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..formal and temporal purification" and were "under the old law, which provided...for formal, or ritualistic pardon, and restored to human fellowship, sin and transgressions remained, burdening the conscience." (Luther 1483-1546) Therefore, the old law "did not benefit the soul at all, inasmuch as God did not institute it to purify and safeguard the conscience, nor to bestow the Spirit." (Luther 1483-1546) the old law's existence was "merely for the purpose of outward discipline, restraint and correction." (Luther 1483-1546)
Gottwald (1985) notes that use of a marriage metaphor by Hosea in chapter 1-3 and a metaphor relating to a father and son in 11:1-7 and states that these are only:
two of the prominent specimens of a rich stock of metaphors and similes drawn from agriculture, animal life, and family relations. Yahweh is also described as a physician, a fowler, a lion, a leopard, a bereaved she-bear, dew, a luxuriant tree,…… [Read More]
In his sacrifice, Jesus Christ had the role of the priest and that of the victim. Not only was He disposed to suffer in order to save mankind, but He voluntarily gave up everything He had in the material life with this purpose (Nelson).
Jesus Christ improved the connection between the individual and God, influencing Christians to perfect themselves. Christ's sacrifice came as a contrast to the sacrifices performed by Levitical priests, as the latter did not perfect themselves through their actions, nor did they succeed in cleansing their souls from their inner sins (Nelson).
The blood priests shed in order to praise their Lord only managed to comfort themselves in a material way. hile Levitical priests believed that their sacrifice absolved them for some time, they were aware that their sins were not forgiven. Animal sacrifices induced material feelings of material forgiveness in people while the sacrifice of Jesus…… [Read More]
Hebrew Bible is also known as Mikra or TaNaKh, which is an acronym that refers to the traditional Jewish division of the Bible into the Torah the teaching, Nevi'im the prophets and Ketuvim the writings. It is the founding document of the people of Israel that gives descriptions of its origins, history and visons of how a just society should be. This paper will give an explanation of how the Hebrew Bible literature forms religion in humanity. The main objective is to show how human life relates to the stories of the Hebrew Bible and how faith obtains eternity and God is the one who created all these.
Generally the Hebrew Bible gives an account of how God dealt with the Jews being his chosen people who referred to themselves as Israel. After an account of the creation of the world by God and the coming up of human civilization,…… [Read More]
This obscure, nameless darshan's interpretation of B. Yevamot 62b has been particularly enduring, yet, according to Satlow, "while such an interpretation of this sugya makes a good sermon, it makes poor history ... The sugya as a whole is in fact an attempt to answer the question, hy should a man marry" (Satlow pp). And the answer that it gives is much more complex than recognized by "our" darshan (Satlow pp).
Virtually every society supports marriage as a social institution, and so must answer the question of "why marry," therefore the answers serve the concrete function of convincing people to marry, "thus physically reproducing the institution ... thus societies, like those of Jews and non-Jews in antiquity, that offer quite distinct social roles to men and women," often use different means of persuasion to convince men and women to marry (Satlow pp). However, on the other hand, marriage can also…… [Read More]
Hebrew Bible (Genesis-1-22) and Bhagavad-Gita
Similarities between Christianity and Hinduism are often acknowledged. Part of what is similar to Christian teachings is found in the Bhagavad Gita and revealed by Krishna, the supreme god of Hinduism. God is, in Christian belief, the creator of the world and the Supreme Being. Likewise, in the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna is recognized as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Arjuna addresses Krishna as the one "that knoweth no deterioration" (Brishma Parva 55) thus, acknowledging Krishna as supreme power that cannot be altered. Moreover, such as God sent his only son into the world to serve humanity, Krishna is at Arjuna's service, although he never ceases to exercise his divine character. Krishna responds to his devotee's requests and Arjuna, unable to find the answer to his struggles, turns to the Lord for guidance. In the Bible, God guides Noah and saves him from the flood…… [Read More]
Barclay goes on to identify the Christian inspiration (Christ Himself), the handicap (the effects of Original Sin), and the means for perseverance (Barclay references the word "hupomone," which is another way of saying "the patience which masters" things) (173).
In the same manner, Donald Guthrie speaks of the text as showing a "need for discipline" (248). Guthrie observes that the discipline must be Christ-centered and Christ-focused: "Looking to Jesus (aphorontes eis)…implies a definite looking away from others and directing one's gaze towards Jesus. It suggests the impossibility of looking in two directions at once" (250).
John Brown, on the other hand, states that the text is "highly rhetorical; and its meaning will be but imperfectly understood -- its force and beauty will be utterly lost to us -- if we do not distinctly apprehend…those historical facts or ancient customs from which the inspired writer borrows his imagery" (599-600). The statement…… [Read More]
Hebrew is the language of Scripture and forever reminds Jews of their covenant with God and holds Judaism together. He points out that they have already eliminated many traditional elements of Judaism in their reform and should not let go of anymore. He fears the whole of Judaism will be lost if any more separate elements are removed.
A second argument Frankel makes is that God gave the Bible to the Jews in trust for safeguarding. God called upon the Jews to carry forth and spread the Word of God as found therein throughout the world. The Bible was written in Hebrew. This is why all Jews have been instructed in Hebrew and why the Jews teach Hebrew to their children -- so they can understand God's word in the Bible, of which they are the caretakers. He concedes it would be acceptable to conduct some of the service in…… [Read More]
In 70 CE, Jewish scholars assembled in a town west of Jerusalem to decide which holy books of writings should form the core of the Hebrew Scriptures. They decided on 5 books (Pentateuch) to form the core. Then they added 34 other books, rejecting most books written after 150 BCE. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism.The history of the Masorah may be divided into three periods: (1) the creative period, from the beginning to the introduction of vowel-signs; (2) the reproductive period, from the introduction of vowel-signs to the printing of the Masorah (1525 CE); (3) critical period, from 1525 to the present time. The Apocrypha consisted of many books used for spiritual guidance by the Jewish people throughout the ages. They were included in the Septuagint, the Greek translation of Hebrew Scriptures in general use during the time…… [Read More]
The theme of starting a new and fresh life in the Mystical Body is emphasized as well. The major characters of Ephesians are the receivers of the letter themselves: the husbands, wives, slaves, and masters, children, and parent: all are called to put on the armor of God, which will serve them will in the battle that will be fought for their souls. No major events are recorded in Ephesians, but the epistle touches on the adoption of Christian morality.
St. Paul's letter to the Galatians, written some time after their conversion in 52 AD was threatened by the arrival and influence of some Jewish teachers, is composed in the epistolary genre: its major theme is the defense of Paul's person and his doctrine against the false instruction of the Jews. The key events that Paul speaks of are the divine origin of his mission and authority, the fulfillment…… [Read More]
He uses rhetorical questions in order to cause His people to think the consequences of their actions.
Proverbs 21:21 explores this, "He that followeth after righteousness and mercy findeth life, righteousness, and honour." When God shows his love or mercy, he manifests this by a certain action. Other verses to consider are Proverbs 3:3; 11:17 as well as 20:28.
Chesed occurs the first time in the Old Testament in Genesis 19:19. In context, the passage is one of God's decision to end Sodom and Gomorrah. But he spares Lot and his family in response to Abraham's pleading as an act of mercy. Genesis 32:10 represents Jacob as realizing God's unmerited mercy This is also the issue in Chronicles 16:34; Nehemiah 9:17; Psalms 103:8).
Numbers 14:18 portrays Gdd as longsuffering, and of great mercy, forgiving iniquity and transgression..." Moses begs for God's mercy and reminds Him of the surrounding peoples who…… [Read More]
..hat in these last days spoken unto us by his Son...by whom also he made the worlds," thus arguing that Jesus' message is an expansion of the Old Covenant. (Ellingworth, 1993).
The Catholic interpretation of the Epistle to the Hebrews is that it is a firm announcement of the superiority of the New Testament revelations made by Jesus over the Old Testament revelations made by the lesser prophets. Further, the Epistle to the Hebrews successfully proves this point by comparing Jesus to the angels as mediators of the Old Covenant, Moses and Josue as founders of the Old Covenant, and by opposing the high priesthood of Christ. (Lane, 1985).
At its core, this passage is an extension of Pauline Christianity, or the version of Christianity advocated by the Apostle Paul and which survived as the dominant version of Christianity. First and foremost, as a part of the Pauline Christianity, this…… [Read More]
Unless the author's typological approach is appreciated, the interpreter may wrongly assume that the author is making literal statements about the salvation-historical significance of Christ.
The fact that Hebrews was originally written in Greek does not provide any substantial or definitive help in the search for author or audience. During the time period in which Hebrews had to be composed, Christians in Rome spoke Greece. In fact, Hellenism had much of Western Europe and the modern-day Middle East familiar with Greek. This familiarity would have been even more likely among educated groups, and is highly unlikely that uneducated people would have had the ability to read or write. While there was some early suggestion that Hebrews was originally written in a language other than Greek, it seems highly unlikely that that was the case:
That the Letter to the Hebrews was originally written in Greek is suggested by the fact…… [Read More]
'? 17 but the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men-children alive? 18 and the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them: 'Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men-children alive?'? 19 and the midwives said unto Pharaoh: 'Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwife come unto them.'? 20 and God dealt well with the midwives; and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty? 21 and it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that He made them houses. (Exodus 1: 15-21)
The lord does not speak here of the Hebrew male children as being alive before their birth, instead he speaks of the favor he gives to the midwives who save the Hebrew male children at their birth,…… [Read More]
The Epistle to the Hebrews reflects the contentious nature of the debate within the Christian community of how to define the role and nature of Jesus in the evolving tradition. Regardless of the nature of its authorship, the epistle establishes Christ as the Son of God and part of the Godhead but also a kind of high priest within the Jewish tradition. Its Christology is uniquely Jewish in its orientation and metaphors, which is one reason why it might be commonly attributed to Paul. But it suggests a new, sacrificial role for Jesus as the Son of God and a new kind of high priest.
The Epistle to the Hebrews first calls Jesus a paradoxical figure, made lower than the angels so he could ultimately elevate humanity. “But we do see Jesus, who was made lower than the angels for a little while, now crowned with glory and honor because…… [Read More]
Deborah is believed to have played a key role in public arena.
Even in the male dominant society of Israel, Deborah's orders were followed and people looked up to her for advice. In the position of a prophetess, she could give orders which were readily followed: "She sent for Barak...and said to him, 'The Lord, the God of Israel, commands you: "Go, take with you ten thousand men..."" Barak was not willing to go alone and wanted Deborah to accompany him. Deborah is an important figure in ancient Hebrew culture and it is through her that we can see how this culture allowed women to have some freedom in their restricted sphere.
The daughter of Jephthah was another prominent figure. She was also a judge who ruled Israel as she was a woman of strong faith. After her father promised Lord that if he won, he would offer "whatever comes…… [Read More]
In their devotion, the Israelites took on strict rules and regulations. For example, there are dietary traditions that stem back to following God's word. This covenant was solidified by the sign of the tablets which the Ten Commandments were written on. This then defined the nature of both Judaism and Christianity.
Finally, the covenant made with David established a physical resting spot for all people of the Jewish faith -- the Kingdom of Israel. As part of the covenant, there was a royal dynasty established through David's descendants (2 Samuel 7:11-16). The first Temple of Jerusalem as God's house, built by David's son as part of his promises in the covenant with God, (2 Samuel 7:4-7). For the devotion of both David and his descendents, "the Lord declares to you that the Lord will make you a house," (2 Samuel 7:11). Thus, David united the Jewish people under one nation…… [Read More]
Theology: An Analysis of the Book Of Hebrews
An Analysis of the Book of Hebrews: Theology
The book of Hebrews is one of the most controversial books in the New Testament. The controversy derives largely from the fact that the book's author is yet to be identified. This text presents the various arguments that have been put forth about the book's authorship, intended audience, destination, and date.
Analysis of the Epistle to the Hebrews
The Epistle to the Hebrews is one of the most controversial writings in the Bible. It is unique, convincing and elaborate in the way it speaks about priesthood and the superiority of Christ. It presents Christ as the High Priest that God sent to get mankind closer to Him. The controversy surrounding the book, however, stems from the fact that it does not conclusively state who the author is. Most scholars have thus come to accept…… [Read More]
Theology: James, Hebrews and Peter
James, Hebrews and Peter: Theology
The issue of persecution is quite prevalent in the books of Hebrews, James and 1 & 2 Peter. The writers center their teachings on the idea that Christians should be ready to endure persecution, just as Christ their savior did. This text examines how the issue of persecution is handled by the three writers, and what Peter says about false teachers and building healthy churches.
Persecution in Hebrews, James and 1 Peter
Persecution comes out as a core concern for Christ and his believers in both the Old and the New Testament. The books of James, Hebrews, and 1 Peter center on the theme of suffering and persecution, with the central message being that just like Christ suffered, Christians must face suffering in their daily living (Heb 11: 4; 1 Peter 2: 21) (Jobes, 2011). They must be willing to…… [Read More]
The Hebrews or Israelites were God's chosen people, whom He delivered from bondage to Egypt, to whom He revealed His law and with whom He established a covenant through Moses on Mount Sinai. Up to the 10th line of patriarchs after Moses, the Hebrews remained pure in their form of worship and in their lives. ut in the 500th year before the Deluge, their descendants greatly multiplied, and so did much violence, division, lust and arrogance when the spirits of hell possessed these descendants and worked iniquity through their inherent weaknesses (Dolphin 2003). This also happened because the descendants of two separate lineages, one from God through Adam and Eve's third child, Seth and the other, a female descendant through the murderer Cain - merged in violation of God's command that His Chosen People (through Seth's line) should not be equally yoked, or interbreed, with unbelievers.
The "sons of…… [Read More]
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Hebrew history, as told by the Hebrews, begins in Mesopotamia, in the cities of Ur in the south and Haran in the north. With Abraham, the story of the Hebrews begins, and it is clearly stated that Hebrew origins lay outside Canaan. The command to leave his ancestral home and journey to Canaan was accompanied by a promise (Gen. 12:2) The exact location of the nation-to-be is not specified but was, of course, known to those hearing or reading the account, Abraham journeyed to Canaan, Egypt, the Negeb, Hebron, Gezer, Beer-sheba and back to Hebron where he and his wife Sarah died.
The journey itself was more than a pilgrimage, for it represented the starting point of a continuing adventure in nationhood. Nor are the travelers without vicissitudes, but throughout famine, earthquake, fire and war, god protected them.
The close relationship between the Hebrews and…… [Read More]
Hebrews 5:1-6 explains why Jesus, who was not of a priestly caste, became endowed with the status of High Priest and serves humanity in this critical function. These readings explicate the underlying meanings of scripture as it pertains to Jesus’s qualifications, qualities, roles, and duties as High Priest. Modeled after Aaron, the High Priest must have three core qualities. First, a High Priest must be singled out, special, and unique. Second, the High Priest cannot be self-appointed or even appointed by human beings. Only God can appoint the High Priest. In other words, the High Priest is called by God to serve. Third, the High Priest must have a set of qualities that include empathy for those who are weak and sinful, humility, and patience.
The primary role served by the High Priest is that of intermediary between God and humanity. Pilch (n.d.) offers the best metaphor of the intermediary…… [Read More]
The Hebrews do not actually appear in history until about 1224-1211 B.C.E. during the reign of Marniptah, king of Egypt (Ancient pg). Marniptah was the son of Raamses I, 1290-1223 B.CE, who is thought to be the kind of Egypt at the time of the Hebrew exodus (Ancient pg). In an account of Marniptah's military campaign in Asia, 1220 B.C.E., inscribed in granite is listed all the conquered peoples including the Israelites, who are mentioned as "now living in Canaan" (Ancient pg). Before this, the only history is that which was written by the Hebrews themselves who trace their origins to a "single individual, Abraham, who comes originally from Mesopotamia" (Ancient pg). This pre-Egyptian Hebrew history is referred to as the age of the patriarchs, which means father-ruler (Ancient pg). More than a thousand years had passed before this era of history was written down, and although it…… [Read More]
He completed the tasks. hen Hercules was dying, he was placed upon a funeral pyre, where he "ascended to Olympus, where he was granted immortality and lived among the gods" (Ellingson).
The Hebrew culture approaches the question of the interrelationship of the human and the divine in a manner substantially different than the Greek or Roman cultures. In fact, there are substantial differences in the Greek and Hebrew schools of thought, even down to descriptions of objects. For example, "the Greek culture describes objects in relation to the object itself. The Hebrew culture describes objects in relation to the Hebrew himself" ("Hebrew Thought"). Therefore, any Hebrew description of the divine automatically reflects the interrelationship between the divine and the human.
Both ancient Greeks and ancient Romans believed that the gods were actively and intimately involved in the lives of humans. In fact, modern Christianity can be said to arise from…… [Read More]
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…… [Read More]
history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…… [Read More]
Yiddish as a first language in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, compared to the use of local vernacular (for example, Hebrew in Israeli-ased Jews, or English in London and New York-ased Jews): in Hasidic Jews, the use of Yiddish is widespread, whereas in other Jewish groups, the local vernacular is more common.
This paper discusses the reasons behind these differences, and looks at the functions that Yiddish serves in these Hasidic Jew communities. The paper also looks at the effects of outside pressures has on the use of Yiddish, and on issues of identity in general.
The paper also looks at the religious issues related to the use of Yiddish, and at heritage issues in general. The paper also looks in detail at the use of Yiddish as a cultural isolating mechanism, as a way to create barriers between Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews, and also Hasidic Jews and non-Jews (gentiles).
The…… [Read More]
The Indian deity also preoccupied himself with creating most famously the Ganges.
The Chinese tale too has symbols of China (specifically the turtle) ("he used the molten rock to patch the holes in the sky, and she used the four legs of a giant turtle to support the sky again" (Walls & Walls, 1984) Aside from which, note that all names of gods are typically Chinese.
The acts of the Creation generated an entire world with a host of nations and geographical environments. Each of the narrative accounts however focus on a sliver of land, usually the land lived in by the author / authors of the narrative.
The author's purpose in centering in and focusing the tale around one specific country may simply reflect the fact that for primitive people born, living, and dying on one specific part of earth, this was all they knew. For people…… [Read More]
Even if they may not have the same force as divine law, the laws should not contradict the laws of heaven. This binding injunction to the people to obey also applies to rulers -- monarchs should not contradict the will of the divine, and endeavor to create a state that mirrors that of God. For example, Aquinas prohibited usury, or charging money at interest given Christ's condemnation of money changing, and stated that the governments should not allow such transactions to take place.
Although Aquinas at times cites Augustine in support of his ideas, Augustine's own ideas regarding the correct relationship between state and humankind seem to suggest that the laws of the state are less crucial and less significant in creating a moral framework for human beings. After all the state, human property, and the concerns of worldly affairs are transient. In his remarks upon the Gospel of John,…… [Read More]
Judaism and Christianity both have fairly common as well as totally contrasting religious concepts. In spite of the apparent differences and divisions it has to be understood that both these religions are like different streams of water merging in the ocean of god.
Christianity and Judaism are both religions of abrahamic origin. There are many similarities and differences between the two religions. Since Christianity originated from Judaism, it lends to the thought that both the religions are very closely related. However, in spite of their common origin, they differ considerably in some of the important issues while at the same time exhibit resemblance in many aspects. Even the monotheistic belief, which both these religions stand for, is quantified by entirely different perception of the attributes of godhead. Similarly, in the understanding of the messianic concept there is a significant contradiction giving us a hint of the vastly different nature of…… [Read More]
Isaac and ebekah seemed to have a happy and healthy functional marriage. While it is never overtly stated in the text, the implication is that the two love one another. However, despite what one assumes is a fairly active sex life, ebekah is unable to conceive and they do not create a child during ebekah's childbearing years. She passes into old age, which makes one believe that she will never be able to conceive, making her conception of Esau and Jacob even more extraordinary.
Furthermore, though her mother-in-law Sarah also experienced barrenness, she did not have the same tension about conception as ebekah. Sarah always had God's favor; she was a major component of God's plan for Abraham. Therefore, there was some understanding that she would eventually have a child to continue the nation of Israel. In contrast, ebekah was not considered an essential part of Isaac's story. As a…… [Read More]
Sons of God" in Genesis 6 are human, by using the following verses as background on the subject: Deuteronomy 9:18, Joshua 7:6, Psalm 112, Genesis 4:26, Numbers 13:33, Job 1:6, 2:1. The Sons of God referred to so briefly in Genesis 6 are indeed human, because they have the distinct human vice of "wickedness," which in the end seals their fate. They are Sons of God who came to Earth to create a race of "giants," but in the end, God removed them all for their wickedness, and replaced the population with the relations of Noah, whom He favored above all at the time. In Deuteronomy 9:18, the Bible alludes to this sin, when Moses beseeches his people not to bring down the anger of the Lord upon them. Implied here is the anger of the Lord that came before, when he flooded the land for forty days and nights…… [Read More]
These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).
This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.
Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…… [Read More]
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…… [Read More]
In the Far East, by contrast, we see a different version of mankind. Mengzi maintained that all human morality was held together by a single concept: ren, or natural humanistic love. Simply put, ren is a love and respect for all things human (McGreal 6). To Mengzi, a person can only achieve ren if they undergo an attainment of knowledge to the point where they reach a workable grasp of the place for each form of love. The rituals and education that bring about knowledge is li; the ultimate form of li is yi -- the highest principle governing the adoption of li. So, although Mengzi believes that all people possess a certain amount of these qualities naturally, in order to fully attain ren and yi a person must cultivate their inner courage individually.
In this respect, the way in which man's spirit is cultivated is similar to the interpretation…… [Read More]
On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).
At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…… [Read More]
Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents
The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of English sentence structures with regard to non-pronominal coding of active referents. In order to do this, it is important to have a baseline definition of non-pronominal (NP) coding and active referents. e look to recent literature and case study of not only English but other languages examined to understand sentence structure. Upon reviewing the literature, it was found that definitions for the pronominal approach were plentiful and easy to understand. As a means of comparison an understanding the NP application, we are also exploring the pronominal approach that acts as a framework for literature. Once these definitions are established, we will look at active referents and their role in sentence structure. Available literature suggests non-pronominal coding is used for active referents. As part of this analysis, it is important to look at other languages…… [Read More]
Isaiah Chapter 6 addresses Isaiah's commission, and is a perfect example of the use of narrative structure, format, and style in the Hebrew Bible. A plethora of Tate's literary elements pertain directly to Isaiah, and reading Isaiah with Tate's elements in mind enhances understanding of the text. In particular, Isaiah 6 reflects Old Testament narratology: the method by which the story is being told. Hebrew narratology retains core elements, some of which are adhered to and some of which are subverted in Isaiah 6. Isaiah 6 is told from a first person point-of-view, evident from the first line: "In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord, high and exalted, seated on a throne; and the train of his robe filled the temple," (Isaiah 6:1). The first person point-of-view establishes a literary, thematic, and semantic bond between implied reader and implied narrator. Moreover, the first person point-of-view…… [Read More]
The poems of Raymond Schiendlin deal with the viewpoints of life from the Jewish people. He claims that the poems written by Jewish people during the medieval times as secular, but this view ignores the very difficult position that Jewish people of the period were put in. In the early centuries AD, Jewish people were kicked out of several countries, including England. In most of the countries where they were allowed to live such as Italy, they were not considered citizens of that nation. Christian nation in particular took issue with Judaism and did everything in their power to punish Jewish people for supposed crimes and to expel them from their nations (Short 64). Schiendlin's position is based upon the assimilation of Jews into various cultures, such as the Muslims and this is certainly true. However, no amount of cultural assimilation could allow the Jewish people to completely remove…… [Read More]
They could only be disposed of, as it were, by leases till the year of jubilee, and were then to return to the seller or his heir."
This would preserve familial and tribal heritage as well as prevent the wealthy from being able to incur large masses of land, thus keeping certain families in extreme poverty. It gives all Israelites their liberty, as well as treats them all as equals, as the land would be regenerated every fifty years. "The chief point was that there should never be a build-up of power by a few to control the land and the people; therefore, there was redistribution of the land as it had been divided in the beginning."
Each family or tribe is given the opportunity to return to his or her land, and be renewed. "Those that were sold into other families, thereby became strangers to their own; but in…… [Read More]
Genesis explains that God gave us a special degree of power over nature itself. Thus, we would have the ability to manipulate our environment unique to human beings. However, just like animals we are all made the same as any other creature, the first human was made of "dust from the ground" (Genesis 2:7). Rather the only thing that separates us from other creatures is that God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. Thus we are separated from the rest of the world, but at the same time we are made of the same base materials as other beings. Genesis's basic point is that human beings are very different from the rest of creation in our higher ability for thought. God made us to have fellowship with Him, and therefore we were created in order to ultimately be able to sit within his presence. This is the fundamental…… [Read More]
Before the Torah is replaced near the end of the service, it is carried throughout the assembled congregation. Worshippers may reach out and touch the Torah with prayer books (hands are not supposed to be used), then kiss the object that touched the Torah, a gesture of affection, respect, and loyalty to God. This ritual is (arguably) symbolically equivalent to Catholic Communion, where believers symbolically ingest the blood and the body of Christ (a sip of wine and a Communion wafer) thereby taking the Lord into themselves. Both practices reaffirm personal relationships to God. Such contemporary (and past) ceremonies and liturgical practices may or may not actually aid worshippers in understanding God (or on the other hand, provide roadblocks for interpretation of the sacred). However, both are powerful signs of a personal relationship between congregants and God.
Many sections of the Old Testament reaffirm monotheism. In Exodus 31-33, Moses leaves…… [Read More]
in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…… [Read More]
Therefore, the Word of God is to be found in the fundamental truths of the Bible, not in a literal interpretation thereof.
A genuine and honest fundamentalism is not a literal translation of any one or even any era's version of the Bible. Rather, a real fundamentalism refers to the Word made practice. For example, we view the Word of God in the actions of saints. We learn about those who have devoted their lives to serving God. We raise our families in a spiritual sense, eschewing materialism and imbuing our lives with the truths inherent in the Bible. Ultimately we refer to the essence of Jesus Christ's love. Instead of clinging even to what the Apostles said about Jesus, we endeavor to listen intently to what Jesus would have said through his actions. Actions do speak louder -- and are longer-lasting -- than words.
Thus, the Pontifical Biblical Commission…… [Read More]
It was fairly interesting meeting and exploring the personality, values and mores of my immersion activity patient partner. In many ways, it can be acknowledged that she and I had a fair amount in common, ate least in terms of culture. Her parents were Persian Jewish and Israeli, respectively, while my parents are both Persian. In that respect, there was definitely a similarity in values that can be attributed to a cultural influence that has a number of points of comparison between both of our lineages. The immersion experience activity conversation took place at an Israeli restaurant where my partner and I enjoyed excellent meals and were able to talk and get to know one another's backgrounds for upwards of two hours. I think it was fairly revealing that we each brought along companions -- she was accompanied by her boyfriend, while I was attended by my wife.…… [Read More]
Unequal Pairs in Genesis
The source of hostility experienced by humankind has a long record and an intricate web of linked causes and ascription of causes. The highly charged concerns that human beings experience in the contemporary world are as a result of something more central and at the heart of people. Abel and Cain were brothers, but brothers who felt humiliated and threatened by actions and attitudes of each other. They were brothers who sought for exceptional favor and blessings from the same Creator they worshipped in distinctive ways. However, God accepted the sacrifice presented by Abel and rejected that of Cain. The rejection of Cain's sacrifice and acceptance of Abel's sacrifice demonstrate the need for people to choose between salvation and eternal torment, righteousness and wickedness.
The story of Cain and Abel follows upon the tale of sin of humanity, and represents humanity's further estrangement from God. The…… [Read More]
origin of angels? Can we become angels? What is the duty/purpose of angels? How have angels interacted with people from Genesis to Revelation? Should angels be worshipped or prayed to? How should we live in light of this doctrine? Angels are immensely popular today because people still need to feel close spiritually to each other, and to the Lord. Angels are a bridge between our world and the spiritual world, and they help guide us toward better lives. Angels are certainly among us, and they always will be.
Angels have always been unique and special beings, and their growing popularity today illustrates how we, as a nation, are still seeking spiritual fulfillment in our lives. Angels are wise beings who have many powers, and serve God, unless they have fallen, when they serve Satan. The ible discusses angels throughout its pages, but early on, the origin of angels is…… [Read More]
Why are you applying for a role in your chosen area? (Demonstrate your suitability for the position(s) sought.)
In September of 2002, I graduated with honors with a degree in Civil Electronic Engineering from the Free University of Brussels (V.U.B). Although I enjoyed studying this discipline and pursuing my degree, I have come to realize that my naturally extroverted personality is far more suited and more fulfilled in the fast-paced world of business and finance. This is why I have decided to apply for an entry-level position for the Financial Management Program (FMP) at General Electric.
I do not only seek an education for myself in my new, chosen field. I also believe that my background has given me, as a person, a good deal that I can offer to GE as a company. A civil electronic engineer, such as myself, is often confronted with highly complex mathematical…… [Read More]
Biblical Summaries and Significance
II Corinthians 5:11-21
Life is full of sacrifices, even in the life of a believer and Paul wanted believers to know that Christianity would not be a walk in the park. Paul is quick to assure readers that he is motivated by a fear of the Lord, which is a good thing from the Christian perspective. This kind of fear is not the same kind of fear we realize when we are afraid of something bad happening to us. When Paul is speaking about being a good influence on those around him, he is pointing to the fact that he is doing it for the glory of God and for no kind of personal gain. Paul also wants believers to be motivated by the awesome nature and love of God. Paul also exhorts believers to spread the word about Christ. This is
These scriptures are…… [Read More]
III. The Abrahamic Covenant:
This too is an unconditional covenant characterized by:
God gave to Abraham a promise of a great national which is inclusive of all the lines of Ishmael and Abraham's two other sons Isaac and enjamin. This is founding Genesis 8:21-9:17.
IV. The Davidic Covenant:
In this covenant God says "Thou has said, "I have made a covenant with my chosen one, I have sworn to David my servant: "I will establish your descendants for ever and build your throne for all generations. [Selah] I have found David, my servant, with my holy oil I have anointed him; so that my hand shall ever abide with him, my arm also shall strengthen him." [Psalm 89 excerpts] This covenant is characterized by:
temple in Israel kingdom in perpetuity throne
Royal authority in David's lineage
Disobedience reaping chastisement
The promise for the Messiah to come through David's line confirmed.…… [Read More]
" In fact, the support of the burghers was critical to the slaughter of the Jews in Mainz, for they unlocked the city gates for the crusaders.
Despite the fact that the fortifications around the Jewish population could only protect them so much, no where in Speyer's decree does it say that others would come to their aid in another situation like Mainz. A paper signed by the Bishop can only offer so much protection in times of violence and unrest.
From 300 A.D. On as Christianity became the prevailing religion, non-Christians were often murdered with shouts of "To the gallows with the Iscariot!" Jews, due to their very different appearance and lifestyle were easy to recognize and persecute. In addition, people were jealous they saw Jews who were comparatively more wealthy and educated. Further, the Jews refused to accept Christianity, which added to the fire. The Church aggravated the…… [Read More]
Speaking of the United States, for example, since 9/11, there has been an increased in intolerance regarding Muslims. This prejudice toward Muslims has also sparked increased intolerance for Christian people, as Christianity is the dominant religion in America and is the religion most often associated with American culture. 1492 is also the fabled year with the Spanish armada arrived on the shores of what we know now as the United States of America. Therefore this film is a strong choice as it is an intersection of the history of the country and the history of my family.
How we remember our world, national, and personal history is often closely related to the geography and nature of the spaces wherein we lived and migrated to. These are the connections that I see among the texts by Nabokov, Bishop, and "The Passion of Joshua the Jew." These issues from history continue to…… [Read More]
Women in the Old Testament
The Bible never says that women are evil, sexually wanton or inferior to men; instead, it says a lot of good things regarding women. In the Old Testament / Hebrew Scriptures, most women are described as enterprising, resourceful, intelligent as well as, courageous. However, there are some many stories in the Old Testament that involve demeaning treatment of certain women. For instance, women were restricted to roles of no authority as well as, not allowed to testify in court. In summary, this paper will discuss on the depiction of Women in the Old Testament using two sources; Bible Harper Collins Study Bible and the Encountering Ancient Voices by Corrine Carvalho.
In Leviticus 12:1-5, a woman who gives birth to a boy is considered to be ritually unclean for 7 days. However, if the woman gives birth to a girl, the mother is unclean for 14…… [Read More]
"That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises," (Hebrews 6:12). The promises referred to in the Bible include spiritual gifts like wisdom, and also the gifts of material abundance and fecundity. The Bible teaches that laziness, or sloth, is incompatible with wisdom or success. Moreover, the Bible teaches that only foolish people are lazy and slothful, because they allow themselves to be distracted by desires. The person who is distracted does not work, and when a person does not work, he or she cannot eat. "The desire of the sluggard kills him, for his hands refuse to labor," (Proverbs 21:25). Hands that refuse to labor are naturally hands that cannot provide food to sustain the body, let alone spiritual nourishment for the soul.
Thus, the Bible makes the connection between laziness and foolish desires. It is desire that causes laziness,…… [Read More]
.....prophets influence the monarchs?
By deriving their power from divinity, prophets possessed an incredible amount of credibility and influence. They provided a divine foundation of power for monarchs, and could influence the policies of monarchs because of their prophetic power. Prophets were "closely connected with kings," part of the "royal establishment," (Coogan, 2011, p. 301).
Historically, the period of prophecy roughly overlaps the period during which the ancient monarchies arose (Coogan, 2011, p. 301). The two phenomena are therefore linked. In fact, it was not until the establishment of the monarchy that prophets started to feature prominently in the Biblical narrative. This shows the close connection between religious and political power in ancient times, as well as the direct ways prophets could influence the reputation of monarchs and the decisions that those monarchs might make. Prophets continued to influence monarchs by claiming to know the word and will of God.…… [Read More]
This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."
This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.
In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…… [Read More]
Slavery in the Bible
In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
In the Old Testament, Moses emerges as an unlikely leader of the captive Hebrews. Raised by the Egyptians like a son, he finds that he is actually a Hebrew and his relationship with the God of the Hebrews grows so that he is chosen to send a message to Pharaoh that God wants the Hebrews to be freed. Moses was an ethical leader from the beginning who practiced both ethical leadership and transformational leadership skills to bring the Hebrews to the Promised Land. He killed a slave master for cruelly whipping a Hebrew, fled, met an angel of God, and returned to his true people to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt and through the desert for 40 years.
Moses was given up by his mother as an infant because the Egyptian ruler feared that the Israelites were becoming too powerful and would ally themselves with Egypt’s enemy. So the…… [Read More]
older than the previously established canon of Hebrew literature, the Dead Sea Scrolls add depth, nuance, and historic accuracy to the Biblical texts. Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Qumran, the Masoritic texts provided the most reliable Hebrew primary source documents. These documents had been cross-referenced with the Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch, and since the middle of the 20th century, the Dead Sea Scrolls (Lecture Notes, Part II). The Dead Sea Scrolls cover a relatively specific historical era, and a good portion of them substantiate previously known editions of the same Biblical books and thereby provide insight into how the stories encoded in these books evolved and changed over time and throughout the region. The Dead Sea Scrolls continue to impact scholarly and liturgical knowledge of the historical, linguistic, and cultural formation of the text and canon of the Hebrew Bible.
The diversity of texts…… [Read More]
However, Pharaoh's heart was heartened and he refused. ecause of this, Aaron was instructed to lay down the rod in front of the Pharaoh and it became a snake. The pharaoh then ordered his sorcerers to throw down their rods and they also became snakes but Aarons snake ate the other snakes and the Pharaoh's heart was hardened and he would not release the children of Israel. Then the Lord turn to River into blood and there was no water for seven days.
Pharaoh's heart continued to be hardened and several other plagues followed. According to the Old Testament these plagues included frogs, flies, lice, the death of cattle, boils, hail, locust, the plague of darkness. Finally, the Lord killed the entire first born of Egypt. He instructed the people of Israel to cover their doors with the sacrificial blood of a lamb so that death would pass over them.…… [Read More]