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During their courtship, Anne Boleyn and Henry exchanged frequent letters, often in poetry (Jury, 2001).
ith renewed confidence, Henry began to expand the military arsenal of England. Henry also invested in the navy, and increased its size from 5 to 53 ships ("Henry VIII." History of the Monarchy: The Tudors, 2007). ithout such expansion, it is doubtful that England would ever have been able to defeat the Spanish Armada under Elizabeth. Of course, the great successes of Henry's regime do not cancel out his acts of brutality, such as his beheading of Anne Boleyn on a pretext, to marry again with the hopes of producing a son. After Henry's reign, England grew unstable once again, and there was the war of succession he feared, as England rapidly swung back from Protestant to Catholic again, only finally realizing its true glory under the steadier hand of Elizabeth I. But without the…… [Read More]
This would change in the years that would follow Francis' defeat of France. Henry's focus upon domestic issues became fixed upon the difficulties of succession -- just as his father's had been. But unlike Henry VII, Henry VIII had ongoing difficultly seeding a male heir. Although it was not unheard of in Europe to place a Queen upon the throne, Henry and his advisors believed that stability could only be ensured if a King took power upon Henry's death. The trouble was complicated by Henry's repeated infidelities, which resulted in a male bastard: Henry Fitzroy. If Henry VIII were to suddenly die, theoretically, civil war could erupt all over again; doubtlessly some royals would back his daughter, Mary, others might back his illegitimate son, and still others might back a Yorkist noble relative of Edward IV. The situation was such that Henry demanded a male heir, to ensure his legacy,…… [Read More]
He insisted that the papacy should have never given him dispensation to marry Catherine. Henry turned to Wolsey for assistance in securing a divorce.8 Three years of negotiations and a papal tribunal ensued, but the English court set up to hear the case could not come to a decision. The case was moved to Rome, against Henry's wishes. The negotiations and case continued until 1533, with Henry turning his personal battle into a full-scale public war, making the issue about the sovereignty of a secular state vs. The authority of the church.9 Despite the national issue, Henry had to move cautiously for his reform of the Church of England.
Several factors forced King Henry VIII to move carefully forward in his split from the Catholic Church. First, there was still loyalty to Rome within the English church. Rebellion was also a common threat, in general, for Tudor England, and Henry…… [Read More]
and, fundamentally, More's choice was the right one, not because he ascribed to any of these moral beliefs, but because he attempted to remain true to himself. Although utilitarianism may provide us with the tools to actually make choices in most situations, these choices would not satisfy the moral demands of most individuals. Meanwhile, attempting to live life by a finite set of rules can often leave individuals in logical dilemmas. Furthermore, both of these all-encompassing moral schemes for choosing appropriate actions suffer from the fact that life occurs at a pace that rarely allows us to sit back and objectively calculate the logical and physical consequences of everything we do. Fundamentally, this is way most real human beings tend to choose their actions based upon their own, personal set of virtue-ethics.
Of course, this is despite the fact that virtue ethics -- as first fully developed by Plato and…… [Read More]
After having sent examiners that would find all that the monks and the nuns had been doing wrong, King Henry VIII chose to close all monasteries in less than a decade. Nor the public or the monks had had any reaction to the exploit mostly due to the pensions that were given to the discharged monks.
The English Reformation referred to the changing of the way that the Church had been run as to reform means to change. King Henry VIII had started the wave of Protestantism within England with his decision of breaking England apart from the Catholic Church.
The Reformation." History Learning Site. 2000-2008. 20 November, 2008. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/reformation.htm
Jones, Norman Leslie. "The English Reformation." 2002.… [Read More]
They will not forget, and some of them may never get over their experiences. Henry may have grown up after the war, but he still really does not recognize just what he has done to his men or how war will affect them all in the end. Henry had the chance to stop the war when King Charles of France offers him a compromise, but he chose to go ahead. He was impetuous, young, and perhaps more than a little foolish. He was truly responsible for all the death and change that would surround this war. Shakespeare, in his own way, is showing the result of war and what it truly costs in this play, and Henry does not really seem to learn that lesson.
Sadly, the worst part of this story of war is that Henry's son loses the territory his father gained in yet another war, and so,…… [Read More]
Church vs. State during the Middle Ages
Political Conflict between the Church and the State during the Middle Ages
Christianity is considered as one of the most dominant religions in the world, and has proliferated throughout the years, for as early as the 2nd century, initially established in Jerusalem. Although derived from the 'older' religion of Judaism, Christianity had greater appeal and popularity to the people because it is a new form of religion that seeks the same teachings and doctrines as Judaism, but utilizes both affirmation and fulfillment of its followers towards God.
Established in Jerusalem, Christianity quickly spread into Western civilization, and has pervaded the European society and culture by 9th century. Over the years, Christianity was inevitably ingrained into European society, and has become the dominant religion and political ideology of the Holy Roman Empire, political territory established by Charlemagne in 9th century over the central and…… [Read More]
The moment when More acknowledges that "to be human at all perhaps we must stand fast a little, even at the risk of being heroes" is decisive in demonstrating that the character is well-acquainted with the risks that emerge as he goes through with supporting his thinking. More has little to no appreciation with regard to titles, as he believes that a person first needs to focus on his or her love of God before thinking of other matters. His opinion regarding such titles is revealed as he criticizes Richard Rich for the fact that he committed perjury in order to be appointed Attorney General of ales. This makes it possible for viewers to understand that More would have never performed such an act in spite of the fact that his life would be threatened as a result of his behavior.
In comparison to other films meant to discuss historic…… [Read More]
The fact that Percy's engagement with Anne was broken off has also been substantiated. According to tarkey (2003), Percy's engagement with Anne was repealed and he married Mary Talbot, the daughter of earl of hrewsbury in the August of 1525 or 26. The marriage failed. Mary demanded a divorce accusing Percy of a "pre-contract betrothal" to Anne. Anne was subsequently put on trial. ince this occurred during Henry's period of dissatisfaction with her, it was efficacious to Henry in that it resulted allegation of her adultery and in her execution.
Then again, there are also sources showing that the King had urged Cardinal Wolsey to end the engagement. All of these corroborate Cavendish's account and we may therefore decide to accept his statements as fact and as primarily, if not totally, objective.
On the other hand, we may decide to suspect the objectivity of the writer based on the following…… [Read More]
What three factors were most important in the development of Parliament as an independent institution with broad political, legislative and financial powers prior to Henry VIII?
Parliament (meaning parler, or 'to talk' in French) came into common use in the mid-thirteenth century (p. 155). It was the term used to refer to the primary meeting of the King and his Great Council. The King typically relied on such assemblies of lords, bishops, earls, barons and abbots for advice regarding major matters that impacted the rights of British citizens. The primary functions of Parliament were to give the King legislative, political, judicial and fiscal counsel at least three times per year.
Parliament was the chief juridical court and open to even everyday freeman by petition. King Edward I is credited with encouraging the petitioning (requesting favor or justice) of Parliament which was a major shift its role and function. Consideration…… [Read More]
Sir Thomas More's decision to refuse to sign the oath naming King Henry VIII the Supreme Head of the English Church
It is difficult to determine whether or not Thomas More was right in refusing to sign the oath declaring King Henry VIII as the Supreme Head of the English Church. When regarding matters from a perspective involving his allegiance to the Church, it would have been unlawful for him to perform this act. However, when regarding matters from a perspective involving reason, he should have accepted to sign the oath. More was right in refusing to sign the oath because he stood by his principles and demonstrated that a member of the Church needed to guide himself in accordance with these respective principles rather than to be influenced by the promise of material gains.
More's decision to refuse to sign the oath is likely to be considered by many…… [Read More]
recreational activity popular, it must transcend distinctions of wealth and class. As Charles Cotton's The Compleat Gamester states "games and sports of all kinds were common recreations for the people of Tudor and Stuart England." Peter Burke defines culture as a system of shared meanings, attitudes and values, and the symbolic forms in which they are expressed or embodied; by popular culture it is possible Burke's definition refers to the culture of the ordinary people or the "subordinate classes" -- those below the level of the elite. However, this paper views social history by looking at the commonality of leisure, recreation, games and sports of all kinds as the basis to determine whether there was a popular culture in early modern England. For example, cards, archery and tennis included all classes (the lower and upper) and encompassed those who devoted time to leisurely activities as well as those who spend…… [Read More]
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…… [Read More]
The setting up the king's supremacy instead of the usurpations of the papacy, and the rooting out the monastic state in England, considering the wealth, the numbers, and the zeal of the monks and friars in all the parts of the kingdom, as it was a very bold undertaking, so it was executed with great method, and performed in so short a time, and with so few of the convulsions that might have been expected, that all this shews what a master he was, that could bring such a design to be finished in so few years, with so little trouble or danger (Slavin, 19)."
Cromwell's position was no less tenuous than that of his predecessor, olsey. Henry did not become a tyrant without warning. Ridley reports that even as a young man, before he succeeded his father as king, Henry was prone to outbursts of anger and bad temper…… [Read More]
It is commonly believed that the country of England was a solely Catholic nation until Henry VIII's abrupt break from Catholicism so that they might marry Anne Boleyn. The king was already married and under Catholic law, the only way to end a marriage was through the death of a spouse or through annulment. Henry attempted to annul his first marriage, but the presence of a daughter Mary, showed that his claims that the marriage went unconsummated proved to be completely false. The Catholic Church refused to grant Henry a divorce and vowed to excommunicate him from the church if he went through with it (Dixon 1878,-page 3). In retaliation, King Henry of England decided that, rather than have to obey a religious person in a position of power, he would break off from the Catholic Church entirely and place himself at the head of his new religion.…… [Read More]
As the Archbishop of Canterbury during the tumultuous reign of Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer was in an extraordinary position to effect changes in England's political and religious direction. Through his writings, Cranmer laid the foundations for establishing the Church of England and moved England into the path of the growing European Reformation Movement.
By facilitating the numerous divorces of Henry VIII, he helped to weaken the authority of the Pope in England and contributed to the greater hold of the King.
This paper examines the effects of Cranmer's developing theology on the history of Tudor England. The first part of the paper looks at the role Cranmer played in justifying the theological bases of Henry VIII's numerous divorces. The next part then examines Cranmer's religious convictions, as enshrined in the Ten Articles and later, in the two versions of the Book of Common Prayer.
In the last section,…… [Read More]
Due to a shortage in labor supply, the demand for the working class increased exponentially. As such, the peasants were no longer at the bottom of the hierarchy in terms of the social and the economic class -- they were suddenly a highly desirable commodity that began charging fees to provide ti. The following quotation corroborates this fact.
Labour had become scarce and expensive and labourers well-off. Thos who survived the plague suddenly found they could pick and choose their masters, name their price for services, build up their landholdings and begin to employ their neighbors (Jones).
Since feudalism (a precursor to capitalism) was the system upon which England's economics and society was based, the government had to change its focus so that it could attempt to restore the exploitive practices in which laborers were readily cheated out of their labor. The English government became much more active in the…… [Read More]
However, Henry VIII was still insistent at that time on Catholicism in everything except loyalty to the Pope. The Pope had named Henry VIII a Defender of the Faith for the opposition that Henry had to Martin Luther, and Henry's theology did not change any because of his rejection of the authority of the Pope.
Thomas Cranmer and some or the other leaders of the Church, however, decided that there was a need to reform what they considered to be the heresies that had developed. Especially important to them were a liturgy and a ible that was printed in English. In addition to this, they also wanted to do away with some of the beliefs and practices that the Catholic Church had and that they believed did not fit in with Scripture, such as veneration of saints, celibacy for the clergy, and Purgatory. Their desire by accomplishing these things was…… [Read More]
onsidering that the old order in Ireland was in place since two millennia and had always been under the control of the Gaelic chieftains, their removal from the leadership of the provinces of Ireland by the English rown was destined to arise the resistance of the majority who sought support in the atholic world and especially hoped in the papal authority. urtis points out that the resistance against the protestant faith that built up after Elisabeth took over Munster and Ulster was coming not only from inside the respective Irish provinces, but also from the dissidents in Italy, Portugal, Spain and the Low countries. On one hand they were gathering in the spirit of preserving the old faith, on the other, the Irish and the Anglo-Irish who opposed the Reformation were changing their ways supported by the Jesuits who helping the process of transforming the faithful into fanatics. On the…… [Read More]
Sir Thomas More
Thomas More was born in London on February 7, 1478 to a respected judge. He received a good education at St. Anthony's School in London. When he was in his teens, he served as a in Archbishop Morton's home. Morton predicted that More would become a "marvelous man." (Ackroyd, 1998)
More attended college at Oxford University, where he wrote comedies and studied Greek literature. One of his very first projects was an English translation of a Latin biography of Pico della Mirandola, which was published by Wynkyn de Worde in 1510.
After college, More studied law in London and became a barrister in 1501. However, to the dismay of his father, he did not become a judge. Instead he pursued life as a monk, under the strict discipline of the Carthusians. He developed spiritual habits, including fasting, regular prayer and penance, which would be a part of…… [Read More]
An Analysis of Love in the Renaissance Art of Sidney, Shakespeare, Hilliard and Holbein
If the purpose of art, as Aristotle states in the Poetics, is to imitate an action (whether in poetry or in painting), Renaissance art reflects an obsession with a particular action -- specifically, love and its many manifestations, whether eros, agape or philia. Love as a theme in 16th and 17th century poetry and art takes a variety of forms, from the sonnets of Shakespeare and Sidney to the miniature portraits of Hilliard and Holbein. Horace's famous observation, ut picture poesis, "as is poetry so is painting," helps explain the popularity of both. Indeed, as Rensselaer . Lee observes, the "sister arts as they were generally called…differed in means and manner of expression, but were considered almost identical in fundamental nature, in content, and in purpose" (Lee 196). In other words, the love sonnets…… [Read More]
English military to the year 1688. In order to undertsand the history of the English military, we must first examine the history opf England itself. The military has always been beholden to political and cultural factors and several developments in technology have changed the face of warfare and, by extension, the development of the military.
In the year 1688, King James II was forcibly removed from power and replaced by William of Orange. James II was a Catholic, and determined to reinstate Catholicism in England. After the birth of James' son and heir, a party of elder statesmen officially invited William of Orange, a Protestant, to come to England with a conquering army to save the kingdom from the Catholic rule of James II. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.
efore we can examine the history of the English military, we must examine the roots of England…… [Read More]
persecution of Christians that took place during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries in England.
The religious persecution that was inflicted on Christians by the Church and State of England to extract compliance and adherence to the Church of England and the authority of the English Crown. There existed conflicts between the Protestant and Catholic Religions of the day and was a time of turmoil and upheaval for the people of England who did not hold the same religious beliefs as that of the Church and English Crown.
ackground and Historical Overview:
The Church of England was fully committed to the Roman Catholic Church that ruled from a position of supremacy and was backed up fully by King Henry VIII. During the year of 1530 the King who considered himself to be a "Defender of the Faith" issued as a proclamation that certain books and literature which was in conflict against…… [Read More]
" However, when Mary moves with William to the country, it shows another aspect of English life that is not as lavish as the court. The author writes, "She taught me how to churn butter and how to make cheese. She taught me how to bake bread and to pluck a chicken, a dove, or a game bird. It should have been easy and delightful to learn such important skills. I was absolutely exhausted by it" (Gregory 507). This shows how hard the people work every day just to survive, while the royal court really has very little to do but amuse themselves.
This was not a time of great industrialization and invention. England was more medieval than adventuresome during this time, and there were still knights and jousting tournaments. While England was becoming a European force, it was through wars and political maneuvering rather than in industrialization and exploration.…… [Read More]
Northern European Power Shift
It seems to be a universal human trait that we are always seeking to go beyond perceived boundaries and explore the unknown. Sometimes, this is done for the sake of adventure and nothing more. Most times, however, this is done in the pursuit of wealth, whether it be in the form of land, gold, spices, slaves, or some other highly desirable commodity for a given culture in a given time.
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the dominant explorers of the time hailed from Portugal and Spain, and these countries were made quite wealthy as a result. Their position, however, as significant empires would not last forever, and soon, the countries of Northern Europe -- in particular, the Netherlands, France, and England -- set out to take their share of the riches, too. These countries improved on the Spanish and Portuguese methods of exploration, ship building,…… [Read More]
William Shakespeare was born into a world of words that took him from cold, stone castles in Scotland to the bustling cities of Italy and the high seas of colonial change. An emblem of the Renaissance, the Bard of Avon was not only the conqueror of his own mind and pen, but also of the language of his own social, political, and religious reality. His theatre, the epic Globe, mirrors the stories of the early, bustling London and ever-morphing England in the duration of its own life, from plank and dirt to flame and fame.
By 1598, Richard Burbage was the practicing don of the London theatre world, extending his fingertips for production all over the lively center of British commerce and governance. His players, a collection of all-male actors, were widely recognized throughout the theatre world, one of the only sources of popular entertainment.
Burbage produced the works of…… [Read More]
open for interpretation: it always has been and it always will be. Throughout time, history has been revised and revised again; some perspectives or "takes" on history stick with particular generations only to be revised by the next. The reasons this happen can range from a new theoretical approach to the past that is used to new information uncovered that puts matters in a different light. The changing values of culture can cause historical persons and details to emerge out of the past with a new representative character, with more or less luster, for instance. As societies and civilizations change, so too changes the way in which history is viewed. One may take WW2, for instance. The victors of WW2, the Allies, set about writing a history of the war that favored the side of the victors, that painted them as the "good guys." Yet more recent revisionists have come…… [Read More]
They investigate on the nature of virtue and pleasure but they concentrate on the happiness of man and what it is made up of. They uphold that man's happiness consists mainly in the good type of pleasure. They derive arguments from religious principles, despite its roughness and strictness. Without these principles, all searches on happiness can only be merely conjectural and defective (Philosophy asics).
The need for a real-life utopia is more felt today than before. It is a basic ingredient in the fulfillment of human potential in the contemporary environment (Ainsa 1991).
Contemporary historical, political and philosophical views still retain some Utopian dimension or strain. Utopianism may have discredited for some flaws in the past, but it remains indispensable as an alternative model for mapping out the future. An ideal society is always an attempt to invent the future. Utopia differs from ideology in that utopia represents hope in…… [Read More]
But Shakespeare does not try to render Republican Rome in faithful and accurate historical detail. "Peace! count the clock," says Brutus (2.1) although the play is ostensibly set during ancient times, and the practice of bear-baiting is referred to when Octavius says "e are at the stake / And bayed about by many enemies" (4.1)The entertainment of bear-baiting, a reminder of the brutality of the Elizabethan age, was even enjoyed by the queen and often took place near the Globe theater where Julius Caesar was first performed: "The bear was tethered to a stake in the middle of the ring, able to move only a short distance before being drawn up sharply when it got to the end of its tether. That's where the phrase 'at the end of my tether' comes from - the frustration and agony of not being able to go any further. Dogs would be released…… [Read More]
In Germany, the gamba was used primarily in pieces of sacred music, such as those written by Heinrich Schultz.
It is important to note that, although the courts, royalty, and upper class of Europe were extremely fond of the gamba, there were also many soloists who performed on a smaller scale. Particularly in England, the gamba was an instrument in many private homes, where amateur players performed for their own enjoyment, and for their friends and families. Since the instrument was simple to play on a small scale, it was popular for many amateur players and with the treatise mentioned above, nearly anyone had access to writings aimed at improving one's skill.
The gamba was even a tool for courtship in the Renaissance, played by young men in the presence of women as part of the process to gain her respect and adoration. In the manual for courtship "Il Libro…… [Read More]
Path to the Enlightenment
What with the ideological turmoil occurring prior to most of 18th century Western Europe, the Age of Enlightenment was but an inevitable outcome. eligious and political thoughts littered Europe by the spades, and with the foreign revolutions and tensions that led up to questioning both divine right and religious authority. The eformation, along with the discordant feelings toward the monarchy, became important turning points in history. Instead of blind faith, the Enlightened man turned to reason and science and believed in the utopian harmonic ideal. But exactly how did this Enlightenment come about?
Enlightenment was a movement that "strove scientifically to uncover religious truths rising above individual sectarian disputes" (Zhivov). Also simultaneously known as the "Age of eason," the Enlightenment culminated in a set of values that sought to question the traditions, customs, and moral beliefs of the cultural environment. While the schools of thought differ…… [Read More]
Christianity in Europe
The Decline of European Christianity, 1675-Present
The demise of Christianity in Europe coincides with the rise of the Age of Enlightenment at the end of the 17th century.
Up to that moment, Europe had been relatively one in religious belief. True, religious wars had been raging for more than a century, with the fracturing of nations in the wake of the "Protestant Reformation." ut even then, Europe had acknowledged a single Savior -- wherein lay His Church was the major point of contention. ut today Europe exists in a post-Christian state. Its Christian identity has collapsed under the weight of Romantic-Enlightenment ideals, expressed dramatically in the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century and adopted politically throughout the continent as a result of a more man-centered, rather than God-centered, vision of life. This paper will trace the decline of European Christianity and provide three reasons…… [Read More]
Then she suffered them, with her two women, to disrobe her of her chain of pomander beads and all other her apparel most willingly, and with joy rather than sorrow, helped to make unready herself, putting on a pair of sleeves with her own hands which they had pulled off, and that with some haste, as if she had longed to be gone.
All this time they were pulling off her apparel, she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, 'that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.'
Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin. She, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, 'Ne crie…… [Read More]
estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.
Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.
The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…… [Read More]
Therefore, this information is identifying how: specific events and attributes would shape the kind of queen she became in the future. As the information is helping t: tie all of these different events together, in association with the other articles that were discussed earlier.
The Life of Elizabeth I
Over the years, there are those leaders who have such a profound impact that they can change the course of a nation forever. Such is the case with Elizabeth I of England, as she is considered to be one of the greatest leaders in all of ritish history. This is because she assumed power at time when the country was at its weakest point. What happened was England became known a pawn between: the rival powers of France and Spain. Where, both nations had made: a tremendous number of discoveries in new world and they were competing with each for access…… [Read More]
As the light changes during the course of a day, the colors change as well; reds and yellows get more brilliant at noon, blues become brilliant as the light fades in the afternoon. All the while, the pictures tell important stories or symbolize truths. Light radiating through glass adds life, beauty, is transcendent, and spiritual connections become apparent.
The above rather elaborate description is cited at length in order to provide insight into the way that stained glass windows and ornamentation can evoke a spiritual and 'transcendent' quality that is particularly in keeping with a religious context such as a church. As referred to in the previous section, the use of stained glass is also strongly related to the Christian symbolism of light. As Web ( 2007) states, "A light philosophy ("God is light") was expressed, and it was thought that light reflected on earth is the closest we can…… [Read More]
..render up myself...Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night...And for the day confined to fast in fires, / Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature/Are burnt and purged away." (I.5). At first, Hamlet believes the ghost is from Purgatory because of the vividness of these images. Then Hamlet constructs a test for the ghost as he worries: "the devil hath power/to assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps/Out of my weakness and my melancholy, / as he is very potent with such spirits" (2.2). In short, Hamlet begins to doubt the doctrine because the ghost ostensibly from Purgatory has asked him to commit a murder, to kill a king.
Hamlet seldom displays a consistent attitude to Purgatory in the play. In his most famous soliloquy, Hamlet says that death is a place from which "no traveler returns" indicating he doubts the ghost (III.1). Hamlet wrestles…… [Read More]
Scottish Covenanter Party
We are inclined to of revolutions as being historical events that disrupt the order of the world, eras that rewrite the history of their times and transform the cultures of the places. And of course the great revolutions of the world do indeed do all of these things. But simply because the historical effect of revolutions is such a radical transformation of the world, we should not therefore be lured into seeing revolutions as arising from disjunctures in the social fabric. Revolutions are not like a meteor crashing into the body politic and changing the way in which things are done in an abrupt and external fashion. he English Civil War, like other revolutionary battles, was fought along long-standing cultural, economic and religious faultlines.
Rather, revolutions are like earthquakes: While they may seem to come out of nowhere and while they certainly shake the world, they arise…… [Read More]
They felt that they Church was getting richer and the poor were getting poorer. And as a result, there were no great protests when the King broke away from the Church, because many felt that Henry would ease up on taking money from them. Henry knew of the Catholic Church's unpopularity and used this to his advantage (Truman, 2009).
Christian Humanism played a large role in the development of the English Reformation as it also did with Calvinism, which emphasized the rule of God over all things (Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism, 2004). Both of these were very similar to the ideas Lutheranism, in which each individual was seen as responsible for their own fate. There were several other heretic groups that were persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church for their beliefs; these were the aldenses and the Albigenses. These were a couple of groups of Christians who would not…… [Read More]
hen the lease expired for the original location, the Burbages reassembled the theater on the South Bank of the Thames in 1599. This was considered to be one of the 'seedier' districts of London. As well as play-going (a disreputable practice in and of itself), bearbaiting, bull-baiting, and prostitution, were other popular spectator sports on the South Bank (Cummings 2003). hen the first Globe burnt down in 1613 "an auditor whose breaches were on fire" was "doused with ale," given that "liquid refreshments" at the tavern were always nearby at the Globe (Burgess 80).
Shakespeare had a financial interest in the theater, as well as acted with and wrote for the Burbage's company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Shakespeare and four other investors and actors, including John Heminges, Augustine Phillips, Thomas Pope and ill Kemp, owned the remaining 50% in equal shares and Shakespeare profited as much from owning the…… [Read More]
The question of leadership and government has always been a subject that concerned political theorists. ne of the first political theorists to brake up with the Medieval tradition regarding rulers and the ethics of government, Niccolo Machiavelli, presented his theories related to the rules a prince should follow in order to be able to govern a state and stay in power as long as possible. Machiavelli left the question of ethics completely for religious subjects and treated his topic form a rationale point-of-view destined to prescribe the best recipe for a political ruler to follow in order to succeed. Shakespeare's Richard III and George rwell's The Animal Farm present two different political regimes, the former focusing on dynastic battles in England in the fifteenth century and the latter on fictional animal characters that resemble real life characters form the early twentieth century revolutionary Russia. Despite the fact that…… [Read More]
The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.
What I have learned
Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.
The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500
Corruption of the church lowered…… [Read More]
Whether or not ghosts actually exist is a question that has been debated in almost every culture and region around the world since times immemorial. Those who believe in ghosts point to countless instances of unexplained phenomena in which strange sightings and paranormal happenings have taken place. The skeptics on the other hand dismiss such suggestions about "ghosts" as figments of human imagination that have no scientific basis or proof. This essay explores the question: whether ghosts really exist?
The popular Western concept of ghosts is that souls that could not find rest after death, or have some unfinished business in the material world such as seeking revenge, linger on Earth and sometimes appear as apparitions. A broader concept of "ghosts" includes any paranormal or unexplained happenings like the spontaneous movements of an object, strange noises heard in "haunted" places, or even the feeling of a "presence" in one's…… [Read More]
The colonist's primary objective, as mentioned before, was to make money, and also try and drive out Spanish colonies. None of the colonists concentrated on survival and focused on their search for prosperity. Because of all the time spent on looking for gold or the route to China, and their lack of skills, the colonists were not prepared for the harsh upcoming winter. The results were devastating. During the winter of 1609-1610 almost ninety percent of the colony was wiped out, and only 50 out of the 500 colonists survived.
The government of the colony consisted of a governor and 12 council members, all whom were appointed. The government, named the Virginia Council, had no decision making power at all. Everything was sent over to England, settled there, and then sent back. This system was outrageously inefficient and often took several years for anything to be resolved. This absurd and…… [Read More]
Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages
Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages
Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.
Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British
Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]
Western Civilization proposal, I would like to research Golda Meir. Meir's life is interesting not only in and of itself, but is also remarkable altogether for its astonishing symbolic associations. Meir shows us (as we perhaps already knew) that the historical bias within Western Civilization that stereotypes women as "the weaker sex" has never really been accurate. There is a long history both mythographically and historically which does permit women a role in both warcraft and statecraft: the Classical tradition offers warrior goddesses such as the Greek Athene and the Roman Bellona, while the Old Testament includes enough vignettes of tough and bloodthirsty women, such as Jael, who assassinates the enemy general Sisera by hammering a tent-peg through his skull. Historically there have been a number of female war leaders as well: Boadicea in Roman-era Britain and Zenobia in the Roman-era Middle East both led successful military uprisings against a…… [Read More]
The History of the Bible
Today's Bibles are the end product of a long process of transmission that involved diverse stages and many different communities. To understand how the various editions and translations of the Bible have come to us, one must first understand the vastness of the early the communities which copied and transmitted the work as well as the popularity of unauthorized translations and editions by unorthodox religious that compelled counter-editions to appear in later centuries. This paper will look at the transmission of the Bible from the early Greek/Hebrew editions to the standard Latin Vulgate edition of the Middle Ages and finally to the English and other language editions that appeared under Bede, Jean Wycliff, Martin Luther, Willam Tyndale, and in the Coverdale Bible, the Geneva Bible and the King James Version.
Because the Bible contains so much that is often interpreted in different ways, editions…… [Read More]
PIA and the British Government's esponse
The war between the Provisional Irish epublican Army (PIA) and the British State from 1969 to 1998 was a complex situation in which various entities pursued similar and dissimilar aims through various channels (political as well as militaristic/terroristic). Even in the midst of the most violent clashes, secret talks were held between leaders of the PIA and the British State, with the political face of epublican beliefs (Sinn Fein) gaining popular support over the years and to some degree undermining the aims, objectives and capacity of the PIA to operate effectively (O'Brien, 1999; Tonge, 2002). The PIA's strategic effectiveness, however, was also complicated by its own inability to overcome specific problematic features of its own organization -- such as the factors of security and territoriality. Likewise, the British State had enacted a program of using informants and infiltrators to undermine the PIA from within.…… [Read More]
Political Legitimacy and the Nature of Authority Throughout History
From the origins of civilization to the middle of the seventeenth century, the nature of authority does change -- but it typically changes according to the demands of the individual society. In ancient times, authority is based on a number of factors, such as military might (in ome, Greece, Persia); but religious beliefs also play a part (the Greeks were very devoted to the gods and goddesses, for instance); and so too does the political process (in ome, they refused to have kings for a time) and in Athens, political authority lay in the democratic process (Haaren, Poland, 2000). In the medieval age, authority is based on the combination of reason and faith and the assent of kings to the oman Pontiff to allow the Church to have a say in the governance of Christendom, after Constantine allowed Christianity to come…… [Read More]
4th Amendment's evolution and history, together with the "search and seizure" law.
4th Amendment Background
People's rights of being secure in personal effects, papers, houses and persons, against unreasonable seizures and searches, may not be breached, nor shall any warrants be issued, but in case of probable cause, which is supported by affirmation or oath, and describes, particularly, the place that must be searched, or the things or individuals that should be seized, under the 4th Amendment. Like most fields in U.S. law, the English common law forms the principal basis of the 4th Amendment. Broadly, it was created for limiting governmental powers and their capacity of enforcing legal actions upon citizens (4th Amendment - constitution -- Laws.com). Amendment IV was implemented in immediate reaction to the historical writ of assistance's abuse. This writ was a sort of general governmental search warrant employed in the American evolution's era. Amendment IV…… [Read More]
The Baroque was a dramatic period in Europe: the religious unity the continent had enjoyed for centuries had come to a crashing halt with the Protestant Reformation. King was turned against King, prince against pontiff. Persecution and war were dominant themes, especially following the excommunication of Henry VIII from the Church. Bernini's David, sculpted between 1623 and 1624, represents the swirling, dramatic, grim activity of the times (Avery). It is indeed a strong manifestation of the Baroque principles and themes: David is reared back, depicted in mid-action, like a lock ready to be sprung on his foe. He is full of conviction, bent on striking, Unlike Michelangelo's Renaissance Era David, which aimed mainly for a frontal view to show off the human form and which conveyed a sense of the confidence, leisure, pride and grandeur of the Renaissance Age, Bernini's David is a figure of determination -- a…… [Read More]
A Critical Analysis of Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist by Carlo Dolci
Carlo Dolci’s Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist (Illus. 1) is an oil on canvas painting housed in the Phoenix Art Museum. Completed in Florence, Italy, by Dolci in 1670, the painting reflects the style of the Baroque and the typical religious-historical type of subject associated with the Counter-Reformation underway throughout Europe as part of the Council of Trent’s mission to use art to reinforce the principles and doctrines of the Church at a time when Protestantism was undermining the Church’s teaching authority (Vidmar). Salome appears as though disinterested in the disembodied head, offering it up to the public as though it were a piece of overripe fruit that one may or may not like to partake of. Dolci’s use of light reinforces the idea that Salome is by no means…… [Read More]
(a.D.A.M., 2008) Neurosyphilis has been speculated as the cause for eccentricites among well-known figures such as Henry VIII, Vincent Van Gogh, Adolf Hitler, Oscar Wilde, and Friedrich Nietzsche (McMyne, 2008). Oddly, some dementia caused by syphilis is preceded by a phase of mania and euphoria in which patients feel excitable and "high," often with relaxed inhibitions (Hayden, 2003).
In the United States today, syphilis rarely progresses beyond the first or second stage since treatment is widely available. Upon diagnosis, antibiotics such as penicillin or tetracycline are administered; follow-up tests must be performed at three, six, and twelve month intervals to ensure complete removal of the infection. Syphilis is always contagious, particularly in the first and second stages, so all sexual partners should be notified and treated as well. If treated during the primary stage, syphilis is completely curable with no risk of permanent health damage. Unfortunately, initial symptoms may be…… [Read More]
This godlessness might initially be viewed as being cynical. However, when one looks at the social and political climate of Shakespeare's time, and the reality that England was just passing through a conversion from Catholicism to the Anglican church, driven by Henry VIII's desire to divorce and remarry, it might not be accurate to label godlessness in the play as cynical. Perhaps that is the view that Shakespeare is suggesting is idyllic, given the turmoil that organized religion had helped create in his country in recent history. This lack of a clear-cut explanation of the godlessness in the play, and of the playful way in which Cleopatra obliterates any claim Antony might actually have to self-divinity, shows how cynicism and idealism are caught in this cycle.
Nowhere in the play is the cycle of cynicism and idealism more dramatically showcased than in the play's final scenes. Caesar has conquered Egypt…… [Read More]
Most Elizabethans believed their self-identity was wrapped up in a cosmic paradigm of fate and destiny, and were somehow controlled by the stars and planets and had a power over the baser side of man -- tools of God, but with certain amounts of free will. Thus, a very central idea in Shakespeare is this central view that an individual's identity is set by God, the Planets, the Universe, the Gods, and Nature. But in contrast, the idea of free will for the individual -- or even a single utterance or decision, can change forever the destiny of the individual. A superb example of this is in Romeo and Juliet.
Fate and chance surround the identities of the major and minor characters in RJ almost from the opening scene. Because the audience already believed that their destiny was predetermined, they saw the characters as having very little choice in their…… [Read More]
It is the context of Catholic Ireland (and not so much the Hays Production Code) that allows Ford's characters to enjoy the light-heartedness of the whole situation.
Such context is gone in O'Neill's dramas. O'Neill's Irish-American drinkers have left the Emerald Isle and traded it over for a nation where religious liberty denies the right of any religion to declare itself as true and all others as false. The Constitution, in fact, has been amended to keep government from declaring the truth of any religion. If no religion is true, how can the Tyrone's be expected to know the difference between Baudelaire's "spiritual drunkenness" and "physical drunkenness"?
O'Neill has Edmund quote Baudelaire in Long Day's Journey into Night as an attempt to rationalize his characters' drunkenness: "Be always drunken. Nothing else matters: that is the only question. If you would not feel the horrible burden of Time weighing on your…… [Read More]
hile Shakespeare attracted his fair share of criticism during his day, it is also clear that many of his contemporaries as well as the general public viewed Shakespeare's work in a positive light. For example, Callaghan (2004) points out that, "hile we do not know how much Shakespeare was paid for the plays he furnished his company, it is clear that the greatest part of the handsome fortune Shakespeare had started to amass as early as the 1590s came from his share in the profits of his company rather than from his plays" (405). This relative affluence apparently helped to provide a sort of comfort zone for Shakespeare that allowed him to write when and what he wanted and for whatever audience he desired in ways that contributed to his ultimate success as a playwright as well as the enduring qualities of his works. For instance, Callaghan adds that, "For…… [Read More]
In England, one of the premier locations for growing Hops in the 18th century was Kent. Kent has a long history with the growing and curing of hops; "The cultivation of hops for brewing was, in fact, introduced to Kent by Flemish brewers in the 16th century," (Kent County Council 2007:2). Once the popularity of hops exploded in England, it was Kent that vastly benefited from the rich soil and close proximity to massive amounts of seasonal laborers available to manually work the fields in the 18th century. Kent alone employed over 80,000 workers in the harvesting, drying, and sale of hops during the 18th and 19th centuries; "thousands of acres of Kent's countryside were devoted to growing hops in fields known as 'hop gardens,' with up to 80,000 people involved in the annual harvest at hop-picking time in September," (Kent County Council 2007:2). The region found great success in…… [Read More]
Unlike the English Revolution, the American Revolution was also bloody, not relatively peaceful, and created a new government, rather than sustained and substantially reformed an old one. But it was more desired and waged 'by the people,' rather than by the ruling classes, unlike the British. In this sense, the American Revolution was seen as a greater victory for the Enlightenment. Just as the Bloodless Revolution did make the English system more balanced in terms of monarchial authority and allowed the predominantly Protestant will of the English people to be respected, the American Revolution even more radically upheld notions of national self-definition, individual rights, and the right for a people to exercise self- determination over their futures. The philosopher John Locke believed that a sovereign abdicated his or her right of rule when he or she acted in a tyrannical fashion and deprived citizens of fundamental rights to life, liberty,…… [Read More]
In this novel, class has more to do with breeding and background than it does with simple wealth. Class is a complex concept, and this has made it very difficult to negotiate shifts and changes in one's class status. The Great Gatsby illustrates that class is capable of producing deep-seated prejudices that cannot simply be altered by external factors like money.
Another very famous novel that affirms these class divisions and the barriers to class mobility is Jane Austen's Emma. The main character thinks of herself as a very good matchmaker, and one of the many conflicts in the novel involves Emma trying to match her friend Harriet up with Mr. Collins, and dissuading her from her romantic feelings for the farmer Mr. Martin. Emma foolishly believes, simply because she likes Harriet as a friend, that Harriet will be accepted into the upper reaches of the eighteenth century British class…… [Read More]