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Through the Department of Health and other health agencies, the government plays an important role in the development of the health sector. This is through the intensification of health systems and the production of human, financial and other necessary resources. Consequently, the government's involvement in strengthening health systems enables them to achieve their basic goals like improving health care, responding to people's needs, lessening health care inequalities, and protecting equity in financing of health care.
In the past several decades, the role of the government in the health sector has changed drastically because of remarkable changes and challenges that have occurred. The changing role has also been necessitated by the inability of health agencies to properly meet the health care needs of the population. Moreover, the affordability of health care services has forced the government to intervene with the aim of improving the efficiency and equity of these…
Kimbuende, et, al. (2010, March). U.S. Health Care Costs. Retrieved July 28, 2011, from http://www.kaiseredu.org/Issue-Modules/U.S.-Health-Care-Costs/Background-Brief.aspx
Information Technology on the Healthcare sector
Healthcare systems serve to perform the very important function of preserving human capital. In modern society, health care assumes significance not just in terms of the expenditure it generates, but also because it is a large-scale consumer of goods and services, important employer and contributes in research and development. From the perspective of countries, maintaining and improving health care services require significant investments. Consequently governments and the private sector consistently strive to improve the productivity levels of this sector by controlling costs. It is in this context that information and communication technology can play a key role in making both ends meet - ensure adequate health care for people at affordable costs. (Murphy, p. 12)
There is considerable criticism that health sector is markedly lagging in adopting information technology practices, thus preventing the benefits that can reach the patients and practitioners of the profession.…
Athey, S; Stern, S. The impact of Information Technologies on Emergency Health Care Outcomes. RAND Journal of Economics, Volume: 33, No.3; Autumn 2002, pp: 399-432
Bloomfield, B.P. et. al. Information Technology and Organizations: Strategies, Network and Integration. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp: 15-19
Dennis, A.R; George, J.F; Jessup, L.M; Nunamaker, J.F; Vogel, D.R. Information Technology to Support Electronic Meetings. MIS Quarterly, December 1998, pp: 591-624
Earl, M.J. Putting Information Technology in its Place: A Polemic for the Nineties. In Galliers, R.D and Baker, B.H.S (eds). Strategic Information Management. Oxford: Butterworth Heinmann, 1994, pp: 76-90
Doctor vs. manager -- strategic management is difficult to implement while hospitals are still unsure who should lead them, namely doctors or specialized managers (Taylor, 2010)
1. The commodization of technologies -- Due to sustained evolution in the field of Information Technology, the it applications have become more easily accessible to users, at levels of both affordability as well as ease of usage
2. Collaborations -- the hospital is able to develop several partnerships with parties in both it as well as strategic management
1. The economic crisis -- which generates additional financial weaknesses
2. Social pressures -- as the society undergoes several economic and demographic changes, it comes to generate more demands from the medical sector.
In light of these findings, it would be useful for the public health care institutions to implement the following recommendations:
The creation of a managerial model based on the…
Purcarea, O., 2010, Strategic use of it in health sector, areas to be supported by it, rationale and benefits of it, Video Lectures, http://videolectures.net/seehealth2010_purcarea_suit/last accessed on July 20, 2012
Taylor, B., 2010, Effective medical leadership, University of Toronto Press
Tulchinsky, T.H., Varavikova, E., 2009, the new public health, 2nd edition, Academic Press
Policy, Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector
The goal of this policy paper is to provide the strategy to align effort transforming the health healthcare in the United States. The policy brief is also to improve the quality of healthcare delivery in the United States directed to Sylvia Mathews Burwell, the secretary of the U.S. Department of HHS (Health & Human Service), the agency that protects and improves the health of all Americans. Essentially, the HHS is the only agency that can implement a comprehensive health policy in the United States, and comparable to the global standards. The agency also fulfills its mission by providing effective human and health services to foster advancement in public health, medicine, and social services. Specifically, the policy is directed to the Secretary of HHS because he is in charge of the administration of the HHS. Moreover, the policy brief is directed to the…
Brownson, R.C. Gurney, J.G. & Land, G.H. (1999). Evidence-Based Decision Making in Public Health. J Public Health Management Practice, 5(5), 86-97.
Chen, H.T. (2010). The bottom-up approach to integrative validity: A new perspective for program evaluation. Evaluation and Program Planning. 33: 205-214
Health Policy Analysis Contract Employment and Quality Improvement
Health Policy Analysis on Contract Employment and Quality Improvement
The authors discussed the reasons why contract employment and outsourcing have become attractive in various organizations.
I agree with this opinion. Outsourcing has been a useful activity within the contemporary business. This is because most companies seek to utilize innovations of science, technologies and techniques to issue competitive and qualified products that satisfy consumers. The situation is usable for parts in the concentration of development resources to achieve core competencies for the prospective activity directions (McLaughlin & McLaughlin, 2014). The approach to human resource development ensures a reduction of expenses and production of products due to the part works without application of additional efforts for the investment of acquiring activity types.
Outsourcing is beneficial in some ways. Some of the significant outsourcing advantages include a specialized focus on core activities, cost savings, improving…
McLaughlin, C. P., & McLaughlin, C. D. (2014). Health Policy Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Approach Paperback. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Seavey, J. W., McGrath, R. J., & Aytur, S. A. (2014). Health Policy Analysis Springer Publishing Company.
Confidentiality, Privacy, and Security in HIPAA and HITECH ACTs
The increasing rate of greatly publicized security breaches has sparked changes in the attitudes of consumers and business owners. Business leaders can no more neglect the dramatic consequences that security breaches have on company reputation. In the meantime, consumers now demand more remedies and communication from business after a security breach incident. Therefore, this subject remains one of the greatest priorities confronting businesses in all sectors, including healthcare.
The two cases present two principal security threats: Mobile Devices (BYOD) and Medical ecords Theft. Data theft is greatly vulnerable in cases where employees use mobile gadgets, particularly personal devices, to access company information, share data or ignore to change mobile passwords. According to a recent survey, mobile security breaches have affected over 70% of international firms in the last 12 months only (Gupta et al. 2012). In fact, as more companies adopt…
Dawson, M., & Omar, M. (2015). New Threats and Countermeasures in Digital Crime and Cyber Terrorism. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3433273 .
Gupta, M., Walp, J., & Sharman, R. (2012). Threats, Countermeasures, and Advances in Applied Information Security. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Hea, C. M. P. S. (2010). For the Record: Protecting Electronic Health Information. Washington: National Academies Press.
Hhs.gov. (n.d.). HIPAA Privacy, Security, and Breach Notification Audit Program. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/enforcement/audit/index.html
Synchronizing the Patients' Medical Information between Institutions
With the advancement of information technology into the medical field, the healthcare industry is continuously becoming reliant on the salient contributions that the IT brings into the field and it has shown exemplary reception of the IT. One of the latest contributions of the It in the medical field globally is the electronic health records (EH) which has been globally received as a solution to various challenges that the medics have been facing including the scheduling challenges, information storage, making orders for the hospital, retrieval of patient information, allocation of rooms for patients, admitting and discharging patients and having a well scheduled rounds and medication for the patients (Menachemi N. & Collum H.., 2011).
However, the introduction of the electronic health records came with a number of challenges that still need to be solved so that the systems can effectively help the health…
Authenticity Consulting, (2016). All About Project Management. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://managementhelp.org/projectmanagement/index.htm
Carte J.H., (2016). What is the Electronic Health Record? Retrieved April 22, 2016 from https://store.acponline.org/ebizatpro/images/ProductImages/books/sample%20chapters/EHR1.pdf
Cirella N., (2007). Proposal for an Electronic Access Gateway for Medical Records Based Upon a Restructured HIPAA Privacy Rule. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from https://www.eecs.harvard.edu/cs199r/fp/Cirella.pdf
Look to Payers for Innovation in Health Information. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.healthcontentadvisors.com/blog/2011/5/31/look-to-payers-for-innovation-in-health-information.html
Health Structures in Government Levels
Health at different Government Levels
Health Structures at Government Levels
Health at Government Levels
A national government has a task in ensuring quality health assurance standards across its region are up-to-date. Similarly, increased rates of unexpected epidemics have put governments under the surge of dealing accordingly with factors that can affect the nation directly and indirectly. Different governmental levels of health are identified and objectified in various agency websites. In this context, I have identified with a state level website; Illinois Public Health Institute website. Information presented to the website articles prioritizes in reducing and preventive, curative diseases, complementing health policies and championing for environmental changes.
Website Article eview
The Illinois Public Health institute articulates its review and implication to health quality through partnership programs. The website has supported state-oriented health involvement in ameliorating health levels, in Illinois. The institution has show-cased partnering programs with…
Baum, F and Kahssay, H.M. Health development structures: an untapped resource. World Health Organization. Vol 1 Issue 1. Pg 96-114.
Ladeia, M.L., Jacob, P., Borges, M.C., Rogero, M. M and Ferreira, S.R.G. (2011). Studies of Gene variants related to Inflammation, Oxidative, Stress, Dyslipidemia and Obesity: Implications for a nutrigenetic approach. Journal of Obesity. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-31.
5th March 2012. Illinois Public Health Institute. Retrieved from URL http://www.iphionline.org / Accessed on 27th March, 2012.
Realistically this compliance and assistance should be sought and used before, during and after negotiations with other health care organizations with which this organization might merge or enter a joint venture. Furthermore, the proposed contract itself should be passed by the FTC's Office of the General Counsel or its designee for approval before final ratification of the contract.
In order to merge and operate in a joint venture acceptable to the FTC, the organization must be mindful of Title 15 of the U.S. Code, specifically Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 18, Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1, 2, and Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. In addition, due to the FTC's recent special interest in the mergers/joint ventures of health care organizations, particularly but not solely in connection with price fixing, the organization should assume that…
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive economic landscape of the modern world; governments, businesses and institutions must remain diligent in their care and compassion for their citizens and staff members. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, voters, workers and consumers have become much more connected to the organizations they patronize (Kurzweil). Accordingly, these important groups are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of their followers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. One of the most important needs presented in all demographics is reliable healthcare. Thus, with the inelasticity in the demand for healthcare, countries need to determine an applicable system, whereby citizens can have access to the medical services they will inevitably need. Collective access to healthcare represents the main problem in field of…
Blumenschein, K. And M. Johannesson. "Economic Evaluation in Healthcare. A Brief History and Future Directions." Journal of Pharmacoeconomics 10.2 (1996): 114-122.
Cox, Malcolm, et al. "Health Care Economics, Financing, Organization and Delivery." Family Medicine January 2004: 20-30.
Hamburger, Tom and Kim Geiger. "Healthcare Insurers Get Upper Hand." The Los Angeles Times 24 August 2009.
Jeremiah Hurley. "An Overview of the Normative Economics of the Health Sector." Journal of Health Economics 1.1 (2000): 55-118.
Health care, and that too, a quality health care is one of the most basic needs of any human being. In current times, where the fast paced lives are getting faster each day, work stresses are increasing, streets are being storm with junk foods and fast foods, and pollution and congestion is increasing, human lives are getting more and more prone to physical and mental diseases. As a result, the importance of health care systems and health care facilities increases. While, surgeons and doctors are generally seen as the captain of the ship as far as health sector is concerned, very important personnel of the health sector are the nurses. Once quite ignored, the importance of the nursing profession was highlighted by Florence Nightingale, one of the nursing pioneers. Florence Nightingale broke the conventional perceptions associated with the profession of nursing and took it to a new level, explored various…
Lee, H. & Winters, C. (2006). Rural nursing: concepts, theories and practice. New York:
Joel, A. & Kelly, L. (2002). The nursing experience: trends, challenges and transitions. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Lumby, J. & Picone, D. (2000). Clinical Challenges: focus on nursing. St. Leonards, N.S.W: Allen and Unwin.
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…
Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,
Healthcare professionals offer their services to the community whilst taking care to fully respect people's dignity. Doctors need to earn public confidence by dedicating their skill all equally, and to the best of their ability. A number of professional organizations supporting doctors in ensuring public safety exist, two of which are the ANA (American Nurses Association) and the AMA (American Medical Association). In this paper, the two aforementioned organizations' standards and functions will be analyzed.
A clear identification of the professional boards
The ANA represents its 3.6-million-strong registered nurse (RN) workforce's interests. Its goal is attempting to advance the profession of nursing through the promotion of superior practice standards (American Nurses Association, 2016). Meanwhile, the AMA represents a professional organization chiefly engaged in publishing studies geared at advancing public health, in addition to advocating for licensed doctors' interests. It participates in the areas of Obamacare implementation, healthcare IT, Medicare/Medicaid, improvements…
More area is dealt by Human esource Management than people originally thought of. Some may explain it as the exchanges between boss and worker in the time period between which a worker is employed, until they are eliminated. It is true human resources management starts even before this, with the strategies that are formed by the institution, and the laws that govern workplace institutions. Human esource Management is the procedure of working with people so that they and their organizations attain full potential even when change accelerates the necessity to get new talents, take up new tasks, and develop new relationships, as per an article by L. Dobb abd P. Dick of 1993. (Blessinger, Human esource Management)
Human esource Management is projected as that part of management, which deals with plans, decisions, issues, ethics, process, routines, work, performance and system associated with the management of people as workers…
Blessinger, Kelly. Human Resource Management. Available from http://www.libsci.sc.edu/bob/class/clis724/SpecialLibrariesHandbook/hr_management.html . Accessed 2 February 2003]
De Silva, Sriyan. Human Resource Management As A Strategy: The Changing Focus of Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management. Available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/actemp/papers/1998/asiawksh.htm [Accessed 2 February 2003]
De Silva, Sriyan. Human Resource Management in Achieving Management Objectives: The Changing Focus of Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management. Paper presented at the ILO Workshop on Employers Organizations in Asia-Pacific in the Twenty-First Century Turin, Italy, 5-13 May 1997. Bureau for Employers' Activities International Labor Office Geneva April, 1997 Available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/actemp/papers/1998/srsirhrm.htm#C5-3 . Accessed 2 February 2003]
Guide to Managing Human Resources: Chapter 14: Team Building" Available from http://hrweb.berkeley.edu/guide/teams.htm [Accessed 2 February 2003]
Health and Social Justice Issue in Saharan Country
Mali occupies the fourth position among the poorest nations of the world. Mali is still plagued by a multitude of financial tribulations with an economy in shambles, the country's liability approximately equivalent to its GDP, at the mercy of the international donor groups, insufficient revenues of the state exchequer and pressure from various coterie groups voicing their demands. (Mali Human ights Practices: U.S. Department of State, 1994) However, at the same time it a nation that boasts of a rich and hoary tradition. It is popular as a country marked by its multihued varied populace and harmonic tunes. Currently, it is confronted with a massive menace like AIDS, Noma and a host of tropical diseases. Mali has the world's lowest adult literacy rate of less than 25%. The country's education system is inadequately formed, especially at the primary stage. A United Nations…
Condom Vending Machine. (March 01, 2004) "Mali, AIDS and Condoms" Initial Research Report. Retrieved at http://dtm.media.mit.edu/dtm/dtm04/projects/condom/archives/000145.html. Accessed on 11 July, 2004
Dao, S. (Jan 7-8, 2004) "HIV Treatment in Mali, PNLS/GAIA" AIDS Vaccine Conference, Bamako, Mali.
Johnston, Timothy; Faure, Sheila Dohoo; Raney, Laura. (June 1998) "The World Bank and the Health Sector in Mali" Report No. 18112.
Mahe A; Prual A; Konate M; Bobin P. (Sep-Oct, 1995) "Skin Diseases of Children in Mali: A Public Health Problem" Tropical Medical Hygiene. Volume: 89: No: 5; pp: 467-70
Health Care and Health for All:
In what the World Health Organization termed as Health for All, the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978 expressed the need for health workers, urgent government action, and the world community to safeguard and support health for all. In order to achieve health for all people across the globe, the Conference made various declarations including health being an essential human right and a significant world-wide social goal. One of the critical aspects towards the achievement of this Health for All initiative is primary healthcare.
Declarations on Primary Health Care:
As an essential health care service, primary health care can be made universally accessible to people and families through the full participation of the community and at a cost that the community can afford ("Declaration of Alma-Ata," n.d.). Primary health care acts as the initial level of contact of people, families, and communities…
Bassett, M.T. (2006, December). 'Health for All In the 21st Century.' American Journal of Public Health, 96(12), 2089. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/565796_2
"Declaration of Alma-Ata." (n.d.). International Conference on Primary Health Care -- World
Health Organization. Retrieved December 30, 2011, from http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf
"Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000." (n.d.). World Health Organization.
Health Care Free
SHOULD HEALTH CAE BE FEE?
The following debate takes place between four individuals as follows: Dr. Barker, a public health sector physician with an experience of fifteen years; Ms. Gomez, a social activist working for improving opportunities and living conditions for immigrants to the United States; Mr. Walters, a journalist who writes on social and political issues in several newspapers and self-professed atheist; and Mr. Bucelli, a modern poet and novelist with strong humanist inclinations. All four are residents of the Green Springs Community and are recognized members of the community. The debate takes place at the community hall where the debaters are taking part in the annual debate challenge where they have been given the topic Should health care be free? Ms. Gomez and Mr. Bucelli support the proposition that health care should be free for all residents whereas Dr. Barker and Mr. Walters are against…
Abelson, Reed. "Health Insurance Costs Rising Sharply This Year, Study Shows." The New York Times. 27 September 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. < http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/business/health-insurance-costs-rise-sharply-this-year-study-shows.html?pagewanted=all&_moc.semityn.www >.
Ball, James, and Denis Campbell. "More Patients Waiting Too Long for NHS Treatment." The Guardian. 14 July 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
Bialik, Carl. "The unhealthy accounting of uninsured Americans." Wall Street Journal. 24 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
CBS News. "The debate Over Health Care." CBS News. 20 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
Healthcare Delivery System Challenges
The American healthcare system has been criticized as favoring the middle and upper classes while ignoring the lower classes. Based on these speculations, the federal government has constantly tried to institute reforms in the healthcare sector though some of the proposals have failed to overhaul the industry. With rising insurance costs, the number of citizens barred from accessing quality healthcare has increased to more than 45 million uninsured Americans. On the same note, it is hypothesized that with time, the problems currently witnessed in the industry are likely to increase and finding solutions to them will be a tall order for the government (Stolberg & Pear, 2010). Despite the advent of new technology in the sector, which is likely to improve service delivery over the years, it is speculated that the cost of new tests and treatments will outweigh the savings. With the better technology, physicians…
Stolberg, S.G. & Pear, R. (March 24, 2010). Obama signs health care overhaul bill, with a flourish. The New York Times: p. A19. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
Woolhandler, S. & Himmelstein, D.U. (1997). Costs of care and administration at for-profit and other hospitals in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine 336 (11): 769-774.
Swanson, E. (July 30, 2009). Health Care Plan: Favor / Oppose. Huffington Post.
Blumberg, L.J. & Holahan, J. (2009). The Individual Mandate: an Affordable and Fair Approach
health care debate that has been going in the United States. It discusses the Obama Care Act and how it impacts the society. Functionalist perspectives and theories are utilized in analyzing the situation and what outcomes are expected. The major themes and concepts of the functionalist theory are discussed in detail.
The Health Care reform proposed by the Obama Administration has long been the area of debate in America and in countries all over the world. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act go on to cut down the number of people who are not insured. It requires small businesses to provide medical insurance to all the people working in the business. The employers are obliged to provide a good quality medical insurance. Failure of the small business to provide a good health care system will result in a penalty for any employee that goes uninsured. This act applies to…
Berkman, L. et al. (2000) from social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Social Science & Medicine 51 (2000), 51 p.843-857.
Gerhardt, U. (1979) The Parsonian paradigm and the identity of medical sociology. The Sociological Review, 27 (2), p.229-251.
Napsha, J. (2011) Small Business Owners Fret over Health Care Law's Fallout . Tribune-Review/Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 24th March.
Unknown. (2012) Supreme Court Ruling Dooms Small Business; Obamacare Increases Taxes and Red Tape Burden . The Washington Times, 29th June.
It is a well acknowledged truth that memory related diseases like Alzheimer's are common in older people rather than younger ones. Memory tends to becomes less competent with age. It might take longer to learn new things or remember familiar words or names. Many measures can be adopted to reduce the increasing adverse effects of memory like eating a healthy diet, including physical exercise as a part of daily routine and by being social. Despite of adopting these measures to reduce the effects of growing age on health, these problems cannot be eradicated completely. Young people are more energetic and are less viable to diseases because of the strength of their immune system. They have a stronger defense system against diseases because of the age. There is a strong relationship between age and support of health. Aging is inevitable. It is tend to occur but applying few important measures cannot…
Annandale, E., & Hunt, K. (2000). Gender Inequalities in Health. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Athenstaedt, U. (2002). Gender Role Self-Concept, Gender Role Attitudes and the Participation in Gender-Typed Vocational and Leisure Sport Courses . Psychologische Beitrage, 33-45.
Manuck, S.B., Jennings, R., Rabin, B.S., & Baum, a. (2000). Behavior, Health, and Aging. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Norton, F.E. (1946). Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution. Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company.
This, then, is a theory with a very wide extent, which seeks to move away from the biotechnical perspective, in direction of a more all-inclusive evaluation of health. Health is a right for all the people and it's an ideal state while nowadays it is been sold as a commodity by private insurance companies to increase their profits. This therefore is resulting in the loss of the people's lives and health.
At all stages in life, health is determined by compound interactions between communal and monetary factors, the corporal environment and individual behavior. And these factors which affect health are known as the determinants of health. Many other factors are there which combine together to affect the health of individuals and communities. Whether people are well or not, is determined by their conditions and surroundings. Factors such as the living standards, the state of environment, genetics, earnings and education level,…
http://www.rochesterunitarian.org/1999-2000/20000326.html www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en / http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/health/hsdu/homepage/health.htm
Health: The Foundations for Achievement by David Seedhouse June 2001
Ethics: The Heart of Health Care by David Seedhouse April 1998
Health Care Focus
Any American who has paid the least bit of attention to the country's economic standing throughout the past few years has an understanding that the United States Health Care System is an entity that comes into the discussion of economics as quickly as any finance-based corporation or business. In recent years, the issue of health care has come into play within the discussion of economics, in addition to becoming one of the biggest industries within the country in terms of economic profit and business generation. In his article for the Kansas City Business Journal, journalist David Twiddy takes a look at how the connection between economics and health care has come to fruition within the state of Kansas, where health care remains one of the state's leading industries.
In Kansas, $10.2 billion in payroll was generated in the health care industry in 2011 alone, as more than…
Last year, hospitals saw their collective labor force swell by 18% to 73,890 and their payroll grow by 30%.
"Hospitals and health services truly represent an economic anchor in our state," association CEO Tom Bell said in a release.
Planned change in the eldercare advocacy organization
In the coming years, many countries will experience a dramatic shift in healthcare infrastructure due to an expanding elderly population size. However, the changes may vary across countries depending on many factors such as the kind of social welfare available in each country, the political environment which determine policies, the level of healthcare available and individual expectations in each country. Due to this wide variance, the innovations within this space will also vary greatly. What this means to the healthcare manager is that managing innovations becomes very hard (Shlutz, Andre & Sjovold, 2015 p 42). This also impacts on performance management which is fast gaining popularity in the public sector as a means to improve on accountability. Unfortunately, it has been cumbered by a series of challenges in its implementation; this is in spite of the frameworks developed over the last couple of…
Healthcare: Clinical Integration
What is clinical integration
History of clinical integration
Goals of clinical integration
Importance of clinical integration
New payment models
Barriers to clinical integration
Lack of practitioner alignment
Lack of interoperability
How to achieve success in clinical integration
The future of health care systems
Physician acquisitions vs. clinical integration
HIEs -- solution to clinical integration?
Policy makers are beginning to appreciate the fact that only systemic change can effectively change, for the better, the manner of health care delivery in the U.S.; and that anything less would only alter the system's edges - with little or no substantial effect on cost-control, innovation-promotion, effectiveness of reward incentive schemes, coordination and coverage (AHA, 2010). Clinical integration has been found to be crucial to the change needed for the achievement of the aforementioned goals (AHA, 2010). Despite…
AHA. Clinical Integration -- the Key to Real Reform. Trend Watch. Retrieved from [HIDDEN]
Athena Health. (2014). History of the Clinical Integration Model. Athena Health. Retrieved from https://www.athenahealth.com/knowledge-hub/clinical-integration/clinical-integration-model.php
eHealth Initiative. (2012). The Rise of the Private Health Information Exchange and Changing Role of Public Exchanges. eHealth Initiative. Retrieved from [HIDDEN]
Fridsma, D. (2013). Interoperability Vs Health Information Exchange: Setting the Record Straight. Health IT Buzz. Retrieved from http://www.healthit.gov/buzz-blog/meaningful-use/interoperability-health-information-exchange-setting-record-straight/
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
Healthcare Associated Infections: Critical Analysis
The prevention and control of healthcare associated infections is an issue that has attracted considerable attention across the globe given the increase of healthcare associated infections. Despite the development and use of several strategies and measures to lessen the burdens caused by healthcare associated infections, the practices of healthcare professionals are largely suboptimal while the infections persist. As a result, the prevention and control of these infections has attracted considerable concern, which has resulted in several studies on the practices and behaviors of healthcare practitioners. Carole Jackson, Karen Lowton and Peter Griffiths have conducted a research on nurses' prevention behaviors to control healthcare associated infections. The qualitative study utilizes vignettes created from nurses' reports of infection prevention behaviors and practices.
Healthcare associated infections can be described as infections that emerge from medical interventions like clinical or surgical processes or from contact with a…
Burns, N., & Grove, S. (2011). Understanding nursing research (5th ed.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
Jackson, C. Lowton, K. & Griffiths, P. (2013, July). Infection Prevention As "A Show": A Qualitative Study of Nurses' Infection Prevention Behaviours. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 10(16).
"Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections." (2011, November). Quality Improvement Guide. Retrieved from National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence website: http://www.his.org.uk/files/9213/7483/8498/Prevention_and_control_of_healthcare-associated_infections_Quality_improvement_guide_NICE_Guidance_2011.pdf
"Qualitative Research Perspective." (n.d.). Chapter 4. Qualitative Research in Information Systems: Consideration of Selected Theories. Retrieved from Australian National University Press website: http://press.anu.edu.au/info_systems/mobile_devices/ch04s02.html
Health Belief Model and Health Education
Public/population health standards place the conventional medical individual care model within several determinants of health. Currently, various public health models exist and are available for a huge range of purposes such as the Health Belief Model. These various health models exist to provide an improved understanding of the dynamics relating to the health and wellbeing of populations. In addition, there are social determinants of health (SDOH), which basically refer to the political, social and economic factors that impact the health of individuals and populations. The social determinants of health also refer to the ecological model and place significant emphasis on healthcare institutions and organizations established by humans to organize or structure social processes relating to individuals and populations’ health including health education. This paper examines how the Health Belief Model can be used to address the issue of health education.
The Issue of Health…
Healthcare Service Delivery
Interpersonal communication in delivery of health communication
Interpersonal communication is the form of communication that exists between two people and it is the type of communication that is deemed universal in many measures. Interpersonal communication involves the daily exchange which could be informal or formal in nature depending on the purpose and surrounding, it can take the form of facial expression, sounds, gestures, written words, spoken words and postures (MBA Knowledge base, 2011).
Interpersonal communication, involves dissemination and reception of objective message or information between two or more people/groups with an aim of getting the desired effect on the receiving individual or groups (Ally & Bacon, 1999). Some professional however contend that for a communication to qualify to be considered interpersonal communication then the two parties involved must be at close proximity and must be familiar with each other or share something in common. The health sector…
Ally & Bacon, 1999. Interpersonal Communication: Definition of Interpersonal Communication.
Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/interpersonal/indefinition.html
Education Resources Information Center, (2008). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ818590&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ818590
Health Promotion at EACH, (2014). Planning: Needs assessment: what issue should your program address? Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.each.com.au/health-promotion/health-promotion-at-each/what-is-health-promotion/planning/
All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.
Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.
Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).
From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…
Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.
Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.
Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].
Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.
Healthcare Financial Management
To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.
In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…
Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.
Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.
Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.
Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.
Health Management (Discussion questions)
The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) is a law governing how and when patients may be denied treatment or moved from one hospital to another in cases of extreme medical conditions. EMTALA was legalized as a component of the 1986 consolidated budget reconciliation (ichards & athbun, 2009). Sometimes, it is known as the CONA law. This generalized name has generated other laws. A common provision under the COBA name is the statute that governs continuation of benefits derived from medical insurance after job termination. The principal provision of this statute is as follows:
Patients visiting the emergency unit seeking treatment or examination for medical conditions must be given the required medical screening diagnosis. This will be helpful in identifying if they are suffering from emergency medical conditions. In case they are, then hospitals are obliged to either furnish them with appropriate treatment…
Davis, N.A., & Cleverley, W.O. (2010). Essentials of health care finance: A workbook for health information managers. Chicago, Ill: American Health Information Management Association.
Ferenc, D.P. (2013). Understanding hospital billing and coding. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier.
Richards, E.P., & Rathbun, K.C. (2009). Medical care law. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.
Institute of Medicine (2013). Emergency medical services at the crossroads. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
The penalties for being out of compliance when OSHA comes knocking should be enough to motivate any healthcare facility to devise a plan to make sure that they are in compliance with OSHA's regulations. The startling thing is that it took an initiative like NEP to wake these facilities up and get them thinking about being compliant. Since they deal with people and their well being on an everyday basis, these are things that they should have been doing all along and not just because there is an increased probability of getting into trouble by OSHA.
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? etreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). etrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6EM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and esidential
Care Facilities. (2012). etrieved from http://www.hancocklaw.com/p/OSHA_Newsletter_212_May_H1768037.PDF
Prepare Your Facility…
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? Retreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6REM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and Residential
As a result, the Govt. has been eager to encourage self-medication, where probable, in an endeavor to save money and time as optimizing convenience for the consumer. (the UK OTC Pharmaceuticals Market: UK pharmaceutical market report)
E) Is there any one burning issue related to health care in this country that is undergoing extensive debate? What do you know about it?
Although Britain NHS has been a model for the rest of the world to emulate, however over the years, a persistent concern with cost constraints and market-defined efficiencies since the bygone twenty years has radically battered the core principles of universal healthcare in UK. The discouragement of proceeds of central taxation as the funding base has been coupled with Govt. passing the costs and dangers to patients and their families. The internal market launched by the Thatcher Govt. In 1980s showed the most prominent features of these modifications, however,…
Bad Medicine. New Internationalist. Vol: 355. April 2003.
Retrieved at http://www.newint.org/issue355/bad.htm . Accessed on 21 March, 2005
Bio-Pharmaceutical Study Finds Significant Link between Innovation and Market-based Drug Pricing. May 9, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.tiax.biz/aboutus/pdfs/press_releases/pharma_may.htm. Accessed on 21 March, 2005
Donelan, Karen; Blendon, Robert J; Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen; Binns, Katherine.
Centralization and decentralization of HM
Centralized HM operations are conducted within the HM department and they assume that all employee related actions be implemented by the human resources specialists. Such an endeavor creates a context in which the human resource actions are taken in an objective and professional manner. Specifically, the decisions are made based on the organizational benefits and the technical considerations at an overall organizational level. In the case of decentralization nonetheless, the human resource decisions are taken in a less formal manner and they are influenced by personal bias of the medical staff conducting the interviews. The benefit is nevertheless that of the staff decisions being made not on grounds of organizational benefits, but on skills and abilities at a medical level.
A centralized human resource department then supports organizational gains and objectives, whereas a decentralized human resources act supports professional and medical benefits. It is expected…
Connor, E.T., Educational tort liability and malpractice, University of Iowa, http://www.uiowa.edu/~c07p134/tort.htm last accessed on March 3, 2011
Salvador, F.A., Which is better? Formal authority or informal authority? Entrepreneur, http://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/features/article/which-is-better-formal-authority-or-informal-authority last accessed on March 3, 2011
Website of Medicare, http://www.medicare.gov last accessed on March 3, 2011
Each of these was included in the initial Senate bill, but was struck from the final Senate version. Despite the victories, the group isn't ready to pledge support for health reform bills. The AMA will not endorse any legislation unless Congress gets rid of the mandated payment cuts of more than $200 billion over 10 years in the government's Medicare program for the elderly. The cuts are part of Congressional action that was passed in 1997 in order to cut costs in the Medicare program, but have never gone into effect. There are also several hospitals, insurers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and advocacy groups that are withholding final support. Most of these groups have pledged support to health care reform in principle while working privately through lobbyists to protect their industries (Eaton and Pell, 2010).
Healthcare lobbyists range from very large companies and corporations to very small groups who are all looking…
BREAKING: Health care lobby invests in reform summit. (2010). Retrieved March 1, 2010, from Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington Web site:
Eaton, Joe and Pell, M.B. (2010). Lobbyists Swarm Capitol to Influence Health Reform.
Retrieved March 1, 2010, from the Center for Public Integrity Web site:
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is founded. This organization is concerned with the social and economic aspects of health problems.
The National Quarantine Act is signed into law. This legislation is designed to prevent entry into the country of persons with communicable diseases.
1899 the National Hospital Superintendent's Association is created. It later becomes the American Hospital Association.
Patel & ushefsky, 1995, p. xvii)
The seeds of health care legislation and centralization began before 1875 but began to take hold as the most accepted manner in which to ensure safe and scientifically founded health care for many and to begin to ensure that diseases that commonly plagued a newly urbanized and highly stressful environment of mass immigration could be dealt with, in a more centralized and practical manner. Founded earlier in 1847, the American Medical Association began to have a concrete and centralized role in the health care decisions…
Healthcare Legislative Bill
The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts
The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).
With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, (2010), Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations
The American Journal of Medical Practices, (2011), The Impact of single-payer Medicare
Program, New York
(Health Insurance Coverage, 2009). This is just a little higher than what was reported in the state of Pennsylvania over the last two-year period, which was at 25% (Krawczeniuk, 2009). "The number of uninsured rose 2.2 million between 2005 and 2006 and has increased by almost 8 million people since 2000" (Health Insurance Coverage, 2009).
Most Americans are provided with health insurance coverage through their employers. But in today's society employment is no longer a guarantee of health insurance coverage. "As America continues to move from a manufacturing-based economy to a service economy, and employee working patterns continue to evolve, health insurance coverage has become less stable. The service sector tends to offer less access to health insurance than the manufacturing sector does. Further, an increasing reliance on part-time and contract workers who are not eligible for coverage means fewer workers have access to employer-sponsored health insurance" (Health Insurance Coverage,…
Descriptive Statistics. (2006). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Research Methods Knowledge Base
Web site: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
Health Insurance Coverage. (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from National Coalition on Healthcare Web site: http://www.nchc.org/facts/coverage.shtml
Krawczeniuk, Borys. (2009, March 26). Study Finds Health Care Gaps. Times-Tribune, The
Healthcare in Sweden
The healthcare system in Sweden is used as one of the model systems in the world. hen Johan Hjertoqvist from the Timbro Policy Group spoke before the Montreal Economic Institute in 2002, he said, "...you refuse to accept the consumer as an equal partner, you still look upon the client, the patient, as an inferior partner in the relation" and "you deny the need for good working condition when it comes to the staff, etc." (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Moreover, he stressed the need to move interests and priorities away from the processes and production organization to "the quality of the outcome for the consumer" (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Quality seems to be synonymous with healthcare in Sweden.
Two important characteristics of the Swedish healthcare system are that it is "decentralized and it is run on democratic principles" (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).All residents of Sweden are covered by the national health insurance system which covers medical care, pharmaceuticals,…
Fact Sheets on Sweden: The Health Care System in Sweden. Swedish Institute. May 1999. http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf .(accessed 06-27-2003).
Gennser, Margit. "Sweden's Health Care System." http://oldfraser.lexi.net/publications/books/health_reform/sweden.html.
A accessed 06-27-2003).
Hadenius, Stig; Lindgren, Ann. "Sweden: On Sweden Health care." Countries of the World. January 01, 1991.
Healthcare Plan eview
The author of this report is to answer three general questions relating to healthcare program evaluation. The first question asks the author of this report to examine the overall purpose of healthcare program evaluation. The second question asks the author to identify at least five different types of common healthcare program evaluation techniques. Finally, one of those methods in particular will be selected and there will be a drilling down into more detail on that single type. While the purpose and method of operations is quite similar with all program evaluation types, there are some subtle to major differences from type to type.
At its core, the purpose of healthcare program evaluation is to analyze and improve the operations and performance of a healthcare program based on a systematic and full review of what is going right, what is going wrong and what needs to be changed.…
Fink, A. (1992, October 15). Formats:. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Retrieved September 16, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/
MUSC. (2014, September 16). Program Evaluation 101. Program Evaluation 101. Retrieved
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
S. healthcare structure do not include the unobserved disparities. This may sound very rudimentary, even silly to point out, but in by understanding that the numbers are actually worse than they appear, and that the rising costs of healthcare services re associated with both what we see and can't see, it is easier to understand how costs rise so quickly.
It is also a sobering fact that what we cannot observe is still out there, existing beyond the scope of the government and social programs designed to help people overcome obstacles to access to healthcare and health insurance. The ethnic group that is most unobserved within the bounds of many of the studies and statistics related to the disparities in the U.S. healthcare industry is non-Mexican Latinos (Bustamante, et. al., 2009). This group represents a major portion of the U.S. population that currently lacks access to healthcare. In understanding this…
Bodenheimer, T., Chen, E., and Bennett, H.D. (2009). "Reorganizing Care:
Confronting The Growing Burden Of Chronic Disease: Can The U.S. Health Care Workforce Do The Job?" Health Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 1. Pp. 164-174.
Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D.R., and Pamuk, E. (2010).
"Socioeconomic Disparities in Health in the United States: What the Patterns Tell Us." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 100, No. 1. Pp. 186-196.
the Allied health care staffing agency is a staffing agency that focuses on the niche of the nursing jobs within the healthcare industry in Chicago
The Allied healthcare staffing agency works to recruit registered nurses belonging to all medical Specialties, Practical Nurses that are licensed also called LPNs, Nursing Assistants that are certified also called CNAs and Specialists from the allied health sciences. These professionals would be hired both from the area of the metro city as well as the suburbs and placed within the hospitals, the neighborhood medical centers, Adult care facilities, clinics, and rehabilitation centers.
The mission of the Allied Healthcare Staffing Agency is to provide the best opportunities of employment both to its collaborators which are the local healthcare organizations as well as serving the entire nursing community to provide amply amount of job opportunities to choose from in a time when the turnover of…
Bureau, U.C. (2000). Census 2000 Demographic Profile Highlights:. chicago illinois, fact sheet .
commerce, U. d. (2010). bear facts, state illinois. bureau of economic analysis .
directory, a. h. (2010). free stats & national stats. Retrieved september 7, 2011, from american hospital directory: www.ahd.com
Lindberg, R.C. (1991). To Serve and Collect: Chicago Politics and Police Corruption from the Lager Beer Riot to the Summerdale Scandal. chicago: praeger publications.
Information Technology and Cultural Transformation in Healthcare
apid advances in information technology have continued to drive change in many sectors, including healthcare. Ongoing research suggests that cultural transformation is necessary in order to properly adapt to the capabilities and constraints of the increasing complexity and pervasiveness of information technology in healthcare settings. Better utilizing the information technology available to healthcare organizations and more accurately understanding the social impacts of this technology can actually help to achieve the cultural changes that are needed, as is demonstrated in the following brief literature review.
At one level, there needs to be a certain degree of autonomy for individual healthcare organizations in their adoption and utilization of information technologies in certain operations, as this will enhance opportunities for cultural adaptability and a willingness to undergo such transformations (Abraham et al. 2011; Lopez et al. 2011). Different communities can experience significantly different effects…
Abraham, C., Nishihara, E. & Akiyama, M. (2011). Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: A review of policy, people, and progress. International Journal of Medical Informatics 80(3): 157-70.
Box, T., McDonell, M., Helfrich, C., Jesse, R….Rumsfeld, J. (2010). Strategies from a Nationwide Health Information Technology Implementation: The VA CART STORY. Journal of General Internal Medicine 25(1): 72-6.
Karsh, B., Weinger, M., Abbott, P. & Wears, R. (2010). Health information technology: fallacies and sober realities. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 17(6): 617-23.
Lopez, L., Green, A., Tan-McGrory, A., King, R. & Betancourt, J. (2011). Bridging the Digital Divide in Health Care: The Role of Health Information Technology in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety 37(1): 437-45.
Changes to Healthcare Practice and Delivery: A Study of Two Detroit, MI Healthcare Facilities Separated by Twenty Years
Changes to technology and to the political and regulatory landscape have led to many changes in the ways that businesses in all manner of industries operate. Increased communications capabilities, the shrinking size and cost for advanced technologies, and a variety of other changes have provided many businesses with an opportunity to operate more efficiently, and in so doing have also made many industries and markets more competitive. An examination of some typical businesses operating in these industries today as compared to their counterparts that were in operation twenty years ago provides ample evidence of the changes that have occurred and the ways in which businesses have adapted.
The healthcare industry has by no means been immune from these changes, but in fact has changed more than many other industries due…
Anderson, J. & Aydin, C. (2005). Evaluating the organizational impact of health care information systems. New York: Springer.
Armoni, A. (2000). Healthcare information systems: challenges of the new millennium. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.
Wager, K., Lee, F. & Glaser, J. (2009). Health care information systems: a practical approach for health care management. New York: Wiley.
Health Care Market
In discussing the market for a health care good or service, one must first understand that in speaking of "health care," one is actually speaking of the entire health care industry, along with each of the goods and services that are produced and exchanged within this market. From organ transplant operations and blood donation to therapeutic massages and nursing home activity programs, the span of health care goods and services is both vast and varied. Further, in viewing today's uncertain economy, the market for health care goods and services is one that brings with it many different questions that must be addressed in order for a stakeholder to fully comprehend what decisions need to made in order to turn a profit.
Scarcity of esources
Scarcity of resources within this market significantly influences the decisions that stakeholders are forced to make. With scarcity of resources comes limited action…
Case, K. And Fair, R. (2007). Principles of economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Fullerton, D. (2008). How economists see the environment. Nature, 385(6701), p. 433.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Health Care: The Next Twelve Months
Over the next twelve months, there will be many changes to health care in the United States. The largest and most ambitious goal is to provide the majority of Americans with health insurance (Blendon & Benson, 2010). However, there will be a presidential election and a Supreme Court ruling, which means that 2012 could be the year that determines whether the health care law moves forward or whether it is shut down. It could also go forward in part, after having large pieces of it removed, and it could go forward with some fundamental changes. How the elections go will greatly affect the law - unless, of course, the Supreme Court strikes the law down before the elections arrive. It seems like that the Supreme Court will rule on the individual mandate from a constitutional standpoint, and that could lead to some of the…
Blendon R.J., Benson J.M. (2010). Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform. New England Journal of Medicine, 362 (16): e55.
Elmendorf, D.W. (2010). Additional information on the effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. Congressional Budget Office.
Peterson, C.L. & Chaikind, H. (2010), Summary of small business health insurance tax credit under PPACA. Congressional Research Service.
Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.
Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.
It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…
Financing National Health Insurance." (2003, February 4). Available:
http://www.pnhp.org/nhibill/nhi_financing.html (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Health Care Policy Issues. Sept. 2004. Available:
http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Therefore, a competitive health industry does not improve the situation for the uninsured; often, it makes it worse.
In order for such a system to function properly, there needs to be a great deal of government subsidizing for those who cannot afford the health care costs. The health care industry would have to take some huge steps toward reform. For example, the industry should put a cap on medicinal costs to the patient and petition the federal government to step in the assist those in need. Another option would be for the health care industry to strongly petition the govewnremtn for a greater amount of research grants in order to improve the overall health of our nation. As such, patients will be spared the extra costs trickling down to them as a result of competition and forces caused by related expenses.
The national health care crisis currently in our nation…
Healthcare Budgetary Decision Making
With resources becoming increasingly limited in the healthcare industry, managers are continually challenged with devising effective strategies for dealing with budgetary concerns. The most prominent challenge comes in the form of decision making that results in striking a balance between cost reduction and the maintenance of high quality care and safety for patients. The following discussion outlines approaches that can be utilized by managers to effectively deal with budgetary concerns in healthcare settings, with an emphasis on the advantages of group decision making strategies.
It is evident that there is often a struggle in the healthcare industry for managers to continually and effectively manage depleting resources, address the ever-changing needs of patients, and all the while provide a high level of patient care (Sibbald et al., 2010). This struggle has at its core a need for improvement in regards to the processes in which priorities are…
Burleson, G. (1984). Management, budgeting and the use of resources -- a private sector review. Hospital and Health Services Review, 80(3), 124-5.
Sibbald, S.L., Gibson, J.L., Singer, P.A., Upshur, R., Martin, D.K. (2010). Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 131.
Xie, H., Chaussalet, T., Toffa, S., Crowther, P. (2005). A software tool to aid budget planning for long-term care at local authority level. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 114, 284-90.
Health Management (Discussion questions)
A health plan is gradually devised in four main stages. The first step is to assess the current situation, and what needs to be changed in terms of a given health setting. Secondly, a set of solutions is designed to bridge the cap between what is, and what is desirable. Thirdly, the measures that were agreed upon are implemented in the targeted environment. Lastly, a process of evaluation determines how effectively the health measures made the transition from what was to what was demanded to be changed.
During the initial phase, it is the general identification of health in a population sector that morphs. The redefining of health justifies enacting a new health plan; in other words, the new plan has to accommodate the effects of this redefinition of society's health goals. After the goals are set, the devised measures ought to take into consideration existing…
National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (2011). Public health planning toolkit. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University. Retrieved from http://www.nccmt.ca/registry/view/eng/105.html
The Health Planner's Toolkit (2006). Ontario, Canada: Queen's Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.on.ca/transformation/providers/information/resources/health_planner/module_1.pdf
Healthcare spending by the New York State persistently surpasses its earnings. That difference continues to be expanding and is also anticipated to broaden unless of course there happen to be severe, continuous modifications in spending budget actions. Lieutenant Governor ichard avitch, in "A 5-Year Strategy to Deal with the State of New York's Spending budget Deficit" released during March 2010, approximated this structural disproportion within the state's spending budget to become no less than $13 billion. The structural inequality isn't simply the consequence of the economic downturn that started during 2007, and a commonly strengthening economic climate is not going to get rid of it.
To help the State of New York in providing the solutions and dedication to quality that its residents rely on, structural modifications are needed. The aim of this paper is actually to summarize one particular realignment - solving an outright inequity involving the state as…
California Public Employees' Retirement System, "Facts at a Glance: Health," September 2010, http://www.calpers.ca.gov/eip-docs/about/facts/health.pdf .
Citizens Budget Commission, Out of Balance: A Comparison of Public and Private Employee Health Benefits in New York City, December 2009, http://www.cbcny.org/sites/default/files/REPORT_Survey_12162009.pdf .
City of New York Office of Labor Relations, "New York City Summary Program Description, Health Benefit Program," 2010, http://www.nyc.gov/html/olr/downloads/pdf/healthb/full_spd.pdf.
Government Finance Officers Association, "Recommended Practices, Health Care Cost Containment 2004," http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/corbaHealthCareCostContainment.pdf .
This research focuses on the health impacts of the Industrial evolution on various sectors of the British population, and hypothesizes that working class and poor laborers suffered from poorer health than their wealthier counterparts due to exposure to pollution and to lack of exposure to a varied diet.
Public health and the public health system existing in the 21st century is unrecognizable from what existed just a century before. As Wohl (1983) points out, poverty, ignorance, and poor sanitation plagued British public health throughout the Victorian era. It is important to understand what prompted the changes that led to increased knowledge, awareness, and application of ethical principles in health care. Armed with this knowledge, the bioarchaeologist and health care specialists alike can work together to transform health care outcomes in the future.
In particular, the Industrial evolution impacted individual and public health in significant and measurable ways. Coal…
Wohl, A.S. (1983). Endangered Lives: Public Health in Victorian Britain.London: J.M. Dent.
Healthcare Delivery Systems Annotated
Parnaby, J., & Towill, D.R. (2008). Seamless healthcare delivery systems. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 21(3), 249-73.
Towill, D.R., & Christopher, M. (2005). An evolutionary approach to the architecture of effective healthcare delivery systems. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 19(2), 130-47.
A recent article touted the 6.1% growth of spending on medical care in 2007.
The same article cautioned however that, "most experts know that no matter what the numbers say, there is still a great deal of work ahead to reform a healthcare system that is still fundamentally broken -- and is facing one of the worst economic recessions in decades" (Lubell, 2009, pg. 6).
Government and industry officials have been working to reform the industry for more than a decade yet the problem seems to be getting worse rather than better. More and more individuals are finding that insurance takes too much of their income and are forced therefore to forego that expense. Government is leery of committing to the cost of such expense, and industry is reluctant to offer expanded coverage without the backing of the federal government. As the interested parties do the two-step the problem becomes…
Bentley, C.S.; (2005) the new healthcare system, New American, Vol. 21, No. 18, pg. 44
Blizzard, R.; (2002) the haves and have nots of healthcare, Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing, pp. 8-9
Brown, J.; (2009) Obama healthcare plan would shut down private sector, OneNewsNow, http://www.onenewsnow.com/Politics/Default.aspx?id=414372 , Accessed February 10, 2009
Conn, J,; DerGurahian, J.; (2008) HIT budgets taking a hit: study, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 38, No. 50, pp. 10-11
Universal healthcare is the only saving formula for this nation, which is doomed in a health care crisis of unprecedented proportions. There is a urgent need to transform healthcare from its present state of commercialism towards the humanitarian approach which guarantees 'healthcare for all' independent of their social or financial circumstances. A shared and collective responsibility of healthcare management is the only viable formula for America. It is high time we learn from Canada, UK and other European nations and restructure the current broken state of our healthcare. The successful passing of the USNHC act (H.R. 676) is the only way for America to wake up from its healthcare nightmare. Will the powerful insurance industry hold its ground yet again and resist this awakening leaving all the citizens doomed? This is an important question for all the citizens of our country.
1) Science Daily, 'American Values lamed for U.S.…
1) Science Daily, 'American Values Blamed for U.S. Healthcare Crisis',
Accessed May 11, 2009, Available at, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081204160558.htm
2) Laura K. Altom, BS, MSIII and Larry R. Churchill, PhD, Ann Geddes Stahlman
'Pay, Pride, and Public Purpose: Why America's Doctors Should Support
It is from this spiritual foundation that I wish to approach healthcare as a professional nurse. Healthcare is my duty, and I shall see to it that I "freely give" of my energy to heal the sick and communicate the word of God via my work.
Heartfelt concern for human beings is a core Christian ideal. In a Christian light, healthcare is not as controversial as it is made out to be in the American media. Rather, the issue of healthcare parallels the three Christian norms of love, justice and peacemaking. To love others is to put into practice Jesus' advice to love our neighbors as ourselves. No matter what a patient's background or physical condition, that individual has the right to receive the best care possible. Love is caring in action, which is the job of the nurse. Justice refers to equal treatment of all patients. Within a Christian…
4% per year for the entire projection period." (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid ervices. 2009).
ources of Funds
The current funding climate on "health spending is fairly evenly split between the private and public sectors, with private health spending accounting for 54% of total health spending in 2007" (Kaiser Family Foundation. March 2009). Taken in totality, health insurance accounts for 71% of all funding sources with a categorical breakdown of: private health insurance at 32% of total spending, Medicare, 20%, Medicaid 15%, and other government programs four percent. Additionally 12% of funds flow from out-of-pocket programs, while other third party and investment programs account for 13%" (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid ervices. 2009).
pecifically, hospital care receives its 759.1 billion of spend from 24.4 billion of out-of-pocket expenses, and 669.3 billion of health insurance payments, of which private plans accounted for 265.9 billion, Medicare 220.4 billion, Medicaid 136.1 billion, and…
Specifically, hospital care receives its 759.1 billion of spend from 24.4 billion of out-of-pocket expenses, and 669.3 billion of health insurance payments, of which private plans accounted for 265.9 billion, Medicare 220.4 billion, Medicaid 136.1 billion, and other insurance programs 47 billion; other third parties accounted for 65.3 billion in spending. Physician and clinical services respectively spent 505.9 billion in 2009 with funding sources of: 47.9 billion out-of-pocket, and 407.3 billion in health insurance, of which 237.7 billion was private insurance, Medicare of 109.4 billion, Medicaid of 39.9 billion, and other insurance programs 20.3 billion; other third parties accounted for 50.6 billion. (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. 2009).
Health Expenditure Trends
The trends in health care spending for hospital care and physician and clinical services have risen in lockstep over the last decades, and are projected to continue their upward trajectory through the coming projected period 2009-2019. Specifically, hospital care has demonstrated a total increase of 27.2 billion dollars spent in 1970 to 759.1
In the case of pill mills, participating physicians and pharmacists bill insurance companies or Medicare for prescription drugs, allowing participating beneficiaries to resell those drugs to criminal middlemen. The pharmacy then repurchases the drugs at a lower cost. According to the USGAO, any misuse of beneficiary identification information is a felony.
Criminals may also steal beneficiary information by creating drop boxes. The drop box scheme involves establishing a phony health care company in order to obtain insurance or Medicare payments. Like the drop box scheme, the pill mill scheme, and the rent-a-patient scheme, third-party billing also involves felony acts. Illegally obtaining beneficiary identification numbers, a criminal can use third-party billing agents to receive insurance payouts. The third-party billing company may not even be aware of the scheme. In other cases, the third-party billing company is a part of the scheme, defrauding by tacking on fraudulent claims to legitimate ones and…
Cornell University Law School. "Health Care Fraud." Retrieved Aug 7, 2008 from http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/healthcare_fraud
United States General Accounting Office (USGAO). "Health Care Fraud." Retrieved Aug 7, 2008 from http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:NcKXTYWPgDEJ:www.gao.gov/new.items/os00015t.pdf+health+care+fraud&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&client=firefox-a
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…
Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research
Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.
Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.