund.
Chin, W.W. Hamermesh, R.G. Huckman, R.S. et al.(2012). 5 Imperatives Addressing Innovative Challenge. Harvard Business School.
McLaughlin, C.P. & McLaughlin, C.D. (2014). Health Policy Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Approach.(2nd Edition). Burlington, Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Resnik, D.B. (2007). Responsibility for Health: Personal, Social, and Environmental. J Med Ethics. 33(8): 444-445.
All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.
Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.
Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).
From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…
Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.
Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.
Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com /2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0].
Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.
Health care reform has the objective of getting more people insured, and leveraging government bargaining power to lower the cost of health care. Our organization needs to be ready for this. We have the baby boomers joining Medicare, and Medicare is seeking to lower health care costs; so are private insurers. As an organization, we need to bring our costs down in order to remain profitable. This need not be hard -- every other country in the world does it. In this context, streamlining operations, eliminating waste, bargaining with suppliers and finding ways to streamline services to increase customer turnover are all measures that I would undertake in order to ready the organization for the full implementation of health care reform. Eliminating waste is a critical component of maintaining profitability within the health care system (Berwick & Hackbarth, 2012).
Something I would do differently with respect to health care planning…
Berwick, D. & Hackbarth, A. (2012). Eliminating waste in U.S. health care. JAMA. Vol. 207 (15) 1513-1516.
Farmer, J. & Nimegeer, A. (2014). Community participation to design rural primary healthcare services. BMC Health Services. Vol. 14 (130) [HIDDEN]
Olsen, E. (2008). SWOT Analysis: How To Perform One For Your Organization (Webcast). Virtual Strategist.
Health Care: The Next Twelve Months
Over the next twelve months, there will be many changes to health care in the United States. The largest and most ambitious goal is to provide the majority of Americans with health insurance (Blendon & Benson, 2010). However, there will be a presidential election and a Supreme Court ruling, which means that 2012 could be the year that determines whether the health care law moves forward or whether it is shut down. It could also go forward in part, after having large pieces of it removed, and it could go forward with some fundamental changes. How the elections go will greatly affect the law - unless, of course, the Supreme Court strikes the law down before the elections arrive. It seems like that the Supreme Court will rule on the individual mandate from a constitutional standpoint, and that could lead to some of the…
Blendon R.J., Benson J.M. (2010). Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform. New England Journal of Medicine, 362 (16): e55.
Elmendorf, D.W. (2010). Additional information on the effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. Congressional Budget Office.
Peterson, C.L. & Chaikind, H. (2010), Summary of small business health insurance tax credit under PPACA. Congressional Research Service.
In the wake on new and very contentious health care reform, many firms have undergone extensive transformations. These transformations have been predicated on both cost control and quality management. In particular quality management has had a profound impact on the underlying business operations of many health care firms. For one, firms are now finding methods in which to enhance the overall patient experience while also mitigating potential loses due to negligent means. The focus on quality management has also made firms more efficient in regards to the overall delivery of service. In particular, my firm has done extensive work with reducing elderly accidents within the facility. This quality management initiative has not only reduced costs associated with accidents, but it also has enhanced the trust and patient experience of all stakeholders within the firm (Kelly, 2011).
Identify the milestone you chose in the history of quality improvement in…
1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81
2) Kohn, L.T., Corrigan, J.M., & Donaldson, M.S. (Eds). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
3) Kelly, D.L. (2011). Applying quality management in healthcare: A systems approach (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press
4) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick A. (2009). "Chapter 1
Health Organization Case Study
The mission of Banner Healthcare is to make a difference in the lives of people through excellent patient care. They achieve this by providing leadership for excellence in patient safety and clinical care. Traditionally, healthcare institutions focused on analyzing aggregate performance, questioning causation, monitoring scorecards and identifying gaps. Planning and managing stages at integral to the process of achieving Banner Healthcare's vision. Planning entails the development of standards, rules, and work teams necessary for the work. Concurrent management involves patient-oriented care and coordinated health care. Across the various work teams, care management efforts and the number of people are involved in making clinical improvements across the organization have been gradually increasing.
This occurs regardless of whether they are work groups, system wide teams, strategic initiatives, and special projects. The work is organized under functional teams. Besides the functional teams, initiative work groups and clinical consensus groups…
Wickramasinghe, N. & Sharma, S.K. (2010). Creating knowledge-based healthcare organizations. Hershey Penns: Idea Group Pub.
On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program.
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…
American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.
American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.
Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."
Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008 http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html .
Health Care eform:
One of the major topics that have had a long history in the United States is health care reforms, which has been characterized by huge debates. Following decades of failed attempts by various Democratic presidents, a new law was enacted by President Obama to overhaul the country's health care system. The enactment of this legislation came after a year of harsh partisan combat with the purpose of ensuring access to health care insurance for millions of Americans. In addition to being the most controversial topic, health care reform law was the largest single legislative accomplishment of President Obama. Notably, this legislation will cost America's government approximately $940 billion over the next decade based on an analysis by the Congressional Budget Office. The office has also estimated that the law will lessen federal deficit by about $138 billion during the same period and a further reduction of the…
Cannon, M.F. (2010, March 1). The Best and Worst Health Care Reform Ideas. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from http://dailycaller.com/2010/03/01/the-best-and-worst-health-care-reform-ideas/
Cohn, J. (2011, January 20). About that Whole "Replace" Thing & #8230; Retrieved December 15,
2011, from http://www.tnr.com/blog/jonathan-cohn/81821/about-whole-replace-thing
"Health Care Reform.." (2011, November 15). The New York Times. Retrieved December 15,
(ennie; Fontanarosa, 2006)
Apart from financial reasons, millions are not bale to access healthcare due to a lot of barriers inclusive of geography, racial differences and immigrant status. The people who do not have access to required care, that might comprise incapability to get primary care chronic care, specialist care, or emergency care stand at risk for severe health consequences. As per a recent report, absence of health insurance was linked with considerably lowered application of recommended healthcare services for cancer prevention, cardiovascular disease threat reduction, and diabetes management within the lower-income as also higher-income adults. Apart from the concerns, trouble, and stress directly associated to their illness, patients those who lack insurance or are underinsured also encounter increased levels of debt, threatening calls from collection agencies, anxiety, and possible insolvency. (ennie; Fontanarosa, 2006)
Impact of reform measures on the nursing profession:
The U.S. healthcare system is considered among the…
Granger, David; Young, Audrey. (1999) "Healthcare and the Underserved: America's Poor and Managed Care." Project of the Standing Committee on Health Policy: American Medical Student Association. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://www.amsa.org/pdf/hlthcareunderserved.pdf
N.A. (2002, Jun 1) "Collective bargaining in the nursing profession: salient issues and recent developments in healthcare reform" Hospital Topics. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0198-95081_ITM
N.A. (n. d.) "Nursing's Agenda for Healthcare Reform." The American Nurses Association
Inc. Retrieved 10 September, 2007 at http://www.needlestick.org/readroom/rnagenda.htm
Healthcare eform PPACA
Determine how this Federal law will affect market-driven and non-market driven decisions.
One of the industries that has felt the effects of the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act most immediately and intensely was the insurance industry in the United States. One of the chief reasons that the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act was introduced and passed into American legislation was the effect of rising health care costs attributed to arbitrary and non-competitive costs exacted from healthcare consumers from the insurance industry. There was a general lack of regulation within the industry, which had been demonstrated to have had a negative impact on healthcare outcomes and trends. The United States, while the largest economy and a dominant world superpower, has an underperforming healthcare industry compared to other developed, industrialized nations.
One of the central conflicts associated with the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act is related to philosophical differences…
Gitlin, Saul. (2002) "Demystifying the Asian-American Market" Retrieved from: http://www.mrcc-online.com/presentations/Asian_American_Market_11-12-02.pdf
Greenfield, Lazar. (2010). "National Health Care Expenditures: Addressing the Cost of Health Care in the United States" Annals of Surgery. 251: 2.
Weiss, Joshua A., Medical Marketing in the United States: A Prescription for Reform. George Washington Law Review, Vol. 79, p. 260, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1748902
As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.
Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…
Bureau of Labor Education (BLE). (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The University of Maine.
Childress, M. (2010). Poverty is on the Upswing, but Metric is Out of Date. The Washington Independent.
Cockerham, W.C. (2004). Medical Sociology and Sociological Theory. The Backwell Companion to Medical Sociology.
Consumer Reports (CR). (2008). High Health Care Costs. Consumer Reports Health.org.
One such barrier is the pattern of supply-driven care that has proven extremely costly on the average consumer and patient. Essentially, this method of healthcare has created a multi-billion dollar industry, where patients' needs are put to the side in order for healthcare organizations to make the largest profit margin possible through a system that resembles a production line more so than a hospital facility. Unfortunately, "producers control demand" (O'Toole, 2009, p 48). With so many major companies profiting from this style of healthcare, they will undoubtedly put up a fight for reform initiatives like the Triple Aim Initiative, which is hoping to rework the system in order to save consumers the burden of costs, without reducing the quality of the care they receive. Moreover, the physician-centric model of most of today's healthcare systems also proves a barrier to the aims of the Triple Aim Initiative. Essentially, under this model,…
O'Toole. Eileen. (2009) Healthcare in the 21st century. The Nurse Practitioner, 34(7), 46-50.
World Health Organization. (2013).World Health Statistics 2013: Indicator Compendium. Web. http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/WHS2013_IndicatorCompendium.pdf
S. health care market, and this is evident in the lack of coverage for money and the rapidly increasing coverage for those who have it. The article does touch on a key source of inefficiency beyond government regulation -- the opacity of the insurance and health care markets. The most efficient markets rely on perfect information -- or something close to it -- for their functioning. At present, the health care market is so opaque that few customers truly understand what they are paying for or even how much they are paying. The WSJ rightly supports the elements of the Bush plan that will improve public availability of market information, as this will increase efficiency -- in some cases significantly.
4. A marketizing measure would bring market principles into the market, or improve the quality of those principles in the existing market. This reform has only a handful of elements…
Part D -- Both articles show us that reform is crucial to fixing the American health care system. ight now, it is buried under insurance monopolies, supply side dynamics and government institutions that fail to regulate, or compensate, for promised care. Using a model of externalities, the healthcare system should, in fact, result in a system in which pricing was not a motive for care, and would not require the consumer to hold the burden of propping up the system.
Part E -- Marginal means the margins of the existing state of the health care market; what cost or benefit that might change if the allocation of resources were to change. If one good or service, for instance, was changed then it would affect other units or services. The way that marginality focuses on health care benefits, for instance, is looking at the costs of preventative care vs. chronic or…
Cowen, T. Goodwin, (n.d.) Public Goods and Externalities. The Library of Economics
And Liberty. Retrieved from: e:/wcom [email protected] econ externalities
N., et al. (2007). Externalities. Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved from e:/wcom [email protected] econecon 04 microexternalities!encyc of earth.doc
In their move from a completely government-paid and -- operated healthcare system to a fees-based approach, the Chinese have greatly improved the efficiency, availability, and efficacy of their healthcare system (Wan & Wan 2010). This suggests that a combination of perspectives, rather than the market or single-payer perspectives that form so many healthcare systems, is most effective.
There are also, of course, healthcare systems that have developed in the same period as those mentioned above, but with far more negative results. The South African healthcare system, though effective in combating certain specific conditions, has many of the same failings as the United States' system, only on to a far more apparent degree. A lack of organization and responsiveness, exacerbated by an attempt to exert highly politicized and highly centralized control over healthcare provision, has plagued South African efforts to combat AIDS and many other problems the country -- and the…
Offredy, M. (2008). "The health of a nation: perspectives from Cuba's national health system." Quality in primary care 16(4), pp. 269-77
Sewankambo, N. & Katamba, A. (2009). "Health systems in Africa: learning from South Africa." The lancet 374(9694), pp. 957-9.
Squires, A. (2009). "U.S. Healthcare reform: A comparative book review." Nursing ethics 16(5), pp. 673-5.
Wan, Y. & Wan, Y. (2010). "Achievement of equity and universal access in China's health service: A commentary on the historical reform perspective from the UK National Health Service." Global public health 5(1), pp. 15-27.
6% of GDP in 2002; in America, they were 14.6%, or almost double Britain's expenditure" (Klein 2005). However, this frugality means that bypass surgery, dialysis, and medications in general are much more rarely prescribed in the U.S. than in the UK. hile there is frequent criticism that the U.S. is overmedicated as a society, the opposite is likely true in the UK. In other words, is unlikely that people are so much healthier in England vs. The U.S. To justify certain statistical disparities in care: the rate for coronary bypass surgery in the UK is 20% less than it is in the U.S.
To address the problems of under-medication, recently there has been a proposal to allow drug companies in the UK with "innovative" medicines to bypass the current screening process for cost-effectiveness, as a way of expanding care. The companies could sell the drugs to the NHS at a…
Bosely, Sarah. Scheme to let new drugs bypass NHS value watchdog. The Guardian. Retrieved July 13, 2009 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/jul/10/pharmaceutical-companies-nhs-nice-ols
Klein, Ezra. The health of nations: Great Britain. The American Prospect. Retrieved July 13,
2009 at http://www.prospect.org/csnc/blogs/ezraklein_archive?month=04&year=2005&base_name=the_health_of_nations_england