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Bible Genesis as a Whole Establishes Fundamental
Words: 2227 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82003125
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Genesis as a whole establishes fundamental Biblical theology, defining the role of God in the world and God's relationship with and responsibilities to humanity. The establishment of patriarchal rule is a central theme of Genesis, evident in passages like Genesis 17:1-4. Although not Abram's first encounter with God, this interaction highlights several key elements of God's covenant with Abram, elucidates the necessity for total submission to God, and characterizes God as almighty and omnipotent. Also central to this passage is the promise to bless Abram's offspring, thus establishing Abram as the patriarchal leader of two distinct but biologically related lineages: that of Ishmael and that of Isaac. In Genesis 17:1-4, God bestows upon Abram the blessing of being the "father of many nations," and not just one great nation. The difference between God's injunction in Genesis 17:1-4 and the previous promise issued in Genesis 12:2 is powerful and has…


Bible: NIV

Bible Hub (2014). Genesis 17. Retrieved online: 

Bray, L. (n.d.). The divine prerogative. Retrieved online: 

Deffinbaugh, B. (2004). Grasping the great truth of God. Retrieved online:

Bible Franz Rosenweig Argues the
Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21314131
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The author claims that Christianity, in order to remain healthy and viable, needs to reclaim the Old Testament to maintain a tie to the world at large. Christianity, like all religions and cultures, needs connection, identification, and unity. Moreover, the New Testament, according to Rosenweig, should be viewed as a "counterpart," not as a canon that was "intended to supercede" the Jewish Bible (238). Rather, the New Testament can "supplement and outrange" the Old (238). Historically, the New Testament is like an organic outgrowth from the Hebrew Bible, a scripture that characterized a newly emerging religion and culture that while separate and distinct from Judaism is nevertheless intimately tied to it.

The Hebrew Bible is usually referred to "in a spirit of opposition" to the New Testament. Christianity views the "fruitful tension" between the Old and New Testaments as "a torment it wished to evade," (239). The need of Christian…

Different Approaches to Studying the Holy Bible
Words: 1915 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64120970
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Bible in the Life of the Church Today

Today, the Holy Bible remains the mainstay of Christian churches around the world, but there remains a debate over its precise role in the life of the church. To help determine the facts in this debate, this paper reviews a series of selected essays surrounding the nature of the Bible and its use in the modern Christian church. This review includes a synopsis and description of the structure of each article, the main points of interest and an analysis concerning the extent to which the authors succeeded in conveying these main points. Finally, a description of the author's methodology and an assessment concerning the validity of each author's arguments is followed by an evaluation of their effectiveness in communicating their main themes and a summary of the research and important findings regarding the main themes addressed in these articles are provided in…


Anderson, B.W. 'Tradition and Scripture in the Community of Faith' in The Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 100, No.1 (March 1981), pp 5-21

Martens, E. A. "What Have They Done to the Bible? A History of Modern Biblical Interpretation." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 382-385.

Neuman, W. L. (2009). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Paul, M. "Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture, by Frances Young" in Shofar, Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 147.

Bible Hebrews 3 7-17 Is a
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..hat in these last days spoken unto us by his whom also he made the worlds," thus arguing that Jesus' message is an expansion of the Old Covenant. (Ellingworth, 1993).

The Catholic interpretation of the Epistle to the Hebrews is that it is a firm announcement of the superiority of the New Testament revelations made by Jesus over the Old Testament revelations made by the lesser prophets. Further, the Epistle to the Hebrews successfully proves this point by comparing Jesus to the angels as mediators of the Old Covenant, Moses and Josue as founders of the Old Covenant, and by opposing the high priesthood of Christ. (Lane, 1985).

At its core, this passage is an extension of Pauline Christianity, or the version of Christianity advocated by the Apostle Paul and which survived as the dominant version of Christianity. First and foremost, as a part of the Pauline Christianity, this…


Ellingworth, Paul. "Commentary on Hebrews." NIGTC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.

Hughes, P.E. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977.

Lane, William L. Hebrews: Call to Commitment. Hendrickson, 1985.

Bible That Ye Be Not Slothful but
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"That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises," (Hebrews 6:12). The promises referred to in the Bible include spiritual gifts like wisdom, and also the gifts of material abundance and fecundity. The Bible teaches that laziness, or sloth, is incompatible with wisdom or success. Moreover, the Bible teaches that only foolish people are lazy and slothful, because they allow themselves to be distracted by desires. The person who is distracted does not work, and when a person does not work, he or she cannot eat. "The desire of the sluggard kills him, for his hands refuse to labor," (Proverbs 21:25). Hands that refuse to labor are naturally hands that cannot provide food to sustain the body, let alone spiritual nourishment for the soul.

Thus, the Bible makes the connection between laziness and foolish desires. It is desire that causes laziness,…

Work Cited

Bible: English Standard Version; King James Version

Bible Research You Are My
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86032408
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Paul twice refers to his helper, Onesimus, as "Beloved" (Colossians 4:9 and Philemon 1:16). But then, in Ephesians, Paul begins to speak of all of those who have been saved as the "Beloved." This is the first instance of a group being given this special blessing. In Ephesians 1:5-6, Paul says that we have been adopted as children of God, by God's own free will and good pleasure and praiseworthy grace, and we have been accepted into the Beloved who have been redeemed by the Blood and forgiven of our sins.

Truly, being the Beloved of God is a special favor. Paul tries to tell the members of the church in Rome how, though each one is favored by God in a different way, each is a member of a group that is loved by one another (Romans Chapter 12: 6-10). In Verses 9 and 10, Paul says: "Let love…

Bible the Incarnation of Christ
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If the Incarnation were not a spiritual event, then more concrete terms would suffice in describing the Son of God. hurch schisms have evolved related to the misinterpretation and reinterpretation of the Incarnation of hrist. Prophecy also discounts the importance of time and place when studying the incarnation of hrist. As Walvoord (nd) points out, "prophecy does not necessarily include all the intermediate steps between the great events in view."

Because of the difficulties in interpreting prophecy and scripture, the Incarnation of hrist can best be understood from a personal perspective. hrist has had a profound impact on billions of souls, enabling the transformation of humanity and human history. At the most basic level, the Incarnation of hrist suggests the mystery and transcendence of God. The Incarnation reminds me of the limitations of the human mind and the power of God; in other words, the Incarnation humbles me and makes…

Christ's Incarnation in fact entails humiliation and despair. Christ's crucifixion was also a matter of prophecy, and a profound mystery that Christians continue to grapple with. We find solace in knowing that God's only Son sacrificed his blood to help save humanity. The Incarnation also makes God feel closer to us. By assuming the form of flesh, God proved that He is close. God proved Himself via miracles and the transcendence of the physical laws that bind us to a mundane existence. The Incarnation reminds us of our sins and the fall from Grace detailed in the Book of Genesis. The Incarnation also reminds us of hope, forgiveness, and salvation.


Walvoord, J.F. (nd). The Incarnation of the Son of God. Retrieved June 12, 2010 from

Bible Inerrancy the Bible for
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He indicates that even what Paul writes to people through his epistles is the Word of God. He is (again presciently) aware that the words might be twisted and misunderstood). But he has no doubt that Paul's writings (more prolific that his own were) as well as his own are divinely inspired Scripture. Paul, writing in Corinthians sums up the closeness of the role of the Holy Spirit in the furtherance of God's Words. He indicates that what he preaches does not come from him. hey are not his teachings, but directly the teaching of the Holy Spirit, which manifests itself in the form of words.

In recognizing Scriptures as the unadulterated Word of God, one must also consider biblical references of what Jesus, his apostles, prognosticators and epistle-writers thought of scripture. Simply put, what do the primary characters of the New estament think of the Old estament? Several centuries…

The astronomical notions of the earth being the center of the Universe are false. Not only are there several universes and galaxies, the Sun is the center of our universe. (Armstrong 1996) the school of thought indicates that the bible writers were influenced by pagan religion followed at the time. The pagans specifically believed in the flatness of the earth and the centrality of the earth and this is reflected in the Bible. (Swindler n.d.) Archeological evidence is also lacking to prove inerrancy. A lot of this comes from the Genesis, Exodus and Leviticus. Stories about the existence of Palestine, the towns of Beersheba and Canaan are anachronistic. Their existence has been historically and archeologically shown to be after the time period that the Bible describes when these places existed. This means that the books of Exodus and Leviticus were written much later than they originally claimed.

The evolution of religion as it is practiced with society has taken place for the better. From a socio-cultural standpoint, strict adherence to the Bible for all time would be detrimental to members of society. Indeed, we call people who do not evolve as backward and primitive. The Bible makes mention of corporal punishment, non-acceptance of homosexuality, intolerance towards other religions, required that a wife be a virgin by the time of her wedding on penalty of death (by stoning), capital punishment for adultery and a variable acceptance of slavery. If we adhered to these issues mentioned in the Bible as inerrant, practicing Christians would not be able to survive in today's society. At least from this standpoint then, most reasonable people will agree that the dictates of the Bible cannot be eternally binding.

If all

Slavery in the Bible in Modern Western
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Slavery in the Bible

In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…


Anderson, Bernard W. The Unfolding Drama of the Bible, 4th Edition. Augsburg Fortress Publishing, 2006.

Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels. Anchor Books, 1998.

Entries in the Bible Dictionary Person Place and Book
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The central figure in the New Testament of Christianity is Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus in many ways has both historical and spiritual natures, due to his being born to a typical Jewish family (father Joseph and mother Mary) in Galilee but also being recognized by his disciples as the Son of God who was divinely conceived. Jesus was called Christ, a term derived from the Greek term for "anointed one," and his followers in his lifetime and thereafter believe Jesus Christ to be the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, or Old Testament. As a religious figure in his lifetime and due largely to his radical religious and political beliefs, Jesus upset the social and political order in the oman-controlled Levant. The teachings of Christ included a tremendous upheaval of traditional Jewish custom, laws, and ritual codes of conduct ranging from the abolition of circumcision to the doing away…


Bible: NIV

"Egypt in Bible History." Retrieved online: 

"Who Is Jesus Christ?" Retrieved online:

Bible's Influence on Christian Mission
Words: 1819 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76544246
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M. Louise Cornell is professor of education at Providence College in Otterburne, Manitoba, Canada. She believes the real influence of the Bible grew out of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th Century. The Bible at that time, according to Cornell, was "wrested" from the hands of the priests and placed in the outstretched arms of lay people during the Reformation, as the Christian mission was becoming a powerful movement (Thiessen, 1998). During the Reformation scholars and Christian activists emphasized that "each person, filled with the Holy Spirit, could interpret the Bible without help," Cornell explains.

But in order to understand the Bible, there was a critical need for literacy. And so many schools were established, Cornell continues in the publication Faith Today, and throughout the Reformation the Bible played a significant role. "By the time of the second generation of Christians," Cornell goes on, "the developing Christian community needed to…

Works Cited

Escobar, Samuel. 2006. The United Bible Societies and World Mission. International Bulletin

Of Missionary Research 30 (April): 77-81.

Pathrapankal, Joseph. 2006. From Areopagus to Corinth (Acts 17:22-31; I Cor 2:1-5) a Study

On the Transition from the Power of Knowledge to the Power of the Spirit. Mission Studies 23, 61-79.

Bible for All Its Worth
Words: 2213 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 83804336
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This point-of-view makes sense. Stuart and Fee have already suggested that the point of iblical interpretation is not to look for a novel or unique interpretation, but to really try to understand the point of the passages being studied. Therefore, their idea that people should feel free to consult commentaries, so that they can understand how other people have interpreted the texts, is a good one. Moreover, they suggest that people own multiple commentaries, with their ownership of each commentary geared toward the specific books being studied. Again, this is an excellent suggestion. Much like reading multiple versions of the ible, reading multiple commentaries on specific books is likely to stimulate intelligent analysis of the books in question.


Stuart and Fee do a very good job of helping guide people on how one should approach the ible. In fact, their book would be helpful for novices as well…


Stuart, Douglas and Gordon D. Fee. How to Read the Bible for All its Worth. (Grand

Rapids: Zondervan, 2003).

Stuart, Douglas and Gordon D. Fee. How to Read the Bible for All its Worth. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003),


How Bible Came to Were it Is Today
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The History of the Bible

Today's Bibles are the end product of a long process of transmission that involved diverse stages and many different communities. To understand how the various editions and translations of the Bible have come to us, one must first understand the vastness of the early the communities which copied and transmitted the work as well as the popularity of unauthorized translations and editions by unorthodox religious that compelled counter-editions to appear in later centuries. This paper will look at the transmission of the Bible from the early Greek/Hebrew editions to the standard Latin Vulgate edition of the Middle Ages and finally to the English and other language editions that appeared under Bede, Jean Wycliff, Martin Luther, Willam Tyndale, and in the Coverdale Bible, the Geneva Bible and the King James Version.

Because the Bible contains so much that is often interpreted in different ways, editions…

How Bible Came to Were it Is Today
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To many people The Bible is the word of God and its status as the word of God means that it is infallible and its origins should not be questioned. However, such an approach to the Bible ignores facts that are known about its history and how it is written. A better, more informed approach examines the history of the Bible, when it was written, how it was written, the original books in the Bible, and how modern books have been selected or omitted. Furthermore, one also has to consider that there are actually multiple versions of the modern Bible, so that it is virtually impossible for any person to say what the contents of the Bible are. This fact should be enough to demonstrate the fact that the Bible is a living document, which has changed throughout time, and will continue to change as Christianity continues to develop…

Isaiah 6 Analysis
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Isaiah Chapter 6 addresses Isaiah's commission, and is a perfect example of the use of narrative structure, format, and style in the Hebrew Bible. A plethora of Tate's literary elements pertain directly to Isaiah, and reading Isaiah with Tate's elements in mind enhances understanding of the text. In particular, Isaiah 6 reflects Old Testament narratology: the method by which the story is being told. Hebrew narratology retains core elements, some of which are adhered to and some of which are subverted in Isaiah 6. Isaiah 6 is told from a first person point-of-view, evident from the first line: "In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord, high and exalted, seated on a throne; and the train of his robe filled the temple," (Isaiah 6:1). The first person point-of-view establishes a literary, thematic, and semantic bond between implied reader and implied narrator. Moreover, the first person point-of-view…


Tate, W.R. (2012). Handbook for Biblical Interpretation. Baker.

How We Got the Bible
Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71926474
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Bible: Canonical Developments

Canonicity is a term used to describe the "sacred books distinguished and honored as belonging to God's inspired word" (Keathley, 2013). This particular term has, since the fourth century, been applied to the books of the Bible. Conservative Christians and Jews today recognize the 39 Old Testament books as inspired; the oman Catholics, 88 (because of the semi-canonical apocrypha), and the Evangelical Protestants, the 27 New Testament books (Keathley, 2013). These were, however, not the only books written during the NT and OT periods. A number of questions, therefore, arise; what criterion was used in determining whether or not to include a book in the Bible? Why should Christians today trust these books as reliable, considering the massive changes the world has undergone since their inception? This text provides answers to these questions.

Historical Evidence of the Books that Make up Both the Old and New Testament…


Keathley, J.H. (2013). The Bible: the Holy Canon of Scripture. Bible .org. Retrieved from 

Miller, J.W. (2004). How the Bible Came to be: Exploring the Narrative and Message. Mahwah: NJ: Paulist Press.

Exegesis of Hebrews One of
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Unless the author's typological approach is appreciated, the interpreter may wrongly assume that the author is making literal statements about the salvation-historical significance of Christ.

The fact that Hebrews was originally written in Greek does not provide any substantial or definitive help in the search for author or audience. During the time period in which Hebrews had to be composed, Christians in Rome spoke Greece. In fact, Hellenism had much of Western Europe and the modern-day Middle East familiar with Greek. This familiarity would have been even more likely among educated groups, and is highly unlikely that uneducated people would have had the ability to read or write. While there was some early suggestion that Hebrews was originally written in a language other than Greek, it seems highly unlikely that that was the case:

That the Letter to the Hebrews was originally written in Greek is suggested by the fact…

Women in Greek and Hebrew
Words: 1632 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6063268
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Deborah is believed to have played a key role in public arena.

Even in the male dominant society of Israel, Deborah's orders were followed and people looked up to her for advice. In the position of a prophetess, she could give orders which were readily followed: "She sent for Barak...and said to him, 'The Lord, the God of Israel, commands you: "Go, take with you ten thousand men..."" Barak was not willing to go alone and wanted Deborah to accompany him. Deborah is an important figure in ancient Hebrew culture and it is through her that we can see how this culture allowed women to have some freedom in their restricted sphere.

The daughter of Jephthah was another prominent figure. She was also a judge who ruled Israel as she was a woman of strong faith. After her father promised Lord that if he won, he would offer "whatever comes…


The Odyssey, the Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces, 6th ed. Vol 1, Ws. Norton & Co. Inc. New York

Book of Joshua" accessed online 16th april 2005:

Literature of the Bible
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Religion in the Bible

From the earliest period to the time of Christianity, the people's religion experienced drastic changes. In many ways, the books of Old Testament foreshadow Christ in the offices of prophet, priest and King. The book of Samuel, for instance, shares this thought with all Scripture. Many spiritual lessons and prayer were taught in the books of Samuel. People during Samuel and Elijah's time lived to serve God. They knew without reservation that following the Lord with all their heart was the highest calling of any man or woman, boy or girl. People were holy, humble, and kind. Most of the time, they sought not their own good but always for the good of others.

In the books of Job and Ecclesiastes, people's perspectives on religion have changed. Religion did not fill up their lives. There is not much about Jewish religion in this book. The writer…

Epistle to the Hebrews Salvation
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The Epistle to the Hebrews reflects the contentious nature of the debate within the Christian community of how to define the role and nature of Jesus in the evolving tradition. Regardless of the nature of its authorship, the epistle establishes Christ as the Son of God and part of the Godhead but also a kind of high priest within the Jewish tradition. Its Christology is uniquely Jewish in its orientation and metaphors, which is one reason why it might be commonly attributed to Paul. But it suggests a new, sacrificial role for Jesus as the Son of God and a new kind of high priest.

The Epistle to the Hebrews first calls Jesus a paradoxical figure, made lower than the angels so he could ultimately elevate humanity. “But we do see Jesus, who was made lower than the angels for a little while, now crowned with glory and honor because…

James Hebrews and Peter Theology
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Theology: James, Hebrews and Peter

James, Hebrews and Peter: Theology

The issue of persecution is quite prevalent in the books of Hebrews, James and 1 & 2 Peter. The writers center their teachings on the idea that Christians should be ready to endure persecution, just as Christ their savior did. This text examines how the issue of persecution is handled by the three writers, and what Peter says about false teachers and building healthy churches.

Persecution in Hebrews, James and 1 Peter

Persecution comes out as a core concern for Christ and his believers in both the Old and the New Testament. The books of James, Hebrews, and 1 Peter center on the theme of suffering and persecution, with the central message being that just like Christ suffered, Christians must face suffering in their daily living (Heb 11: 4; 1 Peter 2: 21) (Jobes, 2011). They must be willing to…


Berry, A. F. (2011). So What if ... The God of the Bible Exists ... Does it Really Matter at the End of the Day? New York, NY: Dog Ear Publishing.

Clark Jr., M. (2010). Establishing a Healthy Church: Things we need to Know and do in the Body of Christ. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

Ellingworth, P. (1993). The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eeerdmans Publishing.

Elliot, J. H. (2008). Elders as Leaders in 1 Peter and the Early Church. HTS, 64(2). Retrieved 3 February from

Role of Women in the Bible
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Women in the Old Testament

The Bible never says that women are evil, sexually wanton or inferior to men; instead, it says a lot of good things regarding women. In the Old Testament / Hebrew Scriptures, most women are described as enterprising, resourceful, intelligent as well as, courageous. However, there are some many stories in the Old Testament that involve demeaning treatment of certain women. For instance, women were restricted to roles of no authority as well as, not allowed to testify in court. In summary, this paper will discuss on the depiction of Women in the Old Testament using two sources; Bible Harper Collins Study Bible and the Encountering Ancient Voices by Corrine Carvalho.

In Leviticus 12:1-5, a woman who gives birth to a boy is considered to be ritually unclean for 7 days. However, if the woman gives birth to a girl, the mother is unclean for 14…


Carvalho, C. (2006). Encountering Ancient Voices. A Guide to Reading the Old Testament Second Edition. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from 

Willis, M. (1995). The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from

An Analysis of the Book of Hebrews Theology
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Theology: An Analysis of the Book Of Hebrews

An Analysis of the Book of Hebrews: Theology

The book of Hebrews is one of the most controversial books in the New Testament. The controversy derives largely from the fact that the book's author is yet to be identified. This text presents the various arguments that have been put forth about the book's authorship, intended audience, destination, and date.

Analysis of the Epistle to the Hebrews

The Epistle to the Hebrews is one of the most controversial writings in the Bible. It is unique, convincing and elaborate in the way it speaks about priesthood and the superiority of Christ. It presents Christ as the High Priest that God sent to get mankind closer to Him. The controversy surrounding the book, however, stems from the fact that it does not conclusively state who the author is. Most scholars have thus come to accept…


Ogden, A. (1998). Studies in Hebrews #1. Expository Files, 1(4), 4.

Philips, J. (2002). Exploring Hebrews: An Expository Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.

XXX (reference for book sent as resource)

Criminal Justice Within the Bible
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Criminals of the Bible written by Mark Jones in the year 2006. Criminals of the Bible examines and studies the subject matter of the different criminal acts committed by different persons in the Bible. These criminal acts in the book are considered as a measure against Mosaic Law, a law that was common for an extended period of time within which the Bible was written. In addition, Mark Jones, the author, takes into consideration peer studied assessments of criminal law theorists both in the 21st century and even before. The Bible is such an intriguing and interesting book. It consists of numerous stories from the creation story to the end of the world that can be fascinating and keep one enthralled with the different characters. The book offers a societal, legal and political context of the criminal acts that took place at that point in time (Jones and Johnstone, 2012).…


Cochran, R. F., VanDrunen, D. (2013). Law and the Bible: Justice, Mercy and Legal Institutions. USA: Intervarsity Press.

Hiers, R. H. (2009). Justice and Compassion in Biblical Law. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group.

Jones, M. (2006). Criminals of the Bible: Twenty-Five Case Studies of Biblical Crimes and Outlaws. New York: Faith Walk Publishers.

Jones, M., Johnstone, P. (2012). History of Criminal Justice. USA: Elsevier.

Judaism Christianity and Islam Judaism Hebrew History
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Judaism, Christianity, and Islam


Hebrew history, as told by the Hebrews, begins in Mesopotamia, in the cities of Ur in the south and Haran in the north. With Abraham, the story of the Hebrews begins, and it is clearly stated that Hebrew origins lay outside Canaan. The command to leave his ancestral home and journey to Canaan was accompanied by a promise (Gen. 12:2) The exact location of the nation-to-be is not specified but was, of course, known to those hearing or reading the account, Abraham journeyed to Canaan, Egypt, the Negeb, Hebron, Gezer, Beer-sheba and back to Hebron where he and his wife Sarah died.

The journey itself was more than a pilgrimage, for it represented the starting point of a continuing adventure in nationhood. Nor are the travelers without vicissitudes, but throughout famine, earthquake, fire and war, god protected them.

The close relationship between the Hebrews and…

Evil and the Bible Perspective
Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56987730
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Question of Evil

In the Bible (The Old Testament ) God gives many codes of justice as well as righteous behavior for humans to follow his ten commandments for instance. The philosophical problem, then of why God allows evil and injustice in the world has been looked into by many people. Is God willing to prevent evil, but not willing to prevent it? If so then he is impotent. Is he able to prevent evil, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both willing and not willing to prevent evil and suffering and injustice, and then we must say that God is evil. This paper will be based on Ehrman's views on why we suffer.

According to Ehrman the bible has a large number of views as to why people suffer, particularly the people of God. Many of thee views are at odds with one another and most…

Jacob Wrestle in Genesis 32 24 the Bible
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Jacob Wrestle in Genesis 32:24

The Bible if full of apparent contradictions, where information in one passage appears to conflict with information given in another passage. A historical understanding of the social and political circumstances surrounding the authorship of each book of the Bible often helps clarify these apparent inconsistencies and reconcile them into a single theology, which, if not completely consistent, is at least cohesive. However, Genesis 32:24, in which Jacob wrestles with an unnamed man, presents a dilemma. The passage refers to the person as a man, but also suggests that Jacob is wrestling with God. In fact, the passage is sufficiently ambiguous that even commentators have found themselves unable to reconcile its contradictions. By examining what commentators have said about the passage, it may be possible to gain a greater understanding than one gets from simply examining the text.

Jerome Kodell recognizes the ambiguity in the text,…


Kodell, Jerome. 1980. Jacob wrestles with Esau: (Gen 32:23-32). Biblical Theology Bulletin:

Journal of Bible and Culture, 10(2 May): 65-70.

Molen, Steven. 1993. The identity of Jacob's opponent: Wrestling with ambiguity in Genesis


The Bible and Christian Prayer for Leaders
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Christians, it is our duty to pray for others. Christians are also Biblically obliged to pray even for those who appear to be beyond saving, or for the unlikeliest of souls. "First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people," (1 Timothy 2:1). Therefore, praying on behalf of world leaders becomes even more of a Christian imperative given the tremendous influence political leaders have on the people who they lead or rule. Over the course of the last year or more, I have made a conscientious attempt to pray for a set of world leaders who either needed guidance, support, and intervention from God, salvation from a sinful path, or strength as they traversed the difficult and challenging path of Christ.

Although I did pray for more than a dozen world leaders, I focused on the President of the United States, Barack…


Bible: NIV

Johnson, D.W. (2015). Biblical requirements of leaders. Christianity Today. Retrieved online:

Historiography of the Bible
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Old Testament books, Deuteronomy, Samuel and Kings, establishing a monarchy for Israel and Judah proved somewhat problematic. This was due both to the divinity of God and the inevitable humanity that would be part of a human king. Throughout the historical books of the Old Testament God repeatedly states that he is a jealous God, tolerating no others. Kingship then might be seen as an attempt to usurp the power of God, or indeed to detract from worshiping God as the nation's ultimate leader. Furthermore a monarchy is a pagan idea that has penetrated Israel from the foreign nations they have been in contact with through battle. This of course connects further negativity with the idea of a king for God's people. The demand of a king is thus in effect the rejection of God as ruler over Israel and Judah. An issue closely related to this is the problem…


Howard, D.M. Jr. 1998 "The Case for Kingship in Deuteronomy and the Former Prophets," Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 476-78.

Sumner, Darren. 1999. "The Bible Shelf." 

There are three discourses, stretching over Chapter 1:6-4:40, Chapters. 5-28, and Chapters 29-30). The concluding addendum comprises Chapters 31-34. This is the final words of Moses to his people before they enter Canaan. Traditionally the discourses are attributed to Moses, although some scholars believe that some portions of the book come from a later time.

The first discourse: Deuteronomy 1:6-4:40

Rebekah What Happens When a
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Isaac and ebekah seemed to have a happy and healthy functional marriage. While it is never overtly stated in the text, the implication is that the two love one another. However, despite what one assumes is a fairly active sex life, ebekah is unable to conceive and they do not create a child during ebekah's childbearing years. She passes into old age, which makes one believe that she will never be able to conceive, making her conception of Esau and Jacob even more extraordinary.

Furthermore, though her mother-in-law Sarah also experienced barrenness, she did not have the same tension about conception as ebekah. Sarah always had God's favor; she was a major component of God's plan for Abraham. Therefore, there was some understanding that she would eventually have a child to continue the nation of Israel. In contrast, ebekah was not considered an essential part of Isaac's story. As a…


Carole Armstrong. Women of the Bible. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998).

Alice Ogden Bellis. Helpmates, Harlots, and Heroes: Women's Stories in the Hebrew Bible.

(Louisville: John Knox Press, 1994).

Eryl Davies. The Dissenting Reader: Feminist Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. (Bodmin:

Concept of God in Judaism and Christianity
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history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…


J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.



Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm

Concept of God in Judaism and Christianity
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Judaism and Christianity both have fairly common as well as totally contrasting religious concepts. In spite of the apparent differences and divisions it has to be understood that both these religions are like different streams of water merging in the ocean of god.

Christianity and Judaism are both religions of abrahamic origin. There are many similarities and differences between the two religions. Since Christianity originated from Judaism, it lends to the thought that both the religions are very closely related. However, in spite of their common origin, they differ considerably in some of the important issues while at the same time exhibit resemblance in many aspects. Even the monotheistic belief, which both these religions stand for, is quantified by entirely different perception of the attributes of godhead. Similarly, in the understanding of the messianic concept there is a significant contradiction giving us a hint of the vastly different nature of…


1) Tracey R. Rich, "Moshiach: The Messiah," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003 

2) Catholic Encyclopaedia, "original Sin," accessed on May 23rd, 2003 

3) Jono, " Different sects of Judaism," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003,

Idolatry How Some Object or Text Discovered
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idolatry: How some object or text discovered by archeologists, or some other type of cultural or literary parallel, enhances our understanding of something in Exodus


dolatry in the ancient Near East -- a non-Exodus Perspective

Over the course of the past several decades in modernity, numerous objects as well as the actual substances of texts discovered by archaeologists, have contributed to the modern understanding of the characterization of so-called 'idol worship' in Exodus as well as other Hebrew texts, texts that have come to have been canonized as 'The Hebrew Bible," as referred to by members of the Jewish religion, or 'The Old Testament,' as such books are frequently referred to by members of the Christian faith.

Up until this point in time, the way that ancient sraelites perceived idol worship held dominance how the people who worshipped idols saw idol worship. However, the Bible frequently mischaracterizes these other…

In Exodus 15:11, the song sung by the Israelites, asking who of "our Lord" is better" among the Gods" suggests a sense that there are other gods present in the world, albeit not superior to their own, liberating force. (Anderson, 273) "Although it does not rule out the theoretical possibility that other gods might exist, it asserts as a practical orientation the fact that only one god can be worshipped," (Anderson 276) and that god is to be worshipped in a special fashion. In stories of Baal, a storm-like God of the Canaanites who defeats the chaos of that eventually gives birth to humanity, some scholars believe that Psalm 29 was originally a hymn to that God that was later adapted by Israelites, changing the name of the god to their own. (Anderson, 274). This sense of closeness of other faiths and possible competition intensified the need to reject other religions of 'idolatry.'

At all times, "the study of Israelite religion should be distinguished from Biblical theology." (Anderson, 1993, 272). In other words, the history of Biblical Israel differs from the study of the Bible as a canonical text today. The intensity of the rejection of other religions should not be read as a condemnation of Israeli temple Judaism. Rather, it is an acknowledgement of the creative religious dynamic that existed at the time. The Israeli religion was to replace the sacred space of the idolized body with the body of the temple, and the ritual rhythms of investing the material substance of idols with the sacred space and temporal, seasonal rituals of sacrifice and the replacement of sacrifice with animal, rather than human offerings, is often taken to be the essential narrative of the Abraham myth.

Sacrifice has also provided, in a highly public manner, the ability to dramatize the service of a people to God. Perhaps, in contrast to such mouth-opening ceremonies, where the act of accessing the divine was willed, the sacrifice that the ancient Hebrews eventually adopted was a way of dramatizing subservience rather than dominance.

Aquinas Augustine Aquinas vs Augustine
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Even if they may not have the same force as divine law, the laws should not contradict the laws of heaven. This binding injunction to the people to obey also applies to rulers -- monarchs should not contradict the will of the divine, and endeavor to create a state that mirrors that of God. For example, Aquinas prohibited usury, or charging money at interest given Christ's condemnation of money changing, and stated that the governments should not allow such transactions to take place.

Although Aquinas at times cites Augustine in support of his ideas, Augustine's own ideas regarding the correct relationship between state and humankind seem to suggest that the laws of the state are less crucial and less significant in creating a moral framework for human beings. After all the state, human property, and the concerns of worldly affairs are transient. In his remarks upon the Gospel of John,…

Works Cited

Aquinas. Thomas. The Political Ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas. New York: Free Press,

Augustine. Political Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

The New Oxford Annotated Student Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 20031.

Creation Account Is Focused on
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(Radhakrishnan, 1953)

The Indian deity also preoccupied himself with creating most famously the Ganges.

The Chinese tale too has symbols of China (specifically the turtle) ("he used the molten rock to patch the holes in the sky, and she used the four legs of a giant turtle to support the sky again" (Walls & Walls, 1984) Aside from which, note that all names of gods are typically Chinese.

The acts of the Creation generated an entire world with a host of nations and geographical environments. Each of the narrative accounts however focus on a sliver of land, usually the land lived in by the author / authors of the narrative.

The author's purpose in centering in and focusing the tale around one specific country may simply reflect the fact that for primitive people born, living, and dying on one specific part of earth, this was all they knew. For people…


May, Herbert G. editor, the New Oxford Annotated Bible: New York, Oxford University Press

The Four Creations, 1987; Online

Philippi, Donald L. trans., the Masks of God: Oriental Mythology: New York, Viking Press, 1969

Women in Genesis 1-3'so
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Likewise, other passages create more problems than they solve from a modern perspective: "Why did Rachel remove the teraphim, the sacred images, when she left her father's house? Why Rachel and not Leah, the eldest? Teubal, though, points out that if these events are viewed in terms of the fundamental humanity of the individuals involved, their actions and motives becomes more clear to modern observers. "These episodes, and many others in the Genesis texts, are bewildering only if they are seen as occurring in a patriarchal society." Notwithstanding the high regard that women were almost universally provided in terms of their supportive counsel and motherly devotions, these attributes did not carry with them any sense of social authority in a patriarchal society, but were rather confined to the homes of the individuals involved. According to Teubal, "The vivid stories depicting Sarah's removal of Ishmael from the line of inheritance, Rebekah's…


Bacon, Benjamin Wisner. 1892. The Genesis of Genesis. Hartford, CT: The student publishing co.

Bruno, J.E. 1973. God as Woman, Woman as God. New York: Paulist. In Phipps, 1989.

Eichrodt, Walther. 1961. Theology of the Old Testament. Philadelphia: Westminster.

Headlam, Walter. 1934. "Prometheus and the Garden of Eden," Classical Quarterly 28, pp. 63- 7. In Phipps, 1989.

Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament
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Jesus through the Old Testament

Christopher J.H. Wright's Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament is a book written to connect the two halves of scripture, in a way that helps Christians better understand that "…it is Jesus that gives meaning and validity to the events of Israel's Old Testament history."[footnoteRef:0] Wright is an Old Testament scholar -- an Ulsterman whose own parents had been Presbyterian missionaries in razil, although he would convert and become ordained in the Anglican church, and now resides in London where he directs an international ministry. His academic background is in historical study of the Old Testament, and his first full-length book was a study of economic ethics in the Old Testament. (He confesses endearingly, but unnecessarily, in the present work that he feels much less at ease with the New Testament as a scholar.) Knowing Jesus through the Old Testament is his second work, first…


Alexander, Paul. "Book Review: Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament." IX Marks,,,PTID314526_CHID598026_CIID2438290,00.html  (accessed 15 April 2011).

David Murray, "Jesus never read the New Testament." The Gospel Coalition,  / (accessed 15 April 2011).

O'Collins, Gerald and Jones, Michael Keenan. Jesus Our Preist: A Christian Approach to the Priesthood of Christ. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Wright, Christopher J.H. 1992. Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press.

Abraham in Two Holy Texts
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The Koran preaches that "the message of Abraham was the very same as Muhammad's, but it would become corrupted by the Jews" (Kjeilen para. 15). In the Koran, Abraham is a messenger who teaches others about the Islamic God. Kjeilen writes that sources outside the Koran tell many stories about Abraham, one of which includes his circumcision. This is not nearly as significant as it is in the Hebrew texts.

Thus, both religions use the hero of Abraham to evoke their missions. The Biblical Abraham makes a compact with the Jewish God and resigns himself to Judaism. In Islam, however, Abraham is a hero in that he is a prophet, spreading the Islamic message to those who have not heard.

orks Cited

Brians, Paul. "The Story of Abraham, from the Hebrew Bible." ashington State

University. 1998. Department of English. 10 June 2009.

Kjeilen, Tore. "Abraham/Ibrahim." Look Lex Encyclopedia. 2009. 10…

Works Cited

Brians, Paul. "The Story of Abraham, from the Hebrew Bible." Washington State

University. 1998. Department of English. 10 June 2009.

Kjeilen, Tore. "Abraham/Ibrahim." Look Lex Encyclopedia. 2009. 10 June 2009.

Samuel Background Information Theories of Authorship Date
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Background information; theories of authorship, date of writing, other relevant background information related to location, other cultures, religious, political, social, etc.

and 2 Samuel was originally one book in the Hebrew Bible and is set in the 11th Century BC, roughly from 1050-970. It begins with the destruction of Shiloh about 1050 BC and in its present form has 55 chapters, although the authors remain anonymous. In the Greek Septuagint there were four "Books of eigns" (or Kingdoms) while Jerome named them the "Books of Kings" -- with the first dealing mainly with Saul and the second with David (Gordon, 1999, p. 19).

Parts of these books, such as the History of the Throne Succession were very likely written during the time of David and Solomon or shortly afterward. Many stories about these kings were "of ancient origin and in fixed form by the mid-tenth century," and probably based…


Bright, J. (2000). A History of Israel, 4th Edition. John Knox Press.

Brueggemann, W. (1990). First and Second Samuel. John Knox Press.

Gordon, R.P. (1999). I and II Samuel: A Commentary. Paternoster Press.

the book of daniel and apocalyptic literature
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Book of Daniel presents a clear tension between the more pragmatic books of the historical Old Testament and the visionary, apocalyptic books of scripture to come. Daniel has been called "the most peculiar and most difficult books in the Old Testament," precisely because the narrative is apocalyptic in nature and tone (Brueggeman, 2003, p. 351). Moreover, there is a historical dimension to the text as Daniel maintains his "distinctive Jewish identity in the presence of indifferent or hostile imperial power," (Brueggeman, 2003, p. 351). The book of Daniel contains within it elements of apocalyptic visionary experience that set the stage for Christianity without diverging from Jewish culture or context. Thus situated in history, Daniel inspires both fear and hope.

The central and titular figure of the book, Daniel can interpret dreams, conveys visions of the future, and therefore has supernatural powers that inspire Jewish people and connect Daniel to God.…

Old Testament Prophets
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Pastor Timothy (2013) points out, "The prophets spoke volumes on idolatry, social injustice, and religious ritualism." These are three of the most important topics in the Hebrew Bible. Idolatry was a primary concern for the God of the Hebrew Bible. From the time of the Exodus, when God offers Moses the Ten Commandments and states outright, "You shall have no other gods before me," God and the Prophets understood that idolatry was a major challenge to overcome. During the time in which the Hebrew Bible was written, idolatry and paganism remained common. It took great effort on the part of the Prophets to steer people away from false idols and to the one true God. Isaiah tries to frighten people away from creating idols, saying that craftsmen who make idols should be ashamed of themselves. "They that make a graven image are all of them vanity; and their delectable things…


Bible (KJV)

Bible (NIV)

Pastor Timothy (2013). The prophets. Retrieved online:

What Jews Believe and What Catholics Believe
Words: 2284 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71505776
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Judaism and Christianity

The religion of Judaism is one that goes back centuries and includes a description of the creation of the world, as found in the Book of Genesis. According to Judaism, the world was created by God, ho also created man in his own image. Being Christian, my religious tradition actually builds on the Judaic religious tradition. It refers to the Scriptural books pre-Christ as the Old Testament, and the writings of the Apostles of Christ as the books of the New Testament. It views Jesus Christ as the Redeemer of mankind, the one hom the Jews were meant to expect, as prophesized in the Old Testament. The Jews, however, do not recognize Christ as the Redeemer or as the Son of God. Thus, this paper will describe Judaism and its tenets and developments and compare and contrast it to my own religious tradition.


The history of…

Works Cited

Hays, J. D. "Applying the Old Testament Law Today." Bibliotheca Sacra vol. 158, no.

629 (2001): 21-35.

"Jerusalem Special Report -- The Building of the Third Temple." Youtube, 2010. Web.

5 Dec 2015.

Jewish History
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Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.

Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.


In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…


Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) The Miracle of Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.

Fisher, Eugene J. (2008) Jewish-Christian Relations 1989-1993. International Council of Christians and Jews. A Bibliographic Update. Online available at 

Dubnow, S.M. (2005) Jewish History. Plain Label Books. ISBN:1603031006,M1 

Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) Why Study History. Crash Course in Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.

A Christ Centric Approach to the Old Testament
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Greidanus' Preaching Christ from the Old Testament and Merrill's Everlasting Dominion: A Theology of the Old Testament may be compared and contrasted on the grounds that both approach the Old Testament Scriptures, though each does it a different and unique way. Greidanus' method of examining the Old Testament is to approach it from the perspective of the New Testament -- namely, to show how Christ is evident all throughout the Old Testament Scriptures and why and how the latter link directly to the coming of the former. Specifically, Greidanus' objective in his book is to show that Christ is the fulfillment of the Old Testament. Merrill, on the other hand, takes a much more immersive approach to Old Testament and examines it thoroughly and in great detail, looking at everything from the creation of man to the fall to the prophets, the kings, the covenants and the commandments. It is,…


Greidanus, Sidney. Preaching Christ from the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI:

William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999.

Merrill, Eugene. Everlasting Dominion. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman

Publishers, 2004.

Dead Sea Scrolls
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Dead Sea Scrolls

According to Michael aigent and Richard Leigh, the Dead Sea Scrolls, since their discovery in the Judaean desert and their arrival at the various institutions that retain them today, have created "a contradiction. . . between the Jesus of history and the Christ of faith" and have indicated "how explosive a non-partisan examination of the scrolls might be for the whole of Christian theological tradition" (xii).

With this in mind, it is clear that the Dead Sea Scrolls contain historical information that could, in essence, upset the entire scheme of things in relation to the life of Jesus Christ and his role in the history of his people, being the Israelite Jews. Thus, the overall importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls lies in the fact that what theologians and religious historians currently accept as the truth concerning the history of Palestine and the role of Jesus within…


Baigent, Michael and Richard Leigh. The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception. New York: Summit Books, 1991.

Burrows, Millar. The Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Viking Press, 1955.

Rowley, E. Margaret, Ed. The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Preliminary Survey. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1952.

Trever, John. "When was the Qumran Cave 1 Discovered?" Revue de Qumran. Vol. 3, no. 9 (1961): 135.

Islam Christianity the Distinctions Between
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" (Koran, 2:36)

A punishment dealt herein concerns man's occupation of earth as a home, with God endowing it only a finite capacity to host mortal life. Again, the contrast between the implications to man's punishment for Original Sin in the two texts can be traced to the contrast in man's assumed composition. In the Hebrew Bible, God punished Eve and her offspring to a perpetuity of painful childbearing "and unto Adam He said: 'Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." (Gen. 3:17)

The intricacies that differentiate the two texts offer a useful set of variations on a creation story that is highly associated with the evolution of monotheism…

Works Cited:

Achtemeier, P. (1980). Inspiration and Authority. Hendrickson Publishing.

Barrett, D.B. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press.

Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.

Koran Text. (1997 edition). The Holy Qur'an. University of Virginia: Online Book

The Act of Cannonizatoin
Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48580807
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Dead Sea Scrolls

DSS has impacted understanding of Hebrew bible in two ways. One way, formation of the text leading up to the Masoretic text. The second way, canonization of the Hebrew Bible, in other words, where does the authority come from?

The Dead Sea Scrolls that were found in the caves in Qumran are undoubtedly of great historical and religious significance and have made a valuable contribution to human history in general. The biblical texts that were found predate the former oldest known manuscripts by roughly a thousand years. Some of the texts an extra-biblical manuscripts highlight some of the nuances in the canonization process that the leaders of the Jewish community used. There are also sectarian manuscripts that help understand how this particular group lived. Texts such as the Habakkuk Commentary, the Community ule, the War Scroll and the Thanksgiving Hymns and the best-preserved columns of the Genesis…


VanderKan, J. and P. Flint. The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls. HarperOne, 2004. Print.

Vermes, G. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. London: Penguin Books, 2004. Online.

Why the Essenes Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls
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Dead Sea Scrolls have been the focus of intense debate over their intended purpose since their discovery in the mid-20th century. Since their discovery, there has also been a growing body of scholarship that can help answer this question (Vermes, The Complete, p. 12). Drawing on the relevant historical evidence to this end, this paper provides a discussion concerning the best explanation for the function of the Dead Sea Scrolls, including an analysis concerning how the scrolls would have functioned during the life of the Dead Sea Scrolls community and how and why the scrolls were put in the caves. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the purpose of the Dead Sea Scrolls are presented in the conclusion.

Historical knowledge of the Dead Sea Scrolls community

It is reasonable to posit that some of the overarching purposes of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) included providing the…

Works Cited

Schiffman, Lawrence H. Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls: The History of Judaism, the Background of Christianity, the Lost Library of Qumran. Garden City: Doubleday, 1995.

VanderKam, James C. and Peter Flint, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: The Significance for Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2002.

Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. London: Penguin, 2004.

Western Religion
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Western Religion

In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…


Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.

Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386

Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192

Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263

Religion Israel L Jones Role of
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However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.

It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…

Works Cited

Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.

Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, 

Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.

Western Religions Given the Remarkable
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Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.

Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…


Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at 

Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at 

The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at 

Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at

Comparison Religion
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Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all share the same roots, and their followers are often referred to collectively as the "people of the Book." They are all monotheistic faiths tracing a patriarchal ancestry to the personage of Abraham in the Hebrew bible. In fact, the Hebrew bible is referred to as the Old Testament in the Christian faith and remains a major sacred text in the Christian religion. In spite of their common roots and a few common beliefs, these three religions have diverged from one another in significant ways, leading to major social and political conflicts. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all believe in the Hebrew bible as a sacred text, and all three are monotheistic faiths, but their specific theologies, customs, and practices differ.

A fundamental feature of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam is monotheism, one of the features shared in common between these three religions. The Tanakh, which is the…


"Comparison of Islam, Judaism and Christianity." 

"The Messiah in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam." On Islam. Retrieved online:

New Testament. NIV

Quran. Available online:

Religion in Spite of the Conflicts Between
Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25607609
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In spite of the conflicts between the world's great monotheistic faiths, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share much in common. Each of these religions was born in the Middle East, and each of these religions values sacred texts as being important ways for human beings to receive the word and knowledge of God. As monotheistic religions, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam eschew idol worship or the worship of Gods that are not their own. At the same time, these religions have very similar concepts of God. The Gods of each of these four religions in omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent: a concept of God that actually originated with Zoroastrianism ("God, Zoroaster, and Immortals," n.d.). Zoroastrianism is the oldest of these four faiths, followed by Judaism. The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are collectively referred to as "people of the Book" because all value the Hebrew Bible, which is known…

Works Cited

"Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an." Retrieved online: )

"God, Jesus, and the Saints." BBC Religions. Retrieved online:  

Edward Robinson 1794-1864 Was an
Words: 2897 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67527594
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Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."

With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…

Smith, E. (1834). Missionary Researches in Armenia: Including a Journey Through Asia Minor. London, J.S. Hudson. Cited in: 

Hallote, 2006, p.12.

Williams, J. (1999). The Times of Edward Robinson: Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

Queen Sheba
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Queen of Sheba

Makeda, also known as the Queen of Sheba was a monarch in the ancient kingdom of Sheba; she is refered to in the Habeshan history, the New Testament, the Hebrew Bible and also the Qur'an. Other than these four sources, there are no evidences of her existence. The current location of her kingdom now is assumed to be in Yemen (Korotayev).

She is known to the Ethiopian people now as Makeda or Maqueda; throughout different sources, her name varies and she is called different things by different people during different times. Most of Black history has been suppressed throughout time, it has also been widely distorted or ignored by the modern world (Korotayev). However, there are some African traditions are so persistent that all of the power and deception of the estern academic establishment have failed to stamp them out. One of these is the story which…

Works Cited

Comay, Joan and Ronald Brownrigg. Who's Who in the Bible:The Old Testament and the Apocrypha, The New Testament. (New York: Wing Books, 1993). pp. 351.

Jones, David E., Women Warriors: A History, Brasseys, Inc. (2000).

Hansberry, W.L. And Johnson, E.H. "Part V: Africa's Golden Past: Queen of Sheba's true identity confounds historical research," Ebony (magazine). 1965 p. 136.

Andrey Korotayev. Ancient Yemen. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).

Eisdom and Woman in the Old Testament
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Wisdom and Woman in the Old Testament

Women and Wisdom in the Old Testament

In recent years, scholars and Bible commentators have analyzed extensively the way in which women are portrayed in the Old Testament. The matter has also been the focus of many feminist studies that research the role of the women in the patriarchal Israelite society. However, in spite of the fact that there are indeed many instances of harsh treatment of women in the Old Testament, as their social roles were constrained by many serious restrictions, there are also a few cases where women are associated with divine wisdom and understanding. For example, in Proverbs, wisdom is personified as a feminine figure that directs the believers towards true understanding and godly illumination. Likewise, in Judges 4 and 5, Deborah is described as both a judge of Israel and as the leader of the army, whereas Jael, another…


The Bible. King James Version,

Bach, Alice.1999, Women in the Hebrew Bible: A Reader. New York: Bantam House.

Crenskaw, James L. 2000, Old Testament Wisdom: An Introduction. New York: John Knox Press.

Mandell, Sara. "King David with the Wise Woman of Tekoa: The Resonance of Tradition in Parabolic Narrative. Book Review." Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 118, No. 2, p. 344-346

Dead Sea Scrolls
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Dead Sea Scrolls

Hershell Hanks begins his book "The Mystery and Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls," (Shanks, 1998) with a startling revelation. Despite numerous treatises, articles and books on the subject, it is still unclear who found The Dead Sea Scrolls. An Arab shepherd boy or maybe two shepherd boys searching for their lost sheep close to the banks of the Dead Sea discovered the 'Scrolls' in 1947 in a cave in Qumran -- though the date varies depending on the source. In an effort to look for the lost sheep, the edouin shepherd began throwing stones into nearby caves. An unexpected cracking sound of earthenware inside the cave encouraged him to explore further. Muhammad Ahmad el-Hamed of the Ta'amireh tribe is assumed to be the shepherd who found the scrolls. This fact has however been constantly debated and interviewing and identifying the right individual who found the scroll…


Shanks, H. (1998) The mystery and meaning of the Dead Sea scrolls, Random House, New York.

The Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Their Content
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older than the previously established canon of Hebrew literature, the Dead Sea Scrolls add depth, nuance, and historic accuracy to the Biblical texts. Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Qumran, the Masoritic texts provided the most reliable Hebrew primary source documents. These documents had been cross-referenced with the Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch, and since the middle of the 20th century, the Dead Sea Scrolls (Lecture Notes, Part II). The Dead Sea Scrolls cover a relatively specific historical era, and a good portion of them substantiate previously known editions of the same Biblical books and thereby provide insight into how the stories encoded in these books evolved and changed over time and throughout the region. The Dead Sea Scrolls continue to impact scholarly and liturgical knowledge of the historical, linguistic, and cultural formation of the text and canon of the Hebrew Bible.

The diversity of texts…

Works Cited

Book of Jubilees.

Dryden, Jeff. "4QMMT." Retrieved online: 

"Jewish Groups in the Second Temple Period."

R. H. Charles, ed., The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, vol. 2: Pseudepigrapha (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913): pp. 799-834.