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heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart muscle is severely reduced or stopped. This happens when one or more of the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle is blocked. This is usually caused by the buildup of plaque that bursts, tears or ruptures, creating a snag where a blood clot forms and blocks the artery, leading to a heart attack (see Figure 1). Coronary artery disease causes approximately 1.5 million heart attacks each year. There are many causes of heart disease, some are controllable and some are not. Uncontrollable risk factors include male gender, older age, family history of heart disease, post-menopausal stages, and race (lacks and Mexican-Americans have larger risks for heart disease than whites). Risk factors that can be controlled include smoking, inappropriate cholesterol levels, uncontrolled hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, uncontrolled diabetes and uncontrolled stress and anger.
Most individuals think of…… [Read More]
Heart attacks, or sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), affect more than 300,000 Americans each year and are considered the leading cause of death in the United States. Once a person experiences an SCA event, the single most important thing that will determine if a person survives is the time takes from SCA to defibrillation. In fact, the survival rate of a person suffering an SCA can drop "7% to 10% per minute with every minute defibrillation is delayed." (Drezner, 2009, p.518) Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have become a common means of surviving an out of hospital SCA, increasing survival rates to as much as 74% when defibrillation occurs within the first 3 to 5 minutes. Because SCA also accounts for nearly half of all deaths involving young athletes, many high schools are investing in AEDs and instigating AED programs to educate the staff and teachers in its proper use. And it…… [Read More]
Sean at this visit?
Ten questions to develop the diagnosis would be:
How often do you drink or smoke (how often do you play poker?) How many drinks? How many cigars? More/less frequently than usual? Same?
Have you had any recent illnesses?
What does your diet consist of?
What is your cholesterol level?
Have you had any fever?
Are you experiencing any stress?
How long had you been working out prior to occasion? How often/frequently? How much weight had you lost?
How much rest are you getting at night?
What is your diet?
Are you sweating more than usual? Have you had pain in any other parts of your body? Have you had a rapid or irregular pulse? Any swelling in lower extremities?
What is your differential diagnosis list for this visit thus far with rationale?
Likely diagnosis: Acute coronary syndrome. Differential diagnosis for this patient is based in the…… [Read More]
" If the liver encounters more food materials than the body can use at the time, it converts the extra food into fat, which can then be stored in the liver, in the fat cells, and circulate in the blood. The extra circulating cholesterol, especially the LDL's, are a sign that either (1) the person is eating too much, (2) the person is not exercising enough to "burn" the food that he/she eats, or both.
A surplus of LDL's results in a build-up of plaque in the arteries around the body (not just the heart). They can coat the cardiac, peripheral vascular and brain arteries with relatively eccentric plaque, building up over a period of time to create a reduced blood flow.
When the main arteries of the heart are constricted enough, a small thrombus, or blood clot, can clog the remaining opening in the artery and cause the heart…… [Read More]
Antidepressants May Improve Heart Attack Survival
Health Day Reporter
Date Published: July 05, 2005
This article was written in the subject of possibilities for improving heart attack survival through the help of antidepressants. Dr. C. arr Taylor, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provided the results from his studies about the effect of antidepressants after a heart attack. Taylor also who wrote an accompanying editorial in the journal. Despite of Taylor's findings, Dr. Glassman however reiterates the following warning:
"even though a previous study produced similar evidence of the beneficial effects of antidepressants after a heart attack, the new finding may not translate directly into clinical practice"
Glassman points out that further study is still important to prove the effect of antidepressants after a heart attack and to provide enough evidence of the positive benefits of antidepressants that previous…… [Read More]
Buddhism -- the Heart Attack Sutra
The Craziness of the Heart Sutra
Before specifically referring to Chapter 1, one should note that the difficulty of a estern mind readily understanding the tenets and nuances of Buddhist thought are made abundantly clear in reading Brunnholzl's book. Epstein points out just such a problem when he explores the difficulty of translating Buddhist philosophy to workable 21st Century psychotherapy, for several reasons: differences in languages and thought processes (Epstein, 2007, p. 178); and modern psychotherapy's orientation as an active seeker of remedies while Buddhist philosophy tends toward a gentler approach which may be too temperate and passive to treat tough modern problems such as narcissism (Epstein, 2007, p. 178).
As for Chapter 1 in particular, Brunnholzl addresses the apparent absurdity of the Heart Sutra in that it appears to negate all principles on which Buddhism is based, including conceptual frameworks, belief systems and…… [Read More]
Heart Problems Linked to Those Born with HIV
HIV treatment now improves the longevity of infected persons, and researchers have since shifted their focus to the health-related complications that such persons could face later in life. Cardiovascular disease has been found to be one, and perhaps the most significant, of these complications. esearch has, in fact, established that "children born with HIV are more likely to have heart problems later in life, even if they are treated early with antiretroviral drugs" (McNeil Jr., 2014). Whereas almost no child in America is now born with HIV, owing to the availability of preventive drugs, more than 250, 000 children born every year in the developing world are not as lucky, and have to take antiretroviral drugs their entire lives. This text establishes how the "combination of the effects of HIV itself and the antiretroviral drugs used to treat it" increases the likelihood…… [Read More]
Personal Health History
Yes (Please list medications and reasons for usage below)
eason for usage
Are you taking any vitamins or dietary supplements?
Yes (If yes then please list supplements and reasons for usage below)
I am taking Vitamin C through consuming multitude of fruits in order to fight muscle spasms, fatigue, and joint pain.
Do you now, or have you had in the past: Yes No
History of heart problems, chest pain or stroke?
Increased blood pressure?
Any chronic illness or condition?
Do you ever get dizzy, lose your balance or lose consciousness?
Difficulty with physical exercise?
Advice from physician not to exercise?
ecent surgery (last 12 months)?
History of breathing or lung problems? No
Swollen, stiff, or painful joints? Yes
Foot problems? No
Back problems? Yes
Any significant vision or hearing problems? No
14.…… [Read More]
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%
in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac
Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,
March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1
Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…… [Read More]
Broken Heart Syndrome
Cardiovascular Case Study
Broken heart syndrome, otherwise called stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), represents an adverse physiological response to an acute psychological or physical stressor (Derrick, 2009). The death of a loved one or experiencing a physically traumatic event, represent two examples of life stressors that can cause this reversible form of cardiomyopathy. Although effective treatment is available, the seriousness of the condition is such that it explains how a person can literally die of a broken heart.
An estimated 1.2 million people suffered from an myocardial infarction (MI) in 2007 and approximately 1% (Derrick, 2009, p. 50) to 2% (Wittstein, 2012, p. 2) of MI events was probably due to TTC. Women are far more susceptible to TTC than men and represent approximately 89% of all cases (Derrick, 2009, p. 50). This gender bias shifts the estimated prevalence of TTC among female MI patients…… [Read More]
Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease
Outline of Coronary Heart Disease
The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.
CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…… [Read More]
Questions regarding all three aspects should be asked during intake because this disease should be treated holistically meaning that everything should be factored in.
IV. DISEASE Management MODEL
A disease management plan is necessary for the congestive heart failure patient because so many other illnesses are associated with this disease. The plan is designed to improve the patient's health, while at the same time reducing medical costs.
Disease Management Model
To manage as well as reduce congestive heart failure and the illnesses generally associated with it.
Patients who already have congestive heart failure or those who are at risk.
To reduce the chances of developing other illnesses and diseases associated with congestive heart failure.
To cut down on hospital admissions by ensuring patients follow instructions for at home care as well as regular follow up visits.
To cut down on medical costs by monitoring patients at…… [Read More]
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…… [Read More]
Enlarged Cardiac Muscle
In most instances, an enlargement of cardiac muscles produces detrimental effects in the person in which such an occurrence takes place. Depending on how large the muscles and the heart actually gets, the noxious nature of those effects increase. For instance, it is possible to still have the heart function normally and pump blood with a degree of efficacy with minimal or even nominal enlargement of the heart muscles. However, when that enlargement becomes too strong, there are a host of detrimental conditions that take place.
There are many different undesirable results that an enlarged heart can produce. For instance, it can lead to strokes, heart attacks, and various forms of heart failure. Still, there is not a direct correlation between enlarged hearts and these maladies for the simple fact that in most instances, enlarged hearts are produced by some other undesirable conditions such as high blood…… [Read More]
Morbidity and Mortality Statistics:
Hypertension affects around 1 in 3 Americans and according to the CDC only 52% of people have this condition under control (CDC.gov, 2016). In older men, two-thirds have hypertension, and one-third of white men have hypertension. There are nearly 1000 deaths from hypertension daily in the United States, around 360,000 per year. Hypertension is related to first heart attacks, strokes and chronic heart failure.
The patient also suffers from orthostatic hypotension, which is when blood pressure drops when going from a lying or sitting position to standing. The largest risk for elderly people is the increased risk of falling that this brings. The patient may have fallen because of this condition. It is caused by, or linked to, high blood pressure and prolonged bed rest, as well as other conditions not faced by this patient. Anemia or vitamin B12 deficiency is another potential contributor…… [Read More]
According to Waryasz & McDermott (2009), the global prevalence of diabetes among people aged between 20 and 79 rose to 6.4% affecting 285 million people in 2010 and the rate will rise to 7.7% affecting 439 million people by 2030. Amid 2010 and 2030, the rate of individuals with diabetes will increase by 69% in developing nations, and a twenty percent rate in developed nations. In 2011, the number rose to 366 and it is expected to rise to 552 by 2030. The pervasiveness of diabetes is advanced in males compared to females, yet the number of women with diabetes is more compared to that of men.
Diabetes affects any part of the human body and people with diabetes are likely to die of heart-related problems or stroke. Seventy-percent of individuals with diabetes show signs of high blood pressure which a risk factor for heart-related diseases. The majority of…… [Read More]
The basic work of the heart is to pump blood to the entire body. It performs two types of functions, electrical and mechanical. The electrical function of the heart is the periodic contraction that is triggered by the pacemaker. The pacemaker generates the pumping effect throughout the heart. This pumping action commonly known as action potential is carried in an electrical conduction system. The mechanical function is the fluidic movement of blood; the heart is a pump. The heart's anatomical features include; ventricle, which is the pump, heart valves; that allow blood to flow one way and the atria, which includes the four chambers of the heart. The heart is susceptible to disease and as a result if unable to pump blood can lead to failure in other body organs.
Treated Heart Conditions
Cardiology is generally a field of medicine focusing on diagnosis and treatment of the heart. Discussed…… [Read More]
attacks of September 11, 2001 spawned a number of dubious government actions, including the intensification of racial profiling to target Arabs and Muslims. This means that a certain section of American society is under immediate suspicion of terrorism simply for being of a particular race or religion. Tolerance and equality are two of the highest principles treasured by the United States and its inhabitants. The fear and suspicion cultivated by racial profiling, especially after September 11, represents an abomination of the rights guaranteed under the Constitution to all within American borders.
To suspect millions of law-abiding, innocent people of terrorism as a result of the actions of a handful, is like suspecting all white males of perversion as a result of a few perverted serial killers. It is illogical and causes more harm than good.
There are many actions that are helpful in preventing terrorism. Immigration laws for example can…… [Read More]
Heart of Darkness
It was written by Joseph Conrad. The story is set in London, but there is a large part of it that happened in Congo. The writer went to Congo in the year 1980, on June 12. The inspiration for his writing may have been derived from what Conrad experienced in Congo. At that time, Britain had the most influence and power in the world. The Britain Empire stretched throughout Africa, Asia and Europe. Joseph Conrad was born in 1857, in Ukraine. His original name was Jozef Konrad Teodor Korzeniowski. As the writer, Conrad was a foreigner who was looking out. He was neither of African nor British origin; hence he was an appropriate party for writing a story about Congo and Britain. After all, he had insight regarding both countries (Svensson).
According to Svensson, the novella clearly portrays the Imperialism of Europeans. The novella talks about…… [Read More]
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Cardiac…… [Read More]
heumatic heart disease is caused by heumatic Fever or group a streptococci. It consists of "cardiac inflammation" accompanied by scarring which itself is a reaction to the autoimmune system fighting the group A streptococci. The myocardium, endocardium, and epicardium are each affected in turn. In the chronic stage, heumatic heart disease results in valvular fibrosis (Burk, 2013).
The pathophysiology of heumatic heart disease is as follows: The causative agent is group A streptococci. It develops into strep throat, which if untreated can turn into heumatic fever. At this point, the individual suffers inflammation of the layers of the heart as well as the mitral valve. Vegetation also begins to develop. This will lead to valvula regurgitation plus stenosis. The result of all of this is heart failure (Burke, 2010).
heumatic fever typically occurs in individuals between the ages of 5 and 25, so it is neither a newborn's disease nor…… [Read More]
9-11 and Mass Commumications
Three years after the tragedy of 9-11, the city of new York has cleared the rubbish our of the footprint of the two towers, but they are still a long way from clearing the wreckage out of their collective, and individual hearts. Never before has the nation been struck in an act of war as was seen on national television on 9-11-2001. Even when the Japanese planes swarmed into Pearl Harbor, American's saw only the pictures which were released in print, and the events of the day had time to settle before the images of war were digested. ut even the attack on Pearl Harbor was fundamentally different than what occurred in New York. Military forces struck a military target. This does not reduce the shock of the event, but it was easier to digest as the nation ramped up for war in the European theater…… [Read More]
Paradox of Imperialism as Presented in Heart of Darkness
Beginning in the 1500's, European countries explored the world and claimed large parts of it as their own. This was the beginning of the Age of Exploration, as first the Portuguese and Spanish, then the British, Dutch, French, and other Europeans raced to discover and claim new areas of the world. By the 1800's the Age of Exploration had settled into a system of Imperialism which maintained huge Empires for the economic benefit of the home countries in Europe. While the stated goal of creating such Empires was to bring civilization to uncivilized parts of the world, the need for raw materials combined with a commercial greed created a system that cruelly exploited indigenous peoples and raped whole territories of natural resources. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, paralleled this ultimate paradox of Imperialism by describing how a good man named Kurtz,…… [Read More]
Anger and Its Effects
Anger is a very intense feeling, and can be characterized by a number of behaviors. These include grinding teeth, an increased heart rate, rising blood pressure, clenched fists, and other signs of aggravation or frustration (Hendricks, et al., 2013). Each person reacts to anger in a different way, and some of the manifestations of anger may not be outwardly apparent. ises in blood pressure and heart rate, for example, are not easily noticed by others, but they can still be very damaging to the person who is struggling with the anger itself (Hendricks, et al., 2013). People also get angry for a number of different reasons, and they may react in an angry manner when they feel hurt, threatened, frustrated, or disappointed (Hendricks, et al., 2013). This is a relatively natural reaction for the majority of people, but that does not mean it is healthy or…… [Read More]
Chi-Square, T-Test and Correlation
esearch Methods in Psychology a (HPS201/HPS771)
Crosstabs and Chi-Square
Some researchers have suggested that there are two main types of personality: Type A and Type B. Individuals with Type A personality are characterized as being conscientious and competitive. They strongly desire success and typically present with higher levels of stress. Conversely, individuals with Type B personality are typically less stressed and tend to be more laconic, relaxed and less concerned with competition.
Due to the higher levels of stress experienced by those with Type A personality, health insurance risk evaluators are interested in knowing whether individuals with Type A personality are at greater risk of having a heart attack.
You are hired as a researcher to investigate this research question. You take a random sample of 40 individuals aged between 40 and 60 years and assess their personality to determine whether they possess a Type…… [Read More]
Non-Cardiac Chest Pain
Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…… [Read More]
psychological trauma, and how does she relate it to repression? What evidence does she supply in support of her claim? Do you agree with her stance on this basic issue?
Slater, in her usual creative style, believes the current methods of dealing with psychological trauma to be ineffective in regards to the identifying a root cause. In fact, Slater believes the act of talking about a traumatic occurrence in an individual's life actually exacerbates the problem. Recollecting past events through constant conversation, Slater believes, does nothing to address the root cause of the problem. Further, by talking incessantly about this traumatic experience, patients may actually become more ill than they otherwise were. This is particularly important when patient are asks to revisit controversial areas in their lives in order to rid themselves of the traumatic event altogether. Slater is very quick to point out that conversation actually, emblazon fear within…… [Read More]
Marketing in Health Care
Problems Faced by the Stroke Center
Some of the problems faced by the Stroke Center are caused by lack of information and knowledge acquired by stroke patients and their families in the course of heart attacks, and the financial capability of the Stroke Center to build up more teams that can specialize in the administration of heart attack patients.
The foremost problem of the Stroke Center is the limited knowledge of heart attack victims and their families in managing a heart attack event, especially knowledge on TPA and the immediate medical attention required by victims to be administered with TPA. Such lack of knowledge results to the victim missing the chances of overcoming the battle against the consequences of a stroke such as disability. It also results to a very low percentage rate of heart attack victims who get TPA treatment.
Another problem the Stroke Center…… [Read More]
A secondary psychological problem that should be addressed is the man's evident agoraphobia, or fear of spending time in public or in wide, open spaces. Although this is not uncommon with individuals suffering panic disorders, special treatment as part of the therapeutic process might be valuable. The patient also has a history of previous mental disorders, including depression that should be monitored. Social isolation brought forth by panic and agoraphobia combined with depression could pose a serious risk to his personal safety, should the symptoms worsen. This is another reason that medication seemed to be the most advisable choice.
Identifying panic attacks as severely incapacitating the man's life, rather than occurring as a 'one-time' incident attached to a physical incident was only determined through intense but empathetic probing. Individuals may often misidentify the symptoms of a heart attack and feel frightened of what is mere indigestion. The more severe psychological…… [Read More]
Carl must be psychologically prepared to make such changes, however. Thus, as well as taking Carl's blood pressure and submitting a blood sample to have his cholesterol screened (getting his blood glucose level assessed, even though there were no problems in the past with this reading might also be wise), the nurse should try to obtain a full assessment of Carl's lifestyle. When and what does he eat? What are his work habits? His sleep habits? Has anything changed recently in his life? All of these factors could make a potentially meaningful impact upon both the test results and the eventual prescription for Carl to improve his health.
Carl is still very young to run the risk of having a heart attack: the risk of having a heart attack increases dramatically after age 65) so engaging in positive changes now is wise and prudent (Heart health screening, 2013, AHA). It…… [Read More]
Risk Factors for Mr. Jablonski
CHD: Mr. J is a classic case for a potential Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) patient. His history shows several risk factors, which can be divided into uncontrollable and controllable risk factors. The uncontrollable factors are his age (48 years old) -- older people are more susceptible to CHD, his sex (male) -- men are more likely to get CHD, and his family history. The controllable risk factors are his obesity, his smoking habit, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, and his high LDL cholesterol.
Hypertension: The risk factors for Mr. J are his age, gender, obesity, excessive salt intake, and his inactive lifestyle.
The risk factors described as 'controllable' can be mitigated by dietary control and medication. If his condition remains untreated Mr. J is a potential candidate for a severe heart disease and possible stroke.
In order to lower his high…… [Read More]
This was however not the case, and in addition to Dr. Wu's and his staff's kind assistance, we were impressed not only with the immediate availability of facilities and technology, but also with the quality of these.
The staff were obviously well trained. Under Dr. Wu's leadership, they immediately understood our needs and tried as best to support not only my father, but also the rest of us as a family. In the great crisis we were experiencing, the hospital staff remained calm and friendly throughout. We had a comfortable waiting area and staff was available at all times to see to our needs.
When he was certain that my father was out of danger, Dr. Wu came to talk to us again, and explained that my father was now out of danger. He also helped us with the admissions procedure, medication and advice regarding rest for my father and…… [Read More]
Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property
Legal and ethical considerations
PharmaCAE intentionally bypassed the Food and Drug Administration when it established CompCAE a compounding pharmacy. This was done in order to avoid FDA scrutinization, which indicates that the company was aware of the side effects that the drug would have on patients. By evading FDA scrutiny and approval, PharmaCAE was able to sell the new formulation on a prescription basis without the need to seek approvals. CompCAE was not supposed to market directly to consumers, but it still conducted direct marketing to consumers and hospitals. Furthermore, the company encouraged doctors to fax them lists of fictitious patient names. This was done to demonstrate that the company was not selling directly to consumers, but rather it was doctors who were prescribing the drug to the patients.
When reports started surfacing indicating that the drug was causing heart attacks, the…… [Read More]
reprogramming the injured" discusses the issue of regenerating damaged or injured heart tissues. The article seeks to show ways of improving cardiac function. The article cites the original works of L. Qian and K. Song together with their colleagues. The authors of the article state that L. Qian and his colleagues have induced scar-forming (fibroblasts) cells to change into muscle cells in live mice's damaged hearts. Scientists refer to muscle cells as cardiomyocytes. The authors, therefore, conclude that results of the experiment provide an avenue for cardiovascular investigation in translational medicine. The article talks of the discovery of MY0D1, a transcription factor that regulates expression of genes that play significant roles in the development of skeletal muscle. The article states that scientists discovered that they could reprogram somatic cells (non-germline) to pluripotent stem cells. Pluripotent cells are important because they can transform into any cell type. This happens by expressing…… [Read More]
Business operations are deemed viable of they succeed in establishing conditions that guarantee safety for its product consumers. Specified standards are applied by business entities to attain such viability. These considerations are critical in product safety, intellectual property, and marketing in general. If a company or business entity violates any of the aspects mentioned, it stands a high risk being caught in a web of ethical and legal complications that might destroy it. PhamaCARE finds itself in such a precarious predicament owing to its blatant violation of a number of legal and ethical standards. There were both ethical and legal problems that impacted on its clients and businesses. Investigating behavior is paramount in uncovering issues related to legal and ethical problems of any business entity.
Pursuant to the scenario above, identify three (3) legal issues and problems PharmaCARE has in relation to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of…… [Read More]
.....nurse assigned to care for this patient, I would strongly advocate on behalf of the patient's autonomy. The clash between patient autonomy and the healthcare system and its representatives like nurses can only be resolved by being honest in this situation. The patient is under a high degree of stress, not only because of his health condition and the fear that brings out in him, but due to other stressful life events including his financial situation. He was also supposed to get married immediately before the bypass surgery was scheduled, and this is bound to add to his level of stress. The primary issue here is providing what the patient needs to keep him safe during the procedure, and if he insists on using his own pump, which he has successfully used for the thirty years he has lived with the disease of diabetes, then he should use his own…… [Read More]
"When a court strikes a contract provision for unconscionability it is declaring that provision is so unfair or oppressive that the court will refuse to enforce it." (Gillespie, 2007). The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." (U.S. Const. amend. XIII, 1). The contract that the parties signed purported to make Mrs. Lowell the property of Mr. Lowell. Because the Lowells are Americans and purchased their ticket in America, it is unlikely that an American court would recognize Mr. Lowell's ability to contract away his wife's right to be recognized as a legal individual in a contract dispute. Furthermore, the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees Mrs. Lowell the equal protection of the laws, (U.S. Const. amend. XIV, 1)…… [Read More]
The horn, like Saturn,
Is suspended in its ring of steering wheel;
And below is the black tongue of the gas pedal,
The bulge of the brake, the stalk
Of the stick shift,
The simile, "like Saturn" succeeds in expanding on the image of the car in adding a sense of its larger symbolic meaning. The other images also tend to provide the car with natural attributes - such as a tongue.
In the final lines of the poem, there is a suggestion of Apollonian individualism. The protagonist overcomes the fear of the car and drives. This can be seen as an assertion of individuality over the Dionysian mystery or, on the other hand, acceptance and entrance into that mystery. The last lines of the poem tend to favor the latter interpretation.
The world's open gate, eternity
Hits me like a heart attack.
There is a sense of…… [Read More]
The patient should drink less, participate in more physical activity and should eat a better diet. The blood pressure and cholesterol both need to come down immediately.
The patient needs to take the recommendations in question 5 or he likely has a very dim future if his BP and cholesterol is not lowered a lot. Blood pressure should be measured after the patient has rested for at least five minutes. He should be instructed in advance of the appointment what not to eat or drink so that the test result is not improperly influenced (e.g. drinking caffeine).
There is no advancement or progression in symptoms but blood pressure is still entirely too high. It needs to drop by at least 30 points to be within a non-hypertension range. Needs to be made clear to patient that while he is feeling fine for now, that will change…… [Read More]
Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).
Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret
The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…… [Read More]
Currently, I am working as a surgical technologist in two hospitals in Arkansas - Arkansas Children Hospital and the VA Hospital. I do surgical scrub on various cases of all surgical services, general, orthopedics, vascular, ENT, neurology, urology, and burns. To update and enhance my skills, I attended different medical training courses.
Since my youth, I had been in the scene of medicine. At the age of seventeen I was diagnosed with diabetes. Hence, in y sophomore years in college, I did a presentation on diabetes where I provided information on the symptoms, complications, and how to cope with diabetes. During my Junior year, I had family members that were diagnosed with breast cancer, glaucoma, heart attacks and thyroid problems.
Such experiences are my motivations in becoming a Physician Assistant. The feeling that I get from providing medical services is unfathomable and cannot be measured by anything.… [Read More]
ight to Die
The case of Mildred D: The right to die
The core dilemma of 'the right to die' of Mildred D. revolves around Mildred's alleged statement to her children that she wanted no heroic means to continue her life. There is also the question of whether intravenous feeding is 'heroic' means, since removing the NG will effectively 'starve' her and ending her life before it would naturally terminate were the NG tube not removed. Food is usually not considered 'additional' means of life support, although it is debatable whether food not administered by mouth constitutes heroic means. Mildred had no living will clarifying her wishes and is now not competent to make the decision herself.
Legally, in the U.S. Supreme Court case of Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, "the Court considered whether Missouri could insist on proof by 'clear and convincing evidence' of a…… [Read More]
The Topic Company: DN.
1) Does the organization treat management and leadership as one in the same? YES or NO
2) Does the organization rely heavily on employee training and development? YES or NO
3) Does the program use employee feedback at the lowest levels in its overall decision making process? YES or NO
4) Do you believe all stakeholders are aware of the organizations goals and objectives and are willing to work towards the achievement of those goals? YES or NO
5) in your opinion is the organization structured in a way that inhibits innovation? YES or NO
6) Are there any other aspects that you believe should be improved within the organization? If so, how?
1) Bulmer, M. And Warwick, D. (1993). Social research in developing countries: surveys and censuses in the Third World. London: outledge.
2) Ebbutt, D. (1998). Evaluation of projects…… [Read More]
Elisa Allen is the protagonist of John Steinbeck's short story “The Chrysanthemums,” and Louise Mallard is the protagonist of Kate Chopin's “The Story of An Hour.” Both Elisa and Louise are products of their social and historical contexts, particularly when it comes to gender norms. Elisa and Louise are passive protagonists, because patriarchy has stripped them of political agency. By creating passive protagonists in their respective short stories, Steinbeck and Chopin make powerful social commentary about the role of women in their private and public lives.
Both Elisa and Louise feel stuck in their marriage, but perceive liberation as impossible within the confines of their culture. In both short stories, nature symbolizes wasted potential. For example, Elisa is capable of so much more than gardening: "The chrysanthemum stems seemed too small and easy for her energy," (Steinbeck). Similarly, Louise realizes that she has wasted her life when she sees nature…… [Read More]
It is believed that this is related to some basic dissimilarity in women's the way women's hearts work (icciotti, 2012).
Women are just as liable to have a heart attack as men, but the fact that they are more apt to die after their first heart attack may be because the signs of a heart attack are different in women. Doctors and patients frequently point chest pains in women to non-cardiac causes, leading to a misdiagnosis of their condition. Men generally experience crushing chest pain during a heart attack. Women may have a larger inclination to have pain just under the breastbone, or complain of abdominal pain, heartburn, trouble breathing, sickness and mysterious exhaustion. Women are consequently easily misdiagnosed of indigestion, gall bladder disease, or even an anxiety attack. The probability of misdiagnosing a heart attack in women is also augmented by the fact that women tend to have heart…… [Read More]
Exercise and Proper Diet:
Solutions to Circulatory System Health and Coronary Heart Disease Management
Coronary heart disease is the nation's single leading cause of death." For American Heart Association's 2003 report on Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, coronary heart disease will prove to be significant and responsible for almost 1.1 million Americans that have the potential of having "recurrent coronary attack." This figure implies the degree of significance that heart diseases does to the increasing mortality rate and deteriorating health of many Americans. Coronary heart disease is a "chronic illness in which the coronary arteries become narrowed and unable to carry a normal amount of blood" (Microsoft Encarta 2002). Heart diseases occur precisely because there occurs a clogging of the arteries that are vital for the regulation, supply, and flow of oxygen-containing blood in the circulatory system.
Two of the most common and prevalent cases of coronary heart diseases are…… [Read More]
constitute itself as a business plan for a heart hospital, with a determine goals to establish the main factors and outcomes that may determine both the outlet's utility and its success as an economic entity. We will aim to analyze the reason for investing in a heat hospital, the financial assumptions we are dealing with, as well as the risks associated with such a project.
From the very beginning, we need to point out towards the distinct specificity that such a business project implies. When referring to the specificity of a heart hospital, we tend to include it in the larger category of healthcare facilities, where a distinct approach is needed in order to correctly blend the two different levels of description we will describe below.
First of all, any healthcare centre and a heart hospital in particular is designed to help the patients improve their health condition. As such,…… [Read More]
M.K., a 45-year-old female who has a history of Type II diabetes mellitus and primary hypertension. In addition to this, M.K. is overweight and persists with a poor diet. The patient has also been smoking for the past 22 years, and has recently been diagnosed with chronic bronchitis. Current symptoms include chronic cough, which tends to be more severe in the mornings and productive with sputum, light-headedness, distended neck veins, excessive peripheral edema, and increase urination at night. The patient is currently on several medications including Lotensin and Lasix for the hypertension, along with Glucophage for the Type II diabetes mellitus. From an analysis of M.K.'s lab results, this report will offer clinical findings and treatment recommendations, as well as suggestions for what other conditions M.K. may be at risk for given her health history, lifestyle, and lab results as follows:
158/98 mm Hg
Glycosylated…… [Read More]
Currently there are different types of tests to study the behavior of the heart and monitor it. These tests are extremely important, because let us know in time if the heart is failing or has a problem. And because of that, today we submit to treatment or surgery to correct them when they are still small and manageable, before our life is at risk. The electrocardiogram, ECG or EKG, is one of those tests.
The electrocardiogram (ECG / EKG) is the graph obtained with the electrocardiograph to measure the heart's electrical activity as a continuous graphic tape. It also helps to know the duration of the cardiac cycle. It is the main instrument for cardiac electrophysiology and has a significant role in screening and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders and predisposition to sudden cardiac death (Daja, eljin, eljin, 2001). The ECG has the advantage of being a medical…… [Read More]
* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…… [Read More]
Those who are the vulnerable will have specific genes they inherit from their relatives, who were impacted by the condition. This increases their chances of having similar complications when they become older. (Kolata, 2010)
Congestive Heart Failure and Hypertension
Congestive heart failure and hypertension are interconnected with each other. According to a study conducted by the University of Texas, they found that there are 660 thousand new cases reported each year. This is accounting for 7% of all deaths associated with cardio vascular disease. One of the biggest factors that will determine if someone is at risk is hypertension. As this is used in 75% of all cases, to predict if someone will be impacted by congestive heart failure and the long-term effects it will have on them. (Merla, 2009)
Hypertension can lead to complications by increasing the chances of ventricle or systolic dysfunction taking place. This improves the chances…… [Read More]
Nurse Speech to Group of esidents in a Large Independent Living Facility
The information addressed today in this speech are those involving the body's regulation of the correct numbers and ratios of blood cells and how blood pressure homeostasis is achieved as well as age-related changes to the heart including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction.
Homeostatis and the Body's Balancing Act
The work of Vikrant and Tiwan (nd) report that studies on the population indicate that blood pressure is a continuous variable and there is really not a line that divides normal and abnormal values. However, there is a point of balance also called internal equilibrium and this is known as homeostasis. This state of balance describes how the human body reacts to certain changes. This can be viewed by picturing a set of scales in which coins are poured in unevenly with one side heavier…… [Read More]
Shock is a condition of inadequate tissue perfusion, which results in decreased amount of oxygen in the vital tissues and organs (Metrng 2010, Klabunde 2010, Sarathy 2010, Spaniel et al. 2007). It reduces the rate of elimination of waste products of metabolism. Causes are heart attack, severe or sudden blood loss from injury or severe illness, blood poisoning from major infections, large decrease of body fluids, and exposure to extreme heat or cold for long duration. The American College of Surgeons classified shock into four, namely distributive, obstructive, cardiogenic, and hemorrhagic (Metrng, Klabunde, Sarathy & Spaniel et al.).
Hemorrhagic shock is a serious and life-threatening condition, which affects all body systems (Sarathy 2010). Cardiac output is reduced and depriving tissue of adequate oxygen. Hemorrhagic shock is further classified into four, according to the amount of blood lost. In Class I hemorrhage, there is a 15% or less blood…… [Read More]
ichard Hughes: A High Wind in Jamaica
This story, the first novel by ichard Hughes, takes place in the 19th Century, and mixes the diverse subjects of humor, irony, satire, pirates, sexuality and children into a very interesting tale, with many sidebar stories tucked into the main theme.
The first part of the story has an eerily familiar ring and meteorological link with the December, 2004 tsunami-related disaster in Asia. In A High Wind, first there is an earthquake, then hurricane-force winds, followed by torrential rains (although no tidal wave) devastate the island and the British children who lived there are sent to England. However, on the way they are attacked by pirates and unwittingly kidnapped by those pirates. From there, the novel has a definite Lord of the Flies tone to it: the English children actually take over control of much of the activities on board, which is as…… [Read More]
Throughout his life, Mahatma Gandhi gave emphasis to the notion that his twin principles of truth and nonviolence must be put in practice in every aspect of life as they have the strength to solve a number of human problems. His teachings were being practiced by his faithful disciples after achieving the political independence. The most prominent person in this regard is the leader and the spiritual heir of Gandhi, Vinoba Bhave (Bary, Hay, Weiler & Yarrow, 1958).
Vinoba Bhave is, thus, one of those great devout reformers of modern India whose selfless services have inspired the hearts of innumerable countrymen. At a very early age, Vinoba was determined to undertake a lifetime celibacy & selfless service to the needy. He was in search of a life in which he could synthesize both spirituality and practicality. When he discovered Gandhi, both of them worked for the…… [Read More]
Since modern medicine can sustain patients with proper medical follow-up for years, it becomes incumbent on the profession to follow the patients and provide them with the knowledge and tracking to insure that they are observing the procedures and medications which prolong their quality of life. Given hospitals' short-term orientation with the patients, there is a need to bridge patient care before, during and after acute-care visits.
While there are some nursing specialties which can be regarded as solely hospital- or community-based, many of the specialties call for a more holistic notion of patient care. y combining the CNS and NP specialties, this profession has a better chance of assuring better patient outcomes, and a better quality of life for the patient.
ennett, .J. (1998). Psychiatric mental health nursing: thriving in a changing environment through outcomes-based measurements. Semin. Nurse Manage., 144-148.
erger, a.M.-F. (1996). Advanced practice roles for nurses…… [Read More]
Mitchell, Ted, Tim Church & Martin Zucker. (2008). Move yourself: The Cooper Clinic medical director's guide to all the healing benefits of exercise (Even a little!). New York: Wiley.
Much has been written about the importance of reforming the American diet. However, there is an equally important aspect of fitness and the maintenance of a healthy weight: exercise. Move yourself: The Cooper Clinic medical director's guide to all the healing benefits of exercise (Even a little!) is a positive, upbeat book that proclaims the value of even small amounts of exercise, as a way of encouraging overweight Americans to change their negative lifestyle behavioral patterns. Given the multiplicity of prescriptions to Americans about the right way to 'move more' as well as to 'eat less' as the way of addressing their weight problems, it is worth considering the question as to if it is enough to do even small amounts…… [Read More]
lucidly stated to orbit around Leventhal's self-regulation theory which suggests that the actions which can help better explain behavioral changes are founded in the patient's unique view of their illness, and how they in turn regulate their behavior and the extent to which they engage in risk management. According to Burns and Grove (2009), this is a substantive theory.
The framework is presented in a somewhat lose manner, largely proposing that emotional and cognitive process help one in solidifying their perceptions of their illnesses and thus, impact the mode of action during a health crisis and the way in which the individual behave. As no strict framework is presented, concepts such as the identification of the illness, the presumed causes, the prospective consequences, the length of time of the disease, and the presumed control over the disease are all factors which can impact and influence the ability or perceived ability…… [Read More]
Rebellions are a continuous process and happen not because of the leader, but due to inherent difficulties faced by certain sections of society. Often there are rebellions by sections of the society and the people who rebel dream of being able to succeed in changing their social rights and facilities. However this often does not happen as the powerful groups of society are always reluctant to give up their rights and benefits. The discontent remains and ultimately the society changes though it is doubtful whether the deprived sections get any benefit, and often it is another powerful group which comes to dominate the society.
It is time and again a disastrous period of plot and rebellion, deception and slaughter that tag along the closing stages of a dynasty in medieval or early modern Europe. The period of 1598 to 1613 in Russia is one such instance and was…… [Read More]